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St.

Paul University Philippines


Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

INFANT AND YOUNG CHILD FEEDING PRACTICES OF MOTHERS OF


BARANGAY BALINTOCATOC: BASIS FOR FEEDING PROGRAM
IMPLEMENTATION

_____________________

A Research

Presented to the Faculty of

Graduate School

St. Paul University Philippines

Tuguegarao City

Cagayan Philippines

_____________________

In Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the METHOD’S OF RESEARCH

MASTER’S IN SCIENCE OF NURSING

_____________________

by:
KIMBERLYN S. MALLARI

School of Arts and Sciences


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to thank my mom Evita Santos-Mallari, who

is always there to take care of my kids so I can finish

my research paper on time. To my two little angels

Zyrheenah and Noshcody who are my inspirations in making

this. I would like to thank my significant other Son

Tran for his undivided attention, support and love even

he is working overseas. You have helped me in more ways

than I could have asked for and I do not know how to

ever thank you.

Lastly to my Professor Anna Marie A. Hernandez, Ph.D for

your guidance and consideration.

School of Arts and Sciences


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

DEDICATION

I dedicate this research to God who is the source

of my life, knowledge and wisdom. The Almighty that is

always guiding me and my family to ups and down. I also

dedicate this to my family who is always there to cheer

me up and support me and to all the student mother like

me to pursue their dreams. May this research serve as

one of their inspiration.

School of Arts and Sciences


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Title Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v
Dedication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii
Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x

Chapters

1 THE PROBLEM AND REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Conceptual Framework
Theoretical Framework of Reference . . . . 50
Statement of the Problem. . . . . . . . . . 54
Hypotheses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Significance of the Study . . . . . . . . . 56
Scope and Limitations. . . . . . . . . . . 57
Definition of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Foreign Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Local Studies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURE

Research Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selection and Description of Respondents. . .
Data Gathering Instruments. . . . . . . . . 62
Data Gathering Procedures . . . . . . . . . 64

School of Arts and Sciences


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

Statistical Treatment and Data Analysis. . .

4. PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

5. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Summary Findings. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recommendation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

QUESTIONNAIRE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

School of Arts and Sciences


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Introduction

Health is wealth. Adequate nutrition during infancy

and early childhood is essential to ensure the growth,

health, and development of children to their full

potential. Poor nutrition increases the risk of illness,

and is responsible, directly or indirectly. To improve

this situation, mothers and families need support to

initiate and sustain appropriate infant and young child

feeding practices. Health care professionals can play a

critical role in providing that support, through

influencing decisions about feeding practices among

mothers and families. Therefore, it is critical for health

professionals to have basic knowledge and skills to give

appropriate advice, counsel and help solve feeding

difficulties, and know when and where to refer a mother

School of Arts and Sciences


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

who experiences more complex feeding problems. Child

health in general, and infant and young child feeding more

specifically is often not well addressed in the basic

training of doctors, nurses and other allied health

professionals. Because of lack of adequate knowledge and

skills, health professionals are often barriers to

improved feeding practices. For example, they may not know

how to assist a mother to initiate and sustain exclusive

breastfeeding, they may recommend too-early introduction

of supplements when there are feeding problems, and they

may overtly or covertly promote breast-milk substitutes.

Infant and young child feeding practices were

assessed using the WHO assessment protocol and rated poor

to fair. Findings showed four out of ten newborns were

initiated to breastfeeding within an hour after birth,

three out of ten infants less than six months were

exclusively breastfed and the median duration of

breastfeeding was only thirteen months. The complementary

feeding indicator was also rated as poor since only 57.9

percent of 6-9 months children received complementary

foods while continuing to breastfed. The assessment also

found out that complementary foods were introduced too

School of Arts and Sciences


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

early, at the age of less than two months. These poor

practices needed urgent action and aggressive sustained

interventions. (Department of Health 2016)

To address these problems on infant and young child

feeding practices, the first National IYCF Plan of Action

was formulated. It aimed to improve the nutritional status

and health of children especially the under-three and

consequently reduce infant and under-five mortality.

Specifically, its objectives were to improve, protect and

promote infant and young child feeding practices, increase

political commitment at all levels, provide a supportive

environment and ensure its sustainability. The main

efforts were directed towards creating a supportive

environment for appropriate IYCF practices. The approval

of the National Plan of Action in 2005 helped the

Department of Health (DOH) and its partners, in the

development of the first (1st) National Policy on Infant

and Young Child Feeding. Thus last May 23, 2005,

Administrative Order (AO) 2005-0014: National Policies on

IYCF was signed and endorsed by the Secretary of Health.

The policy was intended to guide health workers and other

concerned parties in ensuring the protection, promotion

School of Arts and Sciences


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

and support of exclusive breastfeeding and adequate and

appropriate complementary feeding with continued

breastfeeding.

These observed predicaments prompted the researcher

to conduct and investigate the Infant and young Child

Practices of Mothers of Balintocatoc, Santiago City.

Conceptual Framework

After 6 months of age, it becomes increasingly

difficult for breastfed infants to meet their nutrient

needs from human milk alone. Furthermore most infants are

developmentally ready for other foods at about 6 months.

In settings where environmental sanitation is very poor,

waiting until even later than 6 months to introduce

complementary foods might reduce exposure to food-borne

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St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

diseases. However, because infants are beginning to

actively explore their environment at this age, they will

be exposed to microbial contaminants through soil and

objects even if they are not given complementary foods.

Thus, 6 months is the recommended appropriate age at which

to introduce complementary foods (WHO The optimal duration

of exclusive breastfeeding: report of an expert

consultation. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2001)

During the period of complementary feeding, children

are at high risk of undernutrition (Shrimpton 2001).

Complementary foods are often of inadequate nutritional

quality, or they are given too early or too late, in too

small amounts, or not frequently enough. Premature

cessation or low frequency of breastfeeding also

contributes to insufficient nutrient and energy intake in

infants beyond 6 months of age to improve this situation,

mothers and families need support to initiate and sustain

appropriate infant and young child feeding practices.

Health care professionals can play a critical role in

providing that support, through influencing decisions

about feeding practices among mothers and families.

Therefore, it is critical for health professionals to have

School of Arts and Sciences


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

basic knowledge and skills to give appropriate advice,

counsel and help solve feeding difficulties, and know when

and where to refer a mother who experiences more complex

feeding problems.

These concepts are bases for an assessment of

observations and practices that are made which are opened

to create certain model to address the needs of Infant and

young child through in dept understanding of Feeding

Practices.

To fully understand the flow of this study, a research

paradigm is shown on the next page.

Paradigm of the Study

INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

Analysis of:
1. Profile of 1. Responden Identified
the ts Profile Feeding
respondents Practices
in terms
of: 2. Infant
 Age and Young
 Civil Child
Status Practices
 Ethnicity
of Mothers
 Religion
 Education
al 3. Significa
School of Arts and Sciences
attainmen nt
t relationshi
 Occupatio p between
n the Profile
St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

The researchers are guided by the research paradigm which

illustrates the input such as Profile variables and Infant

and young child Practices of Mothers of Barangay

Balintocatoc, Santiago City. The profile variables

include; Age, Civil Status, Ethnicity, Religion,

Educational attainment, Occupation, Average Monthly

Income.

The feeding practices show how the respondent reacts

to situations. It includes practices from birth to 25 month

old. All these are necessary inputs to be analyzed in

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St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

order to formulate recommendations to achieve the goal of

the researchers.

The researcher believes the mother’s practices

without compromising are the key components of a

successful feeding Program for the Infant and Young Child

to meet their adequate and appropriate nutritional needs,

and without a strong mothers who is able to deeply and

profoundly influence all the areas listed above through

behaviors and practices, an illness free or healthy infant

and young child would not be possible or probable.

Therefore, it is perceived that healthy practices of the

mothers will greatly contribute to a healthy and illness

free Infant and Child which impacts every aspect of their

lives.

Statement of the Problem

This study sought to determine Infant and Young Child

Feeding Practices of Mothers of Barangay Balintocatoc; as

basis for Implementation of Feeding Program.

Specifically, this study seeks to answer the following

questions;

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St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

1. What is the profile variables of the following;

a. Age

b. Civil Status

c. Ethnicity

d. Religion

e. Educational attainment

f. Occupation

g. Average Monthly Income

2. What are the Infant and Young Child feeding

practices of Mothers?

3. Is there a significant relationship between the

Profile of the Respondents and the Infant and Young

child feeding Practices?

Hypothesis

This research study will be answered by the following

Null hypothesis:

Ho: There is no significant relationship between the

Profile of the Respondents and the Infant and Young child

Feeding Practices.

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St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

Significance of the Study

The significance of this study lies in its attempt to

determine the extent of confluence of the construct Infant

and Young child Practices of Mothers, thereby offering a

contribution toward a possible enhancement development

framework in health care delivery system, especially in

the Department of Health, City Health Office of Ilagan.

Barangay Health Workers. The barangay health workers

of barangay San Anotion, City of Ilagan, Isabela will

become more aware of the recent alternative medicine in

the barangay which could be their basis in giving better

health promotion and health education activities in terms

of practices for feeding a malnutrition infant and young

child.

Clinical Instructor. The results of this study may

serves as guidelines for their teaching clinically and

school setting with regards to proper and healthy infant

and young child practices.

College of Allied Health Sciences. The College of

Allied Health Sciences, specifically the Midwifery

program, where the researchers belong will be able to

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St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

enhance the department’s function as an advocate of health

for this research study may be the key for the department

to conduct health teaching and to impart knowledge to the

community people regarding the proper feeding practices

for infant and young child that families can adopt.

Future Researchers. This study will serve as a frame

of reference to researchers who will dwell on topic similar

to this study.

Mothers. The findings of this study are favorable to

the mothers of infant and young child of Barangay

Balintocatoc because through the result of the study it

may assist them in planning and designing program with

collaboration and supervision of a Barangay Health Worker

(BHW). It is through the result of this study that they

would adopt to maintain nutrition or healthy practices and

to prevent complications caused by it.

Saint Paul University. The results of this research

study may serve as a document of the school about the

Infant and Young child Practices of Mothers implemented or

observed by residents of Barangay Balintocatoc, City of

Santiago. This may help students to enhance and broaden

School of Arts and Sciences


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

their knowledge in studying nutrition and diet therapy,

maternal and child health and public health which are

included in their curriculum.

Researchers. The researchers will make use of the

result of this study in coming up to the health teaching

to the mothers of infants and Young child as an extension

program in order to provide vital information to that

prevents malnutrition.

Student Nurses. The result of this research will be

useful for the student nurses because this will allow them

to evaluate the knowledge of the practices of the mothers

with regards to Infant and Young Child Feeding. This will

help them to get involve, if needed.

School of Arts and Sciences


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

Scope and Delimitation

The study will focus primarily in identifying the

Infant and young Child Practices of Mothers used by

residents of barangay Balinticatoc, Santiago City.

The study will include a total of seventy (70) mother

respondents with Infant and Young Child. The study is

delimited on the profile of the respondents as to their

age, sex, ethnicity, family income, religion and

educational attainment. Moreover, the study focuses on the

Feeding Practices utilized by the respondents in caring

for their Young and Infant Child.

Definition of Terms

For clearer understanding of this study, the terms

listed below are defined operationally and conceptually as

follows:

Breast Milk. Breast milk contains all the nutrients

that an infant needs in the first 6 months of life,

including fat, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals

and water

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St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

Colostrum. Is the special milk that is secreted in

the first 2–3 days after delivery. It is produced in small

amounts, about 40–50 ml on the first day (12), but is all

that an infant normally needs at this time.

Malnutrition. It is prevalence of child malnutrition

is the percentage of children under age 5 whose weight for

age is more than two standard deviations below the median

for the international reference population ages 0-59

months. ( WHO Global Database on Child Growth and

Malnutrition)

Feeding Program A program designed by the Department

of health, specifically the City Health Office of Ilagan

to meet the demands and counteract the increasing number

of undernourished Infant and Child.

World Health Organization. Is a specialized agency of

the United Nations (UN) that is concerned with

international Public Health.

Related Literature

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St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

Foreign:

The World Health Organization (WHO) has long

advocated for and worked toward substantial and sustained

improvements in maternal, infant, and child nutrition

around the globe. This is in large part because of the

many acute and long-lasting negative impacts that poor

maternal/infant nutrition has on not only individuals but

entire communities and nations. Together, maternal and

child undernutrition are estimated to account for 11% of

the global burden of disease, and childhood malnutrition

is considered the root cause of mortality in ∼35% of all

deaths among children younger than the age of 5 y.

Malnutrition can also lead to lifelong deficits in

cognitive abilities, academic achievement, and work

productivity. As such, improving nutrition in early life

and during a woman’s reproductive years has far-reaching

implications on many levels both directly and indirectly

related to basic health outcomes.

Action Plan and Proposed Activities of World Health Organization

To help communities and nations meet these goals, the WHO

put forth 5 priority actions and concomitant proposed

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activities that they propose be jointly implemented by the

WHO, its member states, and international partners. These

actions are briefly described here.

Action 1: Create a supportive environment for the

implementation of comprehensive food and nutrition

policies

Included in this action item are revision of nutrition

policies to comprehensively address the double burden of

undernutrition and overweight with a human right-based

approach, inclusion of nutrition in each country’s overall

development policy, and establishing effective

intersectoral governance mechanisms for implementation of

nutrition policies at both national and local levels. The

WHO plans to support these efforts by improving access to

normative and policy guidelines, knowledge products,

tools, and expert networks. The WHO also urges

international partners to engage in international

coordination of mechanisms or partnership, strengthen

international cooperation to harmonize standards and

policies, and implement global advocacy initiatives that

increase public awareness of the need to expand nutrition-

related programs.

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Action 2: Include all required effective health

interventions with an impact on nutrition in national

nutrition plans

On the basis of the notion that there are myriad, proven

interventions that can improve maternal, infant, and young

child nutrition (see link below), these types of

intervention approaches should be considered for

implementation when feasible. Development or strengthening

of legislative, regulatory, and/or other measures to

control the marketing of human milk substitutes to ensure

implementation for the International Code of Marketing of

Breast-Milk Substitutes is specifically recommended within

this action item. Other proposed activities include

strengthening health systems, promoting universal coverage

and principles of primary health care, and engaging in

vigorous campaigns to promote breastfeeding at the local

level.

Action 3: Stimulate development policies and programs

outside the health sector that recognize and include

nutrition

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To reduce the double burden of undernutrition and

overweight, the WHO recognizes the importance of

simultaneously engaging multiple sectors, including

agriculture, food processing, trade, social protection,

education, labor, and public information, in the quest to

improve worldwide nutrition. The ultimate goals of this

action item are to promote the demand for and supply of

healthier food and to eliminate constraints to its access.

Implementation is envisioned to involve establishment of

a dialogue between health and other government sectors to

consider policy measures that could improve the

nutritional status of the population and reduce conflict

between current sectoral policies and health policies. The

WHO also urges international partners to involve

themselves in analyzing evidence of effectiveness of

interventions aimed at improving food security, social

welfare, and education in low-income countries.

Action 4: Provide sufficient human and financial resources

for the implementation of nutrition interventions

This action item recognizes the enduring and undeniable

fact that these action plans and associated implementation

strategies will require substantial financial, technical,

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managerial, and human resources for them to be successful.

In addition, greater efficiencies will be needed in

funding programs, including better alignment of donor

investment with national priorities, and measures to

reduce costs of interventions such as micronutrient

supplements and ready-to-use foods. The plan recommends

that member states implement a comprehensive approach to

capacity building, including workforce development and

leadership development; provide support to local

communities; and establish a budget line and national

financial targets for nutrition. It also recommends

exploration of innovative financing tools for funding the

expansion of nutrition programs worldwide.

Action 5: Monitor and evaluate the implementation of

policies and programs

Finally, as with most well-delineated plans related to

improving public health, this one recommends the

development and use of a well-defined monitoring framework

to provide accountability for the actions implemented.

This framework should follow a proposed set of indicators

as developed by the WHO (see link below). Proposed

activities include the implementation of the WHO child

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growth standards to monitor individual growth patterns and

population levels of stunting, wasting, and overweight.

INFANT AND YOUNG CHILD FEEDING (IYCF)

I. Profile/Rationale of the Health Program

A global strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding

(IYCF) was issued jointly by the World Health Organization

(WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) in

2002, to reverse the disturbing trends in infant and young

child feeding practices. This global strategy was endorsed

by the 55th World Health Assembly in May 2002 and by the

UNICEF Executive Board in September 2002 respectively.

In 2004, infant and young child feeding practices were

assessed using the WHO assessment protocol and rated poor

to fair. Findings showed four out of ten newborns were

initiated to breastfeeding within an hour after birth,

three out of ten infants less than six months were

exclusively breastfed and the median duration of

breastfeeding was only thirteen months. The complementary

feeding indicator was also rated as poor since only 57.9

percent of 6-9 months children received complementary

School of Arts and Sciences


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

foods while continuing to breastfed. The assessment also

found out that complementary foods were introduced too

early, at the age of less than two months. These poor

practices needed urgent action and aggressive sustained

interventions.

To address these problems on infant and young child feeding

practices, the first National IYCF Plan of Action was

formulated. It aimed to improve the nutritional status and

health of children especially the under-three and

consequently reduce infant and under-five mortality.

Specifically, its objectives were to improve, protect and

promote infant and young child feeding practices, increase

political commitment at all levels, provide a supportive

environment and ensure its sustainability. Figure 1 shows

the identified key objectives, supportive strategies and

key interventions to guide the overall implementation and

evaluation of the 2005-2010 Plan of Action. The main

efforts were directed towards creating a supportive

environment for appropriate IYCF practices. The approval

of the National Plan of Action in 2005 helped the

Department of Health (DOH) and its partners, in the

development of the first (1st) National Policy on Infant

School of Arts and Sciences


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

and Young Child Feeding. Thus on May 23, 2005,

Administrative Order (AO) 2005-0014: National Policies on

IYCF was signed and endorsed by the Secretary of Health.

The policy was intended to guide health workers and other

concerned parties in ensuring the protection, promotion

and support of exclusive breastfeeding and adequate and

appropriate complementary feeding with continued

breastfeeding. (1)

GUIDING PRINCIPLES

The IYCF Strategic Plan of Action upholds the following

guiding principles:

1. Children have the right to adequate nutrition and access

to safe and nutritious food, and both are essential for

fulfilling their right to the highest attainable standard

of health. (5)

2. Mothers and Infants form a biological and social unit

and improved IYCF begins with ensuring the health and

nutritional status of women. (5)

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3. Almost every woman can breastfeed provided they have

accurate information and support from their families,

communities and responsible health and non-health related

institutions during critical settings and various

circumstances including special and emergency

situations.(5)

4. The national and local government, development

partners, non-government organizations, business sectors,

professional groups, academe and other stakeholders

acknowledges their responsibilities and form alliances and

partnerships for improving IYCF with no conflict of

interest.

5. Strengthened communication approaches focusing on

behavioral and social change is essential for demand

generation and community empowerment.

From results of a previously conducted review and

policy analysis of its member states, the WHO concluded

that, although effective nutrition actions exist

worldwide, they are often not implemented on a

sufficiently large scale to be effective. In addition,

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policies and actions are often inadequate, given the

complexity and challenges at hand. In response, the WHO

recently issued a guide for action in this regard.

This 2014 publication, summarized here and titled

“Comprehensive Implementation Plan on Maternal, Infant,

and Young Child Nutrition,” was endorsed by the WHO’s 65th

World Health Assembly that convened in Geneva,

Switzerland, in 2012. The objective of this plan was to

provide detailed and dove-tailed implementation strategies

to address key global targets for reducing maternal,

infant, and young child malnutrition. These goals are to

be attained by 2025 and are listed here.

 40% reduction in children younger than 5 y who are

stunted

 50% reduction in prevalence of anemia in

reproductive-age women

 30% reduction in annual incidence of low-birth weight

 No increase in childhood overweight

 Increase rate of exclusive breastfeeding until 6 mo

postpartum to at least 50%

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 Reduce and maintain childhood wasting to <5%

Another study from India conducted by Mahmood (2012)

the results was these; Despite higher rates of early

initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding,

awareness of the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding was

low. This indicates the need to promote awareness of the

correct method of infant feeding and care of the newborn.

Creating an awareness of the advantages of exclusive

breastfeeding will further strengthen and support this

common practice in rural communities and avoid an early

introduction to complementary foods for sociocultural

reasons.

Local:

The Ordinance No. XX Series of 20XXPURSUANT TO R.A

7600,” THE ROOMING-IN AND BREASTFEEDING ACT" AND

EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 51 "THE PHILIPPINE CODE OF

MARKETING OF BREASTMILK SUBSTITUTES, BREASTMILK

SUPPLEMENTS and RELATED PRODUCTS" AND ITS

IMPLEMENTING RULES AND REGULATIONS, RA

10028“Expanded Breastfeeding Promotion Act of

2009.

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Benefits for the infant: • Exclusive Breastfeeding

from 0-6 mos. prevents deaths • Exclusive

Breastfeeding prevents malnutrition • Exclusive

Breastfeeding protects infants from diseases

thanks to the presence of antibodies transferred

thru the mother’s milk and is never contaminated •

Breastfeeding results in smarter children.

Increased IQ points. Infant formula does not

increase IQ • Lower risk for diabetes, obesity and

cancers later in life.

Foreign Studies

The importance of infant and young child feeding

and recommended practices

Growth, health and development Adequate

nutrition during infancy and early childhood is

essential to ensure the growth, health, and

development of children to their full potential.

Poor nutrition increases the risk of illness, and

is responsible, directly or indirectly, for one

third of the estimated 9.5 million deaths that

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occurred in 2006 in children less than 5 years of

age (WHO 2004) Inappropriate nutrition can also

lead to childhood obesity which is an increasing

public health problem in many countries. Early

nutritional deficits are also linked to long-term

impairment in growth and health. Malnutrition

during the first 2 years of life causes stunting,

leading to the adult being several centimeters

shorter than his or her potential height

(Martorell, 1994) There is evidence that adults who

were malnourished in early childhood have impaired

intellectual performance (Pollitt, 1995) They may

also have reduced capacity for physical work. If

women were malnourished as children, their

reproductive capacity is affected, their infants

may have lower birth weight, and they have more

complicated deliveries (Martin 2004) When many

children in a population are malnourished, it has

implications for national development. The overall

functional consequences of malnutrition are thus

immense. The first two years of life provide a

critical window of opportunity for ensuring

children’s appropriate growth and development


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through optimal feeding (8). Based on evidence of

the effectiveness of interventions, achievement of

universal coverage of optimal breastfeeding could

prevent 13% of deaths occurring in children less

than 5 years of age globally, while appropriate

complementary feeding practices would result in an

additional 6% reduction in under.

Exclusive breastfeeding means that an infant

receives only breast milk from his or her mother

or a wet nurse, or expressed breast milk, and no

other liquids or solids, not even water, with the

exception of oral rehydration solution, drops or

syrups consisting of vitamins, minerals

supplements or medicines according to WHO 2008.

Complementary feeding is defined as the process

starting when breast milk is no longer sufficient

to meet the nutritional requirements of infants,

and therefore other foods and liquids are needed,

along with breast milk. The target range for

complementary feeding is generally taken to be 6

to 23 months of age,1 even though breastfeeding may

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continue beyond two years (PHO 2006). These

recommendations may be adapted according to the

needs of infants and young children in

exceptionally difficult circumstances, such as

pre-term or low-birth-weight infants, severely

malnourished children, and in emergency

situations. Specific recommendations apply to

infants born to HIV-infected mothers.

Current status of infant and young child feeding

globally:

Poor breastfeeding and complementary

feeding practices are widespread. Worldwide, it is

estimated that only 34.8% of infants are

exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months of

life, the majority receiving some other food or

fluid in the early months (14). Complementary foods

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are often introduced too early or too late and are

often nutritionally inadequate and unsafe. Data

from 64 countries covering 69% of births in the

developing world suggest that there have been

improvements in this situation. Between 1996 and

2006 the rate of exclusive breastfeeding for the

first 6 months of life increased from 33% to 37%.

Significant increases were made in sub-Saharan

Africa, where rates increased from 22% to 30%; and

Europe, with rates increasing from 10% to 19%

(Figure 2). In Latin America and the Caribbean,

excluding Brazil and Mexico, the percentage of

infants exclusively breastfed increased from 30%

in around 1996 to 45% in around 2006. (UNICEF 2007)

Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months The

advantages of exclusive breastfeeding compared to

partial breastfeeding were recognised in 1984, when

a review of available studies found that the risk

of death from diarrhoea of partially breastfed

infants 0–6 months of age was 8.6 times the risk

for exclusively breastfed children. For those who

received no breast milk the risk was 25 times that

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of those who were exclusively breastfed (Koblinsky

2004)

Another study in Brazil in 1987 found that

compared with exclusive breastfeeding, partial

breastfeeding was associated with 4.2 times the

risk of death, while no breastfeeding had 14.2

times the risk (Colle 2000). More recently, a study

in Dhaka, Bangladesh found that deaths from

diarrhoea and pneumonia could be reduced by one

third if infants were exclusively instead of

partially breastfed for the first 4 months of life

(Arifeen Silvia, 2001) and according Miller (2003)

to Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months has been

found to reduce the risk of diarrhea and

respiratory illness. Compared with exclusive

breastfeeding for 3 and 4 months respectively. If

the breastfeeding technique is satisfactory,

exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of

life meets the energy and nutrient needs of the

vast majority of infants (Lopez 2002)

No other foods or fluids are necessary.

Several studies have shown that healthy infants do

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not need additional water during the first 6 months

if they are exclusively breastfed, even in a hot

climate. Breast milk itself is 88% water, and is

enough to satisfy a baby’s thirst according to

LINKAGES 2002. And Extra fluids displace breast

milk, and do not increase overall intake according

to (Sachdev Herald 2002) However, water and teas

are commonly given to infants, often starting in

the first week of life. This practice has been

associated with a two-fold increased risk of

diarrhea and For the mother, exclusive

breastfeeding can delay the return of fertility

(55), and accelerate recovery of pre-pregnancy

weight (Brow 1898 and Dewey 2001)

Mothers who breastfeed exclusively and frequently

have less than a 2% risk of becoming pregnant in

the first 6 months postpartum, provided that they

still have amenorrhoea. Complementary feeding from

6 months From the age of 6 months, an infant’s need

for energy and nutrients starts to exceed what is

provided by breast milk, and complementary feeding

becomes necessary to fill the energy and nutrient

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gap. If complementary foods are not introduced at

this age or if they are given inappropriately, an

infant’s growth may falter. In many countries, the

period of complementary feeding from 6–23 months

is the time of peak incidence of growth faltering,

micronutrient deficiencies and infectious

illnesses. Even after complementary foods have been

introduced, breastfeeding remains a critical

source of nutrients for the young infant and child.

It provides about one half of an infant’s energy

needs up to the age of one year, and up to one

third during the second year of life. Breast milk

continues to supply higher quality nutrients than

complementary foods, and also protective factors.

It is therefore recommended that breastfeeding on

demand continues with adequate complementary

feeding up to 2 years or beyond. Complementary

foods need to be nutritionally adequate, safe, and

appropriately fed in order to meet the young

child’s energy and nutrient needs. However,

complementary feeding is often fraught with

problems, with foods being too dilute, not fed

often enough or in too small amounts, or replacing


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breast milk while being of an inferior quality.

Both food and feeding practices influence the

quality of complementary feeding, and mothers and

families need support to practice good

complementary feeding. (PAHO / WHO 2002)

Local:

MANILA, Philippines - The results of the 2011

national nutrition survey of the Food and Nutrition

Research Institute (FRNI) showed that malnutrition

among Filipino children is still prevalent. The

study's findings, shared with the public recently,

categorized children based on age, namely: 0 to 5

years old and 5 to 10 years old.

Results showed that 15.9% or two out of 10 children

from 0 to 47 months old were born with low birth

weight or were less than 5.5 lbs.

The results also showed that 20.2% of children in

this category were underweight, while 33.6% were

stunted or had lower heights for their age. 7.3%

of the children suffered from acute malnutrition.

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In the 5 to 10 years old category, results were

much higher. 32% of children in this category were

underweight while 33.6% had low heights for their

age. The percentage of children suffering acute

malnutrition was 8.5%.

‘Geographic advantage’

FNRI Senior Science Research Specialist Lilibeth

Patalen-Dasco admitted that geographic location

affected children’s health.

“Makikita mo na mas advantaged ang children sa

Luzon over sa Visayas and Mindanao. Yung

prevalences mataas doon sa Visayas and Mindanao

regions...in terms of [those] underweight...over

sa Luzon,” she said.

(Based on the results, you can see the children

from Luzon are better off than those from the

Visayas and Mindanao. The prevalences of

underweight children in Visayas and Mindanao are

higher than those over in Luzon.)

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The survey showed that the provinces with the most

number of malnourished children are those from

Visayas and Mindanao.

In the 0 to 5 years old category, Western Visayas

(19.3%), Bicol (18.6%), and SOCCSKSARGEN (18.2%)

regions recorded the highest number of underweight

children.

Meanwhile, NCR (6.2%), CALABARZON (5.9%) and the

Ilocos (6.3%) regions recorded the highest number

of overweight children in this age category.

An article from a news paper of Philippine

Star (2014) states that;

LOS BAÑOS, Philippines – Micronutrient deficiency

has remained prevalent in the Philippines but cases

of obesity have also increased, Sen. Cynthia Villar

said.

“The status of micronutrient malnutrition in our

country is a cause for concern,” Villar stressed

in a recent lecture at the Southeast Asian Regional

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Center for Graduate Study and Research in

Agriculture (SEARCA).

Citing data from the United Nations Food and

Agriculture Organization (UN-FAO), Villar reported

that iron deficiency disorder or anemia is the most

alarming of the micronutrient deficiencies,

affecting a considerable proportion of Filipino

infants (56.6 percent), pregnant women (50.7

percent), lactating women (45.7 percent) and older

males (49.1 percent).

FAO figures also show that about four million (32.8

percent) of the preschool population are

underweight for their age. Three million (19.8

percent) adolescents and five million (12.2

percent) adults, including older persons, are

underweight and chronically energy-deficient.

On the other hand, the incidence of overweight,

wasting and stunting that was prevalent among

Filipino children before has become common among

adolescents and adults.

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“Underweight, stunting and obesity are the root

causes of diseases, increase health risks and

reduce life expectancy. Potentially fatal

conditions associated with obesity include Type 2

diabetes, coronary heart disease, cancers and gall

bladder disease,” Villar said.

Headlines ( Article MRec ), pagematch: 1,

sectionmatch: 1

The cumulative cost of all non-communicable

diseases, for which obesity is a leading risk

factor, was estimated at $1.4 trillion in 2010.

Its toll on the economy is just as alarming. FAO

pegged at $3.5 trillion per year the economic costs

of malnutrition globally, owing to lost

productivity and direct health care costs.

“Although hunger statistics are still rising

worldwide, it is not anymore merely about feeding

or getting fed, but to have the means to grow

sufficient nutritionally and culturally acceptable

food,” said Villar, also the chairperson of the

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Senate committee on government corporations and

public enterprises.

She cited a 2008 Food and Nutrition Research

Institute (FNRI) survey showing that Filipinos

consumed less and less vegetables over the past

three decades. From 145 grams of vegetables per day

in 1978, consumption declined to only 110 grams in

2008.

In view of this finding, the Department of Health

and the Department of Education have been promoting

backyard gardening among people, including school

children, through vegetable planting so they could

have their own supply of vegetables which can also

be a source of income.

During the observance of World Food Day last Oct.

16, Villar pledged support the promotion of

ecological agriculture because “it empowers us to

plant, grow and harvest our own food that is clean,

grown naturally and free from synthetic pesticides

and fertilizer.”

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“Through vegetable gardening, the people will have

easy access to nutritious food that can

considerably lessen the country’s malnutrition

problem,” she added.

Chapter 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURE

This chapter presents a description of the research

design, the research locale, selection and description of

respondents, the instrument to be used and the procedure

in gathering the data, the statistical treatment of the

data and the data analysis procedure.

Research Design

The descriptive method was utilized for this research

study. This method was used by the researchers to obtain

primary hand data, does, avoiding bias and subjectively of

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judgment, according to Frankel and Wallen (2006),

Descriptive research describes data and characteristics

about the population and phenomenon subject of the study.

This type of research answers the question who, what,

where, when and how. The description is used for

frequencies, averages or other statistical computations.

This type of research deals with everything that can

be counted and studied, does, having an intrinsic worth on

the part of the research for their objective was to

determine the Infant and Young Child Practices of Mothers

through conducting a survey investigation which is one of

the best approach in writing a descriptive research.

Descriptive research utilizes two types of data. The

qualitative data refers to a type of information based on

quantities or else quantifiable and the quantitative data

which deals with the qualities and subjective properties.

Findings and results of the data gathered will be use as

bases to come up with recommendations to enhance the

development of practices in regards to Infant and Young

child feeding.

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Selection and Description of Respondents

This study highlights generally on the feeding

practices of Mothers who has an Infant and Young Child

exercised by residents of Brgy. Balintocatoc, Santiago

City. The respondents of the study are seventy mothers

with Infant or Child. They are identified through the list

available at the Barangay Health Center or City Health

Office. Purposive sampling was used in this research,

after identifying the seventy respondents, the researchers

will then consider them in the conduct of the study.

Data Gathering Instrument

This study used a questionnaire based from the

researchers’ different reading and researches adopted from

the study of : Irene Janet Picado, Ph.D, Maria Cecilia F.

Pastores, MPH, and WHO an assessment for Feeding of Infant

and Young Child, with some modifications to suit the needs

of the current study. The questionnaire is divided into

two parts: the first part is biographical data of the

respondents. The second part comprises of the different

feeding practices of respondent mothers by age or month.

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The researchers will have further interviews with the

respondents to validate their administrative performance

and to clarify vague responses in the questionnaire, if

there will be any.

Data Gathering Procedure

The researchers first obtained permission of the

barangay Captain of Balintocatoc, and City Health Office,

Medical officer and Nutrition Department of Santiago City.

After the permission has been granted, the researchers

will coordinate with the Barangay Health Workers to

identify the respondents in the barangay of mothers with

infant and young child.. After the researchers will then

personally float, administer and retrieve the

questionnaire. It is also during this time, that the

researchers will conduct a conversional interview with the

respondents to make clear their responses. The

opportunity for a face-to-face contact with the

respondents will be imperative in order to give the proper

instructions for filling up the instrument accurately. The

complete questionnaire will be retrieved by the

researchers themselves to assess one hundred percent

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retrieval. Finally the data gathered will be tabulated,

analyzed and interpreted.

Statistical Treatment and Data Analysis Procedure

1. Frequency and Percentage Distribution. To

determine the profile of the respondents in terms

of age, sex, ethnicity, family income, religion

and educational attainment.

Formula:

P=F/Nx100.

2. Weighted Arithmetic Mean. This will be used in

identifying the Feeding practices used by the

respondents.

3. Chi-square Test. The Chi-square Test will be

utilized in identifying the relationship of

Feeding practices used by the respondents when

grouped to profile or ordinal data.

The following numerical and descriptive scales

were used as bases for responses:

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Numerical Weighted Mean Qualitative

value Description

5 4.20-5.00 I do it all the time

4 3.40 – 4.19 I do it often

3 2.60 - 3.59 I do it sometimes

2 1.80 – 2.59 I do it often

1 1.0- 1.79 I don’t do it at all

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Chapter 4

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents the analysis and interpretation

of the data gathered through the use of the questionnaire

and unstructured interview in response to the problems of

the study.

I. Profile of the Respondents

a. Age

Table 1

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of

Respondents

According to Age

Age Frequency Percentage

18 – 22 Years 10 14.28

Old

23 – 27 Years 11 15.72

Old

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28 – 33 Years 15 21.42

Old

34 – 39 Years 25 35.72

Old

40 – 45 Years 7 10.00

Old

46 – 50 Years 2 2.86

Old

Total 70 100

The table 1 presents the frequency and percentage

distribution of the respondents according to age.

It can be gleaned from the above statistics that

majority of the respondents belongs to age bracket of 34

– 39 years old with a frequency of thirty five or 35.72

percentage; 15 or 21.42 percent are 28 to 33 years old;

11 or 15.72 percent are at age 23 to 27 years old; 10 or

14.28 percent are at the age group of 18 to 22 years old;

7 or 10 percent are belongs to the group of 40 to 45 years

old; and 2 or 2.86 percent belongs to the group of 46 to

50 years old.

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This may imply that majority of the respondents are

belongs to the middle adulthood which means that they

have knowledge with regards to basic infant and young

child feeding practices.

b. Civil Status

Table 2

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents

According to Civil Status

Civil Status Frequency Percentage

Single 10 14.28

Married 60 85.72

Window 0 0.00

Annulled 0 0.00

Total 70 100

Table 2 illustrates the frequency and percentage

distribution of the respondents according to civil status.

The above statistics bears that most of the

respondents are married with a frequency of 60 or 85.72

percent; 10 or 14.28 percent are single.

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This may imply that mothers who practiced infant and

young child feeding are married. This further means that

they have the capacity to sustain their child needs.

c. Ethnicity

Table 3

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents

According to their Ethnicity

Ethnicity Frequency Percentage

Tagalog 2 2.85

Ilocano 68 97.15

Ibanag 0 0.00

Others 70 100

The table 3 presents the frequency and percentage

distribution of the respondents according to ethnicity.

Table shows that there are enormous number of

respondents who belongs to Ilocano ethnicity with a

frequency of 68 or 97.15 percent; 2 or 2.85 percent are

tagalong.

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This may further suggest that the ethnicity has

something to do with their infant and young child

practices.

d. Religion

Table 4

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of

Respondents

According to their Religion

Religion Frequency Percentage

Roman Catholic 67 95.72

Methodist 0 0.00

Born Again 3 4.28

Jehovah’s 0 0.00

Witnesses

Later Day Saints 0 0.00

Others 0 0.00

Total 70 100

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Table 4 presents the frequency and percentage

distribution of respondents according to religion.

Majority of the respondents belongs the religious

denomination of Roman Catholic which has a frequency of 67

or 95.72 percent; 3 or 4.28 percent belongs to the

denomination of Born Again Christians.

This may further entail that 80 percent or dominating

Christian denomination of Filipinos are Catholics.

e. Educational Attainment

Table 5

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of

Respondents

According to their Educational Attainment

Educational Frequency Percentage

Attainment

Elementary 6 8.57

Undergraduate

Elementary Graduate 12 17.14

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High School 16 22.85

Undergraduate

High School Graduate 29 41.42

College 3 4.82

Undergraduate

College Graduate 4 5.71

Masteral 0 0.00

undergraduate

Masteral Graduate 0 0.00

Doctoral 0 0.00

Undergraduate

Doctoral Graduate 0 0.00

Others 70 100

Table 5 presents the frequency and percentage

distribution of respondents according to their educational

attainment.

It can be gleaned from the above information that

there are a huge number of respondents who finished their

high school education with a frequency of 29 or 41.42

percent; 16 or 22.85 percent are high school

undergraduate; 12 or 17.14 percent are finished their

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elementary education; 6 or 8.57 percent are elementary

undergraduate; 4 or 5.71 percent have finished their

college education while 3 or 4.82 percent are college

undergraduate.

This may imply that due to free basic education in

public schools in the Philippines, respondents reached

their secondary level. Hence, they are qualified to be

respondents for this study.

f. Occupation

Table 6

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of

Respondents

According to their Occupation

Occupation Frequency Percentage

Farmer 14 20.00

Practiced 1 1.43

Profession

Household Domestic 2 2.86

Unemployed 2 2.86

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Housewife 50 71.42

Private employee 1 1.43

Others 70 100

The table shows the frequency and distribution of

respondents according to occupation.

It can be gleaned in the table that 50 or 71.42

percent of the respondents are housewife, 14 or 20 percent

of the respondents are farmer, 2 or 2.85 percent of the

respondents are household domestic and unemployed, 1 or

1.43 percent of the respondents are practiced profession

and private employee.

This may imply that the local of the study is a

developing or beginning urban, hence, majority of the

occupation of the respondents are farmers.

g. Average Monthly Income

Table 7

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of

Respondents

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According to their Average Monthly Income

Average Monthly Frequency Percentage

Income

₱ 2,500/ MONTH AND 52 74.28


BELOW
₱ 2,501 - ₱ 5,000/ 13 18.58
MONTH
₱ 5,001 - ₱ 7,500/ 2 2.86
MONTH
₱ 7,501 AND ABOVE 3 4.28

Total 70 100

Table 7 illustrates the frequency and percentage

distribution of the respondents according to average

monthly income.

The above statistics bears that most of the

respondents have a monthly income of 2,500/month and below

with a frequency of 52 0r 74.28percent; 13 or 18.58 percent

have a monthly income of 2,501 – 5,000/month; 3 or 4.28

percent of the respondents have a monthly income of 7,501

and above; and 2 or 2.86 percent or of the respondents

have a monthly income of 5001 – 7500/month.

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This may entail that common of the respondents are

farmers and plain housewife. Henceforth, this may also

correlate with the educational attainment which the

respondents has.

II. Feeding Practices

a. Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices of Mothers

Table 8

Weighted Mean and Qualitative Description of Feeding


Practices

of Respondents for 0-5 Months Old

Item Weighted Qualitative


0 – 5 MONTHS OLD Mean Description
I use both breasts at each 4.50 I do it all
feeding and feed until my the time
breasts feel soft
I stop giving the child water 4.67 I do it all
if not boiled or distilled. the time
Overall Mean 4.58 I do it all
the time

Table 8 bares the Weighted Mean and Qualitative


Description of

Feeding Practices.

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The above data reveals that majority of the

respondents uses their both breasts at each feeding and

feed until their breasts feel soft with a weighted mean of

4.50 or a qualitative description of they do it all; The

respondents stop giving their child water if not boiled or

distilled has a weighted mean of 4.67 or a qualitative

description of I do it all. The overall mean for the

feeding practices of 0 to 5 months old is 4.58 or

qualitative description of they do it all.

This further entails that the respondents are

practicing the above mentioned.

Table 8.1.

Weighted Mean and Qualitative Description of Feeding

Practices of respondents for 6 to 11 Months Old

Item Weighted Qualitative


6 - 11 MONTHS OLD Mean Description
I use both breasts at each 4.05 I do it
feeding and feed long enough so often
the breasts feel soft
I express breast milk and have 4.17 I do it
others give to the baby with cup often
and spoon or just a cup
I breastfeed more frequently 4.22 I do it all
when at home and during the the time
night, on demand.

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I start feeding soft foods, such 2.68 I do it


as thick bobor or soft steamed sometimes
rice with chopped fish, egg or
meat and mashed pumpkin or green
vegetable, after breastmilk.
I make bobor with less water so 2.70 I do it
it is thicker, and add mashed sometimes
fish, egg or chopped meat and
pumpkin, and green vegetable,
after breastmilk.
I add oil to bobor when cooking 1.85 I do it
often
I add the fish or meat and 4.25 I do it all
vegetables to the rice, not just the time
the liquid
I add vegetables and meat to the 4.55 I do it all
rice to the child’s diet the time

I increase meal frequency until 4.08 I do it


baby is fed 2 times per day (6 often
months) or 3 times per day (7-12
months)
I gradually increase the amount 4.45 I do it
of food given to often
baby until the child is eating
at least 1/3 of small bowl (or
2-3Tbsps.) per meal (for 6
months)
I gradually increase the amount 4.53 I do it all
of food given to my baby until the time
the child is eating at least 1/2
of small bowl (for 7-11 months)
I motivate and help my child to 4.27 I do it all
finish all his food. the time
I start feeding soft foods, such 4.41 I do it all
as thick bobor or soft steamed the time
rice (bay cham hoy) with chopped
fish, egg or meat and mashed
pumpkin or green vegetable,
after breastmilk.
Overall Mean 3.86 I do it
often

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Table 8.1. presents the weighted mean and qualitative

description of feeding practices of respondents for 6 to

11 months old.

It can be gleaned from the above statistics that

mother uses both their breast at each feeding and feeding

long enough so the breast feel soft (Item number 1) has

a weighted mean of 4.05 or a qualitative description of

they do it often; The respondents (Item number 2) expresses

breast milk and have others give to the baby with cup and

spoon or just a cup has a weighted mean of 4.17 or they do

it often; (item number 3) the respondents breastfeed more

frequently when at home and during the night, on demand

has a weighted mean of 4.22 or they do it all the time;

(item number 4) the respondents start their feeding soft

foods, such as thick bobor or soft steamed rice with

chopped fish, egg or meat and smashed pumpkin or green

vegetable, after breast milk has a weighted mean of 2.68

or a qualitative description of they do it sometimes; (Item

number 5) The respondents makes bobor with less water so

it is thicker, and add mashed fish, egg, or chopped meat

and pumpkin, and green vegetable, after breast milk has a

weighted mean of 2.70 or a qualitative description of they

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do it sometimes; (item number 6) the respondents add oil

to bobor when cooking has a weighted mean of 1.85 or they

do it often; (item number 7) the respondents add the fish

or meat and vegetables to the rice, not just liquid has a

weighted mean of 4.25 or a qualitative description of they

do it all the time; (Item number 8) the respondents add

vegetables and meat to the rice to the child’s diet has a

weighted mean of 4.55 or they do it all the time; (Item

number 9) the respondents increases meal frequency until

baby is fed two times per day (6 months) or 3 times per

day (7 – 12 months) has a weighted mean of 4.08 or

qualitative description of they do it often; (Item number

10) the respondents gradually increases the amount of food

given to baby until the child is eating at least 1/3 of

small bowl (or 2-3 tbsp) per meal (for 6 months); (item

11) The respondents gradually increases the amount of food

given to their baby until the child is eating at least ½

of small bowl (for 7-11 months) ha a weighted mean of 4.53

or qualitative description of they do it all the time;

(item number 12) the mothers motivate and help their child

to finish all their food ha a weighted mean of 4.27 or

qualitative description of they do it all the time; (Item

number 13) the mothers start feeding soft foods as thick


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as thick bobor or soft steamed rice with chopped fish, egg

or meat and mashed pumpkin or green vegetable, after

breastmilk has a weighted mean of 4.41 or qualitative

description of they do it all the time. The overall

weighted mean for the feeding practices for 6 to 11 months

old is 3.86 or they do it often.

It may entail that the respondents are well

knowledgeable with regards to the proper feeding practices

of their child.

Table 8.2.

Weighted Mean and Qualitative Description of

Feeding Practices of 12 to 23 Months Old

Item Weighted Qualitative


12-23 MONTHS OLD Mean Description
Express breast milk and have 3.46 I do it
others give to baby with cup and often
spoon or just a cup
If I feed the child soup with 4.30 I do it all
rice, give him/her all the the time
ingredients in the soup,
including fish or meat and
vegetables
I add vegetables and meat to the 4.43 I do it all
rice at each meal the time
I increase feeding frequency of 2.73 I do it
meals until the child is fed 3 sometimes
times per day plus 2 snacks

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I gradually increase the amount 3.43 I do it


of food until you are giving often
your child 1 small bowl of food
at each meal
I help my child to eat; do not 4.05 I do it
leave your child to eat by him/ often
herself. Motivate your child to
finish all his/her meal
Overall Mean 3.73 I do it
often

Table 8.2. presents the Weighted Mean and Qualitative

Description of Feeding Practices of 12 to 23 Months Old.

The date reveals that(item number 1) respondents’

expresses breast milk and have others give to baby with

cup and spoon or just a cup has a weighted mean of 3.46 or

a qualitative description of they do it often; (Item number

2) the respondents feed the child with soup and rice, they

gave to them all the ingredients in the soup, including

fish or meat and vegetables has a weighted mean of 4.43 or

a qualitative description of they do it all the time; (Item

number 3) the mothers add vegetables and meat to the rice

at each meal has a weighted mean of 4.43 or a qualitative

description of they do it all the time; (Item 4) the

respondents increases their feeding frequency of meals

until the child is fed 3 times per day plus 2 snacks has

a weighted mean of 2.73 or they do it sometimes; (Item

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number 5) the respondents gradually increases the amount

of food until the respondents are giving their child one

small bowl of food at each meal has a weighted mean of

3.43 or they do it often; (Item number 6) the respondents

help their child to eat, they do not leave their child to

eat by themselves, they motivate their child to finish all

their meal has a weighted mean of 4.05 or a qualitative

description of they do it often.

The overall mean and qualitative description of

feeding practices of12 to 23 months old infant is 3.73 or

they do it often.

This may further imply that the respondents are

conscious and well knowledgeable with regards to the

proper feeding practices of their child.

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III. Test of Significant Relationship

Table 9

Test of Significant Relationship Between the Profile of

the Respondents

and the Infant and Young child Feeding Practices

Respondent Compute Tabula Analysi Decisio Remarks


’s Health d value r s n
Awareness of 𝒙 𝟐 value
following of 𝒙𝟐
profile
Sex 22.18 21.03 𝑋𝑐2 > 𝑋𝑡2 Reject Significa
Ho nt
Age 20.55 23.45 𝑋𝑐2 > 𝑋𝑡2 Reject Significa
Ho nt
Civil 18.89 12.59 𝑋𝑐2 > 𝑋𝑡2 Reject Significa
Ho nt
Status

Ethnicity 51.76 25.00 𝑋𝑐2 > 𝑋𝑡2 Reject Significa


Ho nt
Religion 96.26 36.42 𝑋𝑐2 > 𝑋𝑡2 Reject Significa
Ho nt
Educationa 41.64 16.92 𝑋𝑐2 > 𝑋𝑡2 Reject Significa
l Ho nt
Attainment
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Occupation 20.18 18.03 𝑋𝑐2 > 𝑋𝑡2 Reject Significa


Ho nt
Average 25.18 20.05 𝑋𝑐2 > 𝑋𝑡2 Reject Significa
Monthly Ho nt
Income

Table 9 presents the test of significant relationship

between the profile of the respondents and the infant and

young child feeding practices.

The results show that the computed values of Chi-

square for the profile variables are greater than the

corresponding tabular values of Chi-square. This signifies

the rejection of the null hypothesis at 0.05 level of

significance. Thus, sex, age, civil status, ethnicity,

religion, educational attainment, occupation and

respondents average monthly income are significantly

related with the respondents’ infant and young child

feeding practices. It implies that the infant and young

child feeding practices of mothers depends or has a

significant relationship on their sex, age, civil status,

ethnicity, religion, educational attainment, occupation

and average monthly income.

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Chapter 5

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter highlights the summary of findings of

this study. It gives pictures of the whole study. This

chapter also includes the conclusion and the

recommendations offered by the researcher as drawn out

from the findings.

Summary of Findings

The following are the salient findings of this

research study.

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1. Respondents’ Profile

a. Most of the respondents belongs to age bracket of

34 – 39 years old with a frequency of thirty five

or 35.72 percent. This may imply that majority of

the respondents are belongs to the middle adulthood

which means that they have knowledge with regards

to basic infant and young child feeding

practices.

b. Majority of the respondents are married with a

frequency of 60 or 85.72 percent

c. There are enormous number of respondents who

belongs to Ilocano ethnicity with a frequency of

68 or 97.15 percent which may imply that the

current local of the study has a predominance

number of Ilocano people.

d. Majority of the respondents belongs the religious

denomination of Roman Catholic which has a

frequency of 67 or 95.72 percent.

e. There are a huge number of respondents who finished

their high school education with a frequency of 29

or 41.42 percent

f. 50 or 71.42 percent of the respondents are

housewife and 14 or 20% of the respondents are


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farmers which have a correlation to the present

local of the study categorized as a developing or

beginning urban.

g. Most of the respondents earning a monthly income

of 2,500/month and below with a frequency of 52 0r

74.28 percent has also relationship with the

educational and occupational profile of the

respondents. This has a contributory factor with

regards to nutrition and infant and young child

feeding practices.

h. The overall mean for the feeding practices of 0 to

5 months old is 4.58 or qualitative description of

they do it all.

i. The overall weighted mean for the feeding practices

for 6 to 11 months old is 3.86 or they do it often.

It may entail that the respondents are well

knowledgeable with regards to the proper feeding

practices of their child.

j. The overall mean and qualitative description of

feeding practices of 12 to 23 months old infant is

3.73 or they do it often. This may further imply

that the respondents are conscious and well

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knowledgeable with regards to the proper feeding

practices of their child.

k. Sex, age, civil status, ethnicity, religion,

educational attainment, occupation and respondents

average monthly income are significantly related

with the respondents’ infant and young child

feeding practices. It implies that the infant and

young child feeding practices of mothers depends

or has a significant relationship on their sex,

age, civil status, ethnicity, religion,

educational attainment, occupation and average

monthly income.

Conclusion

From the above findings, the following conclusion

has been drawn.

a. Monthly income has relationship with the

educational and occupational profile of the

respondents. This has a contributory factor with

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regards to nutrition and infant and young child

feeding practices.

b. Feeding practices of the respondents has also

significant relationship with their educational

and occupational profile.

c. Sex, age, civil status, ethnicity, religion,

educational attainment, occupation and

respondents average monthly income are

significantly related with the respondents’

infant and young child feeding practices

Recommendations

The following are recommendations made by the

researchers which are drawn from this research

undertaking.

a. The local or city government of the city of

Santiago should plan and design ways on how to

help the mothers of barangay Balintocatoc in

livelihood projects for them to sustain and

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maintain a healthy infant and feeding practices,

hence disease and malnutrition prevention can be

achieved.

b. Awareness campaign should be design and develop

by the concerned City Health Office and to be

implemented with collaboration of the assigned

Barangay Health Worker or Midwifes to maintain

a healthy infant and young child practices, thus

preventing occurrences of nutrition related

alterations or diseases.

c. Interested future researchers may initiate other

similar to this studies and investigate or

discover other variables possibly related like

feeding practices of preschool and school age

child and its correlation to their scholastic

performance.

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INFANT AND YOUNG CHILD FEEDING PRACTICES OF MOTHERS OF


BARANGAY BALINTOCATOC: A BASIS FOR FEEDING PROGRAM
IMPLEMENTATION

Questionnaire: Irene Janet Picado, Ph.D, Maria Cecilia


F. Pastores, MPH, Field Research Study on Infant and
Young Child Feeding Practices in Selected Provinces of
Cambodia, 2006

INSTRUCTIONS: Read carefully each question and answer by


placing a check on the corresponding numbers on the column
provided. If you are unsure about how to answer, do not
hesitate to approach the researcher. Please give the best
answer you can. There are no ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ answers.

Part I: Profile of the Respondents

a. Name: (Optional):
___________________________________________________
__
b. Age:

⃝ 18 – 22 ⃝ 23-27 ⃝28 – 33

⃝ 34 – 39 ⃝ 40 – 45 ⃝ 46 – 50

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c. Civil Status
⃝ Single ⃝ Married ⃝ Widow ⃝ Annulled

d. Ethnicity
⃝ Tagalong ⃝ Ilocano ⃝ Ibanag ⃝ Itawes ⃝ Others
(Specify) __________

e. Religion
⃝ Roman Catholic ⃝ Protestant (Methodist) ⃝
Jehovah Witnesses

⃝ Born Again ⃝ Latter Day Saints ⃝


Iglesia

⃝ Other (Specify) _________________________________

f. Educational Attainment
⃝ Elementary undergraduate

⃝ Elementary Graduate

⃝ High School Undergraduate

⃝ High School Graduate

⃝ College Undergraduate

⃝ College Graduate

⃝ Master’s undergraduate

⃝ Master’s Graduate

⃝ Doctoral Undergraduate

⃝ Doctoral Graduate

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g. Occupation
⃝ Farmer

⃝ Government Employee

⃝ Private Employee

⃝ Practiced profession (Teacher, Nurse, Engineer,


Physician)

⃝ Laborer (Construction worker, Carpenter)

⃝ Pensioner / Retiree

⃝ OFW/ OCW

⃝ Household domestic

⃝ Private Business

⃝ Unemployed

⃝ Others Please Specify: _______________________

h. Average Monthly Income


⃝ ₱ 2, 500 / month and below

⃝ ₱ 2, 501 - ₱ 5000 / month

⃝ ₱ 5, 001 - ₱ 7,500 / month

⃝ ₱ 7, 501 and above

Part II: The Feeding Practices

5 - I do it all the time


4 – I do it often
3 – I do it sometimes
2 – I do it often
1 – I don’t do it at all

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0-5 MONTHS OLD 5 4 3 2 1

I use both breasts at each


feeding and feed until my

breasts feel soft

I stop giving the child water if


not boiled or distilled.

6-11 MONTHS OLD

Breastfeeding Practices: 5 4 3 2 1

I use both breasts at each


feeding and feed long enough so
the breasts feel soft

I express breast milk and have


others give to the baby with cup
and spoon or just a cup

I breastfeed more frequently when


at home and during the night, on
demand.

Complementary Feeding

I start feeding soft foods, such


as thick bobor or soft steamed
rice (bay cham hoy) with chopped
fish, egg or meat and mashed
pumpkin or green vegetable, after
breastmilk.

I make bobor with less water so


it is thicker, and add mashed
fish, egg or chopped meat and
pumpkin, and green vegetable,
after breastmilk.

I add oil to bobor when cooking

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I add the fish or meat and


vegetables to the rice, not just
the liquid

I add vegetables and meat to the


rice to the child’s diet

I increase meal frequency until


baby is fed 2 times per day (6
months) or 3 times per day (7-12
months)

I gradually increase the amount


of food given to

baby until the child is eating at


least 1/3 of small bowl (or 2-
3Tbsps.) per meal (for 6 months)

I gradually increase the amount


of food given to my baby until
the child is eating at least 1/2
of small bowl (for 7-11 months)

I motivate and help my child to


finish all his food.

12-23 MONTHS OLD

Breastfeeding Practices: 5 4 3 2 1

Express breastmilk and have


others give to baby with cup and
spoon or just a cup

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Complementary Feeding Practices:

Quality of food

If I feed the child soup with


rice, give him/her all the
ingredients in the soup,
including fish or meat and
vegetables

I add vegetables and meat to the


rice at each meal

I increase feeding frequency of


meals until the child is fed 3
times per day plus 2 snacks

I gradually increase the amount


of food until you are giving your
child 1 small bowl of food at
each meal

I help my child to eat; do not


leave your child to eat by him/
herself. Motivate your child to
finish all his/her meal

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