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response of structure under earthquake excitations

Phuoc T. Nguyen 1, Trung D. Pham 2, *

1Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City Open University, 97 Vo Van Tan St., Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

2Department of Civil Engineering, Mientrung University of Civil Engineering, 24 Nguyen Du St., Tuy Hoa City, Vietnam

Article history: The effectiveness of the improve Tuned Liquid Column Damper (iTLCD), as

Received 25 July 2018 known as one of liquid damper types, which overcomes the practical

Received in revised form difficulties involved in the implementation of the conventional TLCD for

26 October 2018 short period structures by tuning the frequency of the damper to the

Accepted 27 October 2018 structural frequency, is studied for reducing the dynamic response of the

structure due to earthquake excitations in this paper. The formulations of the

Keywords: iTLCD connected by a spring to the short period stiff structure due to seismic

Tuned Liquid Column Damper excitation are established based on the TLCD. And then, the characteristic

Tuned Mass Damper parameters of the iTLCD are chosen based on the optimal ratios in each

Earthquake excitation studying case. Therefore, the effectiveness of the iTLCD is investigated in

Dynamic response of structure three cases of earthquake excitations with and without the damper. The

results show that the iTLCD affects significantly on the dynamic response of

the structure under seismic excitations, and then it is more decreasing the

dynamic response than without the damper. However, the effectiveness of

the iTLCD depends on the dynamic character of the structure, excitation

loads, and the characteristic parameters of the iTLCD. Hence, in the practical

design problem, the property parameters of the structure will be fixed, and

then the characteristic parameters of the iTLCD will be chosen based on the

optimal ratio to have the best performance for mitigating the dynamic

response of the structure under dynamic excitations.

© 2018 The Authors. Published by IASE. This is an open access article under the CC

BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

al., 2005; Fujino et al., 1992; Kim et al., 2006; Li et al.,

* Studying new types of cost-efficient dampers for 2004; Maravani and Hamed, 2011; Nguyen et al.,

mitigating dynamic response of structures due to 2018; Wu et al., 2008), and Tuned Liquid Column

dynamic load-induced vibrations such as wind or Damper (TLCD) is a special type of TLD consisting of

earthquake excitation have been always attracted tube-like containers filled with liquid (usually water)

many attentions in many past decades. Therefore, where energy is dissipated by the movement of the

some auxiliary damping devices were proposed for liquid through an orifice to counteract the forces

structural vibration control under different dynamic acting on the structure. Therefore, the TLCD is also

loading conditions. And, Tuned Mass Damper (TMD) considered as one of the types of passive energy-

(Guo and Chen, 2007; Han and Li, 2006; Love and absorbing devices and there are even more

Tait, 2015; Sun et al., 2014; Lewandowski and advantaged than TMD such as low cost and

Grzymisławska, 2009; Varadarajan and Nagarajaiah, maintenance. Especially, it can be utilized for water

2004) consisting of a mass attached to the building supply in building, unlike a TMD where the dead

through a spring and a dashpot is known as the most weight of the mass has no other functional use.

common of auxiliary damping devices. Besides, it is Hence, the TLCD has been suggested for vibration

well known that Tuned Liquid Damper (TLD) is a control of structures under different dynamic

type of Tuned Mass Damper (TMD) where the mass loading conditions such as wind or earthquake

excitation.

* Corresponding Author. Although, almost studying indicate that the TLCD

Email Address: phamdinhtrung@muce.edu.vn (T. D. Pham) having significant practical advantages is clearly

https://doi.org/10.21833/xxx effective in reducing the dynamic response of

Corresponding author's ORCID profile:

https://orcid.org/xxx Provide ORCID?structures due to dynamic loading conditions

2313-626X/© 2018 The Authors. Published by IASE. corresponding to the properly selected parameters

This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license of its (Shum and Xu, 2002; Wu et al., 2005; Xue et al.,

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)

1

Phuoc T. Nguyen, Trung D. Pham /International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 6(x) 2019, Pages: x-x

in obtaining a feasible length of the column tube for which 𝑢̇ is the standard deviation of 𝑢̇ (𝑡).

tuning the TLCD to a short period structure. Hence,

an improved TLCD (iTLCD) connected by a spring to

short period stiff structures subjected to seismic

excitations was proposed by Ghosh and Basu (2004).

The proposed iTLCD can overcome the practical

difficulties involved in the implementation of the

conventional TLCD for short period structures by

tuning the frequency of the damper (including the

container mass and the mass of the liquid) to the

structural frequency. Hence, in order to demonstrate

clearly adaptive of the iTLCD with the variation of

dynamic loading conditions such as earthquake

excitations, the effectiveness of the iTLCD on the

dynamic response of the structures due to ground

motion is investigated in detail. The analysis results

including displacement, velocity, acceleration and Fig. 1: The semi-active Tuned Liquid Column Damper

shear force of story are computed in two cases: model

without iTLCD and the improved iTLCD due to

various earthquake excitations such as El-Centro, The normalized equation of motion for the

Northridge, and Superstition earthquake excitation damper system can be also expressed as follows

based on the detail of formulations in the following

sections. {𝑦̈ + 𝑥̈ + 𝑧̈(𝑡)} +

1+𝜏

𝑢̈ (𝑡) + 22 2 𝑦̇ (𝑡) + 22 𝑦(𝑡) = 0 (3)

2. Formulation and control algorithm where 𝜏 = 𝑀𝑐 /𝜌𝐴𝐿 denotes the ratio of the container

mass to liquid mass, 2 = √𝑘2 /(𝜌𝐴𝐿 + 𝑀𝑐 ) and 2 =

2.1. Modeling of the SDOF-iTLCD system

𝑐2 /22 (𝜌𝐴𝐿 + 𝑀𝑐 ) denote the natural frequency and

damping ratio of the damper system, respectively.

Considering the model of the structure–sTLCD

The normalized equation of motion for the

system due to earthquake excitation is shown in Fig.

primary structure is given by

1. The iTLCD is composed of a tube-like container of

arbitrary configuration with an orifice(s) installed in {𝑥̈ + 𝑧̈(𝑡)} + 21 1 𝑥̇ (𝑡) + 12 𝑥(𝑡) = {22 2 𝑦̇ (𝑡) +

it. The tube has a cross-sectional area A, horizontal 22 𝑦(𝑡)} (4)

dimension B, the total length of the liquid column in

the tube L and density of the liquid the 𝜌. The

where = (𝜌𝐴𝐿 + 𝑀𝑐 )/𝑚 is the ratio of the total

coefficient of head loss, controlled by the opening

mass of damper to the mass of the primary structure

ratio of the orifice(s), is denoted by . The time- system, 1 and 1 denote the damping ratio and

varying damping and stiffness coefficients of the

natural frequency of the primary structure,

spring connecting the iTLCD to the primary system

respectively.

are denoted by c2 and k2, respectively. The total mass

Continuously, the governing equation of motion

of the damper system including the mass of the

of the whole SDOF-iTLCD system at the time (t) due

container of iTLCD denoted by Mc and the mass of

to earthquake excitation can be rewritten in matrix

column liquid may be expressed as (ρAL + Mc)

form as follows (Sonmez et al., 2016)

(Ghosh and Basu, 2004; Sonmez et al., 2016). The

ground acceleration at the time (t) is denoted 𝑚 0 0 𝒙̈

by 𝑧̈ (𝑡). The mass, damping, and stiffness parameters [𝜌𝐴𝐿 + 𝑀𝑐 𝜌𝐴𝐿 + 𝑀𝑐 𝜌𝐴𝐵] {𝑦̈ } +

of the primary structure system as single degrees of 𝜌𝐴𝐵 𝜌𝐴𝐵 𝜌𝐴𝐿 𝑢̈

freedom (SDOF) are denoted by m, c, and k, 𝑐 −𝑐2 0 𝑥̇ 𝑘 −𝑘2 0 𝑥

respectively. Based on the formulation of the iTLCD [0 𝑐2 0 ] {𝑦̇ } + [0 𝑘2 0 ] {𝑦 } =

given in detail by Ghosh and Basu (2004), the 0 0 2𝜌𝐴𝐶𝑝 𝑢̇ 0 0 2𝜌𝐴𝑔 𝑢

equivalent linear equation of motion of the iTLCD −𝑚

{−(𝜌𝐴𝐿 + 𝑀𝑐 )} 𝑧̈(𝑡) (5)

can be written as:

−𝐴𝐿

𝐶𝑝

𝑢̈ (𝑡) + 2 𝑢̇ (𝑡) + 2𝐿 𝑢(𝑡) = −{𝑦̈ + 𝑥̈ + 𝑧̈(𝑡)} (1)

𝐿 It can be seen that the selection of parameters

such as the frequency of the whole damper system

where 𝐿 = √2𝑔/𝐿 denotes the natural frequency of

𝜔2 , the frequency of the iTLCD 𝐿 , and the coefficient

the iTLCD, = 𝐵/𝐿 is the ratio of the horizontal

of orifice damping of the iTLCD (in the Eq .2) have

length to the total length, and 𝐶𝑝 represents the

an important role for choosing design parameters of

equivalent linearized damping coefficient, given the iTLCD which effect significantly on the

below performance of the iTLCD. Therefore, the optimum

𝑢̇

𝐶𝑝 = (2) tuning ratio 𝛾𝑜𝑝𝑡 = 1/(1 + ) and the optimum value

√2𝜋

Phuoc T. Nguyen, Trung D. Pham /International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 6(x) 2019, Pages: x-x

of /L proposed by Ghosh and Basu (2004) based on where 0 and 1 are the column vectors of N (number

the minimization of the displacement of an story of the primary structure corresponding with

undamped structure are used in this study. In case of number degree of freedom) zeros or ones.

the optimum values are obtained, the characteristic However, the foregoing equation can be also

parameters of iTLCD can be determined. rewritten in the general form of the governing

equation of motion of the dynamic problem at the

2.2. Governing equation time (t), given by

SDOF-iTLCD system, a primary structural system as

multiple degrees of freedom (MDOF) due to where, matrices M and K denote the global mass

earthquake excitation is considered, as shown in Fig. and stiffness matrices of the whole MDOF-iTLCD

2. The mass, damping, and stiffness parameters of system, respectively; F is the global force vector and

the ith story are denoted by mi, ci, and ki, C denotes the global damping matrix determined

respectively. The iTLCD is attached at the top floor of based on Rayleigh damping.

the primary structure. It can be seen that the characteristic time-varying

parameters of the iTLCD will be easily determined at

the time (t) and those parameters will be also

assembled in the global governing equation of

motion of the whole MDOF-iTLCD system due to

earthquake excitation which is solved by Newmark’s

method. And then, the effectiveness of the iTLCD on

the dynamic response of the structure under

earthquake excitations will be analyzed in detail in

the next section.

3. Numerical results

effectiveness of the siTLCD on the dynamic response

of the structure due to the earthquake excitations.

The property parameters of the structure are given

in Table 1, having the first dominant frequenciy

0.58Hz. The damping ratio for the first two modes of

the structure is taken 5%.

Story Mass [kg] Stiffness [N/m]

1 2.83x105 3.31x108

2-4 2.76x105 1.06x109

5-7 2.76x105 6.79x108

8-10 2.76x105 6.79x108

Fig. 2: The MDOF-iTLCD system due to earthquake 11-13 2.76x105 5.84x108

14-16 2.76x105 3.86x108

excitation

17-19 2.76x105 3.47x108

20 2.92x105 2.29x108

By meaning finite element method, the governing

equation of motion of the whole MDOF-iTLCD The parameters of the iTLCD are also given such

system under earthquake excitation at the time (t) as the ratio of the total mass of damper to the

can be expressed as follows (Sonmez et al., 2016) structure is taken as 𝜇 = 0.02, the ratio of the

horizontal length to the total length of the liquid

𝐌 𝟎 𝟎 𝒙̈ column tube is set to 𝛼 = 0.9, the tuning ratio of the

[{0 … 𝜌𝐴𝐿 + 𝑀𝑐 } 𝜌𝐴𝐿 + 𝑀𝑐 𝜌𝐴𝐵] {𝑦̈ } +

{0 … 𝜌𝐴𝐵}

damper system is selected as 𝛾𝑜𝑝𝑡 = 1/(1 + ) for

𝜌𝐴𝐵 𝜌𝐴𝐿 𝑢̈

0 0 iTLCD (for the parametric study), the liquid column

𝐂 { ⋮ } 𝟎 𝑥̇ 𝐊 { ⋮ } 𝟎 𝑥 mass is assumed to be same as the LCD container

−𝑐2 {𝑦̇ } + −𝑘2 {𝑦 } = mass τ = 1, and the coefficient of head loss is given

𝟎𝑻 𝑐2 0 𝑢̇ 𝟎𝑻 𝑘2 0 𝑢 as . These parameter will be a parametric study for

[𝟎 𝑻

0 2𝜌𝐴𝐶 𝑝 (𝑡) ] [𝟎 𝑻

0 2𝜌𝐴𝑔] analysis the performance of iTLCD on the dynamic

−𝐌𝟏 response of the structure under earthquake

{−(𝜌𝐴𝐿 + 𝑀𝑐 )} 𝑧̈ (𝑡) (6) excitations in the following sections.

−𝐴𝐿

3.2. The earthquake excitations

Phuoc T. Nguyen, Trung D. Pham /International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 6(x) 2019, Pages: x-x

Considering three various earthquake excitations acceleration are presented in Fig. 3, having the peak

including El-Centro, Superstition, and Northridge of dominant frequencies from 1.8Hz to 2.6Hz, 0.48Hz

earthquake which the time history of ground to 2Hz, and 0.47 to 2.4Hz, respectively.

4

El-Centro earthquake 1.5 10

3 Superstition earthquake Northridge earthquake

8

1

Acceleration (m/s2)

2 6

Acceleration (m/s2)

Acceleration (m/s2)

0.5

1 4

0 0 2

0

-1 -0.5

-2

-2

-1

-4

-3

0 5 10 15 20 25 -1.5 -6

Time (s) 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 5 10 15 20 25

Time (s) Time (s)

a b c

Fig. 3: Ground acceleration: a) El-Centro earthquake, b) Superstition earthquake, c) Northridge earthquake

82

Northridge earthquake

In this section, the influence of the ratio /𝐿 of 81

the iTLCD on the displacement response of the

Max. displacement(cm)

80

structure due to the above various earthquake

79

excitations has been studied. The results are

presented from Figs. 4-6. It can be seen that with an 78

increase of the ratio /𝐿 decreases the dynamic 77

resposne of the structure, though the rate of

decrease is very gradual. However, for each case, the 76

influence of the ratio /𝐿 on the displacement 75

response of the structure is different; it depends on

74

the dynamic characteristic of earthquake excitaion. 0 200 400 600 800 1000

But, it can be also seen that with the change in the

ratio /𝐿 demonstrates the influence of the relative Fig. 6: The influence of the ratio /𝐿 on the maximum

displacement of the structure due to Northridge

motion of the liquid column and the orifice damping

earthquake

on the performance of it.

8.8 Additionally, the curve results are also useful for

El-Centro earthquake

8.7 practical design. The response reduction of the

structure due to the incorporation of the damper can

Max. displacement(cm)

8.6

be completely estimated for a given ratio of the

8.5 ratio /𝐿, which may have been fixed from other

practical considerations. Another way, the

8.4

investigated results also indicated that the whole

8.3 damper system has been kept tuned to the ratio

8.2

frequency as TMD, and then the whole damper was

more increasing the dynamic response of the the

8.1

0 200 400 600 800 1000 sturcture than without the damper in the structure

/L (1/m) due to earthquake excitations.

Fig. 4: The influence of the ratio /𝐿 on the maximum

displacement of the structure due to El-Centro earthquake 3.4. Effect of the mass ratio 𝛍

10

Superstition earthquake Continuously, the ratio of the total mass of

9.5 damper to the structure 𝜇 as one of the important

Max. displacement(cm)

9

parameters for characteristic performance of the

iTLCD which effects directly and strongly on the

8.5 dynamic response of the structure will be also

studied in this section. The results are presented

8 from Figs. 7-9. It can be seen that the mass ratio 𝜇 is

7.5

very sensitive to the effectiveness of the iTLCD. The

influence of the mass ratio 𝜇 on dynamic response

7 reduction of the structure is not according to a

0 200 400 600 800 1000

similar law. In the El-Centro earthquake case, with

Fig. 5: The influence of the ratio /𝐿 on the maximum an increase of the mass ratio 𝜇 will decrease strongly

displacement of the structure due to Superstition the dynamic response of the structure, shown in Fig.

earthquake

Phuoc T. Nguyen, Trung D. Pham /International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 6(x) 2019, Pages: x-x

7. However, also with those will cause significantly from 0.015 to 0.025, and then the effectiveness of the

increase the general mass of the whole structure, iTLCD is clearest for both the dynamic response

and then it will also increase the complication of the reduction and an increase of the general mass of the

structural foundation. whole structure, presented from Figs. 7-9. In detail,

Please insert as follows: the optimal mass ratio 𝜇 is 0.02 in the El-Centro,

9.5 0.015 in the Superstition and 0.025 in the

x /L=10

Northridge, respectively.

9

x /L=100

x /L=500

Max. displacement(cm)

x /L=1000

response structure

8.5

8

iTLCD will give different performance. Hence,

choosing the design parameters of the iTLCD under

7.5 each dynamic excitation load is extremely important

for practical structure. Therefore, the property

7 parameters of the structure are fixed, and then the

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

characteristic parameters of the iTLCD will be

Fig. 7: The influence of the ratio on the maximum obtained based on the optimal parameters of the

displacement of the structure due to El-Centro earthquake above investigation cases for studying the

Please insert as follows: effectiveness of the iTLCD on the dynamic response

10.5

x /L=10 of the structure due to earthquake excitation. But, to

10 x /L=100 study adaptive of the iTLCD under different

x /L=500 earthquake excitations, the parameters of the iTLCD

Max. displacement(cm)

9.5 are taken the ratio /𝐿 = 100 and the mass ratio 𝜇 =

x /L=1000

effectiveness of the iTLC on the dynamic response of

8.5 the structure are presented from Figs. 10-14.

8

It can be seen that the iTLCD changed the

dynamic character of the whole structure under

7.5 earthquake excitations base on tuning the ratio

frequency. Therefore, it decreases the time history of

7

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 displacement of the structure in all investigated

cases, as shown in Fig. 10.

Fig. 8: The influence of the ratio on the maximum Additionally, a decrease of the time history of

displacement of the structure due to Superstition displacement of the structure is also the reason

earthquake

which is more decreasing the maximum

100 displacement of the structure due to earthquake

excitations than without the damper, plotted in Fig.

95 11.

Max. displacement(cm)

90 necessary attention for the safety of the structure

due to a dynamic load is a shear force at each story.

85

Please insert as follows: With the increase of the shear force of the story will

80 x /L=10 be the reason that increases ability destroys of the

x /L=100 structure. Hence, in the problem of structural

75 x /L=500 control, proposing the damper to control the

x /L=1000 dynamic response of the structure for decreasing

70 internal force to reduce ability damage or

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

destruction of the structure is extremely meaningful

Fig. 9: The influence of the ratio on the maximum and valuable. In this study shows that the iTLCD has

displacement of the structure due to Northridge significant effectiveness for reducing the internal

earthquake force of the structure under earthquake excitations,

as shown in Fig. 12 and Fig. 13. It can be seen that

Oppositely, with an increase of the mass ratio 𝜇 the iTLCD is more decreasing the time history and

causes an increase strongly the dynamic response of the maximum of shear force of the structure than in

the structure in remain cases, and even it is more the case without the damper. The percent decrease

unfavourable than without the iTLCD. But, a general is not similar to in each case, it depends on the

view can be focused that the mass ratio is the second dynamic characteristic of each earthquake

important parameter for choosing a design excitation, such as the maximum percent of the El-

parameter of the iTLCD. For each loading excitation, Centro earthquake is about 8 percent and the

there will be an optimal mass ratio but in a arrange Northridge earthquake also take about 15 percent.

Phuoc T. Nguyen, Trung D. Pham /International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 6(x) 2019, Pages: x-x

But, in the Superstition earthquake is significant, it goes to 60 percent, as shown in Fig. 14.

10

20 100

None

None None

15 iTLCD

iTLCD iTLCD

5

10 50

Displacement(cm)

Displacement(cm)

Displacement(cm)

5

0

0 0

-5

-5

-10 -50

-15

-10

-20 0 5 10 15 20 25 -100

0 5 10 15 20 25 0 5 10 15 20 25

Time(s)

Time(s) Time(s)

a b c

Fig. 10: The time history of displacement at the top floor due to earthquake: (a) El-Centro, (b) Superstition, (c) Northridge

20 20 20

None None None

iTLCD iTLCD iTLCD

15 15 15

Story

Story

Story

10 10 10

5 5 5

0 0 0

0 2 4 6 8 10 0 5 10 15 20 0 20 40 60 80 100

Max. displacement(cm) Max. displacement(cm) Max. displacement(cm)

a b c

Fig. 11: The maximum displacement at each floor due to earthquake: (a) El-Centro, (b) Superstition, (c) Northridge

6 6 7

x 10 x 10 x 10

8 4 4

None None None

6 iTLCD iTLCD 3 iTLCD

2

4 2

Shear force (N)

Shear force (N)

2 0 1

0 0

-2 -2 -1

-4 -2

-4

-6 -3

-8 -6 -4

0 5 10 15 20 25 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 5 10 15 20 25

Time (s) Time (s) Time (s)

a b c

Fig. 12: The time history of shear force of the first story due to earthquake: (a) El-Centro, (b) Superstition, (c) Northridge

20 20 20

None None None

iTLCD iTLCD iTLCD

15 15 15

Story

Story

Story

10 10 10

5 5 5

0 0 0

0 1 2 3 4 5 0 2 4 6 8 0 1 2 3 4

Shear force (N) x 10

6 Shear force (N) x 10

6 Shear force (N) x 10

7

a b c

Fig. 13: The maximum shear force of each story due to earthquake: (a) El-Centro, (b) Superstition, (c) Northridge

10 60 15

50

8

10

40

Reduction(%)

Reduction(%)

Reduction(%)

6

30

5

20

4

10

0

2

0

0 -10 -5

0 5 10 15 20 25 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 5 10 15 20 25

Story Story Story

a b c

Fig. 14: The shear force reduction of the structure due to earthquake: (a) El-Centro, (b) Superstition, (c) Northridge

Phuoc T. Nguyen, Trung D. Pham /International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 6(x) 2019, Pages: x-x

The results indicated that the performance of the This research is funded by Ho Chi Minh City Open

iTLCD is the clearest when the dominant frequencies University under the basic research fund 2018 with

between the earthquake excitations and the grant number E.2018.05.1.

structure are approximate. Hence, the effectiveness

of the iTCLD is the clearest in the Superstition References

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response of the structure under dynamic excitations.

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structures with multiple tuned mass dampers. Journal of Civil

4. Conclusion

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Based on the formulations and numerical Li HN, Jia Y, and Wang SY (2004). Theoretical and experimental

studies on reduction for multi-modal seismic responses of

investigation results for the effectiveness of the high-rise structures by tuned liquid dampers. Modal Analysis,

iTLCD on the reduction of the dynamic response of 10(7): 1041-1056.

the structure due to earthquake excitations, the

Love JS and Tait MJ (2015). Multiple tuned liquid dampers for

following conclusions can be drawn as follows: efficient and robust structural control. Journal of Structural

Engineering, 141(12): 04015045.

The property parameters of the iTLCD affect Maravani M and Hamed MS (2011). Numerical modeling of

significantly on the dynamic response of the sloshing motion in a tuned liquid damper outfitted with a

structure. It changes the dynamic character of the submerged slat screen. International Journal for Numerical

whole structure based on tuning the frequency Methods in Fluids, 65(7): 834-855.

ratio. Therefore, the iTLCD is more decreasing the Nguyen TP, Pham DT, and Ngo KT (2018). Effectiveness of multi

dynamic response of the structure than without tuned liquid dampers with slat screens for reducing dynamic

responses of structures. In the IOP Conference Series: Earth

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The effectiveness of the iTLCD depends on both

the dynamic character of the structure and the Shum KM and Xu YL (2002). Multiple‐tuned liquid column

dampers for torsional vibration control of structures:

excitation load. Additionally, it also depends on the experimental investigation. Earthquake Engineering and

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It can be seen that the iTLCD attached to the mass dampers with variable frequency under harmonic

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Smart Structures and Systems, 13(2): 319-341.

of the dynamic response of the structure due to

earthquake excitations. Hence, this study has Varadarajan N and Nagarajaiah S (2004). Wind response control

of building with variable stiffness tuned mass damper using

meaning practice in the problem of vibration empirical mode decomposition/Hilbert transform. Journal of

control of the structure due to earthquake Engineering Mechanics, 130(4): 451-458.

excitations.

Wu JC, Shih MH, Lin YY, and Shen YC (2005). Design guidelines for

tuned liquid column damper for structures responding to

Acknowledgments wind. Engineering Structures, 27(13): 1893-1905.

Phuoc T. Nguyen, Trung D. Pham /International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 6(x) 2019, Pages: x-x

Wu JC, Wang YP, Lee CL, Liao PH, and Chen YH (2008). Wind- Xue SD, Ko JM, and Xu YL (2000). Tuned liquid column damper for

induced interaction of a non-uniform tuned liquid column suppressing pitching motion of structures. Engineering

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Structures, 30(12): 3555-3565.

Yalla SK, Kareem A, and Kantor JC (2001). Semi-active tuned liquid

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