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Sungai Lembing was a tin mining area that was operated by the Pahang
Consolidated Company Limited (PCCL) from 1906 to 1986. Due to the drop in the tin
price during 1985, this mine wound down its operation until it was closed in 1986.
Tunnels at Sungai Lembing have a total length of 5km and the mine was operated as a
shaft mine. A museum highlighting the tin mining industry was opened in 2003, and
is housed in an old bungalow once used by the mine manager. The museum houses a
collection of mining artifacts. Nearby Sungai Lembing is Bukit Panorama which is a
popular place to watch the sunrise.

According to the Department of Mineral and Geoscience Malaysia, there is a

summary of geological map that shows the type of rocks and the main geological
features both in peninsular and east of Malaysia. Since this project is using rocks from
Sungai Lembing and other nearby location such as Sg Pandan Waterfall, River Bank
Sg. Berus, Teluk Chempedak and Bukit Panorama few testing has been done at the
location and also at the FKAAS laboratory. One of the testing has been done was the
studies of tunnel stability and detail mapping including rock mass classification. The
classification of rock mass of the tunnel using Rock Mass Rating (RMR) system was
conducted. Mapping of discontinuities and structures found three main structures that
control the tunnel stability at Sungai Lembing, which are faults, folds and joints.
Testing that is conducted at the FKAAS laboratory is slake durability and point load

In addition for this project, rock resistivity was conducted by using rock basalt as
our sample. Basalt is a dark, fine dense rock often with small prophyritic crystals and
weathering. Rock resistivity is a measure of how much the rock resists the flow of
Figure 1 shows that the satellite view of Sungai Lembing and Sg Pandan Waterfall

Figure 2 shows the types of rock existed at Sungai Lembing and Sg Pandan Waterfall
Figure 3 shows the types of rocks presented in the maps

Based on the legend shows in Figure 3, the types of rock located at Sungai
Lembing are mostly intrusive rocks, which mainly granite with minor granodiorite. It
is believe that the geologic period is Permian-Jurassic which spans 47 million years
from the end of the carboniferous period 298.9 million years ago. The Permian
witnessed the diversification of the early amniotes into the ancestral groups of the
mammals, turtles, lepidosaurs and archosaurs. Aside from Permian-Jurrassic,
Carboniferous can also be found at the location. Phyllite, slate, shale and sandstone
can easily be found at the area as it is locally prominent development of limestone.
The carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from
the end of the Devonian Period 358.9 million years ago. Cossey, 2004, stated that it
was the first of the modern system names to be employed and reflects the fact that
many coal beds were formed globally during that time.

• To recognize, identified and observed distinguishing mineral/rocks and

its feature in fields

• To carry out an appropriately comprehensive desk study in context of the

site visit/engineering project

• To identify the rock slope stabilization technique applied in the fields

• To record and plot the structural geology data.