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# Practice VI: Closed loop controlled DC-DC Buck

converter
Cuevas Terrones Rodrigo Saenz Giron Jamid Israel Salazar Roldan Jonathan Gabriel
Buap Buap Buap
Maestria en Ciencias de la Electronica Maestria en Ciencias de la Electronica Maestria en Ciencias de la Electronica
Puebla, Mexico Puebla, Mexico Puebla, Mexico
rodrigocuevasmx@yahoo.com.mx israel.93.ig@gmail.com jonasala117@gmail.com

Abstract.

## In the present work, we analyze, simulate and build a

switching circuit known as a DC-DC converter, in the Buck
(reducer) mode. This circuit delivers a regular (desired) DC output
voltage from a higher input DC voltage; its main function is to
maintain the output voltage level independently of the applied load
Fig. 1. DC-DC Buck concerter electric diagram..
Keywords—DC-DC converter, buck converter, closed-loop
control, open-loop, switching regulator.
As said, the way the voltage is converted and the energy
I. INTRODUCTION (DC-DC CONVERTER) is stored and delivered is by controlling the opening and
DC/DC converters are circuits capable of transforming a closing of a switching element. The operation of a Buck
certain voltage level into other desired level, using elements converter can be divided into two modes (Mode 1: switch
such as inductors and capacitors, temporarily storing energy closed an on, and Mode 2: switch open and off), and is
on them and discharging it in such a way that the final voltage basically the following:
levels are as desired.
The way the voltage is converted and the energy is stored 1) Mode 1 begins when switch U is switched on at t=ton.
and delivered is by controlling the opening and closing of a The input current, which rises, flows through filter inductor
switching element. This is done again and again, and that is L1, filter capacitor C1, and load resistor R1. [1]; in other
why they are called “switching circuits”. There are different words, when we close switch U (switch on) we supply power
types of DC-DC converters according to the need; some of to the circuit, causing the energy to be stored in the inductor
them are buck, boost, cuk, buck-boost, sepic, etc. They are L1 and in the capacitor C1. Figure 2 shows the Mode 1
used as an energy source, or as part of one, and one of their equivalent circuit diagram.
advantages is that the efficiency is much higher (more than
80%) compared to linear regulators (usually 40% to 60%),
which means that, if we need a source of high power, the heat
dissipated by the switched source is much lower than that
which would dissipate a linear source of similar
characteristics, since a large part of the energy is transferred.
In this work, a Buck-type Converter (Reducer) is
described, simulated and built.
Fig. 2. Mode 1 equal circuit.
II. OUR DC-DC BUCK CONVERTER.
Doing KVL on Mode 1, we obtain:
In a Buck regulator, the average output voltage, Vo, is less
than the input voltage, Vs=Vi; hence the name "buck" is of a = 1 = − ; = .
very popular regulator. [1]
An electric diagram of a Buck regulator using a switch is Since U is closed, we have U = 1; therefore, E = UE. Thus:
shown in Figure 1, and this is like a step-down converter.
1 = − (1).

2) Mode 2 begins when switch U is switched off at t=toff. Now, we do
The freewheeling diode D1 conducts due to energy stored in
1= ,
the inductor, and the inductor current continues to flow
through L, C, load resistor R1, and diode D1. [1] When the 1= ,
switch is open, the current flow of these elements is changed 1= .
and the accumulated energy is discharged in load resistor R1.
The current through L1 decreases. Figure 3 shows the Mode So we have:
2 equivalent circuit diagram.
= − (1),

= − (2).
If we do
= ,
! = ,

## Fig. 3. Mode 2 equal circuit.

and we know that
= ,
We suppose an ideal diode. Doing KCL on Mode 2, we
obtain: we have
− − = 0. " = − !
#\$
"! = − .
= 1 = −
1
Thus:
→ 1 = − (2) %& #\$
" = − (3);
# #\$
"! = − (4).
Now, the inductor current falls until switch U is switched
on again in the next cycle. The waveforms for the voltages (3) and (4) are now our circuit State Equations.
and currents are shown in Figure 4 for a continuous current
flow in the inductor L. It is assumed that the current rises and To determine the values of L and C, the following is
falls linearly (in practical circuits, the switch has a finite, considered:
nonlinear resistance). Its effect can generally be negligible in a) Current and voltage curves. The voltage and current
most applications. Depending on the switching frequency, values obtained at the output of the converter have slight
be discontinuous. of L and C; these variations are known as current curl and
voltage curl, respectively, which are measured as a
percentage of the average value, and are represented by ∆
and ∆ , respectively.
b) Duty cycle. The Buck reducer has a given input voltage
(Vs) and a desired output voltage (Vo); since Vo is less than
Vs, we must know the ratio of proportion between them. This
relation is a multiplicative value less than 1, which represents
the percentage of Vs that is Vo, and in turn is represented by
the letter D.
c) Frequency of operation. Switch U is opened and closed
again and again during circuit operation; this cycle of opening
and closing is carried out with a certain frequency, which
of the elements L and C. This frequency is represented by the
letter f.
Fig. 4. Waveforms for voltages and currents for a continuous current Our given values are the following:
flow in the inductor L, where Tsw refers to a switch closed and switch open
complete cycle time for U. [2] ( = = 5 (;
At this point, we have two equations that describe the (* = 3.3 (;
behavior of the circuit. These equations will be used to obtain
the mathematical model of our circuit, describing Mode 1 as ∆ = 0.01 ;
State 1, and describing Mode 2 as State 2. So our state ∆ = 0.01 ;
variables will be x1 (= current through L1) and x2 (= voltage
./ 1.1
on C1, which is the same load resistor voltage R1, and -= = = 0.66.
.0 2
therefore, is the desired output voltage).
4 = 100 567.
The value of R is determined by the load; our given value
is 50 8.
The values of L and C are determined by the following
equations:
&
= ∆ 9
∗ ;<
-;

= 9
∗ =∆
,

## = 0.0097 6 = 9.7 @6.

= 0.00000125 B = 1.25 CB.

## Now we can simulate our Buck converter using Simulink.

III. MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION.
For simulation purposes, we write once again the circuit
State Equations:
%& #\$
" = − (3);
# #\$
"! = − (4).

## Fig. 6: Simulation results.

Figure 5 shows the simulation block diagram. It is based
on circuit State Equations. It is possible to observe an excessive overshoot in the first
moments of operation of our circuit, as well as an excessive
curl in the current iL and in the voltage vC. This is because
there is no control over the output, which means that this
circuit is an open loop system.
This is a problem that we need to correct, since if we use
this circuit to power a device, this device can be damaged by
the excess voltage.
To correct it, a closed-loop control stage is proposed and
shown in the figure 7.
Fig. 5. Circuit simulation block diagram.

## Figure 6 shows the simulation results. Oscilloscope’s channels shows

levels as follows:
Channel 1 shows iL level (X1);
Channel 2 shows vC level (X2);
Channel 3 shows U level. We can observe that it has a square waveform,
which is result of U’s open and close action.
Fig. 7: Circuit simulation block diagram with Closed-loop control.

## This closed-loop control stage generates a square wave

form which represents U switch action; its duty cycle is
determined by iL current, whose signal is connected to the
feedback of the control stage.
Figure 8 shows the results of this closed-loop stage
operation; we can observe that there is no overshoot in the
voltage, and frequency and duty cycle of the signal U are
subject to adjustment as long as the output voltage does not
stabilize to desired value (in this case, 3.3V). We have desired
voltage at output.
the result. We can observe that the current iL was increased,
while the voltage Vo is maintained. This is achieved by
adjusting the pulse width (duty cycle) of the square signal
produced by U. This adjustment is known as Pulse Width
Modulation (PWM), and is the way by which our circuit
regulates the output voltage.

## IV. ELECTRICAL SIMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION.

The simulation and electrical implementation were then
carried out, specifying the components of the circuit and
placing an operational amplifier as a comparator for the
control. At this point, we use a reference pulse train and a
Sample and Hold circuit for feedback, thus closing the control
loop. For this simulation, we use the PSim software.

## Figure 9 shows the schematic diagram of this simulation,

and in figure 10 we can observe the response of the circuit
with specified values of R, C and L.

## After that, to demonstrate the action of the closed loop

control, the value of R was modified to 33 Ω; figure 9 shows
Fig. 10: PSim simulation response graphics
Figure 11 shows the response of the physical circuit in real
time, faithfully constructed as it is in the electrical PSim
simulation. It shows the output voltage of the circuit and the
detail of the pulse train applied to switch U. Here we can
observe the adjustment of the duty cycle according to the
output voltage; when this reaches the desired value, switch U
opens, and when the output voltage decreases, switch U closes
providing energy to reach the desired voltage again.

## Fig. 11: Physical circuit response.

V. CONCLUSIONS
In this work, Mathematic model and State Equations was
used to simulate an electric circuit; the usefulness of the state
equations for the control systems is demonstrated. At first we
had difficulties with the amount that the oscilloscope shows
us, but after adjusting, the way it shows the signals the results
were satisfactory. In the PSim simulation we had no problems,
and we can see that the answer is very similar to that indicated
in the mathematical simulation. When implementing the
physical circuit, a very pronounced curl is observed, different
from the one specified; this must be corrected by an
appropriate adjustment in the part of the closed loop control.

VI. REFERENCES
[1] Rashid, Muhammad H. «DC DC converters». On:
Power electronics – Circuits, devices and applications. India:
Pearson Education, 2004, PP 186-188.
[2] Priewasser, Robert. «PWM based DC DC
converters». On: Modeling, control and digital
implementation of DC DC converters under variavle
switching frequency operation (dissertation). Klagenfurt,
Austria, 2012, P 15