Análisis del circuito que conforma un convertidor DCDC tipo Buck; incluye simulación en Simulink y simulación en PSim.

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Análisis del circuito que conforma un convertidor DCDC tipo Buck; incluye simulación en Simulink y simulación en PSim.

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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converter

Cuevas Terrones Rodrigo Saenz Giron Jamid Israel Salazar Roldan Jonathan Gabriel

Buap Buap Buap

Maestria en Ciencias de la Electronica Maestria en Ciencias de la Electronica Maestria en Ciencias de la Electronica

Puebla, Mexico Puebla, Mexico Puebla, Mexico

rodrigocuevasmx@yahoo.com.mx israel.93.ig@gmail.com jonasala117@gmail.com

Abstract.

switching circuit known as a DC-DC converter, in the Buck

(reducer) mode. This circuit delivers a regular (desired) DC output

voltage from a higher input DC voltage; its main function is to

maintain the output voltage level independently of the applied load

(within a certain load range).

Fig. 1. DC-DC Buck concerter electric diagram..

Keywords—DC-DC converter, buck converter, closed-loop

control, open-loop, switching regulator.

As said, the way the voltage is converted and the energy

I. INTRODUCTION (DC-DC CONVERTER) is stored and delivered is by controlling the opening and

DC/DC converters are circuits capable of transforming a closing of a switching element. The operation of a Buck

certain voltage level into other desired level, using elements converter can be divided into two modes (Mode 1: switch

such as inductors and capacitors, temporarily storing energy closed an on, and Mode 2: switch open and off), and is

on them and discharging it in such a way that the final voltage basically the following:

levels are as desired.

The way the voltage is converted and the energy is stored 1) Mode 1 begins when switch U is switched on at t=ton.

and delivered is by controlling the opening and closing of a The input current, which rises, flows through filter inductor

switching element. This is done again and again, and that is L1, filter capacitor C1, and load resistor R1. [1]; in other

why they are called “switching circuits”. There are different words, when we close switch U (switch on) we supply power

types of DC-DC converters according to the need; some of to the circuit, causing the energy to be stored in the inductor

them are buck, boost, cuk, buck-boost, sepic, etc. They are L1 and in the capacitor C1. Figure 2 shows the Mode 1

used as an energy source, or as part of one, and one of their equivalent circuit diagram.

advantages is that the efficiency is much higher (more than

80%) compared to linear regulators (usually 40% to 60%),

which means that, if we need a source of high power, the heat

dissipated by the switched source is much lower than that

which would dissipate a linear source of similar

characteristics, since a large part of the energy is transferred.

In this work, a Buck-type Converter (Reducer) is

described, simulated and built.

Fig. 2. Mode 1 equal circuit.

II. OUR DC-DC BUCK CONVERTER.

Doing KVL on Mode 1, we obtain:

In a Buck regulator, the average output voltage, Vo, is less

than the input voltage, Vs=Vi; hence the name "buck" is of a = 1 = − ; = .

very popular regulator. [1]

An electric diagram of a Buck regulator using a switch is Since U is closed, we have U = 1; therefore, E = UE. Thus:

shown in Figure 1, and this is like a step-down converter.

1 = − (1).

2) Mode 2 begins when switch U is switched off at t=toff. Now, we do

The freewheeling diode D1 conducts due to energy stored in

1= ,

the inductor, and the inductor current continues to flow

through L, C, load resistor R1, and diode D1. [1] When the 1= ,

switch is open, the current flow of these elements is changed 1= .

and the accumulated energy is discharged in load resistor R1.

The current through L1 decreases. Figure 3 shows the Mode So we have:

2 equivalent circuit diagram.

= − (1),

= − (2).

If we do

= ,

! = ,

and we know that

= ,

We suppose an ideal diode. Doing KCL on Mode 2, we

obtain: we have

− − = 0. " = − !

#$

"! = − .

= 1 = −

1

Thus:

→ 1 = − (2) %& #$

" = − (3);

# #$

"! = − (4).

Now, the inductor current falls until switch U is switched

on again in the next cycle. The waveforms for the voltages (3) and (4) are now our circuit State Equations.

and currents are shown in Figure 4 for a continuous current

flow in the inductor L. It is assumed that the current rises and To determine the values of L and C, the following is

falls linearly (in practical circuits, the switch has a finite, considered:

nonlinear resistance). Its effect can generally be negligible in a) Current and voltage curves. The voltage and current

most applications. Depending on the switching frequency, values obtained at the output of the converter have slight

filter inductance, and capacitance, the inductor current could variations that are a result of the loading and unloading action

be discontinuous. of L and C; these variations are known as current curl and

voltage curl, respectively, which are measured as a

percentage of the average value, and are represented by ∆

and ∆ , respectively.

b) Duty cycle. The Buck reducer has a given input voltage

(Vs) and a desired output voltage (Vo); since Vo is less than

Vs, we must know the ratio of proportion between them. This

relation is a multiplicative value less than 1, which represents

the percentage of Vs that is Vo, and in turn is represented by

the letter D.

c) Frequency of operation. Switch U is opened and closed

again and again during circuit operation; this cycle of opening

and closing is carried out with a certain frequency, which

suitable value is required for a correct loading and unloading

of the elements L and C. This frequency is represented by the

letter f.

Fig. 4. Waveforms for voltages and currents for a continuous current Our given values are the following:

flow in the inductor L, where Tsw refers to a switch closed and switch open

complete cycle time for U. [2] ( = = 5 (;

At this point, we have two equations that describe the (* = 3.3 (;

behavior of the circuit. These equations will be used to obtain

the mathematical model of our circuit, describing Mode 1 as ∆ = 0.01 ;

State 1, and describing Mode 2 as State 2. So our state ∆ = 0.01 ;

variables will be x1 (= current through L1) and x2 (= voltage

./ 1.1

on C1, which is the same load resistor voltage R1, and -= = = 0.66.

.0 2

therefore, is the desired output voltage).

4 = 100 567.

The value of R is determined by the load; our given value

is 50 8.

The values of L and C are determined by the following

equations:

&

= ∆ 9

∗ ;<

-;

∆

= 9

∗ =∆

,

= 0.00000125 B = 1.25 CB.

III. MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION.

For simulation purposes, we write once again the circuit

State Equations:

%& #$

" = − (3);

# #$

"! = − (4).

Figure 5 shows the simulation block diagram. It is based

on circuit State Equations. It is possible to observe an excessive overshoot in the first

moments of operation of our circuit, as well as an excessive

curl in the current iL and in the voltage vC. This is because

there is no control over the output, which means that this

circuit is an open loop system.

This is a problem that we need to correct, since if we use

this circuit to power a device, this device can be damaged by

the excess voltage.

To correct it, a closed-loop control stage is proposed and

added in the circuit, whose scheme already implemented is

shown in the figure 7.

Fig. 5. Circuit simulation block diagram.

levels as follows:

Channel 1 shows iL level (X1);

Channel 2 shows vC level (X2);

Channel 3 shows U level. We can observe that it has a square waveform,

which is result of U’s open and close action.

Fig. 7: Circuit simulation block diagram with Closed-loop control.

form which represents U switch action; its duty cycle is

determined by iL current, whose signal is connected to the

feedback of the control stage.

Figure 8 shows the results of this closed-loop stage

operation; we can observe that there is no overshoot in the

voltage, and frequency and duty cycle of the signal U are

subject to adjustment as long as the output voltage does not

stabilize to desired value (in this case, 3.3V). We have desired

voltage at output.

the result. We can observe that the current iL was increased,

while the voltage Vo is maintained. This is achieved by

adjusting the pulse width (duty cycle) of the square signal

produced by U. This adjustment is known as Pulse Width

Modulation (PWM), and is the way by which our circuit

regulates the output voltage.

The simulation and electrical implementation were then

carried out, specifying the components of the circuit and

placing an operational amplifier as a comparator for the

control. At this point, we use a reference pulse train and a

Sample and Hold circuit for feedback, thus closing the control

loop. For this simulation, we use the PSim software.

and in figure 10 we can observe the response of the circuit

with specified values of R, C and L.

control, the value of R was modified to 33 Ω; figure 9 shows

Fig. 10: PSim simulation response graphics

Figure 11 shows the response of the physical circuit in real

time, faithfully constructed as it is in the electrical PSim

simulation. It shows the output voltage of the circuit and the

detail of the pulse train applied to switch U. Here we can

observe the adjustment of the duty cycle according to the

output voltage; when this reaches the desired value, switch U

opens, and when the output voltage decreases, switch U closes

providing energy to reach the desired voltage again.

V. CONCLUSIONS

In this work, Mathematic model and State Equations was

used to simulate an electric circuit; the usefulness of the state

equations for the control systems is demonstrated. At first we

had difficulties with the amount that the oscilloscope shows

us, but after adjusting, the way it shows the signals the results

were satisfactory. In the PSim simulation we had no problems,

and we can see that the answer is very similar to that indicated

in the mathematical simulation. When implementing the

physical circuit, a very pronounced curl is observed, different

from the one specified; this must be corrected by an

appropriate adjustment in the part of the closed loop control.

VI. REFERENCES

[1] Rashid, Muhammad H. «DC DC converters». On:

Power electronics – Circuits, devices and applications. India:

Pearson Education, 2004, PP 186-188.

[2] Priewasser, Robert. «PWM based DC DC

converters». On: Modeling, control and digital

implementation of DC DC converters under variavle

switching frequency operation (dissertation). Klagenfurt,

Austria, 2012, P 15

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