CONTECHSAT
Stage 1
30.04.2018
INSTITUTUL NATIONAL DE CERCETARE  DEZVOLTARE AEROSPATIALA
“ELIE CARAFOLI” – I.N.C.A.S. Bucuresti
Cod: 18027/2
Bucuresti, Bd. Iuliu Maniu 220, Sector 6, CP 061126, Tel: +40 21 434.00.83, Fax/Tel: +40 21 434.00.82,
CUI 434670 RO, Nr. Inregistrare la Registrul Comertului J 40/6492/1991 SOL
Cont RO34TREZ7005069XXX002851 Trezoreria Operativa a Municipiului Bucuresti
Cod IBAN RO86RNCB0290101344950001 Banca Comerciala Romana – BCR – Sucursala Iuliu Maniu
Cod SIRUES 401252193 Cod SIRUITA 179196 Cod CAEN 7219 (7310)
email : incas@incas.ro
Collaborative development
Head department
Ph. Eng. Dragoș Daniel ION 30.04.2018
GUŢĂ
Project director
30.04.2018
Ph. Eng. Achim Ioniță
INSTITUTUL NATIONAL DE CERCETARE  DEZVOLTARE AEROSPATIALA
“ELIE CARAFOLI” – I.N.C.A.S. Bucuresti
Cod: 18027/2
Bucuresti, Bd. Iuliu Maniu 220, Sector 6, CP 061126, Tel: +40 21 434.00.83, Fax/Tel: +40 21 434.00.82,
CUI 434670 RO, Nr. Inregistrare la Registrul Comertului J 40/6492/1991 SOL
Cont RO34TREZ7005069XXX002851 Trezoreria Operativa a Municipiului Bucuresti
Cod IBAN RO86RNCB0290101344950001 Banca Comerciala Romana – BCR – Sucursala Iuliu Maniu
Cod SIRUES 401252193 Cod SIRUITA 179196 Cod CAEN 7219 (7310)
email : incas@incas.ro
Content
1 Introduction....................................................................................................................8
2 Background.....................................................................................................................9
2.1 Docking Mechanisms History........................................................................................10
2.2 Equations of Motion.......................................................................................................12
2.2.1 Modeling aspects........................................................................................................12
2.3 HardwareIntheLoop Simulation Techniques..............................................................13
3 Model of general docking dynamics...........................................................................16
3.1 General docking dynamics onorbit of two satellites.....................................................16
3.2 Equations of motion for contact process of two rigid bodies.........................................18
3.3 Docking Interface Dynamics..........................................................................................20
4 Technical Description and Specification [13].............................................................25
5 References.....................................................................................................................27
INSTITUTUL NATIONAL DE CERCETARE  DEZVOLTARE AEROSPATIALA
“ELIE CARAFOLI” – I.N.C.A.S. Bucuresti
Cod: 18027/2
Bucuresti, Bd. Iuliu Maniu 220, Sector 6, CP 061126, Tel: +40 21 434.00.83, Fax/Tel: +40 21 434.00.82,
CUI 434670 RO, Nr. Inregistrare la Registrul Comertului J 40/6492/1991 SOL
Cont RO34TREZ7005069XXX002851 Trezoreria Operativa a Municipiului Bucuresti
Cod IBAN RO86RNCB0290101344950001 Banca Comerciala Romana – BCR – Sucursala Iuliu Maniu
Cod SIRUES 401252193 Cod SIRUITA 179196 Cod CAEN 7219 (7310)
email : incas@incas.ro
Summary
The purpose of the activity developed in this report, code 18027/2, is to achieve a spatial
service development, namely: implementing the most advanced space robotic technologies for the
multidisciplinary conception of orbital mission and docking missions.
The specific object of this activity has as concrete results: the generation of dynamics for space
flight vehicles in the specific reference systems, considered as free systems or in missions, coupling /
disconnection with the definition of interaction between them, definition of model bookstores,
verifying and validating the algorithms to be implemented on space vehicles in compliance with
specific rules.
INSTITUTUL NATIONAL DE CERCETARE  DEZVOLTARE AEROSPATIALA
“ELIE CARAFOLI” – I.N.C.A.S. Bucuresti
Cod: 18027/2
Bucuresti, Bd. Iuliu Maniu 220, Sector 6, CP 061126, Tel: +40 21 434.00.83, Fax/Tel: +40 21 434.00.82,
CUI 434670 RO, Nr. Inregistrare la Registrul Comertului J 40/6492/1991 SOL
Cont RO34TREZ7005069XXX002851 Trezoreria Operativa a Municipiului Bucuresti
Cod IBAN RO86RNCB0290101344950001 Banca Comerciala Romana – BCR – Sucursala Iuliu Maniu
Cod SIRUES 401252193 Cod SIRUITA 179196 Cod CAEN 7219 (7310)
email : incas@incas.ro
Abbreviations
ISS Internatinal Space Station
LEO Low Earth Orbit
OOS OnOrbit Servicing
HIL HardwareIntheLoop
CSA Canadian Space Agency
ESA European Space Agency
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration
APAS Androgynous Peipheral Assembly System
ROS Russian Orbital Segment
NDS NASA Docking System
IDSS International Docking System Standard
IBDM International Berthing and Docking Mechanism
EPOS European Proximity and Operations Simulator
DEOS DEutsche Orbitale and Servicing Mission
DOF Degrees Of Freedom
w.r.t. With Respect To
CoM Center of Mass
MOI Moment Of Inertia
ODE Ordinary Defferential Equation
INSTITUTUL NATIONAL DE CERCETARE  DEZVOLTARE AEROSPATIALA
“ELIE CARAFOLI” – I.N.C.A.S. Bucuresti
Cod: 18027/2
Bucuresti, Bd. Iuliu Maniu 220, Sector 6, CP 061126, Tel: +40 21 434.00.83, Fax/Tel: +40 21 434.00.82,
CUI 434670 RO, Nr. Inregistrare la Registrul Comertului J 40/6492/1991 SOL
Cont RO34TREZ7005069XXX002851 Trezoreria Operativa a Municipiului Bucuresti
Cod IBAN RO86RNCB0290101344950001 Banca Comerciala Romana – BCR – Sucursala Iuliu Maniu
Cod SIRUES 401252193 Cod SIRUITA 179196 Cod CAEN 7219 (7310)
email : incas@incas.ro
Symbols
Tabel of figures
Figure 21 The ISS robotic arm while capturing the Orbital Sciences' Cygnus cargo craft, and
preparing it for docking. [1]. The next figure depicts the cargo craft after it has been docked. [2]........8
Figure 22 Family tree of the different docking mechanisms.[3]............................................................9
Figure 23 The GeminiAgena docking mechanism and the probe and drogue mechanism [4].............9
Figure 24 Approach of the ATV to the International Space Station (courtesyESA)[5]........................11
Figure 25 The RussianAmerican docking simulator based on two 6DOF Stewart platforms, the right
figure shows the Chinese docking simulator.[6]....................................................................................12
Figure 26 HIL Simulation using AirBearing [7]..................................................................................13
Figure 27 European Proximity Operations Simulator (EPOS 2.0).......................................................13
Figure 28 HIL Simulation of the International Berthing and................................................................14
Figure 31 General model for two onorbit docking satellites. [9].......................................................15
Figure 32 General model for contact process. [10].............................................................................17
Figure 33 Schematic cross section of Docking Assembly. [10]..........................................................20
Figure 34 Docking translational motion. [10].....................................................................................20
Figure 35 Docking rotational motion. [10]..........................................................................................22
1 Introduction
Docking Process
In an OnOrbit Servicing mission are involved two satellites: Chaser and Target. Target is the one
which is already in space and needs maintenance or disposal. While the Chaser is the one which
performs the necessary actions on the Target. Before carrying out any actions on the Target satellite, a
rigid connection between both satellites has to be ensured. This is done by the onorbit docking. The
docking takes place at the end of the approach scenario, in which the two satellites start to approach
each others in space. Figure 2 1depicts a docking example. Since this process is very critical for the
whole mission, an endtoend veri_cation has to be performed on the docking mechanism that is
proposed to verify the success of the process before carrying it out in space. This verification shall be
demonstrated by software numerical simulation and a realtime HardwareinTheLoop (HIL)
simulation. In the software numerical simulation, the multibodies dynamic parameters of both
satellites are calculated due to the external forces acting on them. The results of the software model
act as a guideline for the type of the hardware that will be used in the HIL simulation. Also, it acts as a
reference for the results of the hardware model. On the other hand, the HIL simulation will be used to
validate and verify the proposed docking mechanism in a real time simulation.
Figure 21 The ISS robotic arm while capturing the Orbital Sciences' Cygnus cargo craft, and preparing it
for docking. [1]. The next figure depicts the cargo craft after it has been docked. [2]
Figure 23 The GeminiAgena docking mechanism and the probe and drogue mechanism [4]
When Neil Armstrong and Dave Scott manually performed rendezvous in a Gemini
vehicle and then docked with an unmanned Agena target vehicle on 16 March
1966, was the first rendezvous and docking between two spacecraft. On 30
October 1967, when the Soviet vehicles Cosmos 186 and 188 docked took place
the first automatic RVD.
After that, RVD operations have regularly been performed by the Russian
(Soviet) and US space programmes; e.g. in the following:
Since the beginning of the 1980s RVD techniques and technology have been
studied and developed in Western Europe by the European Space Agency (ESA),
first as ‘enabling technology’ and, from the mid1980s onwards, for the
Columbus ManTended FreeFlyer (MTFF), which was intended to dock with the
American Space Station Freedom, and for the European spaceplane Hermes,
which was intended to visit the MTFF (Pairot, Fehse & Getzschmann 1992).
After the cancellation of the MTFF and Hermes projects (as a result of the political changes in
Europe) and after the merger of the eastern and western space station programmes into the
International Space Station (ISS) Programme (NASA 1998a), the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV)
has become part of the western European contribution
(Cornier et al. 1999). The ATV will participate in the reboost and resupply missions to the ISS. The
total fleet of vehicles, which will perform RVD/B operations with the ISS, includes the US Space
Shuttle (manned), the Russian Soyuz (manned) and Progress (unmanned) vehicles, the European ATV
(unmanned) and the Japanese HII Transfer Vehicle (HTV, unmanned; (Kawasaki et al. 2000)). In
addition to these transport vehicles it can be expected that, in future, inspection vehicles will be
attached to the ISS.
The different docking developments and designs are listed chronologically in Figure 2 4.
If required, they will fly around the station to inspect problem areas and to identify the nature of
problems (Wilde & Sytin 1999). In the far future, such vehicles may also be used for maintenance and
repair tasks. RVD/B technologywill be required for the departure and reattachment of such vehicles
as well as for their operational tasks.
Although the ISS will probably be the most important application of RVD/B technology and
techniques for the first two decades of the twentyfirst century, there have been and will be other
rendezvous missions, e.g. servicing of spacecraft in orbit (Hubble Space Telescope for example),
spacecraft retrieval (EURECA, SPAS for example) and lunar/planetaryreturn missions. Rendezvous
and docking operations in geosynchronous orbit for the servicing of communication satellites have
been studied in the past in some depth; however, no such mission has yet been realised.[11]
Figure 24 Approach of the ATV to the International Space Station (courtesyESA)[5].
In fact, simulating a space system or a space experiment on Earth is not an easy task. Different
approaches are used in the HIL simulations. The first approach ever was done by NASA in Langley
Research Center (LaRC); a manned simulation using two huge vehicles was carried out in 1964.
American and Russian scientists developed another simulator using two 6 DOF table (Hexapod), also
known as StewartGough platform. Each hexapod system represents a spacecraft which moves to
represent the motion of the spacecraft during docking. Figure 2.8, shows the docking system
simulator. Also, NASA developed another HIL Simulator using the 6 DOF simulators recently.
Followed by Chinese researchers
Figure 25 The RussianAmerican docking simulator based on two 6DOF Stewart platforms, the right figure shows
the Chinese docking simulator.[6]
who also built a docking simulator using Hexapods as seen in Figure 2 5. However, the size of the 6
DOF hexapods used in both cases was very big. Other researchers used air bearing technique to
simulate the frictionless motion, on Earth as it is in space, as seen in Figure 2 6.
Moreover, industrial robots are recently involved in the HIL rendezvous, berthing and docking
simulations. US Naval Research Lab used two industrial robots to carry out the HIL rendezvous
simulation [14]. Canadian Space Agency (CSA) developed a facility for the testing of Special Purpose
Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) for the contact operations with the ISS [15]. Also, Chinese
researchers developed simulation of freeoating robots, to simulate the onorbit servicing of a satellite
[16].
Figure 27 European Proximity Operations Simulator (EPOS 2.0)
European Space Agency (ESA) and German Aerospace Center (DLR) developed a huge facility
called "EPOS 2.0", Figure 2 7, which is an improved version of the former facility called EPOS
(European Proximity Operations Simulator). EPOS uses two industrial KUKA robots to simulate the
rendezvous, berthing and the docking of the satellites.
Also, ESA developed a validation docking test for the new International Berthing and Docking
Mechanism (IBDM) by using a single KUKA robot, as shown inFigure 2 8. In this facility, they used
the industrial robot to represent the motion of the spacecraft during the docking process in order to
validate the docking mechanism. However, this test has many limitations. In the test, there is no
feedback response of the forces or the torques, which makes it only realistic for very heavy satellites.
Therefore, it is very difficult to test docking mechanisms of light satellites using this facility.
T 1 Z3 O3
X3 O4 Chaser Vehicle
F1
F 4
X4
Target Vehicle D2
D1 Z
O Y
X
Figure 39 General model for two onorbit docking satellites. [9]
The dynamic models of two satellites undergoing the docking process can be expressed using
NewtonEuler equations of motion. With forces, and torques acting upon the two vehicles as seen,
equations of motion are established:
 For target vehicle:
r r (0) 2 r r&
d &
F1 + F3 = m1 D1 = m1D1
dt (1)
r r uuuuu r r (0)
d r r r
T1 + T3 + O1O3 �F3 = [ J1 ] w1 + w1 �[ J1 ] w1
dt (2)
 For chaser vehicle:
r r (0) 2 r r&
d &
F2 + F4 = m2 D2 = m2 D2
dt (3)
r r uuuuur r (0)
d r r r
T2 + T4 + O2O4 �F4 = [ J 2 ] w2 + w2 �[ J 2 ] w2
dt (4)
r r r r
F,F ,F ,F
In there, 1 2 3 4 are sum of forces acting on the target, and chaser vehicles,
r r r r
T1, T2 , T3 , T4
are sum of torques acting on the target, and chaser vehicles,
r r
D1, D2
are position vectors giving the distances from origin of inertial reference frame to mass
centers of target and chaser vehicles, respectively,
r r
w1, w2 are angular velocity vectors of reference frames O X Y Z , O X Y Z with respect to
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
inertial reference frame OXYZ,
m1, m2 are masses of the target and chaser vehicles,
[ J1 ] , [ J 2 ] are moment of inertia matrices of target and chaser about their mass centers,
(0)
d
(...)
and d t indicates that derivative is carried out in inertial reference frame.
As known, while docking process taking place, the relative motion between two vehicles is
considered. Commonly, these quantities are measured in the reference frame attached to the mass
center of target vehicle. As we know that
(0) uuuuu r (1) d uuuuur r uuuuur
d
O1O2 = O1O2 + w1 �O1O2
dt dt (5)
2
d uuuuur (1) d uuuuur (1) d r uuuuur
(0) 2
r (1) d uuuuur r r uuuuur
d t2
O1O2 =
d t2
O1O2 +
dt
w 1 �O1O2 + 2w 1 �
dt
O1O2 + w1 �w1 �O1O2 ( )
(6)
(1) (1) 2
d d
(...) (...)
2
With d t , d t indicate the first and second order of derivatives are carried out in the
reference frame O1X1Y1Z1.
By using Eqs. (1) (3), the expression for relative linear acceleration between two vehicles
measured in reference frame O1X1Y1Z1 is written:
(1) 2 2
d uuuuur (0) d uuuuur (1) d r uuuuur r (1) d uuuuur r r uuuuur
d t2
O1O2 =
d t2
O1O2 
dt
w 1 �O1O2  2w 1 �
dt
O1O2  w1 �w1 �O1O2 ( )
(7)
Or
(1) 2
r r r r
d uuuuur F1 + F3 F2 + F4 (1) d r uuuuur r (1) d uuuuur r r uuuuur
d t2
O1O2 =
m1

m2

dt
w 1 �O O
1 2  2w 1 �
dt
O O
1 2  w1 �w 1 �O1O2 ( )
(8)
r r
w w
And by solving differential equations (2)(4), we will receive angular velocities 1 , 2 . Based
on that, relative angular velocity between two vehicles measured in the reference frame O 1X1Y1Z1 is
computed as:
r (1) � r r
w21 = 10 R �
� �
( w2  w1 )
(9)
� 0 �
1R
Where � �is transformation matrix giving orientation of reference frame O1X1Y1Z1 with respect to
inertial reference frame OXYZ.
3.2 Equations of motion for contact process of two rigid bodies
Suppose to have two rigid bodies as shown in Figure 3 10, both external and internal forces acting on
the two bodies are considered. Here we only consider that the internal forces are arisen due to the
contact between two bodies at the mating interfaces. For simplicity, let use the subscript “j” to indicate
for point j subjected to internal force, and use subscript “k” to indicate for point k subjected to
external force for both the two rigid bodies; use superscript “i” to indicate quantities relate to internal
forces; and superscript “e” relate to external forces. As forces acting on the two bodies, the Newton
Euler equations of motion are written as following:
w1 F1ji F2ji
V1 w2
d1ji d2ji
V2
T1i T1e r1 r2
d1ke
d2ke T 2i T 2e
1 Z
e D 2
F
1k F2ke
X
Figure 310 General model for contact process. [10]
2)
�F2ek + �F2i j = m2V&2 = m2 ( D&&+ r&&
r r r r r
k j (17)
re re ri r r
� 2k 2k � 2 j �F2i j = K&2
d �F + d
k j (18)
Or in short form
( )
r r r& r
&
F2e + F2i = m2 D + r&
&
2
(19)
r r (0)
d r r r
T2e + T2i = [ J 2 ]
w2 + w2 �[ J 2 ] w2
dt (20)
* For the further purposes, we will establish some kinematic and kinetic relations between the
two bodies.
r
Let denote r be the vector giving the distance between the mass center of body 1 and mass
r r r
center of body 2. In some cases, it may be more convenient to express r1 , r2 in terms of r . From the
obvious relations
r r
� m1r1 + m2 r2 = 0
�r r r
� r2  r1 = r
(21)
Then we received
r m2 r r m1 r
r1 =  r ; r2 = r
m1 + m2 m1 + m2 (22)
And recall the assumption that internal forces arisen due to the contact between the two bodies,
it follows that
( )
r r r r
F2i = �F2i j = �  F1ij =  F1i
j j (23)
r r r
( ) ( )
r r r r r r
T2i = �d2i j �F2i j = � r + d1i j �  F1ij = r �F1i  T1i
j j (24)
Taking derivative Eq. (22) then substituting into Eqs. (14) (19), yielded
r r �&r& m2 & r�
F1e + F1i = m1 �D  r&�
� m1 + m2 � (25)
r r r r r&
�& m1 & r�
F2e + F2i = F2e  F1i = m2 �D+ r&�
� m1 + m2 � (26)
And from Eqs. (25) (26), one can be deduced easily
re re
r& F F
r&= 2  1  1
( m + m2 ) Fr i
1
m2 m1 m1m2 (27)
r&
&
Note that r in Eq. (27) is the linear acceleration of the mass center of body 2 relative to the
body 1, and it is measured in the inertial reference frame OXYZ. However, in rendezvous and docking
process we usually consider quantities measured in LVLH (Local vertical local horizontal frame)
attached to the target vehicle. At that time, we have to use transformation matrix to transform
coordinates between two reference frames. This issue will be examine and interpret more details in the
further task.
Mating Surface
Latching mechanism
Shock Absorber
Figure 311 Schematic cross section of Docking Assembly. [10]
In docking process, following initial contact, rotational and translational motion would take
place simultaneously when chaser penetrates into target vehicle. So analyzing docking process with
complex model as shown in Figure 3 11 will face difficulties. To make this problem easier, it is
considered in two simpler problems: analyzing translational motion and rotational motion separately.
Besides, some assumptions following are used when considering the problem:
 The two satellites are assumed to be floating in space (i.e, the effect of the Earth’s gravity is
neglected),
 The effect of celestial mechanics is ignored when compared to the contact forces between the
two satellites,
 The orbital dynamics are ignored during the docking of the two satellites (or the orbital frame
is assumed to be initial frame during the docking), because the two satellites are assumed to be in the
same orbit when they are relatively close to each other, right before docking.
X
X1 X2
k S
FS FS
m
1
m 2
M V21
FD FD
k D
As indicated in Figure 3 12, the system has only one degree of freedom. Prior to contact, the
target vehicle is assumed to be moving at a constant velocity and carrying a plate connected to its
main body through a spring and viscous damper. The chaser vehicle is also moving at a constant
r
V21
velocity at a relative closing velocity , and has just contacted the target damper plate at t=0.
The equation of motion of chaser and target vehicles centers of mass relative to the system
center of mass is
r r r&
& r&
&
FS + FD = m1 X1 = m2 X 2
(28)
m , m
Where 1 2 are the masses of target and chaser vehicles, respectively,
r r
FS FD
, are spring force and damping force acting on both the two vehicles, and are written
r r r
(
FS = kS X 0  X ) (29)
r r&
FD = k D X (30)
With kS , k D are spring constant, and damping constant respectively, and
r r r
X = X 2  X1
(31)
r
Likely the section above, it is desired to write equation of motion in terms of relative motion X
r r
X1 X 2
rather than in , . After taking some steps analogously in previous section, we have
r m1 r
X2 = X
m1 + m2 (32)
Substituting Eqs. (29), (30) (32) into (28), received
r&
& r& r r
MX + k D X + kS X = kS X 0 (33)
m1
M=
Where m1 + m2 is equivalent mass of system
However, for more convenient when solving the differential equation with second order, it is
r
necessary to define new variable Y (the penetration distance vector) between two vehicles to transfer
to the differential equation with the right side equal to zero, as following
r r r
Y = X  X0
(34)
Replacing Eq. (34) into Eq. (33), obtained
r&
& r& r
MY + k DY + k S Y = 0
(35)
With the initial conditions are given as
Y0 = 0, Y&
0 = V21 (36)
After solving equation above, the solutions for penetration distance and velocity are
V
Y =  21 e a t sin b t
b (37)
� a �
Y&= V21ea t �
cos b t  sin b t �
� b � (38)
With
2 �
k k � kD
a= D , b= S� 1 �
2M M� � 4Mk S �
�
(39)
For analyzing rotational motion in docking process as shown in Figure 3 13, the chaser and
target vehicles have contacted and latched in such a way that a common hinge point has been
established between two vehicles. The equations of angular motion are not easy to find. Firstly, the
total angular momentum about the hinge point as
r r
( ) ( )
r r& r r r&
K = [ I1 ] w1 + d1 � m1d1 + [ I 2 ] w2 + d 2 � m2 d 2
(40)
r & r &
Where w1 = q1, w2 = q 2 are angular velocities of target and chaser vehicles about hinge point from an
r
inertial frame (axis y ),
r r
d1, d 2
are distance vector from the hinge point to mass center of target and chaser vehicles.
By define the relative position vector
r r r
d = d1  d 2
(41)
Analogously previous section, we desire to write the expression in term of relative position
vector, then it is easy to obtain
r r r m m r r&
K = [ I1 ] w1 + [ I 2 ] w2 + 1 2 d �d
m1 + m2 (42)
With the assumption during docking process there has no external forces acting on the system,
so by using conservation of angular to carry out derivative Eq. (42), received
( )
r r mm r r r r r
[ I1 ] w&1 + [ I 2 ] w&2 + 1 2 d&�d&+ d �d&& = 0
m1 + m2 (43)
Or taking projection Eq. (43) on the coordinate frame attached to mass center of system as seen,
received
Hinge point
( )
r r r& & r&
( [ I1 ] q&& ) & r m1m2 d  d � d&
1  [ I2 ] q2 z +
&
m1 + m2
1 2 ( )
1  d2 = 0
(44)
And continue with the conservation of linear momentum calculated about the mass center of
system and using result from Eq. (27), obtained
( )
m1m2 & r& & r& r
d1  d 2 =  F
m1 + m2 (45)
r
Where F is the hinge point reaction force acting on the target vehicle
r
Assume the torque acting on the target vehicle is due to the force F and due to the spring
damper assembly (assumed to produce a pure couple proportional to the relative angular displacement
and angular velocity of the two vehicles), is expressed as
r r r
T = d1 �F  � RS ( q1 + q 2 ) + RD q& & zr = [ I ] q&
( &r
)
� 1 + q2 � � 1 1z
(46)
R , R
With S D are spring constant and damping constant corresponding to rotational rotation
Substituting Eq. (45) into Eq. (46), yielded
mm r
( )
r r& & r&
&
T = 1 2 d1 � d 2  d1  � Rs ( q1 + q 2 ) + RD q& & zr = [ I ] q&
( &r )
� 1 + q2 �
� 1 1z
m1 + m2 (47)
And due to restraintr of the hinge for small angular motion
r r r r r
d1 = d1 ( y  q1x ) , d 2 = d 2 (  y  q R x )
(48)
By performing differentiations of Eq. (48) to expand the cross product indicated in Eqs.
(44)(47), then received
q&&= [ I 2 ] + Md 2 ( d1 + d 2 ) q&
&
1
[ I1 ] + Md1 ( d1 + d2 ) 2 (49)
RS ( q1 + q2 ) + RD q& (& ) 2
(
1 + q 2 =  [ I1 ] + Md1 q1 + Md1d 2q 2
&& &&
) (50)
In there we denote
mm
M= 1 2
m1 + m2 (51)
Let define the relative angular
q = q1 + q 2 (52)
Using Eqs. (49) and (52) to obtain q1 , q 2 in terms of q , then substituting the result into Eq.
(50), received
Jq&
&+ R q&+ R q = 0
D S (53)
With
[ I1 ] [ I 2 ] + M ( [ I1 ] d 22 + [ I 2 ] d12 )
J=
[ I1 ] + [ I 2 ] + M ( d1 + d2 ) 2 (54)
This equation has the form similar to the equation for the case of translational motion. If the
initial conditions are
q0 = q10 + q 20 = 0, q& & &
0 = q10 + q 20 (55)
Then the solutions obtained by solving differential equation is
q a t � a �
q = 0 ea t sin b t , q&= q&0e cos b t  sin b t �
�
b � b � (56)
With
2
R RS � RD �
a= D, b= 1
� �
2J J �
� 4 JRS
�
� (57)
5 References
[1] NASA. The orbital sciences' cygnus cargo craft attached to the end of the canadarm2 robotic arm
of the international space station, preparing for the berthing. https://www.flickr.com/photos/nasa2
explore/14675089401/in/photostream/, 2014. Accessed 20180508.
[2] NASA. The orbital sciences' cygnus cargo craft attached to the end of the canadarm2 robotic arm
of the international space station, and birthed to the iss. https://www.flickr.com/photos/nasa2explore/
14656683276/in/ photostream/, 2014. Accessed 20140729.
[3] John Cook, Valery Aksamentov, Thomas Hoffman, and Wes Bruner. Iss interface mechanisms and
their heritage
[4] David SF Portree and Lyndon B Johnson Space Center. Mir hardware heritage, volume 1357.
Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 1995.
[5] W. Fehse, Automated Rendezvous and Docking of Spacecraft, Cambridge University Press, 2003,
ISBN978511062407.
[6] Han Junwei, Huang Qitao, and Chang Tongli. Research on space docking hil simulation system
based on stewart 6dof motion system. 7th JFPS International Symposiumon Fluid Power, 2008.
[7] Xiang Zhang, Yiyong Huang, Xiaoqian Chen, and Wei Han. modeling of a space exible
probe{cone docking system based on the kane method. Chinese Journal of Aeronautics,
27(2):248{258, 2014.
[8] QinetiQ. European berthing and docking mechanism. http://www.esa.int/var/esa/storage/images/
esa_multimedia/images/2014/06/berthing_and_docking_mechanism/145621401engGB/Berthing
_and_Docking_Mechanism.jpg, 2014. Accessed 20180508.
[9] Han Junwei, Huang Qitao, Chang Tongli, Research on Space Docking HIL simulation
System Based on Stewart 6DOF Motion System
[10] D. Chiarappa, Analysis and Design of Space Vehicle Flight Control Systems, NASA Contractor Report,
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington D. C., 1967.
[11] W. Fehse, Automated Rendezvous and Docking of Spacecraft, Cambridge University Press, 2003,
ISBN978511062407.
[12] F. Ankersen, Guidance, Navigation, Control and Relative Dynamics for Spacecraft Proximity
Maneuvers, Ph.D. thesis, Aalborg University, 2010, ISBN 9788792328724.
[13] H. Benninghoff, F. Remes, E.A. Risse, C. Mietner, European Proximity Operations Simulator
2.0 (EPOS) A Robotic Based Rendezvous and Docking Simulator, Journal of largescale research
facilities, A107 (2017). http://dx.doi.org/jlsrf31556
[14] Boge, T., Wimmer, T., Ma, O., & Tzschichholz, T. (2010). EPOS  Using Robotics for RvD
Simulation of OnOrbit Servicing Missions. In Proc. AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Conference. Toronto, Canada.
Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.
Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.
Jederzeit kündbar.