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Gender and University:


Gender Studies and Research in Morocco

Mohammed Masbah

Abstract:
Gender is considered as a new concept in the Arab countries; its
translation to Arabic produces a problem of meaning of this term, due
to the absence of reference organizations of normalization of new
words, i.e. neologism, what are the available translations of “Gender”?
How to understand this term in social sciences? And what is the link
between the scientific term, society and Academic Research?
This paper focuses on the development of Academic Research
and studies about Gender in Morocco, which knew a significant
increase of interests in such topic since the 80s of the last century, by
putting it in its social and historical context that lead to the
development of studies and Research about Gender in Morocco, and
monitoring the relationships between the development of feminist
movement in Morocco and its impact on Academic Research on the
subjects of Family, women and children. This paper tries to draw a
map of Research and studies trends in those subjects conducted by
Moroccan Researchers in social sciences, and monitors the main topics
discussions, by focusing on two waves of research on the subject, and
also giving two examples of studies about it.
Index:
 General introduction
1. in the meaning of Gender in Arabic and Arab world
2. in the sociological meaning of Gender
3. َAcademic Research of Gender in Morocco
4. Summary
5. references
6. Appendix


I acknowledge with appreciation the helpful observations of Prof. Fatima Sadiqi, and correction of Khaoula
Ajanae on the Draft of this paper

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The term “Gender” knew significant circulation in recent years

by Researchers in social sciences. Also, an increasing interest in

Gender studies in the world. Hence, Morocco for the goal to stand at

the inequality between the sexes, the dismantling of foundations of

this disparity and the challenges of power, and the aim to rebuild

new relations between the sexes according to new paradigm more

humane and more synthetic, than the reductionist model for human

relations in one dimension (physical dimension), as defined by

Herbert Marcuse, in his famous book, “One-Dimensional Man”

(Marcuse-2002), which doesn’t allow to see the deeper dimensions

of human phenomena, and sufficiency monitoring 'objective' cold

data, as the master photographer, without a stand on the depth of the

phenomena seen in its different ramifications.

If there is an ambiguous concept today in the field of social

sciences, it is the concept of 'Gender', which highlights the importance

of this subject in two sides: scientific and social.

From scientific point of view: the theme of “ family, women and

children” and related issues, have specific nature, given to its

contemporary, epistemological and methodological discussions related

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to this subject, The subject of family and women penetrates through a

number of fields of knowledge in the social sciences. Law study legal

texts and related legislative relationship between women and men,

whether the Labor Code or the criminal law or family law, etc. ...,

Politists examine the participation of women in political institutions

and their involvement in the management of public affairs,

Demographic, monitor and track the evolution of the relationship

between women and men in society in terms of statistics and data. For

Psychologists, it interests in Psychological and Intellectual composition

and cognitive abilities for each sex. Also, the impact of the

psychological dimensions in the nature of the relationship between the

sexes. While Biologists study biological / anatomical differences

between the sexes, and every discipline uses its own conceptual device,

and employs theories and approaches which are very different from the

sociological approach that we will try to present in this paper.

On the social side, this subject is considered as controversial,

with political dimensions, which take several forms on the public

sphere, between different Ideological Currents in the Arab societies,

especially between modernists, who privilege International reference

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(Treaties, laws, Conventions...) to National laws; and between

Conservatives (Islamists, Nationalists) which give to national laws

more Highness than all other laws whatever their origin. In Morocco,

that can be proven by variation in attitudes through decisive phases,

especially positions toward the two national marches on “Al khouta

watanya li Idmaji al Maraa fi Tanmia”, or “the National Plan for the

Integration of Women in Development”, and its related interactions and

controversies, and then the release of Family Code in 2003.

In this paper, We will try to analysis the term Gender and its

Sociological connotations. I will try to analyze the development of

studies and research concerning Gender in Morocco, relating it to its

social, political and historical context, and then I will try to draw a map

of some sociological Gender studies in Morocco.

1. in the meaning of Gender in Arabic and Arab world

Before defining the term of «Gender», I want to address at first,

the meaning of «term» itself, in Arabic language, «Mostalah « ,

«term», has the meaning of «Conciliation», i.e, “absence of

disagreement», we say «istalaha alkawm», “people conciliate”, i.e;

«something known» and taken for granted. in the field of science,

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«Term» is an «agreement between group of specialists in a specific

field to the meaning of a word or number or signal or a concept. it is

usually the result of accumulation of knowledge, and intellectual

practices for a significant period of time, followed by an attempt to

legalize This knowledge » (Messiri-1999), and it is necessary to use

terms in the aim to « control and regulate the intellectual process, and

framing practices of social thought in a systematic context, away from

the chaos, to formulate a common logic between the interactions of

individuals « (Messiri-1999). So the «term» has an important function

of regulating the meaning for Researchers in a specific field.

However, there is another problematic, related to the translation

of the terms, so the translation of terms is somehow a kind of

«explanation», therefore translators find themselves in front of a term,

loaded of philosophical and cognitive latent significances, and this

raises the question of re-building new terms, for the aim to redefine it,

giving it new meanings according to philosophical and intellectual

context which belongs to the Researcher / interpreter, it is a kind of

building an alternative discourse in the social sciences as Syed Farid

ALATAS proposes. Here is a quote from his article :” Alternative

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Discourses in South-east Asia”: “Alternative discourses are works that

attempt to debunk ideas that have become entrenched in the social

sciences, partly as a result of colonialism and the continuing Euro-

centrism in the social sciences “(Alatas-20006),

For the relocation of the term of « Gender» from English, or «

Genre» in French, to the Arabic, that imposed a new situation

concerning the sociological/scientific meaning of the word, until today.

There is no compatible translation of «Gender» that Actors

(Researchers in social sciences, Politists, Journalists…) in the Arabo-

phone countries. Arab Researchers are «Conciliated» around. there is

also no «authentic» Arabic word which refer to «Gender», and this is

due - as noted above - to the historical and cultural context, in which

drafting this term. It was formulated in a Western environment, which

stems from its historical experiences, analytical frameworks different

from historical and cultural experience of Arabo-Islamic societies, and

it is necessary to work hard for indigenization of that term in this area.

But if we tried to stand at some attempts of translation that have

been formulated, we will find at least three translations in Arabic

language which indicate the word « Gender». The 1st is the literal

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translation of « Gender», to Arabic word. The 2nd translated Gender to

the word «Jounoussa». It is close to the meaning of the «sexuality»,

and the 3rd « Nawe3 Al Ijtimai3i». Just for indication, the first two are

used in the Arab Mashreq (Middle East), and the last is often used in

the Maghreb (North Africa), and that is due to its extensive use by

Moroccan media, Modern books and Reports contributed to the

promotion of this word.

And for this reason, different translations of the word «Gender»

to Arabic keep obscure, related to the absence of reference institutions

in the Arab world that take in its conciderqtion the function of

«Normalization» of translated or new words imported to Arabic, In

light of the weakness of linguistic institutions in the Arab world, in the

linguistic production, and the creation of new words and their

integration into the Arabic language, or what we call Neology, and also

to the weakness in translation to Arabic. For these reasons, the use and

understanding of the word «Gender» is related to each Arab Country a

side.

From a procedural standpoint, we are going to use all of the

words mentioned before (Al nawe3 al Ijtima3i, Gender, jounoussa) to

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the same word «Gender», without investigating in epistemological and

linguistic discussions or historicical context of this term.

2. in sociological meaning of Gender

If we move from trying to establish a definition of the word

«Gender» in Arabic Sociology, and tried to move closer to western

sociology, we will find that classical sociology doesn't have the

concept of «Gender» on their priorities of analysis, as other topics:

capitalism, or religion, or Social Stratification. It also didn't gave

considerable attention to the differences between men and women.

Fathers of sociology; Weber, Durkheim and Marx « are not noted for

their insights into ‘sex’ inequality (the word Gender was not known to

them in its present usage) and in fact tended mostly to consider

women’s subordinate social role as a natural ‘given’ (Holmes cited in

Sydie, 1987), and that is due to the social context characterized by a

world view which consider women as inferior. They take it « for

granted». Mary Holmes in her book « what is Gender» tried to show

the point of view of classical sociologists in relation with « Gender»,

she talked about what sociologists said about sex inequalities, and I

quote: «Durkheim thought of modernity’s greater distinction between

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‘sex roles’ as a functional, biologically based evolution resulting from

the progressive forces of a shift to organic solidarity [...]he argued that

as society became more complex, more distinct differences in body and

mind emerged between women and men; they specialized in their roles

and this made the division of labor more efficient and society stronger,

Weber also saw women’s dependent social position as fundamentally

determined by ‘the normal superiority of the physical and intellectual

energies of the male’ (Weber cited in Sydie, 1987: 59). [...]

Nevertheless these thinkers failed to examine ‘sex’ as an important

social division and this view was long dominant within sociology

(Oakley, 1974) [...]Marx recognized inequality between the sexes as a

problem, albeit a problem of secondary importance to capitalist

exploitation of workers.»1

Mary Holmes was surprised by the negligence of fathers of

sociology to the sexual difference as something naturally determined,

especially that they were stressed about « how social forces affected

everything else »2, and she was more surprised when she stated that this

sociologists lived in an environment which contained feminists. She

1
Mary Holmes, op.cit.
2
Op.cit.

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said: « It also seems a little odd given that Weber’s wife Marianne was

a notable German feminist and Marx’s daughter Eleanor was involved

in feminist politics »3.

From historical perspective, Gender is used an analytical concept

in the Social sciences since the beginning of the 70th in the last century,

in relation with the development of what we can call « The Second-

Wave of Feminist Movement», in synchronization with the era of post-

modernity. According to Dr. Abd wahab Messiri, the new Feminist

movements is different from the old Liberation movements, promoted

by a Human-centered (Humanist) vision in the 1st stages of

secularization, Which moved the Holiness and overview of the unseen

from God to Man, and was still carrying the effects of loyalty of the

Christian religiosity, so the vision that Stem from New Feminism start

from a conflict perspective, « where the female is based on herself, and

the male is based on himself, and the history of the humanity become

the history of the conflict between men and women and the hegemony

of men on women, and her tries to liberate herself from this hegemony

» 4.

3
Op.cit.
4
‫ موقع إسلم أون لين‬،!‫ التمركز حول النثى‬:‫ النسوية‬،‫عبد الوهاب المسيري‬.

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New Feminism criticized the vision that has been dominant on

many sociological studies. As noted above that the origin of the

difference between sexes is due to a «nature» embedded in the

biological sex, which was considered by the new feminist campaigners

as a kind of perpetuating inequalities between sexes, and they used to

criticize the structures which underlie these statements by the calling

for no link between the traditional role of women to its biological level

- which is based on birth - and its role as an educator for children. So

its role is linked to private space, and the paradox is that men cannot

give birth, and they have stronger physical bodies, that allow them to

take a social role of protectors, and defenders. i.e; roles related to the

Public Space.

And according to the international Encyclopedia of The Social

Sciences, these Gendered characteristics complicated by an array of

other factors, «had perpetuated a division of labor that empowered men

and disempowered women. Men’s more active and dominant roles

created an unequal relationship between the sexes that gave a rise to an

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oppressive ideology both within the home and, more broadly, within

institutionalized sexism»5.

Since the 70s of the 20th century, Sociology began to make

distinction between «sex» (Biological difference between males and

females), and between Gender (Social construction which construct

difference between being man or woman). But this doesn't mean that

sociologists didn’t give an importance to the topic before that time, by

using several concepts. In the 50s and 60s of the last century,

Functionalism discussed « the difference of sexual role», and they

argued that «sex role differences continue to exist, because they

function to promote social stability. Whether this was an intended

(manifest) or unintended (latent) function of sex role differences did

not seem to be of major interest to functionalists»6. They focused their

interest and attention on understanding how men and women can

«complement» the role of each other to keep society work efficiently. It

also appeared among many Researchers in Chicago School in the 80s,

which influenced sociological explanation about many subjects related

to the position of women in the society. However, they couldn’t instate

5
William A.Darity Jr. (Editor in Chief), (2008), International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 2nd edition,
Volume 3: Ethnic Conflict- Inequality, Gender, MACMILLAN REFERENCE USA, p: 268.
6
Mary Holmes, op.cit.p:4.

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a reference on « Gender Studies», but all of them return to the

philosophical thesis of French philosopher Simone de Bouvoire (1988-

1949) about the «second sex», which constitute the most important

reference in «Gender Studies», by her famous statement in this treatise:

« ‘[o]ne is not born, but rather becomes, a woman’ (de Beauvoir,

1988/1949: 295, cited in Mary Holmes-2007). This statement is

considered to be a Copernican revolution in «Gender Studies» and

sexual inequalities. « It was not nature but society or ‘culture’ that

made women (and men) what they were (Mary Holmes-2007).

In this way, Anthony Giddens ask “What does it mean that

Human is a Man? And what does it mean that is a Woman? 7. He

considered that our conception of sexual identity, and also our sexual

attitudes, relations and orientations, “constitute a fundamental side of

our personalities crystallized in a very early stage in our lives and it is

rooted during all our lives “Giddens add that we all participate in the

creation and development of Gender, in our everyday life in the

interaction with others. I quote: “we from sociological side, produce

7
185 :‫ ص‬،2005 ،‫ الطبعة الولى‬،‫ بيروت‬،‫ المنظمة العربية للترجمة‬،‫ ترجمة فايز الصياغ‬،(‫ علم الجتماع )مع مدخلت عربية‬،‫أنتوني غدنز‬.

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and reproduce Gender by thousands of acts and behaviours we practice

everyday “8.

Giddens wondered about the extent of which we should consider

the difference between men and women is related to biological

difference, and he presented ideas of several sociologists which

consider that “ specific sides in our biological construction of humans-

as Hormones, chromosomes, the size of the brain and the genetic

effects- is the responsible of innate differences between behaviours of

men and women, and they add that the differences can be observed,

one way or another in all cultures, which means that there are natural

factors leading to inequality between sexes in almost all societies”.

Even if Giddens didn’t reject biological theory - which makes the

biological factor as the primar determinant of behaviours of men and

women - he nevertheless refutes allegations that gives to men

aggressive character, and for women negative and kindness on the

basis of biology, considering that levels of aggression and kindness

vary from culture to culture and that theories that focus on “ natural

difference” most of the times are based on “ data available about

animal behaviour not anthropologist or historic data of human


8
Op. cit.

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behaviour” 9. To understand Gender and sexual difference, Giddens

call for a study of Sexual socialisation, “i.e: understanding the way of

learning expected roles of the sexes within social actors as family and

media”. Nevertheless, socialisation of sexual roles is not an easy series

by itself, because it can be confronted by several social institutions and

the factors affecting in the process of socialisation, i.e. that individuals

have a margin of the act concerning accepting or refusing or

modificating ‘expected sexual roles in society’. Individuals are not

passive recipients to accept things passively; but “people are actors and

active. They produce roles for themselves and modify them”10. Giddens

on his side, recognize the importance of Sexual Socialisation, I quote:

“Sexual socialisation is so strong that all people do not dare to oppose.

When the sexual identity of the individual (male or female) is

determined, society expect from this individual to behave as women

behave or as men behave “11.

This concept of sexual socialisation is close to the concept of

‘‘Habitus’’ of Pierre Bourdieu and his explanation of masculine

hegemony as a kind of symbolic violence that structure the society. So

9
Op. Cit. p : 186.
10
Op. Cit. P :189
11
Op. Cit. P : 190

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masculine hegemony find all the combined to fill the practice and the

universal presence recognized for men, make sure the objectivity of

social structures and the activities of production and re-production -

constituted on the sexual division of production and re-production of

biological and social work (labour) - which gives the man the largest

share and also in schemas inherent to each Habitus “12.

To explain male hegemony, Bourdieu tries to show the nature of

relationship between dominant and dominated, by the way of accepting

statements of dominants and “take it for granted”, I quote: “dominated

apply on the relation of domination statements structured from a vision

of dominants, and which makes it accordingly appear as natural, and

that leads to a kind of “worthlessness”. Not only that, but also a “Self-

deprecating”13. Bourdieu gave an example of kbaylie (Amazighe region

in Algeria) women, and their representation of themselves as Immature

and Ugly, and what is considered as symbolic violence practiced

incorporeally by dominated, and consider that domination is natural

and acceptable thing.

12
60 :‫ ص‬،2009 ،‫ الطبعة الولى‬،‫ المنظمة العربية للترجمة‬،‫ سلمان قعفراني‬:‫ ترجمة‬،‫ الهيمنة الذكورية‬،‫بيير بورديو‬.
13
Op.cit : p : 62

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3. َAcademic Research in Gender in Morocco

After presenting the term of « Gender», the difficulties to

translate it to Arabic, and its signification in Sociological perspective. I

am going to discuss and present studies and Research about «Gender»

in Moroccan Academic institutions, by trying to answer several

questions:

• When did sociological studies about Gender began?

• What are the objective conditions that contributed to the

appearance of that kind of studies?

• And what are the main topics discussed by Researchers?

I’m not suggesting that I have the answer of the three questions in

all their dimensions in this paper, but I’m only going to monitor some

features of the subject that may - hopefully - help the Researchers to

discover some elements of the answer of those questions.

the Academic interest about the subject of family, women and

children knew a significant increase since the 80s of the last century

that can be proven by the increase in the number of Conferences,

Academic Thesis, lectures, Scientific Articles… that focused on the

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subject of family, women and children since that time. It benefited

from the increasing in the number of Researchers in the field and also

from the support of international women Organizations.

The interest in the subject is due to factors of multiple

dimensions. Social wise, Moroccan society knew deep changes that

affected its structures, institutions and relations between individuals.

The structure of Moroccan family in particular, knew a great

transformation, from the model of extended family to nuclear family.

That transformation had a significant effect, especially on family

relations, the nature of relation between couples and children, the

relation with extended family members, and the content of the values

governing the relationship. According to several studies, the

individualism and conflict of generations have increased and

intensified. National Values Survey found that the development in

Moroccan family has caused tension among the Family, by a number

of new phenomena, as the decrease of the Father Role and subsequent

conflict with the children, also the wives starting to work, introduced a

new way of negotiations about expenses and re-organization of roles

inside the family. These tensions are accompanied in some cases with

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social illness that can be followed by violence against children or

women, or both of them for that matter. Also from the release of

children who suffer from poverty, seen particularly in the streets of big

cities14.

1. The founding generation of Gender studies

Those transformations cited above, are considered as one of

objective factors that contributed to the push of Research on the topic

of family, women and relationship between sexes in a transition

society, but it is not the only factor among the factors that contributed

to the high interest in this topic which is related to a new tendency in

Moroccan sociology. It is related as well to the appearance of new

Actors with new values and models of explanatory, contributed to link

between sociological Research and engaging in influencing the public

policy related to women and family. The majority of studies on

women, family and children in the 80s « were obsessed by the change

in women status. The approach was academic and critical at the same

time; for example: Mernissi describes the goal of a group of

Researchers institued in the year of 1981 about the questions of family,

women, and children: « to contribute to the accumulation of scientific


14
43 :‫ ص‬،2025 ‫ تقرير خمسين سنة من التنمية البشرية وآفاق سنة‬،‫المجتمع والسرة والنساء والشباب‬.

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information on women. and when I say scientific, I mean data on the

reality of women…, the development of scientific discourse about the

status of women, is certainly the development of this situation « 15. It

also instituted a group of Researches under the group of «

mokarabate» (Approaches) headed by Aicha Belarbi, an activist in the

USFP and Researcher about women issues, and « they published

between 1987 and 1999 about 9 books « 16, in addition to that and since

1980, the number of Academic thesis that were published around

Moroccan universities which treated the topic of «women» -in

ascending- reached about more than a 100 title of Ph.D, and D.E.S.A or

Master; 30 thesis in Arabic, 47 in French and 17 in English, in several

fields of human and social sciences17, and also the appearance of books

translated to Arabic.

But Most of these studies didn’t use the term “Gender” in their

sociological perspective as defined above, but focused on “Feminist

studies “more than “Gender studies”. It is a kind of “protestation”

discourse, supplicated by Academic tools trying to develop a

15
Enquête sur l’Évaluation du Système National de la Recherche dans le Domaine des Sciences Humaines et
Sociales, Rapport de conjoncture, SOCIOLOGIE, ANTHROPOLOGIE et SCIENCE POLITIQUE AU MAROC,
p : 13.
16
Op.cit.
17
‫ مؤسسة آل سعود‬،‫الرسائل الجامعية المغربية‬، CD، 2009، ‫لتفصيل في عناوين الطروحات أنظر الملحق في آخر الدراسة‬.

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“scientist” discourse about “women liberation” or “women

empowerment” in the public space and it doesn’t use “Gender”

explicitly in its vocabulary.

There is a poverty in the number of Academic thesis and books

translated to Arabic language, as shown by the bibliography Guide

presented by Al Saoud Foundation in Casablanca about Academic

thesis that were completed in Morocco or by Moroccans living abroad,

between the year 1957 (One year after the independence) and 2007.

Concerning translated books to Arabic, there are only guides or

reports from International Organizations, as The World Bank, or some

books translated in the Machrek (East of the Arab World). the

Bibiolographical guide prepared by Al Saoud Foundation about the

translated books to Arabic about the subject of “Gender” shows that

they are limited in the number, without talking about the accuracy of

thier translation, and the translations use the name of “ nawee al

ijtima3i” or “ Gender” or “jounoussa” and all of them refer to “

Gender”. there are not more than six books, as presented by the result

of Research in the guide of Al Saoud Foundation 18

2. The New Wave of Gender Studies


18
‫ مؤسسة آل سعود‬،(2009) ،‫الترجمات العربية في العلوم النسانية والجتماعية‬، CD.

21
Since the beginning of the new century (2000), several Academic

Thesis specialized on the subject of “Gender” has appeared19, and the

best of them in my opinion are: “identity and body: psychosocial

approach of rural women in Ouad Laou’’, by Prof. khouloud Sbai an

eminent Psycho-sociologist at Hassan 2nd University. There is also a

thesis by Zaineb Miadi about the same subject of women body, she

wrote a thesis under the direction of Fatima Mernissi: “The Body of

women as a field of cultural written, the example of region Chaouia”,

and many other thesis in Human and social sciences about Gender.

That can show a significant change in the interest on Research

about “Gender” in human and social sciences, and its shift from

contestant discourse to Development Based Academic Research which

is not necessarily linked to the aim of change in public policy, but a

tend to monitor change in relation between sexes, and focusing on a

specific place which is called “Area Studies”.

In this way, I’m going to focus my interest on two examples, one

is a Ph.D Thesis of Prof. Khouldoud Sbai and the second is the last

book (2010) of Profs. Fatima Sadiqi and Moha Ennaji about women in

19
I gave only some example of thesis and books about Gender in Morocco, and for details, you can check
appendix above, related to Academic research about Gender in Morocco since 1980(the year of the begining of
research about that subject).

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the Middle East and North Africa, both of them can be considered as a

new generation of Gender studies in Morocco; especially they are

different in perspectives and field of Research. So I’m going to present

them related to their scientific and empirical importance.

3. Prof. Khouloud Sbai: Women Body and Gender identity

This thesis focused on women body and its relation to the

construction of Gender identity. Prof. Khouloud based her Research on

“Gender identity” in the allowance of “feminine identity”, on the

grounds that there is no generalized feminine identity and talking about

feminine identity is at the same time talking about a specify of each

society and culture. A talk about what makes women different from

men in specific cultural and social system.

In this relational context, in the intersection between psychology

and sociology, in a process of change and moving from a rural society

closed on itself to a more open rural society to modernization process,

the Researcher focused on the representation of “Jebli” woman ( refer

to the region of Jebala in north of Morocco) of her body, and the

implications of that representation to the evaluation of her identity,

through a stand on various cognitions, behaviors and evaluations to that

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intimate field, in light of the experienced characteristics that reflect to a

large extent the sum of differences between rural and urban areas in

Morocco.

On a “Gender” based approach, Prof. khouloud Sbai, tried to

monitor some aspects of the deal of rural woman in “ouad laou” with

her body; both at the aesthetic and health level or at moral religious

level, highlighting the implication of symbolic and cultural dimension

to the representations of women of their body, and the evaluation of

their identity in both rural and feminine dimensions. This symbolism

which indicates that each culture has its own way of construction of

Gendered identities, by its guidance of biological evidence in a way

that compromise with socialization,. This latter, a certain society

determine an ensemble of roles, functions and attitudes related to each

sexes, with show the vital role of socialization in the maintain of

Gendered system, by promoting the division of roles between men and

women.

Also, on the basis of “Gender” approach in the analysis of the

process of the construction of psychosocial identity of rural women,

Researcher indicate that the condition of life of rural women is

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considered as a major cause of the negative sense of her identity, both

individual and collective, caused to her marginalization that lead to

make her away from gaining of modern life, and hinders the possibility

of her self-esteem, that feeds her ambition to get rid of this rural

affiliation whenever the opportunity arises, and the relative increasing

in the phenomenon of women rural emigration in the last years, is

considered as a significant indicator of the suffering of rural women in

the region of Jebala, both material or moral suffer, reflect the impact of

modernity on the dysfunction and lack of balance in rural mental in

general, and feminine in specific.

Prof. Sbai described this situation in her work by what she called

«double underestimates », caused to the suffer of « Jeblia » women of

the forms of fragmentation and conflict and frustration, which

psychosocial dimensions appear as indicators of suffer from an

“identity crisis”.

But her “ crisis”, which is represented by the lose of the unite

view to self, doesn’t deny the efficiency of the search of alternative

solutions to a “ re-balance” and the aim to the cognitive and emotional

adaptation to the new systems, the thing that made the identity of rural

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women in “ouad laou” as a process characterized by dynamics, which

reflect the transformations and their efforts on several levels, the most

important is reviewing the way of deal with her body, caused to the

basic position of women body in the processes of social change, and of

its deep implications on Gender relations, with its contained emotional

and sexual interactions between men and women.

This Research summarized, on the basis “Gender” approach, as a

methodology and a theoretical frame, Prof Sbai arrived to a result that

the process of liberalization of women body in our culture, should be

go certainly in the way of maintaining our identity, history and cultural

specify, in order to re-position women and considering her as “

feminine” enjoying all the respect and recognition, she must build that

on the basis of wanting to be a friend of man, not “Jariya” slave, and

the process of linking women to men is considered as the first step to

claim an independent Gender identity, start to look at woman as an

autonomous being, beating all old representations to defining women

by men or within him, as considering her the cause of the struggle in

the world, or it is created for the entertainment of men or as immature

26
being, to other representations that justified the authority of men to

women and their exploitations.

Also, that Research highlighted that the relation of woman to her

body had a deep implications about the sense of her identity, but is

considered the most cause lead to what Gender identity knows of

prejudice and injustice in her rights, but we should keep in mind that

many of Gendered injustice is due to positions and behaviors headed

by women, and for this reason, it is unjust to link all causes of

Gendered injustice to men.

4. Fatima Sadiqi: leader of Gender studies in MENA

Fatima Sadiqi is mixing between academic Research and parallel

activities, she is occupying a post of Senior Professor of Linguistics

and Gender Studies at the University of Fez, she is also director of the

Isis Centre for Women and Development, She has held Fulbright

Visiting Scholars at four US universities and founded the first graduate

unit “Gender Studies” in Morocco, in parallel to her academic work,

she was nominated by King Mohamed VI as a member of the Royal

Institute for Amazighe Culture (IRCAM) In March 2006, and in

September 2006, she has been nominated by UN Secretary-General as

27
one of the 8 women members of the Committee for Development

Policy.20

She has published several studies and Research about both

language, especially Amazighe language, and women studies, she is the

author of Women, Gender, and Language in Morocco (Brill, 2003),

Grammaire du Berbère (L’Harmattan, 1997), Images on Women in

Abdullah Bashrahil’s Poetry (The Beirut Institute: 2004). She has also

edited and co-edited a number of volumes, including Migration and

Gender in Morocco (with Moha Ennaji, Red Sea Press: 2008) and

Women Writing Africa. The Northern Region (with Amira Nowaira,

Azza El Kholy and Moha Ennaji, The Feminist Press, CUNY)21, and

her last co-edited book Women in the Middle East and North Africa:

Agents of Change (Routledge 2010), is the one that we are going to

focus on this paper, according to its relevance.

If Khouloud Sbai focused her interests on a specific subject

(Women Body and Gender Identity) in a limited area (Rural commune

in North of Morocco), This book is larger in perspective (Condition of

women) and area(Middle East and North Africa) , the first can

20
Most of informations are gathered from her official site, http://www.fatimasadiqi.on.ma/ , and the site of
Washinton Moroccan American Club : http://www.wmc20.org/.
21
http://www.wmc20.org/fatima-sadiqi-bio.html.

28
considered as Micro-Studies, and the second is Macro-studies, which

can give us the opportunity to make a comparison between different

Arab countries, and between Local and regional differences related to

Gender, but im going to just present the main ideas of this book,

without relating it to others studies and research, cause it is not the

main idea for this paper.

Fatima sadiqi and Moha Ennaji tries to monitor the role of

women in region Middle East and North Africa (MENA) by using a

key conceptual issue, which is : women as active agents of change, on

the basis of contemporary social and political theory, about the concept

of agency, which is considered as the capacity to create a difference or

the freedom to act otherwise, in a specific situation, by making their

own history, not as they please but according to the norms regulating

their culture, society, and general historical, economic, and socio-

political context, from this perspective, Sadiqi thought that “

understanding women’s agency cannot be achieved without

understanding the sources of power and power-negotiation in the

region”.

29
On the other hand, when we talk about that region of MENA, we

should keep in consideration difference and specific historical,

political, and economic factors resulted in a number of sub-regional

entities such as the Maghreb, Egypt, Iraq and Syria, the Gulf, Turkey

and Iran, Israel, etc. (Abun-Nasr, 1975; Laroui, 1977). However, from

the perspective of this volume, the countries of the MENA region share

women-linked commonalities that are strong, deep, and pervasive: a

space-based patriarchy, a culturally strong sense of religion, a smooth

co-existence of tradition and modernity, a transitional stage in

development, and multilingualism /multiculturalism. Hence, the

importance of understanding the historical, socio-cultural, political,

economic, and legal issues in the region.

To analysis this segregation between men and women in the

regions of MENA, Fatima sadiqi use a multidimensional analysis, she

begins by socio-cultural context of the MENA region, which is

generally characterized by a space-based patriarchy whereby men are

associated with the public space and women with the private space,

even if some studies cited by the authors (Schaffer-Davis, 1979;

Becker, 2006) have demonstrated that women in fact invest both

30
spaces, especially in semi-urban and rural areas, but the cultural nature

of the Arab-Muslim patriarchy, as opposed to mainstream Western

patriarchy, is deeply spatial , as cited by the authors (Mernissi; 1975;

Saadawi, 1982; Sadiqi and Ennaji, 2006). The dichotomy public

space/private space has been recently investigated within a gender-

based dichotomy in which the social hierarchy of men and women is at

the centre: the public space is the street and the market place where

men evolve, and the private space is the home where women live. This

view defines the public space as the locus of power and the production

of social constraints and the private space with the locus power-

implementation. It is true that women can be in some public spaces –

for example, on the street, but they cannot stay there as men are

encouraged to. Rather, they must do their business and move on. Also,

men do not generally spend any time in the kitchen, for example, so the

taboo works for them, too, though with very different consequences. It

is within this conception of space that gender identities are constructed

and power negotiated in the MENA region. Private space is culturally

associated with powerless people (women and children) and is

subordinated to the public space, where men dictate the law, lead

31
business, manage the state, and control the economy, both national and

domestic. Thus, although women have power in the private space

(older women, for example, often decide on the economy of the

household and on who marries who), they lack authority (that is, power

sanctioned by society).

For the political context in the MENA region, Prof. Sadiqi and

Ennaji argue that is not favorable to women’s empowerment. The

various social illnesses that characterize this region have a direct

impact on women’s lives. Despite their impressive gains in education

and health, women in the MENA region still face gender

discrimination that prevents them from reaching their potential. With

very few exceptions, with the exception of Tunisia and Morocco

perhaps women in this region are legally defined as dependents in the

family laws pertaining to divorce, child custody and inheritance. From

the 1950s onwards, the evolution of social policy in the MENA region

has had a heavily gendered history, as cited by the authors (Moghadam,

2005). A combination of neopatriarchal state- and nation-building

imperatives in the region and the gender dynamics of these processes

and policies greatly impacted development and social policy.

32
On the Economical Context, like most developing regions,

MENA has been hit by recurrent severe economic crises since the late

1970s. From that period onward, the countries of the region have

adopted “structural adjustments” to restore their economic and

financial balance. The most under-privileged classes are paying a high

price for the adjustments, the first victims in this process being poor

women who are the victims of the decrease in employment prospects

and the drastic cuts in social budgets. Likewise, female job

opportunities are more directly hit by economic crises than male

opportunities. In times of crises, women are excluded from stable and

high-paying jobs and, instead, are encouraged to take up precarious and

low-paying jobs in the informal sector. Starting from the mid-1990s

onward, poverty has become more and more female as cited by the

authors (Ennaji 2005).

The loosening of family ties and accelerated urban expansion

have seriously broken traditional solidarity. This tendency is reinforced

by an increase in divorce and has resulted in an increase in the number

of female heads of households. In cities, it is in the lower classes that

one finds the largest number of female heads of households (Ennaji and

33
Sadiqi, 2008). Consequently, poverty typically affects the families

supported by a woman’s salary. Likewise, women benefit less than

men from economic and social progress in periods of growth. They

constitute the most vulnerable social group and the least protected one.

This situation is due neither to fate nor chance; it is the result of a

systematic depreciation of women’s work and status in all fields. This

is in accordance with the prevalent view that women are not treated on

an equal basis with men in the public sphere of work; women have to

fight for many considerations that are taken for granted by men.

In the finish, and according to what discussed above, it appears

that sociological debates about “ Gender” in the Arab world is still

continuing in obviousity, as a Globalised concept exported to Arab

world, and that its contents is not so Clair, and it is still constructing it

meaning in the new environment, the sociological betting is to the

possibility of Arabo-phone Sociologists to indigenize that concept and

give it a local meaning, which gives to Researchers in the region of

Middle east and north Africa a concept with complexes and humane

significance, suits with the privacy of our societies, and in the same

34
time tend to universalism, especially, Social sciences do not still have

the same recognition as Natural sciences.

35
References:
Herbert Marcuse, One-Dimensional Man, Studies in the
ideology of advanced industrial society, With an introduction by
Douglas Kellner, Routledge Classics, London and New York 2002
Alatas, Syed Farid, (2006). Alternative Discourses in Asian
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Alatas, Syed Farid, (2010), The Definition and Types of
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Attarjamate Al Arabya fi Al Ouloum al insanya wa ijtima3ia,
Arabic translations in human and social sciences, (2009) Al Saoud
Foundation, CD.
Alrassel Aljami3ia Almagherbia, Moroccan University Thesis,
(2009), Al Saoud Foundation, CD.
Khouloud Sbai, Identity and body: psychosocial approach to
rural women in ouad laou, Ph.D thesis in Sociology, under the
direction of Rahma Bourqia, in Faculty of letter and human sciences-
Rabat, (2004) (in Arabic).
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Elmessiri Abdel Wahab, (1999), Encyclopedia of jews and
Judaism and Zionism, Dar Achourouk, cairo, (in Arabic).
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Pierre Bourdieu, (2009), Male Hegemony, translation of:
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year of Human development, And 2025 prospective, Rabat 2005. (in
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Enquête sur l’Évaluation du Système National de la Recherche
dans le Domaine des Sciences Humaines et Sociales, (2009) Rapport
de conjoncture, SOCIOLOGIE, ANTHROPOLOGIE et SCIENCE
POLITIQUE AU MAROC.

36
Mary Holmes, (2007), What is Gender? Sociological
Approaches, SAGE Publications Ltd, First published
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Conflict- Inequality, Gender, MACMILLAN REFERENCE USA.

37
‫‪Appendix:‬‬
‫‪Thesis on Gender in Morocco 22‬‬
‫‪Arabic‬‬
‫‪--- 1 ---‬‬
‫زهور‪ ،‬أربوح‬
‫أوضاع المرأة بالمغرب السلمي من خلل نوازل المعيار للونشريسي ‪ :‬دراسة فقهية‬
‫‪-‬اجتماعية‬
‫دكتوراه الدولة ‪ :‬الدراسات السلمية ‪ :‬الرباط ‪ ،‬كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية ‪2003 :‬‬
‫الريسوني‪ ،‬أحمد‪ .‬مشرف‬
‫‪------------------------------------------------------------------‬‬
‫‪--- 2 ---‬‬
‫إد الفقيه‪ ،‬أحمد‬
‫إشكالية الشغل النسوي ‪ :‬وضعية المرأة العاملة في إطار القانون الجتماعي المغربي‬
‫‪ 167‬ص‪ .‬؛ ‪ 29‬سم‬
‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا ‪ :‬القانون ‪ :‬الرباط ‪ ،‬كلية العلوم القانونية والقتصادية‬
‫والجتماعية ‪1989 :‬‬
‫جلل‪ ،‬آمال‪ .‬مشرف‬
‫‪----------------------------------------------------------------------‬‬
‫‪--- 3 ---‬‬
‫مبتسم‪ ،‬مفتاحة‬
‫الختيار في الزواج وعلقته بالستجابة العصابية لدى المرأة ‪ :‬دراسة ميدانية‬
‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا ‪ :‬علم النفس ‪ :‬فاس ‪ ،‬كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية ظهر المهراز‬
‫‪1986 :‬‬
‫ربيع‪ ،‬مبارك‪ .‬مشرف‬
‫‪-----------------------------------------------------------------------‬‬
‫‪--- 4 ---‬‬
‫الرياضي‪ ،‬أحمد‬
‫التمثلت الجتماعية للمكانة العاطفية الجتماعية لدى المرأة وعلقتها بتشكيل السلوك‬
‫عند الطفل ‪ :‬دراسة نفسية اجتماعية‬
‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا ‪ :‬علم النفس ‪ :‬الرباط ‪ ،‬كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية ‪1999 :‬‬
‫التويجري‪ ،‬محمد‪ .‬مشرف‬
‫حدية‪ ،‬المصطفى‪ .‬مشرف‬
‫‪---------------------------------------------------------------‬‬
‫‪--- 5 ---‬‬
‫المسدالي‪ ،‬خديجة‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫الرسائل الجامعية المغربية‪ ،(2009) ،‬مؤسسة آل سعود للدراسات السلمية والعلمموم الجتماعيممة‪ ،‬قممرص مدمممج‪.‬‬
‫‪CD‬‬
‫‪38‬‬
‫المرأة القروية بين الثوابت والمتغيرات ‪ :‬منطقة دكالة نموذجا‪ ،‬دائرة الزمامرة ‪ :‬دراسة‬
‫سوسيوأنثربولوجية‬
‫دكتوراه الدولة ‪ :‬علم الجتماع ‪ :‬الرباط ‪ ،‬كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية ‪2000 :‬‬
‫ربيع‪ ،‬مبارك‪ .‬مشرف‬
‫‪-------------------------------------------------------------------------‬‬
‫‪--- 6 ---‬‬
‫مدغري علوي‪ ،‬رشيدة‬
‫المرأة المغربية ‪ :‬التاريخ والمجتمع من القرن التاسع‪-‬القرن الخامس عشر إلى القرن‬
‫الثاني عشر‪-‬الثامن عشر‬
‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا ‪ :‬التاريخ ‪ :‬فاس ‪ ،‬كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية ظهر المهراز ‪:‬‬
‫‪2002‬‬
‫العلوي القاسمي‪ ،‬هاشم‪ .‬مشرف‬
‫‪-------------------------------------------------------------------------------‬‬
‫‪-‬‬
‫‪--- 7 ---‬‬
‫السالمي‪ ،‬محمد‬
‫المرأة المغربية بين الخطاب الشرعي والكتابات النسائية‬
‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا ‪ :‬علم الجتماع ‪ :‬الرباط ‪ ،‬كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية ‪1999 :‬‬
‫المسدالي‪ ،‬خديجة‪ .‬مشرف‬
‫‪------------------------------------------------------------------------‬‬
‫‪--- 8 ---‬‬
‫اشماعو الفهري‪ ،‬بشرى‬
‫المرأة من منظور القرآن الكريم وقصصه‬
‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا ‪ :‬الدراسات السلمية ‪ :‬الرباط ‪ ،‬كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية ‪:‬‬
‫‪1989‬‬
‫الراجي الهاشمي‪ ،‬التهامي‪ .‬مشرف‬
‫‪----------------------------------------------------------------‬‬
‫‪--- 9 ---‬‬
‫ابن مسعود‪ ،‬رشيدة‬
‫المرأة والكتابة من خلل القصة القصيرة المغربية‬
‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا ‪ :‬الدب ‪ :‬فاس ‪ ،‬كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية ظهر المهراز ‪:‬‬
‫‪1987‬‬
‫المنيعي‪ ،‬حسن‪ .‬مشرف‬
‫‪----------------------------------------------------‬‬
‫‪--- 10 ---‬‬
‫الخير‪ ،‬أمينة‬
‫المرأة وتولي الوظائف العامة ‪ :‬رؤية إسلمية‬
‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا ‪ :‬الدراسات السلمية ‪ :‬الرباط ‪ ،‬كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية ‪:‬‬
‫‪39‬‬
‫‪1999‬‬
‫الريسوني‪ ،‬أحمد‪ .‬مشرف‬
‫‪-----------------------------------------------------------------------------‬‬
‫‪--- 11 ---‬‬
‫قوسال‪ ،‬خديجة‬
‫تجليات المرأة في الشعر الشعبي ‪ :‬فن الزجل نموذجا‬
‫الدكتوراه ‪ :‬الدب ‪ :‬الدار البيضاء ‪ ،‬كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية عين الشق ‪2003 :‬‬
‫خليل‪ ،‬محمد‪ .‬مشرف‬
‫‪-------------------------------------------------------------------------‬‬
‫‪--- 12 --‬‬
‫أفرفار‪ ،‬علي‬
‫تكون صورة المرأة لدى الطفل من ‪ 4‬إلى ‪14‬سنة‬
‫دكتوراه الدولة ‪ :‬علم النفس ‪ :‬فاس ‪ ،‬كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية ظهر المهراز ‪:‬‬
‫‪1992‬‬
‫معوض‪ ،‬خليل‪ .‬مشرف‬
‫‪-----------------------------------------------------------------------‬‬
‫‪--- 13 ---‬‬
‫بوبكيري‪ ،‬عائشة‬
‫تمثل المرأة العاملة للمجال في المؤسسة الصناعية وعلقته بمردوديتها‬
‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا ‪ :‬علم النفس ‪ :‬الرباط ‪ ،‬كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية ‪1999 :‬‬
‫التويجري‪ ،‬محمد‪ .‬مشرف‬
‫حدية‪ ،‬المصطفى‪ .‬مشرف‬
‫‪-----------------------------------------------------------------------‬‬
‫‪--- 14 ---‬‬
‫حليم‪ ،‬كريمة‬
‫تمثل المرأة المغربية للتحرر ‪ :‬المرأة المتعلمة نموذجا‬
‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا ‪ :‬علم الجتماع ‪ :‬فاس ‪ ،‬كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية ظهر‬
‫المهراز ‪1999 :‬‬
‫بحير‪ ،‬سعيد‪ .‬مشرف‬
‫‪---------------------------------------------------------------------------‬‬
‫‪--- 15 ---‬‬
‫معادي‪ ،‬زينب‬
‫جسد المرأة القروية كمجال لكتابة ثقافية ‪ :‬نموذج منطقة الشاوية‬
‫دكتوراه الدولة ‪ :‬الدب ‪ :‬الدار البيضاء ‪ ،‬كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية بنمسيك ‪:‬‬
‫‪2002‬‬
‫المرنيسي‪ ،‬فاطمة‪ .‬مشرف‬
‫‪-----------------------------------------------------------------------‬‬
‫‪--- 16 ---‬‬
‫‪40‬‬
‫المعلومي‪ ،‬أسماء‬
‫خطاب الروائيات العربيات ‪» :‬الزمن الصيغة«‪» ،‬كوابيس بيروت« لغادة السمان‪،‬‬
‫»عين المرأة« لليانة بدر‪» ،‬ذاكرة الجسد« لحلم مستغانمي‪» ،‬الغد والغضب« لخناتة بنونة‬
‫نموذجا‬
‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا ‪ :‬الدب ‪ :‬الرباط ‪ ،‬كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية ‪1999 :‬‬
‫بحراوي‪ ،‬محمد‪ .‬مشرف‬
‫طحطح‪ ،‬فاطمة‪ .‬مشرف‬
‫‪--------------------------------------------------------------------‬‬
‫‪--- 17 ---‬‬
‫وانعيم‪ ،‬لطيفة‬
‫دور المرأة في القرار الفلحي وانتشار الجديد بالهضاب‬
‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا ‪ :‬الجغرافيا ‪ :‬الرباط ‪ ،‬كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية ‪1999 :‬‬
‫ابن شريفة‪ ،‬عبد اللطيف‪ .‬مشرف‬
‫‪--------------------------------------------------------------------‬‬
‫‪--- 18 ---‬‬
‫بنمسعود‪ ،‬فاطمة الزهراء‬
‫سيكوباثولوجية الكتئاب عند المرأة المسنة ‪ :‬دراسة إكلينيكية‬
‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا ‪ :‬علم النفس ‪ :‬الرباط ‪ ،‬كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية ‪1999 :‬‬
‫التويجري‪ ،‬محمد‪ .‬مشرف‬
‫الداشمي‪ ،‬عبد السلم‪ .‬مشرف‬
‫‪---------------------------------------------------------------‬‬
‫‪--- 19 ---‬‬
‫العشوري‪ ،‬فاطمة‬
‫صراع الدوار عند المرأة الموظفة المتزوجة الم وعلقته بتوافقها النفسي‬
‫والجتماعي ‪ :‬دراسة نفسية اجتماعية‬
‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا ‪ :‬علم النفس ‪ :‬الرباط ‪ ،‬كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية ‪1999 :‬‬
‫ربيع‪ ،‬مبارك‪ .‬مشرف‬
‫‪-------------------------------------------------------------------‬‬
‫‪--- 20 --‬‬
‫ميمتشيوي‪ ،‬فتيحة‬
‫صراع الدوار لدى المرأة العاملة وعلقته بالقلق ‪ :‬دراسة نفسية اجتماعية‬
‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا ‪ :‬علم النفس ‪ :‬الرباط ‪ ،‬كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية ‪1999 :‬‬
‫بلحاج‪ ،‬عبد الكريم‪ .‬مشرف‬
‫حدية‪ ،‬المصطفى‪ .‬مشرف‬
‫‪---------------------------------------------------------------‬‬
‫‪--- 21 --‬‬
‫كمال‪ ،‬بشرى‬
‫صورة المرأة بين النص النقدي والنص الروائي المغربي‬
‫‪41‬‬
‫دكتوراه الدولة ‪ :‬الدب ‪ :‬مكناس ‪ ،‬كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية ‪2006 :‬‬
‫العشيري‪ ،‬نادية‪ .‬مشر‬
‫‪---------------------------------------------------------‬‬
‫‪--- 22 ---‬‬
‫القرشي‪ ،‬سليمان‬
‫صورة المرأة في الشعر الندلسي من القرن الخامس الهجري إلى القرن الثامن‬
‫الهجري‬
‫الدكتوراه ‪ :‬الدب ‪ :‬الرباط ‪ ،‬كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية ‪2000 :‬‬
‫بنجامع‪ ،‬عبد الباقي‪ .‬مشر‬
‫‪----------------------------------------------------‬‬
‫‪--- 23 ---‬‬
‫إملوان‪ ،‬الصديق‬
‫صورة المرأة في الشعر العربي المعاصر ‪ :‬دراسة وتحليل‬
‫دكتوراه الدولة ‪ :‬الدب ‪ :‬مكناس ‪ ،‬كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية ‪2004 :‬‬
‫العشيري‪ ،‬نادية‪ .‬مشرف‬
‫‪-----------------------------------------------------------------------‬‬
‫‪--- 24 ---‬‬
‫شبشوب‪ ،‬فاطمة‬
‫صورة المرأة في المسرح المغربي بين القتباس والتأليف‬
‫‪ 466‬ص‪ .‬؛ ‪ 29‬سم‬
‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا ‪ :‬الدب ‪ :‬مكناس ‪ ،‬كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية ‪1987 :‬‬
‫رمز الوثيقة ‪82 05 1 / 693 :‬‬
‫‪-----------------------------------------------------------‬‬
‫‪--- 25 ---‬‬
‫بيهي‪ ،‬علي‬
‫صورة المرأة في شعر الجاهلية وفي صدر السلم ‪ :‬دراسة تحليلية نقدية‬
‫دكتوراه الدولة ‪ :‬الدب ‪ :‬الجديدة ‪ ،‬كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية ‪2001 :‬‬
‫لوليدي‪ ،‬يونس‪ .‬مشرف‬
‫‪---------------------------------------------‬‬
‫‪--- 26 ---‬‬
‫السعدية‪ ،‬ابن محمود‬
‫صورة المرأة من خلل الخطاب التاريخي المدرسي الخاصة بمادة التاريخ في‬
‫التعليمين الساسي والثانوي‬
‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا ‪ :‬علوم التربية ‪ :‬الرباط ‪ ،‬كلية علوم التربية ‪1994 :‬‬
‫‪---------------------------------‬‬
‫‪--- 27 ---‬‬
‫الكير‪ ،‬محمد‬
‫علقات التجاهات نحو مراكز المرأة بالتوافق لدى المراهقين ‪ :‬دراسة نفسية اجتماعية‬
‫‪42‬‬
‫ميدانية مقارنة‬
‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا ‪ :‬علم النفس ‪ :‬الرباط ‪ ،‬كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية ‪1995 :‬‬
‫ربيع‪ ،‬مبارك‪ .‬مشرف‬
‫‪------------------------------------------------------------------‬‬
‫‪--- 28 ---‬‬
‫دمير‪ ،‬عزيز‬
‫غياب المرأة العاملة خارج البيت وعلقته بالتوافق النفسي الجتماعي لدى البناء ‪:‬‬
‫مرحلة المراهقة‬
‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا ‪ :‬علم النفس ‪ :‬الرباط ‪ ،‬كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية ‪1999 :‬‬
‫التويجري‪ ،‬محمد‪ .‬مشرف‬
‫حدية‪ ،‬المصطفى‪ .‬مشرف‬
‫‪-------------------------------------------------------------------------------‬‬
‫‪-----------------‬‬
‫‪--- 29 ---‬‬
‫بلحاج‪ ،‬عبد الحميد‬
‫مسؤولية المرأة في السلم‬
‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا ‪ :‬الدراسات السلمية ‪ :‬الرباط ‪ ،‬كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية ‪:‬‬
‫‪1995‬‬
‫حمادة‪ ،‬فاروق‪ .‬مشرف‬
‫‪-------------------------------------------------------------------------------‬‬
‫‪-----------------‬‬
‫‪--- 30 ---‬‬
‫السراري‪ ،‬نجاة‬
‫مظاهر جمال المرأة في شعر الغزل الجاهلي‬
‫دبلوم الدراسات العليا ‪ :‬الدب ‪ :‬الرباط ‪ ،‬كلية الداب والعلوم النسانية ‪1999 :‬‬
‫عزة‪ ،‬حسن‪ .‬مشرف‬

‫‪French:‬‬
‫‪Title‬‬ ‫‪Studen Professo faculty and‬‬ ‫‪Type of‬‬
‫‪t‬‬ ‫‪r‬‬ ‫‪year‬‬ ‫‪diplomat‬‬
‫‪e and‬‬
‫‪speciality‬‬
‫‪Analyse multivariée‬‬ ‫‪Chekro Laaboudi : Rabat , Faculté Doctorat‬‬
‫‪du marché du travail : uni,‬‬ ‫‪, Ahmed des sciences‬‬ ‫‪d'Etat,‬‬
‫‪modèles d'évaluation Djamila‬‬ ‫‪juridiques,‬‬ ‫‪Economie‬‬
‫‪de la participation de‬‬ ‫‪économiques et‬‬
‫‪la femme à l'activité‬‬ ‫‪sociales2001‬‬
‫‪économique national‬‬
‫‪43‬‬
Approche Belyazi Calvet, :, Paris 5 : 1982 Doctorat
sémiologique et d, Louis- de 3e
linguistique du saf, Samira Jean cycle
chant et danse des Linguistiq
femmes chez les ue
Benikhaled, Maroc
oriental
Aspects comparatifs Chouki, Kress, J- :, Rennes 2 : Doctorat
de l'hystérie chez la Amina Jacques. 1988 de 3e
femme marocaine et Dir. cycle
française issue du Sociologi
milieu rural e
Au-delà de la pudeur :Naama , Paris 8 : 1985 Doctorat
étude sur la sexualiténe- de 3e
de la femme Guesso cycle :
marocaine us, Sociologi
Souma e
ya
Caractéristiques Sareh, Roussel, , Paris 5 : 1984 Doctorat
socio-démographiques Saadia Louis de 3e
de la femme cycle :
marocaine Sociologi
fonctionnaire e
Conceptions et images Khaled Wittwer, , Bordeaux 2 : Doctorat
de la femme dans le Tabet, Jacques 1982 de 3e
contexte culturel Naima cycle :
marocain Sciences
de
l'éducatio
n
Des hommes et des Kharbo Rey, Paris 1 : 1987 Doctorat
femmes : uch, Pierre- de 3e
représentations Ahmed Philippe cycle :
sociolectales et Linguistiq
structures sémiotiques ue
dans des contes des
Mille et une nuits
Discours et la femme Dialmy, Picardie, Doctorat
44
au Maroc depuis le A. Faculté de d'Etat :
XIX siècle philosophie Sociologi
1987 e
Discours préfeciel Touh, Hammou : Oujda , Diplôme
[sic] et représentations Naïma ti, Faculté des d'études
de la femme dans le Abdellah lettres et des supérieure
roman féminin sciences s:
marocain de langue humaines : 1999 Littérature
française de 1985 à
1995
Etendue et limite de la Laâla, Sue, , Paris 5 : 1992 Doctorat :
modernisation dans la Hakima Roger Sciences
condition féminine au de
Maroc : une étude l'éducatio
socio-culturelle sur la n
persistance de la
tradition dans la vie
de la femme
Etude de vécu sexuel Mzili, Baumsti, Paris 13 : 1987 Doctorat
de la femme Zakia mler, de 3e
marocaine à partir de Yves cycle :
deux échantillons de Psycholog
femmes hystériques ie
Femme arabe, femme Alaoui Raphael, , Strasbourg 2 : Doctorat :
musulmane : exemple Ismaili, Freddy 1983 Sociologi
pris au Maroc . Fèz- Kebira e
Arfoud
Femmes maghrébines Abdul- , Paris 5 : 1983 Doctorat
immigrées en France Nour, de 3e
et contraception : Linda cycle :
enquête auprès de Démograp
consultantes d'un hie
service de
gynécologie à Paris
Femmes, identité Rabeh, Bensimo , Caen : 1987 Doctorat
sexuelle, changement Houria n, Doris de 3e
dans une ville cycle :
traditionnelle : Sociologi
45
émergence de e
l'individu et résistance
du groupe
Images des femmes Belqziz Fougeyr , Paris 7 : 1983 Doctorat
dans la vie Hemim, ollas, de 3e
professionnelle : le Zakia Pierre cycle :
cas de Marrakech Sociologi
e
L'Entreprenariat Sakhra : Oujda , Diplôme
féminin au Maroc : oui, Faculté des d'études
obstacles rencontrés et Bahija sciences supérieure
recommandations juridiques, s:
pour le renforcement économiques et Economie
du rôle des femmes sociales : 1998
entrepreneurs
L'emploi des femmes Cherka Daoudi,: Fès , Faculté Diplôme
dans les PME-PMI : oui, Lahcendes sciences d'études
cas de la Wilaya de Djamila juridiques, supérieure
Meknès économiques et s:
sociales : 1993 Economie
L'expression plastique Belaich Couchot, , Paris 8 : 1990 Doctorat
des femmes du Rif et e, Edmond de 3e
du Moyen Atlas Rachid cycle :
marocain a Philosoph
ie
L'identité culturelle et Khouda Berger, , Paris 8 : 1988 Doctorat :
les enjeux du savoir ri, Guy Sciences
chez la femme Khadija de
marocaine l'éducatio
n
L'image de la femme Ziyyat, Galisson, , Paris 3 : 2001 Sociologi
dans les manuels de Fatiha Robert e
français et d'arabe de
l'enseignement
secondaire au Maroc
L'image de la femme Berrada Fayolle, , Paris 3 : 1982 Doctorat
dans quelques romans Fathi, Roger de 3e
maghrébins de langue Rajae cycle :
46
française Littérature
L'émancipation des El Lourau, , Paris 8 : 1986 Doctorat
femmes marocaines et Alami René de 3e
leur insertion dans la El cycle :
fonction publique Kamou Sciences
ri, de
Najet l'éducatio
n
L'évolution du statut Arazou Martin, , Lille 3 : 1995 Doctorat :
juridico-social de la k, Jean. Histoire
femme marocaine Aomar
depuis l'indépendance
La Condition de la Barkate Berthelot , Toulouse 2 : Doctorat
femme marocaine à , , Jean- 1985 de 3e
travers sa sexualité : Malika Michel cycle :
le cas de la Sociologi
Khouribganaise e
La conception de la Aloman Jouanny, , Paris 5 : 1983 Doctorat
femme chez Tahar i Robert de 3e
Ben Jelloun Guenne cycle :
d, Littérature
Ouafae
La condition de la Moulay Deprez,
: Rabat , Faculté Doctorat
femme au Maroc Rachid, P des sciences d'Etat :
Abderr juridiques, Droit
azak économiques et
sociales : 1981
La condition de la Bennis, Bennoun : Rabat , Faculté Diplôme
femme en droit Fathia a, des sciences d'études
international public Mohame juridiques, supérieure
d économiques et s : Droit
sociales : 1983
La condition des El Abdel : Paris , Ecole Doctorat
femmes dans le Maroc Belghiti Malek, des hautes de 3e
indépendant Alaoui, Anouar études en cycle :
Malika sciences Sociologi
sociales : 1986 e
La femme anglaise au Belkha Dulck, J. : Paris , Faculté Doctorat
47
foyer, sous le règne de yat des lettres : de 3e
George III Hassani 1981 cycle :
, Littérature
Rachid
a

La femme dans Ouzzif, Ben Ali, : Rabat , Faculté Doctorat


l'économie marocaine Halima Driss des sciences d'Etat :
juridiques, Economie
économiques et
sociales : 1994
La femme et le Ziride, Refass, : Rabat , Faculté Diplôme
système arganeraie Fatima Moham des lettres et des d'études
[sic] : quel enjeu med sciences supérieure
relationnel spécifique humaines : 1999 s:
à Tnine Day (région Géographi
d'Anezi, Province de e
Tiznit), Anti-Atlas
occidental
La femme marocaine Alaoui Bammat , Paris 3 : 1984 Doctorat
dans l'islam Ismaili, e, Nadjm de 3e
Kebira Oud-dine cycle :
Anthropol
ogie
La femme marocaine Abouna Demiche , Paris 8 : 1995 Doctorat :
en France : justice i, Aicha l, Sciences
civile et processus Francine politiques
d'intégration.
La participation de la El Saaf, : Rabat , Faculté Diplôme
femme à la vie Khatib, Abdallah des sciences d'études
politique au Maroc Zineb juridiques, supérieure
Rafika économiques et s : Droit
sociales : 1993
La pertinence du Bnoussi François , Paris 5 : 1987 Doctorat
paramètre sexe dans la na, Geiger, de 3e
pratique du langage Khadija Denise cycle :
par les femmes Linguistiq
marocaines : approche ue
48
socio-linguistique du
dialect de Marrakech
La place réservée aux El Ducellier , Toulouse 2 : Doctorat :
femmes dans les écrits Bouhsi , Alain 1997 Littérature
et l'historiographie ni,
marocains relatifs au Latifa
moyen-âge, de la fin
du Xe à la fin du
XIVe siècle

La situation de la Berriss François, , Paris 5 : 1998 Linguistiq


femme à travers les oul, Frédéric ue
proverbes en usage à Samira J
Oujda : analyse
formelle et sématique

La voyante : étude Amiti, : Paris , Doctorat


socio-culturelle d'une Khadija Université de la de 3e
catégorie de femmes Sorbone : 1983 cycle :
marocaines dans un Sociologi
milieu citadin : Rabat- e
Salé
Le personnage de la Iraqi, , Toulouse : Doctorat
femme dans le roman Rhita 1985 de 3e
marocain d'expression cycle :
française Littérature
Le tatouage et le Anebar Kassai, , Paris 7 : 1987 Doctorat
langage des femme au che, Georges de 3e
Moyen-Atlas Fadila cycle :
marocain : approche Linguistiq
sémiologique ue
Lecture sémio- Maâdan Chadli, : Rabat , Faculté Doctorat :
énonciative des contes i, El des lettres et des Linguistiq
marrakchis sur la Salma Mostaph sciences ue
femme a humaines : 2002

Les femmes voilées Fahim Rivals, Toulouse 2 : Doctorat


au Maroc Zine, Claude 1987 de 3e
49
Rhizlan cycle :
e Sociologi
e,

Les rites de mariage à Ayat Berthelot , Toulouse 2 : Doctorat :


travers deux Kfita, , Jean- 1988 Sociologi
générations de Nabat Michel. e
femmes kénitriennes : Dir.
enquête sur quelques
aspects du
changement social au
Maroc
Les titres du peintre Sabri, Kabtane, : Rabat , Faculté Doctorat :
Max Ernest et le Nadia Miyna des lettres et des Littérature
concept du collage : Saouri, sciences
vers une esthétique de Mohame humaines : 2003
l’hétérogène : la d
période Dada, 1919-
1921, La femme sans
tête, 1929
Puberté et ménopause Naama Dialmi, : Casablanca , Doctorat
chez la femme ne Abdessa Faculté des d'Etat :
marocaine Guesso mad lettres et des Littérature
us, sciences
Souma humaines - Ben
ya M'sick : 1995
Regards sur la femme Benzak Dabezies , Aix-Marseille Doctorat
dans la nouvelle et le our , André 1 : 1987 d'Etat :
roman marocain de Chami, Littérature
langue française Anissa
Thème et statut de la El Yamlahi, , Faculté des Doctorat :
femme marocaine à Kaydi, Mohame lettres et des Littérature
travers la littérature Bouchr d sciences : Tétouan
orale populaire : le a humaines : 2007
proverbe comme
exemple
English
--- 1 ---
50
Tahri, Nadia
African American women writers : representations of black
womanhood, 1830s-1950s
Doctorat d'Etat : Littérature : Rabat , Faculté des lettres et des
sciences humaines : 2000
Fabre, Geneviève. Dir.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------
--- 2 ---
Tazmi, Naïma
American women's utopian novels : a thematic study of Mary B.
Lane's Mizora and Charlotte P. Gliman's Herland
Diplôme d'études supérieures : Littérature : Rabat , Faculté des
lettres et des sciences humaines : 1999
Elasri, Saber. Dir.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------
--- 3 ---
Squali, Touria
Archetypal patterns of women's development : a comparative
study of selected characters in Henry James' The awkward age, The
wings of the dove and Edity Whartons The house of mirth and The age
of innocence
Diplôme d'études supérieures : Littérature : Rabat , Faculté des
lettres et des sciences humaines : 1999
Lebbady, Hasna. Dir.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------
--- 4 ---
Skalli, Loubna H.
Articulating the local and the global : a case study in Moroccan
women’s magazines
Doctorat , Pennsylvania state University : [S.d.]
Davis Nichols, Dennis K. John S. Dir.
Major, Ann M. Dir.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------
--- 5 ---
51
Rafik, Malika
Beyond post colonial discourse : new problematics of feminine
identity : representation [of] language in contemporary Moroccan
Francophone women writing
Doctorat d'Etat : Littérature : Casablanca , Faculté des lettres et
des sciences humaines - Aîn Chock : 1999
Safieddine, Khadija. Dir.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------
--- 6 ---
Bouabdelli, Fatima
Contemporary women's issues in Morocco : contending
discourses
Doctorat d'Etat : Littérature : Meknès , Faculté des lettres et des
sciences humaines : 2003
Rhissassi, Fouzia. Dir.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------
--- 7 ---
Dardar, Mohamed
Domestic violence against women in contemporary Morocco : a
case study of the el-Jadida region
Doctorat : Linguistique : Rabat , Faculté des lettres et des
sciences humaines : 2005
Labbadi, Hasna. Dir.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------
--- 8 ---
Lebbady, Hasna
Entrapment and escape : postmodernist and feminist uses of
Gothic by selected contemporary women novelists
Doctorat d'Etat : Littérature : Rabat , Faculté des lettres et des
sciences humaines : 1997
Kennedy, Valerie. Dir.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------
--- 9 ---
Arbia, Karima
52
Morocco in British women's travel writing in the early twentieth
century : a critical reading of Agnes Grove's Seventy one days camping
in Morocco and Emily Keene's My life story
Diplôme d'études supérieures : Littérature : Fès , Faculté des
lettres et des sciences humaines Dhar el Mehraz : 1999
Bekkaoui, Khalid. Dir.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------
--- 10 ---
Aït Hammu, Abdelouahab
Orientalist and anti-orientalist anthropology : the example of
three twentieth century texts on marriage and women in Morocco
Diplôme d'études supérieures : Littérature : Fès , Faculté des
lettres et des sciences humaines Dhar el Mehraz : 1999
Bekkaoui, Khalid. Dir.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------
--- 11 ---
El Alami, Youssef Amine
The erotic dimension in the style of D. H. Lawrence's The
rainbow, Women in love and Lady Chatterly's lover
Diplôme d'études supérieures : Littérature : Rabat , Faculté des
lettres et des sciences humaines : 1988
Kriem, Abdellatif. Dir.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------
--- 12 ---
Lahmil, Noufissa
The mother-daughter relationship in contemporary North
American women writers' fiction
Doctorat d'Etat : Littérature : Rabat , Faculté des lettres et des
sciences humaines : 1996
Kennedy, Valerie. Dir.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------
--- 13 ---
Jaouhari Tissafi, S.
The speech of men and women in Fez
53
Diplôme d'études supérieures : Linguistique : Fès , Faculté des
lettres et des sciences humaines Dhar el Mehraz : 1989
Bentahila, Abdelali. Dir.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------
--- 14 ---
Chekroune, Samira
Tragedy of women in some of George Eliot's novels
Diplôme d'études supérieures : Littérature : Fès , Faculté des
lettres et des sciences humaines Dhar el Mehraz : 1990
Stuart, Ross. Dir.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------
--- 15 ---
Mirabet, Nora
Women and political participation : the parliamentary experience
of Moroccan women in the Senth Legislature, 2002-2007 : a case study
Doctorat : Linguistique : Rabat , Faculté des lettres et des
sciences humaines : 2007
El Moudden, Abderrahim. Dir.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------
--- 16 ---
Chalkah, Fadwa
Women beneficiaries attitudes towards literacy compaigns in
Morocco : a tentative analysis
Doctorat : Linguistique : Fès , Faculté des lettres et des sciences
humaines Dhar el Mehraz : 2002
Sadiqi, Fatima. Dir.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------
--- 17 ---
Addaouda, Souâd
Women, Gender and Thestade in Morocco : constraints and
prospects
Doctorat : Linguistique : Rabat , Faculté des lettres et des
sciences humaines : 2004
Haddad, Lahcen. Dir.
54
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------
--- 18 ---
Bakkali, Asmaa
Women's quest for wholeness in Doris Lessing's novels with
special reference to The four gated city, The memories of survivor and
The marriage between zones three, four and five
Diplôme d'études supérieures : Littérature : Rabat , Faculté des
lettres et des sciences humaines : 1998
Sebti, Najat. Dir.

55