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# Thermodynamics 1

## Otto Cycle, Diesel Cycle & Dual Combustion Cycle

Internal combustion engine is a
heat that derives its power from the
energy liberated by the explosion of a
mixture of some hydrocarbon, in
gaseous or vaporized form, with
atmospheric air.
Spark – Ignition (SI) or Gasoline Engine
Four-Stroke Cycle Gasoline Engine
Intake stroke - piston moves down the
cylinder and draws in fuel-air mixture
Compression stroke - piston
compresses the mixture in the cylinder
and the spark plug ignites the mixture
Power stroke - burning gases push the
piston down
Exhaust stroke - piston pushes the
burned gases out

## Four strokes of the piston and two

revolutions are required to complete a
cycle.
Air-Standard Otto Cycle

## 1-2: isentropic compression

2-3: constant volume addition of heat
3-4: isentropic expansion
4-1: constant volume rejection of heat

## Air-standard cycle means that air alone is the working medium

QA = mcv (T3 – T2)
QR = mcv (T1 –T4) = -mcv (T4 – T1)
W = QA – QR = mcv (T3 – T2) – mcv (T4 – T1)
W mcv T3 −T2 − mcv (T4 −T1 )
e= = x 100
QA mcv (T3 −T2 )
T4 −T1
= 1- {1}
T3 −T2
1
=1-
rkk−1

𝑉1
where rk = , the isentropic compression ratio
𝑉2
Derivation of the formula for e: Process 3-4:
Process 1-2:
𝑇3 V4 k−1 V1 k−1
• = =
k−1 𝑇4 V3 V2
𝑇2 V1
• =
𝑇1 V2 • T3 = T4rk k−1 {3}
• T2 = T1rk k−1 {2} Substituting equations {2}
Process 3-4: and {3} in equation {1}
T4 −T1
𝑇3 V4 k−1 V1 k−1 e = 1-
• = = T4 rkk−1 −T1 rkk−1
𝑇4 V3 V2
1
• T3 = T4rk k−1 {3} e=1-
rkk−1
Work from the pV plane:
p V −p V p V −p V
W = ∑W = 2 2 1 1 + 4 4 3 3
1−k 1−k
Clearance volume, percent clearance
V1 VD + V3 VD + cVD 1+c
rk = = = =
V2 V3 cVD c
Where:
c = percent clearance
V3 = clearance volume
VD = displacement volume
Ideal standard of comparison
Cold-air standard, k = 1.4
Hot air standard, k < 1.4
The thermal efficiency of the theoretical Otto cycle is
• Increased by increase in rk
• Increased by increase in k
• Independent of the heat added

## “The average family car has a compression ratio of

about 9:1. The economic life of the average car is 8
years or 80,000 miles of motoring.”
Sample Problem 1: Otto Cycle
1. An Otto cycle operates on 0.1 lb/s of air from 13psia and 130°F at the
beginning of compression. The temperature at the end of
combustion is 5000°R; compression ratio is 5.5; hot-air standard k = 1.3.
(a) Find V1, p2, t2, p3, V3, t4, and p4. (b) Compute QA, QR, W, e, and
the corresponding hp
Sample Problem 1: Otto Cycle
Solution Point 3:
m = 0.1 lb/s 𝒇𝒕𝟑
• V3 = V2 = 0.3056
𝒔
rk = 5.5 𝒑𝟐 𝟏𝟏𝟗.𝟐
k = 1.3 • p3 = T3 = (5000) = 605.8psia
𝑻𝟐 𝟗𝟖𝟑.𝟗
p1 = 13psia Point 4:
T1 = 130 + 460 = 590°R 𝑽𝟑 𝒌−𝟏 𝟏 𝟏.𝟑−𝟏
• T4 = T3 = (5000) = 2998°R
T3 = 5000°R 𝑽𝟒 𝟓.𝟓
𝒑 𝟏𝟑
a) Point 1: • p4 = T4 𝟏 = (2998) = 66.1psia
𝑻𝟏 𝟓𝟗𝟎

## ṁ𝑹𝑻𝟏 (𝟎.𝟏)(𝟓𝟑.𝟑𝟒)(𝟓𝟗𝟎) 𝒇𝒕𝟑

• V1 = = = 1.681 b) cv =
𝑹
=
𝟓𝟑.𝟑𝟒
= 0.2285
𝑩𝒕𝒖
𝒑𝟏 (𝟏𝟑)(𝟏𝟒𝟒) 𝒔 𝒌−𝟏 (𝟕𝟕𝟖)(𝟏.𝟑−𝟏) 𝒍𝒃𝑹°
Point 2: QA = mcv(T1 – T4) = (0.1)(0.2285)(5000 – 983.9)
𝒌 𝑩𝒕𝒖
• p 2 = p1
𝑽𝟏
= p1(rk)k = (13)(5.5)1.3 = 91.77
𝑽𝟐 𝒔
QR = mcv(T1 – T4) = (0.1)(0.2285)(590 – 2998)
= 119.2psia 𝑩𝒕𝒖
= -55.03
𝑽𝟏 𝒌−𝟏 𝒔
• T2 = T1 = T1(rk)k-1 = (590)(5.5)1.3-1 Ẇ = QA –QR = 91.77 – 55.03 = 36.75
𝑩𝒕𝒖
𝑽𝟐 𝒔
𝑾 𝟑𝟔.𝟕𝟓
= 983.9°R = 523.9°F e= = = 0.4005 or 40.05%
𝑸𝑨 𝟗𝟏.𝟕𝟕
𝑽𝟏 𝟏.𝟔𝟖𝟏 𝒇𝒕𝟑 𝑩𝒕𝒖 𝒔
• V2 = = = 0.3056 (𝟑𝟔.𝟕𝟓 )(𝟔𝟎 )
𝒓𝒌 𝟓.𝟓 𝒔 W= 𝒔
𝑩𝒕𝒖
𝒎𝒊𝒏
= 52hp
𝟒𝟐.𝟒
(𝒎𝒊𝒏)(𝒉𝒑)
Sample Problem 2: Otto Engine
2. The conditions at the beginning of compression in an Otto engine
operating on hot-air standard with k = 1.34, are 101.3kPa, 0.038m3
and 32°C. The clearance is 10% and 12.6kJ are added per cycle.
Determine (a) V2, T2, p2, T3, p3, T4 and p4, (b) W, (c) e, and (d) pm.
Sample Problem 2: Otto Engine
Point 3:
Solution
QA = mcv (T3 – T2)
p1 = 101.3kPa
12.6 = (0.04396)(0.8444)(T3 – 689)
V1 = 0.038m3
• T3 = 1028 K
T1 = 32°C + 273 = 305K
𝑻𝟑 𝟏𝟎𝟐𝟖
𝑹 𝟎.𝟐𝟖𝟕𝟎𝟖 𝒌𝑱 • p3 = p2 = (2518) = 3757kPa
cv = = = 0.8444 𝑻𝟐 𝟔𝟖𝟗
𝒌−𝟏 𝟏.𝟑𝟒−𝟏 𝒌𝒈𝑲
𝒑𝟏 𝑽𝟏 (𝟏𝟎𝟏.𝟑)(𝟎.𝟎𝟑𝟖)
Point 4:
m= =
𝐑𝑻𝟏 (𝟎.𝟐𝟖𝟕𝟎𝟖)(𝟑𝟎𝟓) 𝑽𝟑 𝒌−𝟏 𝟏 𝒌−𝟏 𝟏 𝟏.𝟑𝟒−𝟏
• T4 = T3 = T3 = (1028)
= 0.04396 kg 𝑽𝟒 𝒓𝒌 𝟏𝟏
𝟏+𝒄 𝟏 + 𝟎.𝟏𝟎 = 455 K
rk = = = 11
𝒄 𝟎.𝟏𝟎
𝑽𝟑 𝒌 𝟏 𝒌−𝟏 𝟏 𝟏.𝟑𝟒
a) Point 2: • p4 = p3 = p3 = (3757)
𝑽𝟒 𝒓𝒌 𝟏𝟏
𝑽𝟏 𝟎.𝟎𝟑𝟖 = 151 kPa
• V2 = = = 0.003455m3
𝒓𝒌 𝟏𝟏 b) QR = mcv (T1 – T4)
• T2 = T1rkk-1 = (305)(11)1.34-1= 689 K = (0.04396)(0.8444)(305 – 455) = -5.57kJ
• p2 = p1rk k = (101.3)(11)1.34 = 2518 kPa W = QA – QR = 12.6 – 5.57 = 7.03 kJ
𝑾 𝟕.𝟎𝟑
c) e = = = 0.558 or 55.8%
𝑸𝑨 𝟏𝟐.𝟔
𝑾 𝑾 𝟏𝟐.𝟔
d) pm = = = = 364.7kPa
𝑽𝑫 𝑽𝟏 − 𝑽𝟐 𝟎.𝟎𝟑𝟖−𝟎.𝟎𝟎𝟑𝟒𝟓𝟓
Compression Ignition or Diesel Engine

## Four-Stroke Cycle Diesel Engine

Intake stroke - piston moves down
and draws air into the cylinder
Compression stroke - piston rises and
compresses the air to a temperature
Power stroke - oil is injected into the
cylinder, it mixes with the hot air and
burns explosively
Exhaust stroke - gases produced by
combustion push the piston up and
forces the burned gases out of the
cylinder
Air-Standard Diesel Cycle

## 1-2: isentropic compression

2-3: constant pressure addition of heat
3-4: isentropic expansion
4-1: constant volume rejection of heat

## Air-standard cycle means that air alone is the working medium

QA = mcp (T3 – T2)
QR = mcv (T1 – T4) = -mcv (T4 – T1)
W = QA – QR = mcp (T3 – T2) – mcv (T4 –T1)
W mcp (T 3− T2 )− mcv (T4 − T1 )
e= =
QA mcp (T3 − T2 )
T4 − T1
=1- {4}
k(T3 − T2 )
1 rck −1
=1-
rkk−1 k(rc −1)
V1 V3
where rk = is the compression ratio and rc = is the cut-
V2 V2
off ratio and Point 3 is called the cut-off point.
Derivation of the formula for e: Process 3-4:
𝑇4 V3 k−1 V2 rc k−1 rck−1
Process 1-2: • = = =
𝑇3 V4 V1 rkk−1
𝑇2 V1 k−1
• = rck−1
𝑇1 V2 • T4 = T1 (rkk-1) (rc)
rkk−1
• T2 = T1 (rkk-1) {5}
• T4 = T1 (rck) {7}
Process 2-3: Substituting equations {5}, {6}
𝑇3 V3 and {7} in equation {4}
• = = rc
𝑇2 V2 T1 (rck )− T1
• T3 = T1 (rkk-1) (rc) {6} e=1-
k T1 rkk−1 rc − T1 (rkk−1 )

1 rck −1
e=1-
rkk−1 k(rc −1)
Relation among rk, rc and re (expansion ratio)
𝑉4 𝑉1
re = =
𝑉3 𝑉3
𝑉1 𝑉3 𝑉1
rk = =
𝑉2 𝑉2 𝑉3
rk = (rc)(re)

The efficiency of the Diesel cycle differs from that of the Otto cycle by
rck −1
the bracketed factor . This factor is always greater than 1, because rc is
k(rc −1)
always greater than 1. Thus, for a particular compression ratio rk, the Otto cycle
is more efficient. However, since the Diesel engine compresses air only, the
compression ratio is higher than in an Otto engine.
“An actual Diesel engine with a compression ratio of 15 is more
efficient than an actual Otto engine with a compression ratio of 9.”
Sample Problem 1: Diesel Cycle
1. A Diesel cycle operates with a compression ratio of 13.5 and with a
cut-off occurring at 6% of the stroke. State 1 is defined by 14 psia and
140°F. For the hot-air standard with k = 1.34 and for an initial 1 cu ft.,
Compute (a) t2, p2, V2, t3, V3, p4, and t4, (b) QR, (c) W, (d) e and pm
(e) For a rate of circulation of 1000cfm, compute the horsepower
Sample Problem 1: Diesel Cycle
Solution a) Point 2:
𝑽𝟏 𝟏
• V2 = = = 0.0741 ft3
rk = 13.5 𝒓𝒌 𝟏𝟑.𝟓
• T2 = T1 (rkk-1) = (600) (13.5)1.34 – 1
k = 1.34
= 1454°R = 994°F
p1 = 14psia • p2 = p1 (rkk-1) = (14) (13.5)1.34 = 457.9psia
Point 3:
T1 = 140+460 = 600°R
• V3 = V2 + 0.06VD = V2 + 0.06(V1 – V2)
V1 = 1 cu ft. • V3 = 0.0741 + (0.06) (1 – 0.0741) = 0.1297 ft3
𝑽𝟑 𝒌−𝟏 𝟎.𝟏𝟐𝟗𝟕
cv =
𝑹
=
𝟓𝟑.𝟑𝟒
= 0.2016
𝑩𝒕𝒖 • T3 = T2 = (1454) = 2545°R = 2085°F
𝒌−𝟏 (𝟕𝟕𝟖)(𝟏.𝟑𝟒−𝟏) 𝐥𝐛𝐑° 𝑽𝟐 𝟎.𝟎𝟕𝟒𝟏
Point 4:
cp = kcv = (1.34)(0.2016)
𝑽𝟑 𝒌−𝟏 𝟎.𝟏𝟐𝟗𝟕 𝟏.𝟑𝟒−𝟏
• T4 = T3 = (2545) = 1271°R = 811°F
𝑩𝒕𝒖 𝑽𝟒 𝟏
= 0.2702
𝐥𝐛𝐑° 𝑽𝟑 𝒌 𝟎.𝟏𝟐𝟗𝟕 𝟏.𝟑𝟒
• p4 = p3 = (457.9) = 29.7psia
𝑽𝟒 𝟏
𝒑𝟏 𝑽𝟏 (𝟏𝟒)(𝟏𝟒𝟒)(𝟏)
m= = = 0.630lb
𝐑𝑻𝟏 (𝟔𝟎𝟎)(𝟓𝟑.𝟑𝟒)
Sample Problem 1: Diesel Cycle

## b) QA = mcp (T3 – T2) = (0.063) (0.2702) (2545 – 1454) = 18.57 Btu

QR = mcv (T1 – T4) = (0.063) (0.2016) (600 – 1271) = 8.52Btu
c) W = QA – QR = 18.57 – 8.52 = 10.05Btu
𝑾 𝟏𝟎.𝟎𝟓 𝟏𝟎.𝟎𝟓 (𝟕𝟕𝟖)
d) e = = = 0.5412 or 54.12% and pm = = 58.64psi
𝑸𝑨 𝟏𝟖.𝟓𝟕 𝟏−𝟎.𝟎𝟕𝟒𝟏 (𝟏𝟒𝟒)

𝑩𝒕𝒖 𝒇𝒕𝟑
𝟏𝟎.𝟎𝟓 𝟑 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎𝒎𝒊𝒏
𝒇𝒕
e) W = 𝑩𝒕𝒖 = 237hp
𝟒𝟐.𝟒𝒎𝒊𝒏 𝒉𝒑
Sample Problem 2: Diesel Engine
2. There are supplied 317 kJ/cycle to an ideal Diesel engine operating
on 227 g air: p1 = 97.91kPa, t1 = 48.9°C. At the end of compression,
p2 = 3930kPa. Determine (a) rk, (b) c, (c) rc, (d) W, (e) e, and (f) pm.
Sample Problem 2: Diesel Engine
Solution Point 4:
m = 0.227kg
𝑽𝟑 𝒌−𝟏 𝟎.𝟎𝟐𝟖𝟑 𝟏.𝟒−𝟏
p1 = 97.91kPa • T4 = T3 = (2312) = 1161 K
𝑽𝟒 𝟎.𝟐𝟏𝟒𝟑
T1 = 48.9 + 273 = 321.9 K
p2 = 3930kPa 𝑽𝟏 𝟎.𝟐𝟏𝟒𝟑
a) rk = = = 14
𝑽𝟐 𝟎.𝟎𝟏𝟓𝟑
QA = 317kJ/cycle
𝟏+𝒄 𝟏+𝒄
Point 1: b) rk = ; 14 =
𝒄 𝒄
𝐦𝐑𝑻𝟏 (𝟎.𝟐𝟐𝟕)(𝟎.𝟐𝟖𝟕𝟎𝟖)(𝟑𝟐𝟏.𝟗)
• V1 = = = 0.2143 m3 c = 0.0769 or 7.69%
𝒑𝟏 𝟗𝟕.𝟗𝟏
Point 2: 𝑽𝟑 𝟎.𝟎𝟑𝟖𝟑
𝟏 𝟏 c) rc = = = 2.50
𝑽𝟐 𝟎.𝟎𝟏𝟓𝟑
𝒑𝟏 𝒌 𝟗𝟕.𝟗𝟏 𝟏.𝟒
• V2 = V1 = (0.2143) = 0.0153m3 d) QR = mcv (T1 – T4)
𝒑𝟐 𝟑𝟗𝟑𝟎
𝒌− 𝟏 𝟏.𝟒−𝟏

• T2 = T1
𝒑𝟏 𝒌
= (321.9)
𝟑𝟗𝟑𝟎 𝟏.𝟒
= 924.4 K = (0.227) (0.7186) (321.9 – 1161)
𝒑𝟐 𝟗𝟕.𝟗𝟏
Point 3: = -136.9kJ
QA = mcp (T3 – T2) W = QA – QR = 317 – 136.9 = 180.1 kJ
317 = (0.227) (1.0062) (T3 – 924.4)
𝑾 𝟏𝟖𝟎.𝟏
• T3 = 2312 K e) e = = = 0.5681 or 56.81%
𝑻 𝟐𝟑𝟏𝟐 𝑸𝑨 𝟑𝟏𝟕
• V3 = V2 𝟑 = (0.0153) = 0.0383m3
𝑻𝟐 𝟗𝟐𝟒.𝟒 𝑾 𝑾 𝟏𝟖𝟎.𝟏
f) pm = = = = 905kPa
𝑽𝑫 𝑽𝟏 − 𝑽𝟐 𝟎.𝟐𝟏𝟒𝟑− 𝟎.𝟎𝟏𝟓𝟑
Dual Combustion Engine

## constant-volume process, and the late burning, a constant-

pressure process.”
Air-Standard Dual Cycle
1-2: isentropic compression
2-3: constant volume addition of heat
3-4: constant pressure addition of heat
4-5: isentropic expansion
5-1: constant volume rejection of heat

## Air-standard cycle means that air alone is the working medium

QA = mcv(T3 – T2) + mcp (T4 – T3)
QR = mcv (T1 – T5) = -mcv (T5 – T1)
W = QA – QR = mcv (T3 – T2) = mcv (T4 – T3) – mcv (T5 – T1)
W mcv T3 − T2 +mcp T4 − T3 −mcv (T5 − T1 )
e= =
QA mcv T3 − T2 +mcp (T4 − T3 )
T5 − T1
=1– {8}
T3 − T2 + k (T4 − T3 )

1 rp rkk−1 −1)
=1–
rkk−1 rp −1+ rp k (rc − 1)
p
where rp = 3 is the pressure ratio during the constant volume portion of
p2
V V
combustion, rk = 1 is the compression ratio and rc = 4 is the cut-off ratio
V2 V3

The thermal efficiency of this cycle lies between that of the ideal
Otto and the ideal Diesel.
Derivation of the formula for e: Process 4-5:
Process 1-2: T5 V4 k−1 V4 k−1 V3 rc k−1
• = = = =
T2 V1 k−1 T4 V5 V1 V1
• = V2 rc k−1 rck− 1
T1 V2
= k− 1
• T2 = T1rkk-1 {9} V1 rk

## Process 2-3: rck− 1

• T5 = T1rkk-1(rp)(rc)
T3 p3 rkk− 1
• = = rp
T2 p2 • T5= T1(rp)(rc) k {12}
• T3 = T1rkk-1 (rp) {10} Substituting equations {9}, {10}, {11}
Process 3-4: and {12} in equation {8}
T4 V4
• = = rc 𝑇1 𝑟𝑝 𝑟𝑐 𝑘 − 𝑇1
T3 V3 e= 1-
𝑇1 𝑟𝑘𝑘− 1 𝑟𝑝 − 𝑇1 𝑟𝑘𝑘−1 + 𝑘(𝑇1 𝑟𝑘𝑘−1 𝑟𝑝 𝑟𝑐 − 𝑇1 𝑟𝑘𝑘−1 𝑟𝑝 )
• T4 = T1rkk-1 (rp)(rc) {11}
1 𝑟𝑝 𝑟𝑐 𝑘 −1
e = 1-
𝑟𝑘𝑘−1 𝑟𝑝 −1 + 𝑟𝑝 𝑘(𝑟𝑐 −1)
Sample Problem 1: Dual Cycle
1. At the beginning of compression in an ideal dual combustion cycle,
the working fluid is 1 lb of air at 14.1 psia and 80°F. The compression
ratio is 9, the pressure at the end of the constant volume addition of
heat is 470psia, and there are added 100Btu during the constant
pressure expansion. Find (a) rp, (b) rc, (c) the percentage clearance,
(d) e and (f) pm
Sample Problem 1: Dual Cycle
Point 3:
Solution
𝒑𝟑 𝟒𝟕𝟎
m = 1lb air • T3 = T2 = (1300) = 𝟏𝟗𝟗𝟗°R
𝒑𝟐 𝟑𝟎𝟓.𝟔
p1 = 14.1 psia Point 4:
T1 = 80 + 460 = 540°R Q3-4 = (m) (cp) (T4 – T3)
p3 = 470 psia 100 = (1) (0.24) (T4 – 1999)
rk = 9 • T4 = 2416°R
Q3-4 = 100Btu 𝑻𝟒 𝟐𝟒𝟏𝟔
• V4 = V3 = (1.576) = 1.905ft3
Point 1: 𝑻𝟑 𝟏𝟗𝟗𝟗

## 𝐦𝐑𝑻𝟏 𝟏 𝟓𝟑.𝟑𝟒 (𝟓𝟒𝟎) Point 5:

• V1 = = = 14.186ft3
𝒑𝟏 𝟏𝟒.𝟏 (𝟏𝟒𝟒) 𝑽𝟒 𝒌−𝟏 𝟏.𝟗𝟎𝟓 𝟏.𝟒−𝟏
• T5 = T4 = (2416) = 1082°R
Point 2: 𝑽𝟓 𝟏𝟒.𝟏𝟖𝟔
𝑽𝟏 𝟏𝟒.𝟏𝟖𝟔
• V2 = = = 1.576ft3
𝒓𝒌 𝟗

𝑽𝟏 𝒌−𝟏
• T2 = T1 = (540) (9)1.4 – 1 = 1300°R
𝑽𝟐

𝑽𝟏 𝒌
• p 2 = p1 = (14.1) (9)1.4 – 1 = 305.6psia
𝑽𝟐
Sample Problem 1: Dual Cycle

𝒑𝟑 𝟒𝟕𝟎
a) rp = = = 1.54
𝒑𝟐 𝟑𝟎𝟓.𝟔
𝑽𝟒 𝟏.𝟗𝟎𝟓
b) rc = = = 1.21
𝑽𝟑 𝟏.𝟓𝟕𝟔
𝟏+𝒄 𝟏+𝒄
c) rk = ; 9=
𝒄 𝒄
c = 0.125 or 12.5%
d) QA = Q2-3 + Q3-4 = (m) (cv) (T3 – T2) + 100
= (1) (0.1714) (1999 – 1300) + 100 = 219.8Btu
QR = (m) (cv) (T1 – T5) = (1) (0.1714) (540 – 1082) = -92.9Btu
𝑾 𝟐𝟏𝟗−𝟗𝟐.𝟗
e= = = 0.5773 or 57.73%
𝑸𝑨 𝟐𝟏𝟗.𝟖
𝑾 𝟏𝟐𝟔.𝟗 (𝟕𝟕𝟖)
pm = = = 54.37psi
𝑽𝟏 − 𝑽𝟐 𝟏𝟒.𝟏𝟖𝟔−𝟏.𝟓𝟕𝟔 (𝟏𝟒𝟒)
Sample Problem 2: Dual Cycle
2. An ideal dual combustion cycle operates on 454g of air. At the
beginning of compression, the air is at 96.53kPa, 43.3°C. Let rp = 1.5,
rc = 1.60 and rk = 11. Determine (a) the percentage clearance, b) p,
V, and T at each corner of the cycle, (c) QA, (d) e, and (e) pm.
Sample Problem 2: Dual Cycle
p3 = (p2) (rp) = (2770.8) (1.5) = 4156.2 kPa
Solution 𝟒𝟏𝟓𝟔.𝟐
T3 = T2 𝒑𝟑 = (825.4) = 1238.1 K
m = 0.454 kg of air 𝒑𝟐 𝟐𝟕𝟕𝟎.𝟖
p1 = 96.53 kPa V4 = (V3) (rc) = (0.03883) (1.60) = 0.06213m3
T1 = 43.3 + 273 = 316.3 K T4 = T3
𝑽𝟒
= (1238.1) (1.6) = 1981 K
𝑽𝟑
rp = 1.5
𝑽𝟒 𝒌−𝟏 𝟎.𝟎𝟔𝟐𝟏𝟑 𝟏.𝟒−𝟏
rc = 1.60 T5 = T4 = (1981) = 916.2 K
𝑽𝟓 𝟎.𝟒𝟐𝟕𝟏
rk = 11 𝑻𝟓 𝟗𝟏𝟔.𝟐
𝟏+𝒄 𝟏+𝒄 p5 = p1 = (96.53) = 279.6kPa
a) rk = ; 11 = ; c = 0.10 or 10% 𝑻𝟏 𝟑𝟏𝟔.𝟑
𝒄 𝒄
𝒎𝑹𝑻𝟏 𝟎.𝟒𝟓𝟒 𝟎.𝟐𝟖𝟕𝟎𝟖 (𝟑𝟏𝟔.𝟑) c) QA = (m) (cv) (T3 – T2) + (m) (cp) (T4 – T3)
b) V1 = = = 0.4271m3
𝒑𝟏 𝟗𝟔.𝟓𝟑
= (0.454)(0.7186)(1238.1 – 825.4) +
𝑽𝟏 𝟎.𝟒𝟐𝟕𝟏
V2 = = = 0.03883m3 (0.454) (1.0062) (1981 – 1238.1) = 474 kJ
𝒓𝒌 𝟏𝟏

## 𝑽𝟏 𝒌−𝟏 d) QR = (m) (cv) (T1 – T5)

T2 = T1 = T1 (rk) k-1 = (316.3) (11) 1.4-1
𝑽𝟐 = (0.454)(0.7186)(316.3 – 916.2) = 195.7kJ
= 825.4 K W = QA – QR = 474 – 195.7 = 278.3 kJ
𝑽𝟏 𝒌 𝑾 𝟐𝟕𝟖.𝟑
p2 = p 1 = p1 (rk) k = (96.53) (11)1.4 e= = = 0.5871 or 58.71%
𝑽𝟐 𝑸𝑨 𝟒𝟕𝟒
𝑾 𝟐𝟕𝟖.𝟑
= 2770.8kPa e) pm = = = 716.8kPa
𝑽𝟏 − 𝑽𝟐 𝟎.𝟒𝟐𝟕𝟏 − 𝟎.𝟎𝟑𝟖𝟖𝟑
Thermodynamics 1

Reference: Sta. Maria, H. B. (1990). Thermodynamics 1. Mandaluyong City, Philippines: National Book Store.