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Medicinal plants

Before the introduction of chemical medicines, man relied on the healing properties of
medicinal plants. Some people value these plants due to the ancient belief which says
plants are created to supply man with food, medical treatment, and other effects. It is
thought that about 80% of the 5.2 billion people of the world live in the less developed
countries and the World Health Organization estimates that about 80% of these people rely
almost exclusively on traditional medicine for their primary healthcare needs. Medicinal
plants are the “backbone” of traditional medicine, which means more than 3.3 billion
people in the less developed countries utilize medicinal plants on a regular basis . There are
nearly 2000 ethnic groups in the world, and almost every group has its own traditional
medical knowledge and experiences (Ahvazi et. al, 2012).

Carnivorous plants

Plant carnivory is one of many possible adaptation strategies to unfavorable


conditions, mostly low nutrient availability in wet, acid soils. More than 600 species of
carnivorous plants occur throughout the world, out of a total of about 300,000 species of
vascular plants. All plants considered carnivorous fulfill the following three criteria they
catch or trap prey, absorb metabolites from prey, and utilize these metabolites in their
growth and development (Lloyd, 1942). As carnivorous plants (CPs) grow together with
non-carnivorous plants in their natural habitats, both plant groups are subjected to the
same ecological conditions. Camivory, which developed several times during plant
evolution, is only one of many possible adaptation strategies to unfavorable conditions.
Charles Darwin (1875) was the first to reveal that CPs showed enhanced growth if fed
on insects and/or animal proteins. Interestingly, despite coming into close contact with
insects, carnivorous plants rarely become infected by the pathogenic bacteria
transmitted by many insects, suggesting the presence of some sort of defense
mechanism. Few studies have been conducted on antibacterial activity of carnivorous
plants, although the inhibitory effects of carnivorous plant extracts on intestinal bacteria
have been reported(Park et al., 2005. The antibiotic resistance by many pathogens
are rapidly increasing for the available therapeutic drugs. So there is indisputable need
for new bioactive compounds to control human diseases caused by pathogenic
organisms.Pitcher plant species are one of the carnivorous plants found in Dinagat that
produce specialized cup-shaped, fluid-filled leaves that attract, capture, kill and digest
insects and other small animals (McPherson & Amoroso, 2011). The discovery of some
pitcher plant species highlights the rich biodiversity of the Philippines. Thus, the urgent
call for their conservation cannot be emphasized enough. Particularly in Dinagat
Islands, open-cast mines continue to destroy their habitat. This is perilous for pitcher
plants as they are immediately displaced once their habitat is altered or destroyed. For
them to thrive again takes time; primarily because they have slow reproductive cycles
and they require their habitat and associated vegetation to be regenerated first.