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 Test Case Design Techniques:

 Specification - based or Black box techniques –>
 Boundary value analysis
 Equivalence partitioning
 Decision table testing
 State transition diagrams
 Use case testing
 Structure – based or white box techniques ->
 Statement testing and coverage
 Decision testing coverage
 Condition testing =Condition testing also is known as Predicate
coverage testing; each Boolean expression is predicted as
TRUE or FALSE. All the testing outcomes are at least tested
once. This type of testing involves 100% coverage of the
code. The test cases are designed as such that the
condition outcomes are easily executed.
 Multiple condition testing =The purpose of Multiple condition
testing is to test the different combination of condition s to
get 100% coverage. To ensure complete coverage, two or
more test scripts are required which requires more efforts.
 All path testing =In this technique, the source code of a program
is leveraged to find every executable path. This helps to
determine all the faults within a particular code.
 Experience – based techniques ->
 Error guessing =Error guessing is dependent on the skills,
intuition, and experience of the testers.
 Exploratory testing =There is minimum time available for testing
and maximum for test execution. In this, the test design and
test execution are performed concurrently.
 Verification and Validation Process ->
 Static Testing
 Walkthrough
 Inspection
 Review
 End users
 Validation is the process of checking whether the specification
captures the customer’s needs
 Verification is the process of checking that the software meets the
 Verification of static- practice of verifying documents design
code and program.
 Validation is a dynamic practice testing the actual product.
 It is a human based testing and it is computer-based testing
 Verification confirms the specification
 It is low level exercise
 Validation is carried out involvement of test team
 Validation follows after verification

 Agile methodologies:
 User requirements-Iteration planning-development-acceptance testing
 Priority checking-effort estimation-release of latest version
 New user requirements-bug testing-acceptance testing
Agile and Waterfall model are two different methods for software

development process. Though they are different in their
approach, both methods are useful at times, depending on the
requirement and the type of the project.
 The agile software development emphasizes on four core values.

1. Individual and team interactions over processes and tools

2. Working software over comprehensive documentation
3. Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
4. Responding to change over following a plan

 Waterfall model=incremental model

 Development of the software-testing
 Unstructured -plan oriented
 Small projects can be implemented very quickly-estimation is easy
 Error fixing can be done in middle of the project easily-only in the end whole project
is tested
 Development process is iterative and project is executed in short 2-4 weeks
iteration. planning is very easy. only after development testing is executed because
Modules are designed separately.
 CAPL-why and how
 Process knowledge and V model
 Validation verification difference’
 Agile procedure and roles responsibilities
 Entry exit criteria, test strategies and inputs for software/system test
 Software and Bug life cycle
 Software test techniques
 Software and hardware tools
 Basic ISTQB questions
 HIL testing