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“A comparative study on wisdom, memory, habits

and their academic achievement between general


and schedule caste student’s”
IInd Year Progress Report Submitted in
Partial Fulfilment for the award of
Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
In Education

By -

Amita Kaushal
1
.

Under the Guidance of


DR. P.P. G OS WAMI
B hagw ant Univ er sity , Aj me r
DR.S .P. T RI PAT HI
PRINCIPAL RAM NARAYAN COLLEGE OF EDUCATION,
KINANA, JIND, HARYANA

2018 Amita Kaushal

BHAGWANT UNIVERSITY
AJMER, RAJASTHAN, INDIA

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Chapter 1
Introduction
In this, we will introduced about the memory, habits and their academic achievement between
general and schedule caste student’s. Reading habits are well-planned and deliberate pattern of
study which has attained a form of consistency on the part of students toward understanding
academic subjects and passing at examinations. Reading habits determine the academic
achievements of students to a great extent. Both reading and academic achievements are
interrelated and dependent on each other. Students often come from different environments and
localities with different levels of academic achievement. Therefore, they differ in the pattern of
reading habits. While some students have good reading habits, others tend to exhibit poor
reading habits. Academic achievement means how much knowledge the individual has
acquired from the school. The substantive aim of the study was to examine the effect of
guidance services on students’ study attitudes, study habits and academic achievement. An
experimental study was devised for the purpose.

A guidance program for wisdom of general and sc student was developed by the researcher. An
experiment was conducted to explore the effectiveness of guidance services in terms of
improvement in students’ study attitudes, study habits and academic achievement. Ten null
hypotheses were tested to explore the effect of guidance services on students’ study habits,
study attitudes and academic achievement in five subjects. All the hypotheses were tested at
0.05 level of significance. The results of the study indicated that the guidance services have
significant effect on the students’ study attitude, study habits and academic achievement. The
present study was conducted on 200 wisdom of general and sc student to find out the study
habits of the students studying in government and private schools as well as students belonging
from nuclear and joint family. Study habit inventory (Hindi version) constructed by Dr.
B.V.Patel (1975) was used to collect the relevant data. Mean, S.D. and t-test was used to
analyze the data. The finding revealed that there exists no significant difference between
wisdom of general and sc student belonging to nuclear and joint family on different
components of study habits and total study habits. Wisdom of general and sc student studying
in Govt. schools are significantly better on home environment and planning of work and

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planning of subjects than students studying in private schools but private school students are
significantly better than Govt. school students on preparation for exam component of study
habit. However, no significant difference exists between Govt. and private wisdom of general
and sc student on reading and note taking, concentration, habit and interest, school environment
component of study habit and total study habit.

Motivation and Attitude

Motivation is one of the most important psychological concepts in education. It can be


classified into intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Intrinsic motivation refers to doing something
because it is inherently interesting or enjoyable, while extrinsic motivation refers to doing
something because it leads to a separable outcome. Komarraju, et al., found that academic
success is strongly influenced by individual differences in motivation and achievement.

There will be no significant difference between the students studying in government and private
schools on the following components of the study habits:-

 Home environment and planning of work

 Reading and note taking

 Planning of subjects

 Concentration

 Preparation of the exam

 Habits and Interest

 School environment

 Total study habits

I. Home environment and planning of work

Home plays a very important role in the life of a person. Home environment is the
aggregate of the various factors and stimulations which the individual receives from
conception till birth. It is the most important unit of the society. It plays the most
important role in the development of the child. Home environment plays a pivotal role
in the development of right attitude including scientific attitude, habits formation
including study habits and balances maturity level which also includes emotional
maturity.

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Due to this the present study was focused on exploring the effect of Home Environment
on Scientific Attitude, Study Habits and emotional maturity of adolescents. The study
would not only add to the body of knowledge related to the importance of Home
Environment, but will also provide a great help to psychologists, educationists, parents
and counselors for effective handling of the adolescents. These findings will be of great
significance and help to the general public and adolescents and bring out the awareness
and importance of Home Environment in the modern world. These findings will also
help to lay stress on Home Environment conditions while deciding the school
curriculum.

II. Reading and note taking

Reading has come to stay as a potential force in education and all spheres of life.
Reading as one of the skills of literacy is the defense against solitude. It is man’s pane
into life. Reading conveys the past and the future into the present. Reading provides
experience through which the individual may expand his horizons of knowledge,
identity; extend and intensify his interests so as to gain deeper understanding of himself.
Reading is the position of the utmost character that helps to pass on knowledge and
virtue through ages.
Reading has undergone tremendous changes in meaning and understanding over the
years. The classical definition of meaning as the extraction of visual information from a
given symbol or code has informed various meanings. When we talked about the
General and Schedule cast student, the two parties may be faced the problem for
reading like economical and Financial problem, Joint family problem, Environmental
effect etc.

III. Planning of subjects

a. Concentration

b. Preparation of the exam

c. Habits and Interest

d. School environment

e. Total study habits

Education is the most important element in the development of any community or country.
Education has special significance particularly for the weaker section of the society. Since

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scheduled castes are viewed as the most deprived, disadvantage and suffering section of the
Indian population. A country cannot make progress when sizable section of its population
remains backward. The progress in education up to the elementary level i.e. class-viii of general
students as well as the scheduled caste students. The constitution imposed an obligation on the
state [mention article-14] to provide free compulsory elementary education to all children up to
the age of 14 years, irrespective of caste, or religion, within ten years of the commencement of
the constitution. Sadly creed, sex enough, the state could not fulfil its constitutional obligations
even within the 66 years of the constitutions. It is true that children belonging to the scheduled
castes enjoy certain facilities, but considering the magnitude of the problem, these are not
enough for finding an easy and quick solution to it. Moreover, unless the machinery employed
to implement the various plans and programmes for the educational development of the
schedule castes are enthused to work with a missionary zeal. So far as the educational facilities
in the secondary section, is concerned, the state provide certain facilities to a section of the
population, broadly categorized the scheduled castes.

The term scheduled caste was adopted in 1935 to provide some social, economic and political
safe guard to the section of people who are being deprived socially, politically and economically at the
hand of the upper caste people.

Study techniques: Most students do not know how to study probably because they are
not aware of what techniques to apply in the study situation or they study at odd times and in
odd places. Hills and Ballow (2000) had an understanding of this deficiency in students
approach to study and they developed a comprehensive study skill manual for college students.
Effective study cannot be acquired without the application of these skills and methods. Some of
which include reading, note-taking, time consideration, organizing material in a study and
choosing a good study environment among others.

Environment of study: Consideration is here first given to the environment of study


as it appears to have adverse effect on the whole concept of study. Where one studies has an
important effect on one's efficiency because the location and all of its characteristics are stimuli.
The stimulus of the study situation should produce the response of studying and no other
response. It has been suggested that an important approach is to have a set aside specifically for
study. It should be well ventilated, noise-free and well lighted room or open place with a desk
and a chair. Ruch (1995) wrote on the need to consider the type of chair and desk used for
study. These should be such that allow the individual to maintain an erect and comfortable

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sitting posture. The study desk should be spacious enough for the books and materials but
should contain only what one needs at a time.

Hepher (1990) revealed that the effect of temperature and humidity on the body
temperature of the individual can cause a reduction in the body function and mechanism. The
emphasis here is on the need for abundance of fresh air in the study environment to avoid
unnecessary fatigue.

Hills and Ballow (2000) pointed out that glaring light could cause eye strain and
headaches. Therefore covered light bulbs and light coloured, blotters be used if possible to
reduce light intensity. In effect, light should not shine directly on the table or reading desk.
Taking to consideration a rural setting where students have to study under locally made lamps
and hurricane lanterns, these should be adjusted well enough to reduce light intensity or place at
a considerable distance away from the reading desk. It has been observed that some people
cannot study without music, Hills and Ballow (2000) agree that music is good if it does not
constitute noise in itself or when used to neutralize other external noise.

Time planning: Whatever time a student spends on study, what time of the day he sets
aside for work only by organizing and planning their time that student can avoid distraction
from regular studies. Determining time limits for study sets the immediate goal for completing
ones work within specific time limits and also helps one to resist recreational distraction,
Robinson (1990). As regards time planning, Hills and Ballow (2000) suggests the use of work
diary a work diary allows the student to look at everything he has to do and to apportion time to
every subject. Organizing time in this way helps to minimize worry and indecision that may
arise in case of any extra work that has to be slotted in, the diary should be planned on the basis
of needs and purposes; allocating adequate time to each task so that no particular task consume
more time than necessary.

Effective and fast reading: Today, student has much to read because of the great
demand inherent in core curriculum. This is more obvious at the junior secondary school level
in which the students are expected to study about fourteen different subjects or more in some
cases. The ability to read fast will be an advantage. Quick reader take in and retain more than
slow readers because the quick reader catches the drift and flow on the passage better whereas
the slow readers delay over each word.

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Solomon (1999) stated that most poor readers are too slow ones. They were often
concerned with unimportant details while the good and fast readers often adopt a wider view of
all the paragraph. There are a number of bad habits which poor readers adopt; most of which
involve using extra body movement in the reading process inefficient reading, the muscles of
the eyes should make the external movement. Extra body movement such as pointing with the
fingers or moving the lips, do not help reading and often only help in slowing it down.

There are some cases in which slow reading can however be adopted depending on the
subject matter and the purpose of reading Maddox (2002) formulated about four different types
of reading which include mastery reading, exploratory and revision reading critical and pleasure
reading. He stressed that these types of reading have different rates for the individual.

Concentration: The ability to direct ones attention on the task at hand is necessary for
effective study. Robinson (1990) outlined five major conditions that affect concentrations,
These include distractions, (internal and external situations) associated with other activities,
study materials not convenient, poor lightening and physiological conditions. Oladele (2000)
suggested that to avoid external distraction, students could choose place of study which can
stimulate them to study. The essence of this is that once they are in such environment associated
only with study, distraction such as anxiety and indecision, day dreaming, mental and physical
fatigue that impair the ability to concentrate will be avoided, Personal problems that keep on
flashing to one's mind if not properly tackled and discarded can act as greatest hindrance to
concentration.

IV. A History of Education


The 1991 census of India reported that Dalit communities were one of the least literate
social groups in the country, with only 30% of Dalit children recognized to have basic
reading and writing skills (Nambissan 1011). These high levels of illiteracy are a result of
insufficient access to primary education. Reasons proposed for this low primary education
rate amongst the Dalits have ranged from blaming family values to universal acceptance of
social behaviour.
In reality, it is a history of constant oppression and missing incentives that have been the
reason why India’s lowest caste has struggled to take advantage of public education
programs. For centuries, the Dalit population of India were forbidden from gaining access
to education. Originally reserved for upper castes only, the denial of conventional education
to Dalits was designed to prevent them from increasing their quality of life and to highlight

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caste divisions. Caught in a colonial struggle between European nations, Indian society had
no motivation to determine who should manage social programs until the British
established control over India.
Then, during the 1850s, the British began the long process of increasing the accessibility of
education to all citizens on India.

Signed in April of 1850, the Caste Disabilities Removal Act theoretically abolished all Indian
laws which challenge the rights of those who are members of any caste or religion. To most,
this was the first step towards social equalization within India. It was also the beginning of a
series of attempts to increase accessibility to education for members of the dalit caste. To
coincide with the signing of the act, the Indian education system became accessible to every
member of society. However, one hundred and sixty years after the Dalits were granted
permission to attend schools, the primary education rates of the Dalit population compared to
those of upper castes remain as low ever.

There have been a number of suggestions proposed as to why the Dalits have yet to take
advantage of open access to education. Some have suggested that Dalits possess an apathetic
attitude towards education, and so the thought of attending school seems unappealing and
inefficient compared to entering the workforce or doing nothing at all. Another suggestion of
the cause for lower access to education to Dalits is that most families are caught in a vicious
cycle of illiteracy and poverty. Therefore, not only do parents have no incentive to have their
children attend school, but they also frequently lack the financial means to send them to the fee-
based schooling system of India (Nambissan 1011). The final and often most realistic reasons
for why the Dalits have failed to take advantage of their access to education is a combination of
a history of oppression and a lack of access to local, quality education systems.

A historical back-drop of mistreatment and class hierarchies has provided little incentive for the
Dalits to pursue education. Throughout the 1800s and into the mid 1940s, conditions for Dalit
children within the Indian education system were very poor. Due to discrimination from higher
castes, the Dalits did not feel comfortable attending schools. Dalit children were required to sit
outside the school, listening on the veranda while those in higher castes would be taught inside.
Teachers, who refused to touch the Dalit children even with sticks, would throw bamboo canes
as undeserved punishment while children of other castes were permitted to throw mud. The
Dalit children, who knew retaliation would result only in increased abuse, would be essentially
scared into not attending school (Freeman 67). Of the limited number of Dalit children who

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were attending school, the majority were male; a trait which continues even today (Nambissan
1012).

The 1948 independence of India prompted an increase in responsibility for the government to
promote the economic and educational interests of the lower castes and to protect the Dalits
from social injustices and exploitations. Over the next few decades, the Dalits would see very
little action to support the claims and progress made during the fifties to help improve their
access to primary education. The 1950s saw subtle improvements in the number of schools
being built in India, as well as the amount of money being allocated towards primary education
programs. The efforts being put forward by the government lost momentum over the next few
decades however, as the rate of primary schools being constructed slipped from 5.8% in the
1960s, to 2.1% during the 1970s, and eventually down to only 1.3% through the 1980s
(Nambissan 1015). This was complemented by a shift in funding from primary school
education to middle school education. This transition exemplified the government’s shifted
focus from increasing primary enrolment rates to increasing the quality of the education
provided to those already provided with sufficient access to education.

Between 1983 and 2000, improvements in access to education for all of India have been made,
although the difference between education rates for Dalits, especially females, and those in
higher castes remained constant. In the seventeen year period, enrolment rates for Dalit boys
grew from only 47.7% to a meagre 63.25%. When compared to those males in upper castes,
enrolments jumped from an already relatively impressive 73.22% to 82.92%. Even poorer
results were observed when looking at the female Dalit enrolment rate, which inched from
15.72% to 32.61%, when compared to their upper-caste counterparts whose enrolment climbed
from 43.56% to 59.15% (Desai & Kulkarni). The education gap can also be understood to
translate through the entire schooling system, with the proportion of Dalit to non-Dalit success
remaining at a constant low rate through primary, secondary, and post-secondary schooling.
Although large improvements have been made to increase enrolment rates in India, statistics
show that there has been little progress in decreasing the education gap between castes.

The lack of success in increasing primary enrolment rates for Dalits over the past one hundred
and fifty years is evidence that very few projects have had any success in increasing social
equality within the Indian Caste system. In the next section, the paper will look at some of the
programs which have attempted to provide incentive for India’s poorest to seek primary
education whether it is general or dalits.

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V. History of Education Based Development Programs.
When discussing methods which seek to improve enrolment rates, it is important to analyze
which circumstances prevent Dalit children from attending school. A family’s financial
situation plays a role in whether or not they are able to afford to send a child to school. This is a
major contributor to low Dalit enrolment rates since Dalits have considerably lower incomes
than those in upper castes, and therefore have a hard time paying for education. Distance also
plays a key role in determining a child’s ability to attend school.
Because Dalit homes are often located outside of a village, it is more dangerous for Dalit
children to travel to and from school by themselves without risking assault, sexual abuse or
abduction (Desai & Kulkarni). In addition, teachers at the schools are often members of upper
castes who set low expectations for the Dalit children and rarely seek to provide them with a
positive learning environment. There are many factors that act as obstacles for Dalits attempting
to gain a primary education, and which many development methods have attempted to
overcome.

India has attempted many different strategies to help increase the incentive to receive education
for Dalit children. Earlier strategies focused on finding ways to give Dalit children an education
without exposing them to the harshness of upper castes. As time progressed and the caste
system began to weaken in India, there was a greater shift towards equalizing society so as to
provide safer and more positive learning environments. Since gaining its independence, the
Indian government has continued to make progress on improving the quality of life for India’s
lowest caste. Modern exposure to international thought has increased access to ideas and
methods on how to increase education rates for the Dalits, providing for some of the best results
in recent years (Nambissan 1011). The remainder of this section will examine some of the
strategies used over the past one hundred and fifty years, attempting to look at how effective
they really were.

Following the creation of the Caste Disabilities Removal Act, the British government attempted
to increase Dalit school attendance through methods which took into consideration the
sensitivity of the caste society. Because the Dalit children were often harassed when they
attended schools, the British chose to propose alternative teaching methods, rather than directly
addressing the caste issue. One proposed alternative was the use of night schooling for Dalit
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children. In this manner, children would not need to worry about attending school with
members of upper castes, but would still face dangers of travelling without daylight to and from
school. Another proposed solution was the use of all-Dalit schools. This solution eliminated the
dangers associated with night-time schooling, but also did not help to decrease hostility
between the classes. These two methods combined resulted in a 4% primary enrolment rate for
Dalit children by 1931, 81 years after education was first opened to all citizens on India. Of
these Dalit children, 93% were attending all-Dalit schools. A problem occurred when there
were insufficient all-Dalit schools at which children could pursue secondary education. Only
1% of all students at the time ever made it past primary education (Nambissan 1012). It was
because of this, that when the British handed over control of the country to India in 1948, the
Indian government began thinking of new ways to increase access to education.

Often, governments try to bring in international assistance in dealing with a national crisis like
severely low primary enrolment rates. Prescribed to the Indian government by the World Bank,
the District Primary Education Program was designed to increase primary enrolment rates
within India. The goal of the program is to reduce differences in enrolment between gender and
social standing to 5%, and to decrease the dropout rate to 10%. The DPEP receives the majority
of its funding from the World Bank. It calls for the formation of local committees that oversee
the hiring and management of Para-teachers.

These Para-teachers are trained teachers hired by the DPEP program to fill growing vacancies
in primary schools. They are hired on a short term basis but are offered extended terms as an
incentive to perform well (Kumar, Priyam, & Saxena 565). They are a low-cost alternative to
permanent teaching staff and their performance is often higher due to increased incentives.
Since the introduction of the DPEP, India has actually managed to see decreasing primary
enrolment rates (Kumar, Priyam, & Saxena 567). It is possible that national campaigns to
increase enrolment in primary education fail to have a direct intended impact. Instead, the
management of such programs are so focused on a top down approach to education
development that they are not able to discover and acknowledge specific issues.

A smaller scale, and more capital based approach to development and increasing primary
enrolment rates is the allocation of additional textbooks to a community. In developing
countries, textbooks are often the only basis for a curriculum in a subject. If a school is not able
to purchase its own textbooks, then knowledge resources will be limited. By increasing the
amount of textbooks, development projects are attempting to increase the ability of schools to

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take in more students and they hope that additional resources so that performance in school will
increase (Crossley & Murby 111). The biggest concern which arises out of providing textbooks
is that it will not increase enrolment rates. New textbooks provide little incentive for Dalit
children to attend classes as they do not alleviate any of the barriers currently blocking them
from access education. Increasing access to text books has assisted in increasing the quality of
education despite having little or no impact on enrolment rates.

Lastly, this paper will look to an outside approach to increasing school enrolment and
attendance by observing how school-based drug treatments to common diseases attempt to
provide incentive for enrolment. Many preventable diseases, including hookworm, roundworm
and whipworm affect millions of children worldwide every year, preventing them for attending
any sort of school or doing any physical labour (Miguel & Kremer 159). In this sense, the free
drugs associated with this program not only provide incentive for children to come to school
and learn, but they also serve a second purpose in that they keep students healthy, ensuring they
are physically capable of returning to school. Children who attended schools which offered this
program not only remained healthy, but felt more comfortable attending school on a regular
basis.

It has been proven that programs which offer medical incentives decreases absence rates by
25%. This method has also proven to equally increase the amount of girls and boys who are
being enticed to attend regular primary schooling (Miguel & Kremer 190-191). In a case
examined by Miguel and Kremer, female attendance increased by 10% in subject areas, nearly
two times that of males (Desai & Kulkarni). The medication has also proved more cost
effective for the organizations administering the medication.

This method been proven as a more effective way of increasing education levels compared to
food incentives. On average the annual $5 cost of administering deworming medication to a
child is six times cheaper than providing the same child with food incentives. School uniforms,
which are often so expensive as to prevent young girls from attending school, have had
relatively equivalent success in increasing enrolments rates in young females. Deworming,
however, remains more effective because costs associated with deworming medication are
twenty times less expensive than providing school uniforms (Bossuroy & Delavallade). Using
medication and deworming medicines as incentives, international organizations including the
World Health Organization and The Forum of Young Leaders’ campaign, Deworm the World,

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have developed a successful outside-the-box approach to increasing enrolment and attendance
rates.

While reviewing the empirical studies on General and scheduled caste education, the
investigator found that most of the studies have been conducted problems, academic
achievement, enrolment and socio-economic status of scheduled caste at primary and secondary
school levels. But hardly any studies conducted on attitudes of sc students towards education.
The selected area has been chosen for study has the more concentration of scheduled caste
population in the district. It can be assumed that this section of people have remained backward
in different social, economical and other political aspects. Upliftment of scheduled caste is not
merely a matter of compassion or charity as is commonly assumed but a developmental
necessity. Centuries of exploitation and neglect have forced the majority of this helpless people
into subhuman existence. They occupy the bottom rung of the social ladder. Devoid of
education, information and the necessary motivation, they are not in position to take advantage
of the reservation policy and other programs evolved to improve their situation. So, this study
addresses issues related to the attitudes of sc students towards the education.

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Objective of Study

The following objectives have been formulated for the present study.

1. To study the study habits of General and Schedule Caste Student.


2. To study the academic achievement of General and Schedule Caste Student.
3. To compare General and Schedule Caste students on study habits.
4. To compare study of wisdom memory of General and Schedule Caste Students.
5. To study the relationship between personality and academic achievements of General and
Schedule Caste students.
6. To identify the qualitative and quantitative data of the General and Schedule Caste, personality,
academic achievements, habits and Wisdom memory.
7. To examine whether there exists a significant gender difference in attitudes of
parents towards children’s education.
8. To examine the future planning and aspirations of the parents with regard to their
child’s education.

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Chapter – 2
Review of the Literature

Reading is an essential tool for knowledge transfer and the habit of reading is an academic
activity that increases skills in reading strategies. To know about the world and its environment,
a child helps himself through reading books, newspapers and other magazines. Once the child
has been taught to read and has developed the love for books, he can explore for himself the
wealth of human experiences and knowledge through reading. Children, who miss the
opportunity of getting in touch with books in their early stages of life, find it hard to acquire
good reading habits in their later years. Reading is an intellectual action which is possible only
if a man forms a habit of reading and practices these from childhood. Reading habits, therefore,
play a very crucial role in enabling a person to achieve practical efficiency. “Laws die but books
never.” Indeed, books are the most suitable medium through which knowledge is transmitted
from generation to generation.

The Self -Concept The concept of "self" has received a plethora of definitions and meanings.
From the time of Homer a dichotomy has been expressed in terms of the body and the "psyche"
or soul. It appears that Freud's ego was the premier appearance of a psychological construct of
an awareness of the self as subject and object.

Allport has listed eight ways in which "self" has been conceptualized: (1) as knower; (2) as
object of Knowledge; (3) as primordial selfishness; (4) as dominator; (5) as passive organizer
and rationalize; (6) as a fighter for ends; (7) as one segregated behavioral system among others;
(8) as a subjective patterning of cultural values. An overview of current "self" definitions yields
the observation that most theorists see the "self" as a group of psychological processes
governing behavior and adjustment, and/or as an organized collection of attitudes, beliefs and
feelings referent to the self. Hall and Lindsey (1970) term the first meaning of "Self" as the
"Self-in-Process." That is, the self is a "doer, in the sense that it consists of an active group of
processes such as thinking, remembering, and perceiving.

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A second definition of the self is the "Self-as- Object". This denotes a person's feelings,
perceptions, attitudes, and evaluations of the self as an object. This is what the person thinks of
himself. The term "Self-Concept" as used in this study, is pertinent to this definition. James'
"Me", Jung's "Conscious Ideal", Adler's "Self Ideal", and Sullivan's "Personification" may be
subsumed under the "Self-as-Object" or "Self-Concept" definition.

Raimy 's work contained the first appearance of the stein "Self-Concept" in reference to clinical
processes. The term was referred to as the "map which each person consults in order to
understand him, especially during moments of crisis or choice". Raimy 's definition for this
term was "the more or less organized perceptual object resulting from present and past self-
observation".

In the phenomenological-perceptual of thought the self-concept is seen as the "Self-as-Object".


That is to say, "Self- Concept" (as a body of perceptions, role definitions and self-descriptions)
and "Self -Esteem" (pertaining to the valences placed on the self perceptions by the individual)
are subsumed under the general term "Self -Concept. '! This may be seen in the following
definition of self-concept.

An organized configuration of perceptions of the self which are admissible to awareness. It is


composed of such elements such as the perceptions of one's characteristics and abilities; the
percepts and concepts of the self in relation to others and to the environment; the value qualities
which are perceived as associated with experiences and objects; and goals and ideals which are
perceived as having positive or negative valence.

Bhan and Gupta (2010) on the other hand examined study habits and academic achievement
among the students belonging to scheduled caste and non-scheduled caste group. The results
revealed that sex has no significant impact on the study habits and academic achievement of
students.

Higginbotham examined the reading interests of middle school-sixth, seventh, and eighth
grade-students in a metropolitan, public school located in a southeastern state Atlanta, Georgia.
The result of this study showed differences in interest by genders, which are congruent with
many societies Stereotypes and females reported a stronger interest in Romance, Friendship,
Animal Stories, Adventure, and Historical Fiction, while the males reported stronger
preferences for the categories of Sports and Science. Also, the male respondents had a stronger
preference for non-fiction than did the female respondents.

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Gallo said “books yield their best to you, if you read them at the age at which each particular
masterpiece can ideally be chewed and digested”. There is little knowledge about the everyday
reading practices of tertiary education students and how these practices affect their academic
achievement. Everyday reading consists of individuals’ reading activities for a variety of
purposes, such as for relaxation or information (Issa. et al, 2012). They believe that from middle
childhood through adulthood, reading becomes a major component of studying, and much
information learned through studying is initially acquired through reading. Thus everyday
reading activities in which students engage may, considerably influence their studying skills
and subsequent academic performance. There is a general sense in which one appreciates the
link between good habits of reading and the academic performance of students generally.

According to Parents send their children to school to learn. In the school, children are exposed
to various experiences which influence their behavior. Therefore, learning is a change in
behavior. Such a change is seen in their mental reasoning, physical growth, manipulative skills
and development of values and interests. The change may be easy or difficult depending on the
home and the school environment.

Ogbodo (2010) further identifies three main types of reading habits. These are Hobby,
Recreational and Concentration. A hobby is an activity one does because one derives some joy
and satisfaction from doing it. After formal education’s attainment, some people like reading as
their hobby. Its purpose is to widen the reader’s horizon areas like educational, religious,
political, economic, current affairs, fiction and non-fiction. The practice of reading as a hobby
helps one to be versatile in knowledge in many areas and the person can discuss issues
knowledgeably with others.

Mehta A.P(1969.) Studied on the achievement motive in high school boys the important
findings were (i) the n-achievement level of boys in Delhi are higher than that in madras. (ii)
The boys whose father educational level was either high or low showed higher n-achievement
level than those whose father received only secondary education. (iii) The achievement related
motive showed negative correlation with n-achievement with the total school performance and
with the self-expected vocational success. Whereas the measu es on achievement related values
showed positive correlation with their three va iables (iv) the ural boys showed higher score on
achievement v lues th n the urb n boys.

Jamuan (1974) stated that efficient e rning depends not only on good teaching methods but also
on satisfactory l arning proc dures.
17
Farely and Rosnow (1975) s udi d the r sponsible factors for schooling. The responsible fac ors
for schooling w re found to be, to learn, to prepare for later life and the future and o get he job.

PARIKH, P.A. (1978) A Study of achievement motivation, school performance and


educational norms of secondary, school, pupils. The study revealed that the pupils of English
medium schools had more achievement oriented ideas than the pupils of Gujrati Medium
Schools. (ii) Educational norms regarding achievement related perception and belief were
significantly related to achievement motivation of Bombay school pupils.

Singhalaukh (1979) found that motivation has positive relationship with school performance
and achievement. High and low achievement motivated students differ significantly on
achievement score Rajeev, (1982) Bank and Finlapson (1980) found that successful students we
e found to be having significantly higher motivation for achievement than unsuccessful
students.

Mclutcheon (1986) reported that a survey indic ted students believed that out of 51 possible
choice, the main re son missed cl ss w s their negative perception of the prof ssor and the
course.

Brophy (1987) sugg s d hat t ach rs viewed themselves as active socialization agent who works
capable of stimulating students motivation to learn. One of the major finding by (Small, 1996)
was that instruction were perceived by students as having the prime responsibility for learner
interests or boredom.

Kapoor, R. (1987) found that better adjustment, study habits high intelligence and socio-
economic status were related with high achievement at Junior high school level. These studies
suggest that not only the mental abilities, but the other motivational factors may also be the
responsible for academic performance.

Gawande E.N. (1988) studied the relationship between achievement motivation and
scholastic achievement of higher secondary students of Class XI and found that the correlation
between achievement-motivation and scholastic achievement of urban students was at higher
level than that of rural students. (ii) There was no significant difference in the coefficient of
correlation of achievement-motivation and scholastic achievement of non-backward and
backward students. (iii) Boys were more achievement motivated than girls. (iv) The mean
difference in the scores of scholastic achievement in boys and girls was not significant.

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TROLLS FORM (1988) reported th t te chers typic lly ttributed students of low achievement to
low effort moreover, te chers viewed student characteristics such as poor work habits as b ing
more important than either classroom or teacher variables. In some ins anc s, some stud nts agr
ed that it was their responsibility to motivate themselv s.

Gohfied (1990) found posi ive correlation between motivation and achievement pecifically,
young student with higher academic intrinsic motivation has ignificantly high achievement and
intellectual performance. She also found that early intrinsic motivation correlated with later
motivation and achievement and later motivation is the predictable from early achievement
(Gohfied 1990). It was found that perceived academic competence was positively related to
intrinsic motivation.

Verma and Singh (1990) studied cognitive ability, academic achievement and study habits of
socially advantaged and dis advantaged adolescent student of 12th grade in Uttar Pradesh and
found that the significant ’positive values for cognitive ability, academic achievement and study
habits indicated that all the three factors were definitely affected by social disadvantages.
Socially advantaged group exhibited higher levels of intelligence, academic achievement and
good study habits.

Nayak, B.P. (1990) Studied on achievement motiv tion nd level of aspiration of tribal and non-
tribal children in the ge-group of 7-11 ye rs was done and major findings were – (i) Advant ged
nd dis dv nt ged groups differed significantly with r sp ct to th ir ocus of control, self esteem,
academic motivation and scholas ic achi v m nt (ii) Advantaged girls as compared to the
disadvantaged had b r in rnal locus of control, self-esteem (higher score on general, ocial, home
and chool sub-areas of self-esteem scale) academic respon ibility (towards elf and schools)
academic motivation, good study habits, positive attitude towards chools, high educational
aspirations and higher scholastic achievement. At three different levels (high, average and low)
of locus of control, self-esteem academic responsibilities and academic motivation, the subjects
identified as advantaged and dis-advantaged when compared to their scholastic achievement,
showed a uniform pattern of results.

Gupta, Beena (1992) studied a comparative study of self-concept level of aspiration, anxiety
and scholastic achievement of isolated and non-isolated adolescents and the major Findings
were – (i) isolated and non-isolated boys were different in feeling of inadequacy and emotional
instability (ii) isolated boys and isolated girls differed in feeling of inadequacy (iii) non-isolated
boys and girls differed in with drawing tendency and emotional instability.
19
Tiwari and bansal (1994) mentioned that a child with high academic achievement is likely to be
well-treated as well behaved and independent and low achieves as incapable and deprieved of
employment with m y lead this to met adjustment to life.

Chaudhary and Muni (1995) reported th t p rent l support h d positive effect on their children
acad mic p rformance. Th y carried out a study on the role of parental support in childr ns n d
satisfaction and academic achievement. The sample consisted of fif y childr n from 7th grade of
equal number of boys and girls. Family effec ivene and need satisfaction inventory and
academic marks were u ed as mea ures in thi tudy.

HIGB (1996) found that most students attributed to their own actions. Cothran and nnis (2000)
found that students were motivated by teachers who cared about student learning and showed
enthuasim. These teachers introduced topics in an interesting strategies and promoted student
involvement by allowing participation in the selection learning activaties.

Schunk and Pajanes (2002) attributed factors, including greater competition less teacher
attention to individual student progress and stresses associated with social transitions.

Leandro and Pelechano (2004) studied the wisdom and achievement motivation factors have
correlation with academic pe fo mance and the motivational factors are more relev nt to c demic
qualification than contemporary wisdom. Academic achievement is ccomplished by the actual
execution of class work in the school setting.

Moreover (Johnson 1996,) 2004, Skaalvik and Skaalvik, (2004), Skaalvik and Skaalvik,( 2006),
Sandra,( 2002) revealed-significant relationship between academic performance and
motivation.

Psychologists as welt as layman have attempted some definitions of the word "study". To some
of them, study means hard work and is usually associated with school work. To others, study is
applicable to other situations in life other than academic work.

Mace (2002) pointed out that study is a systematic acquisition of knowledge and an
understanding of facts and principles that calls for retention and application. Kelly (1998) stated
that study is the application of one's mental capacity to the acquisition, understanding and
organization of knowledge; it often involves some form of forma! learning. Crow and Crow in
Okorodudu (2000) explained that study is a programme of subject matter mastery. It involves
hard work.

20
However, study involves the individual's thinking, feeling, personality, social interaction,
physical activities and health rather than men? learning of fact on the thought system for the
purpose of recall when asked.

For those who belong to the school of thought that study is not only applicable to academic
work, Olatubosun in Oladele (2000) explained that a teacher is studying when he examines the
results of an experiment, a lawyer when he prepares his case, a salesman when he learns about
his product and a citizen when he tries to understand the issues in an upcoming election. Studies
require time spent in a deliberate attempt to learn. It should be differentiated from simple leisure
to reading.

Thomas and Robinson (1990) emphasized that the learner needs to use a systematic discipline
and purposive approach to study. Effective study consists of a conscious sequential series of
inter-related steps and processes.

Okorodudu (1995) asserted that, study involves the total of all behavioral patterns (addition,
verbal, psychomotor, emotional) determined purpose and enforced practices that the individual
adapts in order to learn and achieve competence.

21
Hypothesis

The following hypo heses were formulated and tested in the study:

1. There is no significant difference in the academic performance of socially advantaged


and disadvantaged boys and girls.
2. The locus of control is not related to academic performance of students.
3. The persistence is not related to the performance of the students.
4. The parental encouragement is not related to the performance of students.
5. The social disadvantage is not related to the performance of the students.
6. There is significant interaction effect of these selected variables on the academic
performance of students.
7. To verify there hypotheses, the description of methodology and procedure have been
given in the third chapter.
8. There will be a significant some positive correlation between intelligence and academic
achievement of SC and General Students of Xth class.
9. There will be a significant some positive relation between scores of intelligence and
academic achievement of SC and General boys.
10. There will be a significant some positive relation between score of intelligence and
academic achievement of SC and General girls.
11. There will be no significant differences of SC and General boys and girls with the
measures of academic achievement

It deals with the impact of cognitive variables on the performance of disadvantaged students.
These studies investigated the variables like – intelligence, achievement motivation, creativity,
reasoning, concept formation, literacy, retention rates, and achievement in various subjects etc.
The researchers studied these variables on scheduled caste and general students and compared
them with general students. The disadvantaged students in all cases showed lower performance
than general students. Their cognitive growth was found slow.

It also deals with the performance of disadvantaged students in relation to the personal variables
like- locus of control, home environment, parental occupation, self-concept, aspirations, caste,
diswosimination, SES, personality factors, adjustment, values, and enrolment etc. Punjab
studies also found that black students & some ethnic minorities show poor performance and
have higher dropout rate. The advantaged and disadvantaged groups showed different
personality traits.

22
It deals with studies related to interaction of various variables with social disadvantage. The
achievement of scheduled caste students was found low but they were self-responsible and
average intelligent. Teachers treated disadvantaged students as inferior. No difference was
found in academic adjustment of deprieved and non-deprieved students. n-ach of tribal students
was higher than non-tribal students. Scheduled caste and non-scheduled caste students did not
differ significantly on some personality traits.

The present study was related to third category. Most of the studies were conducted by taking
the scheduled caste, tribal and deprieved students. Very few studies were related to socially
disadvantaged students particularly in India. Harijans & deprieved were found to be external;
middle class was found more internal. The Scheduled caste and non-Scheduled caste students
were not different in locus of control. So, nothing can be concluded by these studies. The
cognitive growth of disadvantaged children was at slower rated than that of advantaged. It may
be due to environmental influences. Golden & Brins (1969) pointed out that persistence is
important factor in evaluating intelligence. Persistence has not been much investigated by
researchers. Home environment, parent’s attitude, parental indifference appeared to be
important variable in this area and few researchers studied these. In helping the weaker section,
one of the important factors in home is parental encouragement.

So, on the basis of available literature the present investigator took the locus of control,
persistence and parent encouragement to study their role of performance of socially
disadvantaged and advantaged students at secondary level.

23
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