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Name: Nishra Keshav


Class: XII
Section: B
Roll no: 8

Subject: Chemistry

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to


my teacher Lalita Ma’am who gave me the golden
opportunity to do this wonderful project on the topic
determination of content in soft drinks, which also helped
me in doing a lot of Research and I came to know about
so many new things I am really thankful.
Secondly I would also like to thank my parents and
friends who helped me a lot in finalizing this project
within the limited time frame.

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Divine Child International School, Adalaj

Certificate

This is to certify that Nishra Keshav, a student of


class XII has successfully completed the research on
the Project Determination of content in soft drinks
under the guidance of Mrs. Lalita (subject teacher)
during the year 2019-2020 in Partial Fulfillment of
Chemistry practical examination.

Name of Examiner: Name of Chemistry Teacher:

Signature of Teacher:
Signature of Examiner

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AIM:
COMPARITIVE STUDY AND QUALITATIVE
ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT BRANDS OF
SOFT DRINKS AVAILABLE IN MARKET

By: Nishra Keshav


School: DCIS
Class: XII sci-B

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Index
Introduction Pg 7
Theory Pg 8
Production Pg 10
Purpose Pg 11
Materials Required Pg 12
Chemical Required Pg 13
Detection Pg 14
Result Pg 21
Precaution Pg 22
Uses of Soft drink Pg23
Bibliography Pg 24

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Introduction:

The era of cold drinks began in 1952 but the industrialization in India
marked its beginning with launching of Limca and Goldspot by parley
group of companies. Since, the beginning of cold drinks was highly
profitable and luring, many multinational companies launched their
brands in India. For example some famous brands are Pepsi and Coke.
Now days, it is observed in general that majority of people viewed Sprite,
Miranda, and Limca to give feeling of lightness, while Pepsi and Thumps
Up to activate pulse and brain.

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Theory:
A soft drink is a drink that usually contains water, a sweetener, and a
natural or artificial flavoring. The sweetener may be a sugar, high-
fructose corn syrup, fruit juice, a sugar substitute which is mostly used
in diet drinks or some combination of these. Soft drinks may also contain
caffeine, colorings, preservatives, and/or other ingredients.
Soft drinks are called "soft" in contrast with "hard" alcoholic drinks.
Small amounts of alcohol may be present in a soft drink, but the alcohol
content must be less than 0.5% of the total volume of the drink in many
countries and localities if the drink is to be considered non-alcoholic.
Fruit punch, tea and other such non-alcoholic drinks are technically soft
drinks by this definition, but are not generally referred to as such.
Soft drinks may be served chilled, over ice cubes, or at room temperature,
especially soda. They are available in many container formats, including
cans, glass bottles, and plastic bottles. Containers come in a variety of
sizes, ranging from small bottles to large multi-liter containers. Soft
drinks are very easy to get as they are available in any stores or other
places.
Soft drinks are mixed with other ingredients in several contexts. In
Western countries, in bars and other places where alcohol is served,
many mixed drinks are made by blending a soft drink with hard liquor
and serving the drink over ice. For example, in airplanes, restaurants
and nightclubs. One well-known example is the rum and coke, which
may also contain lime juice. Some very famous brands are Coca-Cola,
Pepsi, Sprite, Sierra Mist, Fanta, Sunkist, Mountain Dew, Dr. Pepper,
and 7 UP.
These soft drinks give feeling of warmth, lightness and have a tangy taste
which is liked by everyone. Carbon dioxide is responsible for the
formation of froth on shaking the bottle.
The carbon Dioxide gas is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid which
is also responsible for the tangy taste. Carbohydrates are the naturally
occurring organic compounds and are major source of energy to our body.
General formula of carbohydrates is CX (H2O)Y.
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On the basis of their molecule size carbohydrates are classified as:-


Monosaccharide, Disaccharides and Polysaccharides. Glucose is a
monosaccharide with formula C6H12O6 . It occurs in free State in the
ripen grapes, in bones and also in many sweet fruits. It is also present in
human blood to the extent of about 0.1%. Sucrose is one of the most useful
disaccharides in our daily life. It is widely distributed in nature in juices,
seeds and also in flowers of many plants. The main source of sucrose is
sugar cane juice which contain 15-20 % sucrose and sugar beet which has
about 10-17 % sucrose. The molecular formula of sucrose is C12H22O11.
It is
produced by a mixture of glucose and fructose. It is non-reducing in
nature whereas glucose is reducing. Cold drinks are a bit acidic in nature
and their acidity can be measured by finding their pH value. The pH
values also depend upon the acidic contents such as citric acid and
phosphoric acid.

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Production:

Soft drinks are made by mixing dry or fresh ingredients with water.
Production of soft drinks can be done at factories or at home. Soft drinks
can be made at home by mixing a syrup or dry ingredients with
carbonated water, or by lactose-fermentation. Syrups are commercially
sold by companies such as Soda-Club; dry ingredients are often sold in
pouches, in a style of the popular U.S. drink mix Kool-Aid. Carbonated
water is made using a soda siphon or a home carbonation system or by
dropping dry ice into water. Food-grade carbon dioxide, used for
carbonating drinks, often comes from ammonia plants.
Drinks like ginger ale and root beer are often brewed using yeast to cause
carbonation.
Modern drinks introduce carbon dioxide for carbonation, but there is
some speculation that alcohol might result from fermentation of sugars
in a non-sterile environment. A small amount of alcohol is introduced in
some soft drinks where alcohol is used in the preparation of the flavoring
extracts such as vanilla extract.

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Purpose:
In recent days, soft drink brands were put into
various questions regarding their purity. News
flashed that they contain harmful pesticide,
which arouse various interest in knowing its
contents because a lot of people including me
have been drinking these very loved soft drinks
for years. I wanted to confirm that whether the
charge imposed on these brands are true or not.

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Materials Required:

1.Test tube
2.Test tube holder
3.Test tube stand
4.Stop Watch
5.Beaker
6.Burner
7.pH Paper
8.Tripod Stand
9.China Dish
10. Wire Gauge
11. Water Bath

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Chemicals That are Required:

 Iodine Solution
 Potassium Iodine
 Sodium Hydroxide
 Fehling’s A and B Solution
 Lime water
 Concentrated HNO3
 Benedict Solution
 Ammonium Molybdate

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Detection Of pH :

Experiment:
Small Samples of soft drinks of different brands were
taken in a test tube and put on the pH paper. The change
in the color of the pH paper was noticed and was
compared with the standard pH scale.

Observations:
SR.NO Name of the Color change pH value
drink
1 Coca Cola Pink 2.5
2 Sprite Red 3
3 Limca Pinkish 4
4 Fanta Light Orange 3.5

Inference:
Soft drinks are generally acidic because of the presence
of citric acid and phosphoric acid. pH values of soft drink
of different brands are different due to the variation in
amount of acidic contents.

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Test for CO2


Experiment:
As soon as the bottles were opened, one by one the
samples were passed through Lime water.

Observation:
Sr.no Name of the Time Taken (S) Conclusion
drink
1 Coca Cola 26.5 CO2 is present
2 Sprite 21 CO2 is present
3 Limca 35 CO2 is present
4 Fanta 36 CO2 is present

Inference:
All the soft drinks contain dissolved carbon dioxide in
water. The carbon dioxide (CO2) dissolves in water to
form carbonic acid, which is responsible for its tangy
taste.
Chemical Reaction:
Ca(OH)2(s) + CO2(g) → CaCO3(s) + H2O(l)

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Test For Glucose

Experiment:
Glucose is a reducing sugar acid. It’s presence is detected by the following test:-
1.Benedict’s Reagent Test
Small samples of soft drinks of different brands were taken in a test tube and a
few drops of Benedict’s reagent were added. The test tube was heated for few
seconds. Formation of reddish color confirmed the presence of glucose in cold
drinks.

Observation:
Sr. No. Name Of The Observation Conclusion
Drink
1 Coca Cola Reddish Colour Glucose is
Precipitate Present
2 Sprite Reddish Colour Glucose is
Precipitate Present
3 Limca Reddish Colour Glucose is
Precipitate Present
4 Fanta Reddish Colour Glucose is
Precipitate Present
Inference:
All the samples gave positive test for glucose with Benedict’s reagent.
Hence all the drinks contain glucose.

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2. Fehling’s Solution Test


Small samples of soft drinks of different brands were taken in a test tube and a
few drops of Fehling’s A solution and Fehling’s B solution was added in equal
amount. The test tube was heated in water bath for 10 minutes.

Observation:
Sr. No. Name Of The Observation Conclusion
Drink
1 Coca Cola Reddish Brown Glucose is Present
Precipitate
2 Sprite Reddish Brown Glucose is Present
Precipitate
3 Limca Reddish Brown Glucose is Present
Precipitate
4 Fanta Reddish Brown Glucose is Present
Precipitate

Inference:
All samples gave positive test for glucose with Fehling’s (A & B)
solutions. Hence all the cold drinks contain glucose.

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Test For Phosphate

Experiment:
Small samples of each brand of soft drinks were taken in separate test tubes and
Ammonium Molybdate followed by concentrated Nitric Acid (HNO3) was added to
it. The solution was heated

Observation:
Sr. No. Name Of The Observation Conclusion
Drink
1 Coca Cola Canary Yellow Phosphate is
Precipitate Present
2 Sprite Canary Yellow Phosphate is
Precipitate Present
3 Limca Canary Yellow Phosphate is
Precipitate Present
4 Fanta Canary Yellow Phosphate is
Precipitate Present

Inference:
All the soft drinks samples gave positive test for phosphate ions. Hence
all the cold drinks contain phosphate.

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Test For Alcohol

Experiment:
Small samples of each brand of cold drinks were taken in separate test tubes and
Iodine followed by Potassium Iodide and Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) solution was
added to each test tube. Then the test tubes were heated in hot water bath for 30
minutes. Appearance of yellow coloured precipitate confirmed the presence of
alcohol in cold drinks.

Observation:
Sr. No. Name Of Name Of The Observation Conclusion
The Drink Drink
1 Coca Cola Yellow Precipitate Alcohol is Present
2 Sprite Yellow Precipitate Alcohol is Present
3 Limca Yellow Precipitate Alcohol is Present
4 Fanta Yellow Precipitate Alcohol is Present

Inference:
All the cold drinks samples gave positive test for alcohol. Hence all the cold drinks
contain alcohol.

Chemical Reaction:
CH2CH2OH + 4I3 + 6NaOH → CHI3 + HCOONa + 5NaI + 5H2O

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Test for Sucrose

Experiment:
5 ml samples of each brand of Soft drinks were taken in separate china
dishes and were heated very strongly until changes occur.

Observation:
Sr.No Name of the Observation Conclusion
Drink
1 Coca Cola Black Residue Sucrose is Present
2 Sprite Black Residue Sucrose is Present
3 Limca Black Residue Sucrose is Present
4 Fanta Black Residue Sucrose is Present

Inference:
All the brands of Soft drinks contain sucrose. But amount of sucrose
varies in each brand of drink. Fanta contains highest amount of sucrose.

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Result
After conducting several tests, it was concluded that the different brands of soft
drinks namely:
1. Coca Cola
2. Sprite
3. Limca
4. Fanta
All contains glucose, alcohol, sucrose, phosphate and carbon dioxide. All cold
drinks are acidic in nature. On comparing the pH value of different brands o f soft
drinks, Coca Cola is the most acidic and Limca is least acidic of all the four brands
taken.
Among the four samples of soft drinks taken, Sprite has the maximum amount of
dissolved carbon dioxide and Fanta has the minimum amount of dissolved carbon
dioxide.

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Precautions
Some of the precautions which need to be taken care of are –
1.Concentrated solutions should be handled with immense care.
2. Hands should be washed thoroughly after performing each experiment.
3. If possible, one should wear hand gloves to prevent from any possible damage.
4. If chemicals come into contact with your skin or eyes, flush immediately with
copious amounts of water.
5. Never leave burners unattended. Turn them off whenever you leave your
workstation.
6. Never point a test tube or any vessel that you are heating at yourself or your
neighbor.

DIS-ADVANTAGES OF SOFT DRINKS:


1. Soft drinks are little more harmful than sugar solution. As
they contain sugar in large amount which can lead to a lot of. For example
diabetes.
2. Soft drinks can cause weight gain as they interfere with the
body’s natural ability to suppress hunger feeling.
3. Soft drinks have ability to dissolve calcium. Hence they are
harmful for our bones.
4. Soft drinks contain “phosphoric acid” which has a pH of 2.8.
It can dissolve a nail in about 4 days.

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USES OF SOFT DRINKS


1. Cold drinks can be used as toilet cleaners.
2. They can remove rust spots from chrome car humpers.
3. They clean corrosion from car battery terminals.
4. Soft drinks are used as an excellent ‘detergent’ to remove grease from clothes.
5. They can loose a rusted bolt.

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Bibliography:

1. “Soft Drink.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 6 May 2019,


en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soft_drink.
2. “Soft Drinks.” The Coca-Cola Company, www.coca-
colacompany.com/stories/soft-drinks.
3. “Class 12: Chemistry: ChemistryI.” Download NCERT/CBSE Book: Class
12: Chemistry: ChemistryI,
ncertbooks.prashanthellina.com/class_12.Chemistry.ChemistryI/index.htm
l.
4. “What Are the Ingredients in Soft Drinks? | Non-Alcoholic Beverages &
Health.” Sharecare, www.sharecare.com/health/non-alcoholic-
drinking/what-are-ingredients-soft-drinks.

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