Sie sind auf Seite 1von 33

es

ss
C la
h t
ig
RC Revision N
Night Classes

Pre-Session Test Link


https://www.flexiquiz.com/SC/N/RC
Perceived Difficulty Levels
%

s
Passage Genre Question Question Type
Correct Easy Easy - Moderate Moderate - Difficult
#1
#2
Interpretation
Interpretation
37%
81% Passage Genre
se
Question Question Type
%

s
Correct
Business
Red Bull

la
#3 Detail 68%
#19 Interpretation 71%

Perspective

Philosophy
Language
#4 Interpretation 63%

C
#20 Interpretation 63%
#5 Interpretation 21%
#6
#7
General
General
64%
56%

h t #21 Interpretation 23%

Philosophy
#22 General 62%

Intelligent
Computer
#8 Detail 72%

ig
Euthanasia

#23 Detail 79%


Ethics

#9 Detail 57%

N
#24 Interpretation 21%
#10 Interpretation 33%
#11 General 62%
#12 General 62%
#13 General 66%
# Questions
Private Education

# Questions
#14 Detail 89%
Education

Easy 5 General 7
#15 Interpretation 32%
#16 Interpretation 29% Easy –Moderate 11 Detail 5

#17 Interpretation 24% Moderate - Interpretation 12


8
Difficult
#18 General 58%
es
ss
RC 1 RC 2 RC l3a RC 4 RC 5

t C
gh
Session Flow
Ni
es
ss
RC 1 RC 2 RC l3a RC 4 RC 5

t C
Red Bull
Genre: Business
gh
Session Flow Words: 518

Question Ni Type % correct


#1 Interpretation 37%
#2 Interpretation 81%
#3 Detail 68%
#4 Interpretation 63%
#5 Interpretation 21%
#6 General 64%

Overall Difficulty : Moderate


The brain holds many secrets that admen would love to learn - But no consumer will ever tell you this. "Yeah, it’s OK – but

s
not least, how to change behaviour. Conventional economic could you make the drink more expensive and a little bit more Question 1

e
thinking would suggest it is easy to outcompete Coca-Cola. disgusting, please?" If we want to understand those black-box
You could produce a drink that tastes nicer; or make a drink parts of the brain, conventional research alone won’t cut it.

s
Which of the following best describes the
that tastes just as nice but make it cheaper; or produce an The black box operates through instinctive feelings rather

s
"placebo effect" of Red Bull outlined by the
equally nice-tasting drink but sell it in a bigger can. than thoughts or words, and is largely "opaque to
author?
introspection". Moreover, because it is the product of

la
No-one has ever managed to do this. Instead, the most evolution and not design, you must often start with
1) People prefer to buy more expensive
successful attempt to compete with Coca-Cola in the past 100 observable behaviours and reverse-engineer the underlying
and worse tasting drinks

C
years is Red Bull. This drink does none of the things economists mechanisms from there. Over the past few years, I have
recommend: it costs a fortune, comes in a very small can and become convinced that advertising or marketing is potentially

t
2) People are not affected by the taste of
tastes slightly disgusting (at least that was the universal verdict a kind of Galápagos Islands for understanding evolutionary
the drink, but by its price
in all early research). The reason for this glaring discrepancy is psychology. Just as the beaks of finches can reveal a great
that the part of the brain used to write economic papers is not
the part of the brain that chooses a drink. The part of my brain

gh
deal about physical evolution, so the patterns of human
consumerism can help us reverse engineer a better 3) People think that Red Bull will have
analgesic effects on them without proof

i
that causes me to chug a can of Red Bull on the way home understanding of what people really want, as distinct from
from work has a logic all of its own. It’s highly likely that we what they say they want. Amos Tversky, the late research
4) People think that Red Bull has a good

N
have a strong instinctive belief that drinks or foods that partner of Daniel Kahneman, remarked of his groundbreaking
taste which makes them forget that it is
perform a pharmacological function should not taste work that he "merely studied in a systematic way things about
disgusting
conventionally nice (I have always been unconvinced of the behaviour that were already known to advertisers and used-
efficacy of Nurofen Meltlets because they taste so delicious). car salesmen". Red Bull can tell you a lot about how people
Red Bull’s high price almost certainly maximises the placebo really choose a drink. In the same way Ray Kroc showed an
effect (analgesics are more effective when you tell people they extraordinary insight into the evolutionary psychology behind
are expensive). And the small can signals the drink’s potency: McDonald’s: "People don’t want the best burger in the world;
"They need the small can for my own safety since, if I were to they want a burger that’s just like the one they had last time."
drink a whole 330ml, I might go postal." We have evolved to like eating food we have survived eating
before.
The brain holds many secrets that admen would love to learn - But no consumer will ever tell you this. "Yeah, it’s OK – but

s
not least, how to change behaviour. Conventional economic could you make the drink more expensive and a little bit more Question 2

e
thinking would suggest it is easy to outcompete Coca-Cola. disgusting, please?" If we want to understand those black-box
You could produce a drink that tastes nicer; or make a drink parts of the brain, conventional research alone won’t cut it.

s
Which of the following can we infer from
that tastes just as nice but make it cheaper; or produce an The black box operates through instinctive feelings rather

s
the passage?
equally nice-tasting drink but sell it in a bigger can. than thoughts or words, and is largely "opaque to
introspection". Moreover, because it is the product of

la
1) he more expensive Red Bull is, the more
No-one has ever managed to do this. Instead, the most evolution and not design, you must often start with
likely the people are to buy it.
successful attempt to compete with Coca-Cola in the past 100 observable behaviours and reverse-engineer the underlying

C
years is Red Bull. This drink does none of the things economists mechanisms from there. Over the past few years, I have
2) To understand advertising one has to
recommend: it costs a fortune, comes in a very small can and become convinced that advertising or marketing is potentially

t
understand evolution.
tastes slightly disgusting (at least that was the universal verdict a kind of Galápagos Islands for understanding evolutionary
in all early research). The reason for this glaring discrepancy is psychology. Just as the beaks of finches can reveal a great

h
3) A person's choice of drink is
that the part of the brain used to write economic papers is not deal about physical evolution, so the patterns of human
determined by one's wish to experience

g
the part of the brain that chooses a drink. The part of my brain consumerism can help us reverse engineer a better
analgesic effects.

i
that causes me to chug a can of Red Bull on the way home understanding of what people really want, as distinct from
from work has a logic all of its own. It’s highly likely that we what they say they want. Amos Tversky, the late research
4) A person's choice of drink is not always

N
have a strong instinctive belief that drinks or foods that partner of Daniel Kahneman, remarked of his groundbreaking
determined by taste, but by
perform a pharmacological function should not taste work that he "merely studied in a systematic way things about
psychological influence
conventionally nice (I have always been unconvinced of the behaviour that were already known to advertisers and used-
efficacy of Nurofen Meltlets because they taste so delicious). car salesmen". Red Bull can tell you a lot about how people
Red Bull’s high price almost certainly maximises the placebo really choose a drink. In the same way Ray Kroc showed an
effect (analgesics are more effective when you tell people they extraordinary insight into the evolutionary psychology behind
are expensive). And the small can signals the drink’s potency: McDonald’s: "People don’t want the best burger in the world;
"They need the small can for my own safety since, if I were to they want a burger that’s just like the one they had last time."
drink a whole 330ml, I might go postal." We have evolved to like eating food we have survived eating
before.
The brain holds many secrets that admen would love to learn - But no consumer will ever tell you this. "Yeah, it’s OK – but

s
not least, how to change behaviour. Conventional economic could you make the drink more expensive and a little bit more Question 3

e
thinking would suggest it is easy to outcompete Coca-Cola. disgusting, please?" If we want to understand those black-box
You could produce a drink that tastes nicer; or make a drink parts of the brain, conventional research alone won’t cut it.

s
What is the claimed relation between
that tastes just as nice but make it cheaper; or produce an The black box operates through instinctive feelings rather

s
economics and consumers' purchases?
equally nice-tasting drink but sell it in a bigger can. than thoughts or words, and is largely "opaque to
introspection". Moreover, because it is the product of

la
1) There is no relation between economics
No-one has ever managed to do this. Instead, the most evolution and not design, you must often start with
and consumer purchases.
successful attempt to compete with Coca-Cola in the past 100 observable behaviours and reverse-engineer the underlying

C
years is Red Bull. This drink does none of the things economists mechanisms from there. Over the past few years, I have
2) Economics wrongly predicted
recommend: it costs a fortune, comes in a very small can and become convinced that advertising or marketing is potentially

t
consumers' preferences.
tastes slightly disgusting (at least that was the universal verdict a kind of Galápagos Islands for understanding evolutionary
in all early research). The reason for this glaring discrepancy is psychology. Just as the beaks of finches can reveal a great

h
3) Economists' drink choices are different
that the part of the brain used to write economic papers is not deal about physical evolution, so the patterns of human
from normal consumers' drink choices.

g
the part of the brain that chooses a drink. The part of my brain consumerism can help us reverse engineer a better

i
that causes me to chug a can of Red Bull on the way home understanding of what people really want, as distinct from
4) Economists' predictions are not based
from work has a logic all of its own. It’s highly likely that we what they say they want. Amos Tversky, the late research
on the same thinking process as that of

N
have a strong instinctive belief that drinks or foods that partner of Daniel Kahneman, remarked of his groundbreaking
consumers.
perform a pharmacological function should not taste work that he "merely studied in a systematic way things about
conventionally nice (I have always been unconvinced of the behaviour that were already known to advertisers and used-
efficacy of Nurofen Meltlets because they taste so delicious). car salesmen". Red Bull can tell you a lot about how people
Red Bull’s high price almost certainly maximises the placebo really choose a drink. In the same way Ray Kroc showed an
effect (analgesics are more effective when you tell people they extraordinary insight into the evolutionary psychology behind
are expensive). And the small can signals the drink’s potency: McDonald’s: "People don’t want the best burger in the world;
"They need the small can for my own safety since, if I were to they want a burger that’s just like the one they had last time."
drink a whole 330ml, I might go postal." We have evolved to like eating food we have survived eating
before.
The brain holds many secrets that admen would love to learn - But no consumer will ever tell you this. "Yeah, it’s OK – but

s
not least, how to change behaviour. Conventional economic could you make the drink more expensive and a little bit more Question 4

e
thinking would suggest it is easy to outcompete Coca-Cola. disgusting, please?" If we want to understand those black-box
You could produce a drink that tastes nicer; or make a drink parts of the brain, conventional research alone won’t cut it.

s
The author suggests that the consumers'
that tastes just as nice but make it cheaper; or produce an The black box operates through instinctive feelings rather

s
response to a conventional customer
equally nice-tasting drink but sell it in a bigger can. than thoughts or words, and is largely "opaque to
research question is:
introspection". Moreover, because it is the product of

la
No-one has ever managed to do this. Instead, the most evolution and not design, you must often start with
1) not entirely reliable.
successful attempt to compete with Coca-Cola in the past 100 observable behaviours and reverse-engineer the underlying

C
years is Red Bull. This drink does none of the things economists mechanisms from there. Over the past few years, I have
2) more or less accurate.
recommend: it costs a fortune, comes in a very small can and become convinced that advertising or marketing is potentially

t
tastes slightly disgusting (at least that was the universal verdict a kind of Galápagos Islands for understanding evolutionary
3) a marketing gimmick.
in all early research). The reason for this glaring discrepancy is psychology. Just as the beaks of finches can reveal a great
that the part of the brain used to write economic papers is not
the part of the brain that chooses a drink. The part of my brain

gh
deal about physical evolution, so the patterns of human
consumerism can help us reverse engineer a better 4) reflects their well thought out response.

i
that causes me to chug a can of Red Bull on the way home understanding of what people really want, as distinct from
from work has a logic all of its own. It’s highly likely that we what they say they want. Amos Tversky, the late research

N
have a strong instinctive belief that drinks or foods that partner of Daniel Kahneman, remarked of his groundbreaking
perform a pharmacological function should not taste work that he "merely studied in a systematic way things about
conventionally nice (I have always been unconvinced of the behaviour that were already known to advertisers and used-
efficacy of Nurofen Meltlets because they taste so delicious). car salesmen". Red Bull can tell you a lot about how people
Red Bull’s high price almost certainly maximises the placebo really choose a drink. In the same way Ray Kroc showed an
effect (analgesics are more effective when you tell people they extraordinary insight into the evolutionary psychology behind
are expensive). And the small can signals the drink’s potency: McDonald’s: "People don’t want the best burger in the world;
"They need the small can for my own safety since, if I were to they want a burger that’s just like the one they had last time."
drink a whole 330ml, I might go postal." We have evolved to like eating food we have survived eating
before.
The brain holds many secrets that admen would love to learn - But no consumer will ever tell you this. "Yeah, it’s OK – but

s
not least, how to change behaviour. Conventional economic could you make the drink more expensive and a little bit more Question 5

e
thinking would suggest it is easy to outcompete Coca-Cola. disgusting, please?" If we want to understand those black-box
You could produce a drink that tastes nicer; or make a drink parts of the brain, conventional research alone won’t cut it.

s
According to the passage, which of the
that tastes just as nice but make it cheaper; or produce an The black box operates through instinctive feelings rather

s
following best explains the significance of
equally nice-tasting drink but sell it in a bigger can. than thoughts or words, and is largely "opaque to
Galapagos islands?
introspection". Moreover, because it is the product of

la
No-one has ever managed to do this. Instead, the most evolution and not design, you must often start with
1) It revealed a lot about evolutionary
successful attempt to compete with Coca-Cola in the past 100 observable behaviours and reverse-engineer the underlying
psychology.

C
years is Red Bull. This drink does none of the things economists mechanisms from there. Over the past few years, I have
recommend: it costs a fortune, comes in a very small can and become convinced that advertising or marketing is potentially

t
2) It revealed a lot about physical
tastes slightly disgusting (at least that was the universal verdict a kind of Galápagos Islands for understanding evolutionary
evolution.
in all early research). The reason for this glaring discrepancy is psychology. Just as the beaks of finches can reveal a great
that the part of the brain used to write economic papers is not
the part of the brain that chooses a drink. The part of my brain

gh
deal about physical evolution, so the patterns of human
consumerism can help us reverse engineer a better 3) It can help better understand human
consumerism.

i
that causes me to chug a can of Red Bull on the way home understanding of what people really want, as distinct from
from work has a logic all of its own. It’s highly likely that we what they say they want. Amos Tversky, the late research
4) It revealed a great deal about reverse

N
have a strong instinctive belief that drinks or foods that partner of Daniel Kahneman, remarked of his groundbreaking
engineering.
perform a pharmacological function should not taste work that he "merely studied in a systematic way things about
conventionally nice (I have always been unconvinced of the behaviour that were already known to advertisers and used-
efficacy of Nurofen Meltlets because they taste so delicious). car salesmen". Red Bull can tell you a lot about how people
Red Bull’s high price almost certainly maximises the placebo really choose a drink. In the same way Ray Kroc showed an
effect (analgesics are more effective when you tell people they extraordinary insight into the evolutionary psychology behind
are expensive). And the small can signals the drink’s potency: McDonald’s: "People don’t want the best burger in the world;
"They need the small can for my own safety since, if I were to they want a burger that’s just like the one they had last time."
drink a whole 330ml, I might go postal." We have evolved to like eating food we have survived eating
before.
The brain holds many secrets that admen would love to learn - But no consumer will ever tell you this. "Yeah, it’s OK – but

s
not least, how to change behaviour. Conventional economic could you make the drink more expensive and a little bit more Question 6

e
thinking would suggest it is easy to outcompete Coca-Cola. disgusting, please?" If we want to understand those black-box
You could produce a drink that tastes nicer; or make a drink parts of the brain, conventional research alone won’t cut it.

s
Which one of the following sentences from
that tastes just as nice but make it cheaper; or produce an The black box operates through instinctive feelings rather

s
last paragraph is its topic sentence?
equally nice-tasting drink but sell it in a bigger can. than thoughts or words, and is largely "opaque to
introspection". Moreover, because it is the product of

la
1) If we want to understand those black-
No-one has ever managed to do this. Instead, the most evolution and not design, you must often start with
box parts of the brain, conventional
successful attempt to compete with Coca-Cola in the past 100 observable behaviours and reverse-engineer the underlying
research alone won’t cut it.

C
years is Red Bull. This drink does none of the things economists mechanisms from there. Over the past few years, I have
recommend: it costs a fortune, comes in a very small can and become convinced that advertising or marketing is potentially

t
2) We have evolved to like eating food we
tastes slightly disgusting (at least that was the universal verdict a kind of Galápagos Islands for understanding evolutionary
have survived eating before.
in all early research). The reason for this glaring discrepancy is psychology. Just as the beaks of finches can reveal a great
that the part of the brain used to write economic papers is not
the part of the brain that chooses a drink. The part of my brain

gh
deal about physical evolution, so the patterns of human
consumerism can help us reverse engineer a better 3) Patterns of human consumerism can
help us reverse engineer a better

i
that causes me to chug a can of Red Bull on the way home understanding of what people really want, as distinct from
understanding of what people really
from work has a logic all of its own. It’s highly likely that we what they say they want. Amos Tversky, the late research
want, as distinct from what they say

N
have a strong instinctive belief that drinks or foods that partner of Daniel Kahneman, remarked of his groundbreaking
they want.
perform a pharmacological function should not taste work that he "merely studied in a systematic way things about
conventionally nice (I have always been unconvinced of the behaviour that were already known to advertisers and used-
4) The black box operates through
efficacy of Nurofen Meltlets because they taste so delicious). car salesmen". Red Bull can tell you a lot about how people
instinctive feelings rather than thoughts
Red Bull’s high price almost certainly maximises the placebo really choose a drink. In the same way Ray Kroc showed an
or words, and is largely "opaque to
effect (analgesics are more effective when you tell people they extraordinary insight into the evolutionary psychology behind
introspection".
are expensive). And the small can signals the drink’s potency: McDonald’s: "People don’t want the best burger in the world;
"They need the small can for my own safety since, if I were to they want a burger that’s just like the one they had last time."
drink a whole 330ml, I might go postal." We have evolved to like eating food we have survived eating
before.
es
ss
RC 1 RC 2 RC l3a RC 4 RC 5

t C
Euthanasia
Genre: Ethics
gh
Session Flow Words: 671

Question Ni Type % correct


#7 General 56%
#8 Detail 72%
#9 Detail 57%
#10 Interpretation 33%
#11 General 62%
#12 General 62%
Overall Difficulty : Moderate
The word euthanasia is of Greek origin and literally means “a good withhold life- sustaining care may be made not only by close family

s
death.” The American Heritage Dictionary defines it as “the act of members but also by a number of third parties, and that such Question 7
killing a person painlessly for reasons of mercy.” Such killing can be decisions need not be reviewed by the judicial system if there is no
done through active means, such as administering a lethal injection,
or by passive means, such as withholding medical care or food and

se
disagreement between decision makers and medical staff. The
court went so far as to rule that a nursing home may not refuse to The tone of the author can be best

s
water. participate in the fatal withdrawal of food and water from an described as
incompetent patient!

la
In recent years in the United States, there have been numerous cases 1) pleading
of active euthanasia in the news. They usually involve the deliberate “Extraordinary” or “heroic” treatment need not be used when the
killing of ill or incapacitated persons by relatives or friends who chance for recovery is poor and medical intervention would serve
2) compassionate

C
plead that they can no longer bear to see their loved ones suffer. only to prolong the dying process. But to deny customary and
Although such killings are a crime, the perpetrators are often dealt reasonable care or to deliberately starve or dehydrate someone

t
with leniently by our legal system, and the media usually portrays because he or she is very old or very ill should not be permitted. 3) emphatic
them as compassionate heroes who take personal risks to save Most of the cases coming before the courts do not involve

h
another from unbearable suffering. withholding heroic measures from imminently dying people, but 4) belligerent
rather they seek approval for denying basic care, such as
The seeming acceptance of active forms of euthanasia is alarming,
but we face a bigger, more insidious threat from passive forms of
euthanasia. Every year, in hospitals and nursing homes around the
ig
administration of food and water, to people who are not elderly or
terminally ill, but who are permanently incapacitated. These people
could be expected to live indefinitely, though in an impaired state,

N
country, there are growing numbers of documented deaths caused if they were given food and water and minimal treatment.
by caregivers withholding life- sustaining care, including food and
water, from vulnerable patients who cannot speak for themselves. No one has the right to judge that another’s life is not worth living.
The basic right to life should not be abridged because someone
While it is illegal to kill someone directly, for example with a gun or decides that someone else’s quality of life is too low. If we base the
knife, in many cases the law has put its stamp of approval on causing right to life on quality of life standards, there is no logical place to
death by omitting needed care. Further, many states have “living draw the line.
will” laws designed to protect those who withhold treatment, and
there have been numerous court rulings which have approved of To protect vulnerable patients, we must foster more positive
patients being denied care and even starved and dehydrated to attitudes towards people with serious and incapacitating illnesses
death. and conditions. Despite the ravages of their diseases, they are still
our fellow human beings and deserve our care and respect. We
Because such deaths occur quietly within the confines of hospitals must also enact positive legislation that will protect vulnerable
and nursing homes, they can be kept hidden from the public. Most people from those who consider their lives meaningless or too
euthanasia victims are old or very ill, so their deaths might be costly to maintain and who would cause their deaths by
attributed to a cause other than the denial of care that really killed withholding life-sustaining care such as food and water.
them. Further, it is often relatives of the patient who request that
care be withheld. In one court case, the court held that decisions to
The word euthanasia is of Greek origin and literally means “a good withhold life- sustaining care may be made not only by close family

s
death.” The American Heritage Dictionary defines it as “the act of members but also by a number of third parties, and that such Question 8
killing a person painlessly for reasons of mercy.” Such killing can be decisions need not be reviewed by the judicial system if there is no
done through active means, such as administering a lethal injection,
or by passive means, such as withholding medical care or food and

se
disagreement between decision makers and medical staff. The
court went so far as to rule that a nursing home may not refuse to In paragraph 3, the author finds starvation

s
water. participate in the fatal withdrawal of food and water from an and dehydration induced euthanasia is to
incompetent patient! be “more insidious" because

la
In recent years in the United States, there have been numerous cases
of active euthanasia in the news. They usually involve the deliberate “Extraordinary” or “heroic” treatment need not be used when the 1) euthanasia is legally considered to be a
killing of ill or incapacitated persons by relatives or friends who chance for recovery is poor and medical intervention would serve
criminal act

C
plead that they can no longer bear to see their loved ones suffer. only to prolong the dying process. But to deny customary and
Although such killings are a crime, the perpetrators are often dealt reasonable care or to deliberately starve or dehydrate someone

t
with leniently by our legal system, and the media usually portrays because he or she is very old or very ill should not be permitted. 2) the public’s attitude toward euthanasia
them as compassionate heroes who take personal risks to save Most of the cases coming before the courts do not involve is becoming more positive

h
another from unbearable suffering. withholding heroic measures from imminently dying people, but
rather they seek approval for denying basic care, such as 3) it often involves those who cannot
The seeming acceptance of active forms of euthanasia is alarming,
but we face a bigger, more insidious threat from passive forms of
euthanasia. Every year, in hospitals and nursing homes around the
ig
administration of food and water, to people who are not elderly or
terminally ill, but who are permanently incapacitated. These people
could be expected to live indefinitely, though in an impaired state,
protest

4) its perpetrators are viewed as kindly

N
country, there are growing numbers of documented deaths caused if they were given food and water and minimal treatment. caregivers
by caregivers withholding life- sustaining care, including food and
water, from vulnerable patients who cannot speak for themselves. No one has the right to judge that another’s life is not worth living.
The basic right to life should not be abridged because someone
While it is illegal to kill someone directly, for example with a gun or decides that someone else’s quality of life is too low. If we base the
knife, in many cases the law has put its stamp of approval on causing right to life on quality of life standards, there is no logical place to
death by omitting needed care. Further, many states have “living draw the line.
will” laws designed to protect those who withhold treatment, and
there have been numerous court rulings which have approved of To protect vulnerable patients, we must foster more positive
patients being denied care and even starved and dehydrated to attitudes towards people with serious and incapacitating illnesses
death. and conditions. Despite the ravages of their diseases, they are still
our fellow human beings and deserve our care and respect. We
Because such deaths occur quietly within the confines of hospitals must also enact positive legislation that will protect vulnerable
and nursing homes, they can be kept hidden from the public. Most people from those who consider their lives meaningless or too
euthanasia victims are old or very ill, so their deaths might be costly to maintain and who would cause their deaths by
attributed to a cause other than the denial of care that really killed withholding life-sustaining care such as food and water.
them. Further, it is often relatives of the patient who request that
care be withheld. In one court case, the court held that decisions to
The word euthanasia is of Greek origin and literally means “a good withhold life- sustaining care may be made not only by close family

s
death.” The American Heritage Dictionary defines it as “the act of members but also by a number of third parties, and that such Question 9
killing a person painlessly for reasons of mercy.” Such killing can be decisions need not be reviewed by the judicial system if there is no
done through active means, such as administering a lethal injection,
or by passive means, such as withholding medical care or food and

se
disagreement between decision makers and medical staff. The
court went so far as to rule that a nursing home may not refuse to The author maintains that death by

s
water. participate in the fatal withdrawal of food and water from an withholding care is
incompetent patient!

la
In recent years in the United States, there have been numerous cases 1) largely confined to hospitals
of active euthanasia in the news. They usually involve the deliberate “Extraordinary” or “heroic” treatment need not be used when the
killing of ill or incapacitated persons by relatives or friends who chance for recovery is poor and medical intervention would serve
2) largely confined to the terminally ill

C
plead that they can no longer bear to see their loved ones suffer. only to prolong the dying process. But to deny customary and
Although such killings are a crime, the perpetrators are often dealt reasonable care or to deliberately starve or dehydrate someone

t
with leniently by our legal system, and the media usually portrays because he or she is very old or very ill should not be permitted. 3) often requested by family members
them as compassionate heroes who take personal risks to save Most of the cases coming before the courts do not involve

h
another from unbearable suffering. withholding heroic measures from imminently dying people, but 4) difficult to prove if prosecuted
rather they seek approval for denying basic care, such as
The seeming acceptance of active forms of euthanasia is alarming,
but we face a bigger, more insidious threat from passive forms of
euthanasia. Every year, in hospitals and nursing homes around the
ig
administration of food and water, to people who are not elderly or
terminally ill, but who are permanently incapacitated. These people
could be expected to live indefinitely, though in an impaired state,

N
country, there are growing numbers of documented deaths caused if they were given food and water and minimal treatment.
by caregivers withholding life- sustaining care, including food and
water, from vulnerable patients who cannot speak for themselves. No one has the right to judge that another’s life is not worth living.
The basic right to life should not be abridged because someone
While it is illegal to kill someone directly, for example with a gun or decides that someone else’s quality of life is too low. If we base the
knife, in many cases the law has put its stamp of approval on causing right to life on quality of life standards, there is no logical place to
death by omitting needed care. Further, many states have “living draw the line.
will” laws designed to protect those who withhold treatment, and
there have been numerous court rulings which have approved of To protect vulnerable patients, we must foster more positive
patients being denied care and even starved and dehydrated to attitudes towards people with serious and incapacitating illnesses
death. and conditions. Despite the ravages of their diseases, they are still
our fellow human beings and deserve our care and respect. We
Because such deaths occur quietly within the confines of hospitals must also enact positive legislation that will protect vulnerable
and nursing homes, they can be kept hidden from the public. Most people from those who consider their lives meaningless or too
euthanasia victims are old or very ill, so their deaths might be costly to maintain and who would cause their deaths by
attributed to a cause other than the denial of care that really killed withholding life-sustaining care such as food and water.
them. Further, it is often relatives of the patient who request that
care be withheld. In one court case, the court held that decisions to
The word euthanasia is of Greek origin and literally means “a good withhold life- sustaining care may be made not only by close family

s
death.” The American Heritage Dictionary defines it as “the act of members but also by a number of third parties, and that such Question 10
killing a person painlessly for reasons of mercy.” Such killing can be decisions need not be reviewed by the judicial system if there is no
done through active means, such as administering a lethal injection,
or by passive means, such as withholding medical care or food and

se
disagreement between decision makers and medical staff. The
court went so far as to rule that a nursing home may not refuse to Using the passage as a guide, it can be

s
water. participate in the fatal withdrawal of food and water from an inferred that the author would find
incompetent patient! euthanasia less objectionable in cases in

la
In recent years in the United States, there have been numerous cases which
of active euthanasia in the news. They usually involve the deliberate “Extraordinary” or “heroic” treatment need not be used when the
killing of ill or incapacitated persons by relatives or friends who chance for recovery is poor and medical intervention would serve
I. the patient’s death is imminent

C
plead that they can no longer bear to see their loved ones suffer. only to prolong the dying process. But to deny customary and
Although such killings are a crime, the perpetrators are often dealt reasonable care or to deliberately starve or dehydrate someone

t
with leniently by our legal system, and the media usually portrays because he or she is very old or very ill should not be permitted. II. the patient has left instructions in a
them as compassionate heroes who take personal risks to save Most of the cases coming before the courts do not involve living will not to provide care

h
another from unbearable suffering. withholding heroic measures from imminently dying people, but
rather they seek approval for denying basic care, such as III. the patient refuses to accept
The seeming acceptance of active forms of euthanasia is alarming,
but we face a bigger, more insidious threat from passive forms of
euthanasia. Every year, in hospitals and nursing homes around the
ig
administration of food and water, to people who are not elderly or
terminally ill, but who are permanently incapacitated. These people
could be expected to live indefinitely, though in an impaired state, 1)
nourishment

I and III only

N
country, there are growing numbers of documented deaths caused if they were given food and water and minimal treatment. 2) I and II only
by caregivers withholding life- sustaining care, including food and 3) II and III only
water, from vulnerable patients who cannot speak for themselves. No one has the right to judge that another’s life is not worth living.
4) I, II, and III
The basic right to life should not be abridged because someone
While it is illegal to kill someone directly, for example with a gun or decides that someone else’s quality of life is too low. If we base the
knife, in many cases the law has put its stamp of approval on causing right to life on quality of life standards, there is no logical place to
death by omitting needed care. Further, many states have “living draw the line.
will” laws designed to protect those who withhold treatment, and
there have been numerous court rulings which have approved of To protect vulnerable patients, we must foster more positive
patients being denied care and even starved and dehydrated to attitudes towards people with serious and incapacitating illnesses
death. and conditions. Despite the ravages of their diseases, they are still
our fellow human beings and deserve our care and respect. We
Because such deaths occur quietly within the confines of hospitals must also enact positive legislation that will protect vulnerable
and nursing homes, they can be kept hidden from the public. Most people from those who consider their lives meaningless or too
euthanasia victims are old or very ill, so their deaths might be costly to maintain and who would cause their deaths by
attributed to a cause other than the denial of care that really killed withholding life-sustaining care such as food and water.
them. Further, it is often relatives of the patient who request that
care be withheld. In one court case, the court held that decisions to
The word euthanasia is of Greek origin and literally means “a good withhold life- sustaining care may be made not only by close family

s
death.” The American Heritage Dictionary defines it as “the act of members but also by a number of third parties, and that such Question 11
killing a person painlessly for reasons of mercy.” Such killing can be decisions need not be reviewed by the judicial system if there is no
done through active means, such as administering a lethal injection,
or by passive means, such as withholding medical care or food and

se
disagreement between decision makers and medical staff. The
court went so far as to rule that a nursing home may not refuse to The main idea of paragraph 7 is that

s
water. participate in the fatal withdrawal of food and water from an
incompetent patient! 1) lawyers will be unable to prosecute or

la
In recent years in the United States, there have been numerous cases defend caregivers
of active euthanasia in the news. They usually involve the deliberate “Extraordinary” or “heroic” treatment need not be used when the
killing of ill or incapacitated persons by relatives or friends who chance for recovery is poor and medical intervention would serve
2) no comprehensive right or wrong

C
plead that they can no longer bear to see their loved ones suffer. only to prolong the dying process. But to deny customary and
definition of euthanasia will exist
Although such killings are a crime, the perpetrators are often dealt reasonable care or to deliberately starve or dehydrate someone

t
with leniently by our legal system, and the media usually portrays because he or she is very old or very ill should not be permitted.
them as compassionate heroes who take personal risks to save Most of the cases coming before the courts do not involve 3) using a subjective standard will make

h
another from unbearable suffering. withholding heroic measures from imminently dying people, but the decision to end an individual’s life
rather they seek approval for denying basic care, such as arbitrary
The seeming acceptance of active forms of euthanasia is alarming,
but we face a bigger, more insidious threat from passive forms of
euthanasia. Every year, in hospitals and nursing homes around the
ig
administration of food and water, to people who are not elderly or
terminally ill, but who are permanently incapacitated. These people
could be expected to live indefinitely, though in an impaired state,
4) no boundary will exist between
euthanasia and care omission

N
country, there are growing numbers of documented deaths caused if they were given food and water and minimal treatment.
by caregivers withholding life- sustaining care, including food and
water, from vulnerable patients who cannot speak for themselves. No one has the right to judge that another’s life is not worth living.
The basic right to life should not be abridged because someone
While it is illegal to kill someone directly, for example with a gun or decides that someone else’s quality of life is too low. If we base the
knife, in many cases the law has put its stamp of approval on causing right to life on quality of life standards, there is no logical place to
death by omitting needed care. Further, many states have “living draw the line.
will” laws designed to protect those who withhold treatment, and
there have been numerous court rulings which have approved of To protect vulnerable patients, we must foster more positive
patients being denied care and even starved and dehydrated to attitudes towards people with serious and incapacitating illnesses
death. and conditions. Despite the ravages of their diseases, they are still
our fellow human beings and deserve our care and respect. We
Because such deaths occur quietly within the confines of hospitals must also enact positive legislation that will protect vulnerable
and nursing homes, they can be kept hidden from the public. Most people from those who consider their lives meaningless or too
euthanasia victims are old or very ill, so their deaths might be costly to maintain and who would cause their deaths by
attributed to a cause other than the denial of care that really killed withholding life-sustaining care such as food and water.
them. Further, it is often relatives of the patient who request that
care be withheld. In one court case, the court held that decisions to
The word euthanasia is of Greek origin and literally means “a good withhold life- sustaining care may be made not only by close family

s
death.” The American Heritage Dictionary defines it as “the act of members but also by a number of third parties, and that such Question 12
killing a person painlessly for reasons of mercy.” Such killing can be decisions need not be reviewed by the judicial system if there is no
done through active means, such as administering a lethal injection,
or by passive means, such as withholding medical care or food and

se
disagreement between decision makers and medical staff. The
court went so far as to rule that a nursing home may not refuse to In the final paragraph the author writes,

s
water. participate in the fatal withdrawal of food and water from an "Despite the ravages of their diseases, they
incompetent patient! are still our fellow human beings and

la
In recent years in the United States, there have been numerous cases deserve our care and respect." The main
of active euthanasia in the news. They usually involve the deliberate “Extraordinary” or “heroic” treatment need not be used when the purpose of this statement is to
killing of ill or incapacitated persons by relatives or friends who chance for recovery is poor and medical intervention would serve

C
plead that they can no longer bear to see their loved ones suffer. only to prolong the dying process. But to deny customary and
1) illustrate an example
Although such killings are a crime, the perpetrators are often dealt reasonable care or to deliberately starve or dehydrate someone

t
with leniently by our legal system, and the media usually portrays because he or she is very old or very ill should not be permitted.
them as compassionate heroes who take personal risks to save Most of the cases coming before the courts do not involve 2) gainsay a later statement

h
another from unbearable suffering. withholding heroic measures from imminently dying people, but
rather they seek approval for denying basic care, such as 3) object to a larger idea
The seeming acceptance of active forms of euthanasia is alarming,
but we face a bigger, more insidious threat from passive forms of
euthanasia. Every year, in hospitals and nursing homes around the
ig
administration of food and water, to people who are not elderly or
terminally ill, but who are permanently incapacitated. These people
could be expected to live indefinitely, though in an impaired state,
4) justify an earlier statement

N
country, there are growing numbers of documented deaths caused if they were given food and water and minimal treatment.
by caregivers withholding life- sustaining care, including food and
water, from vulnerable patients who cannot speak for themselves. No one has the right to judge that another’s life is not worth living.
The basic right to life should not be abridged because someone
While it is illegal to kill someone directly, for example with a gun or decides that someone else’s quality of life is too low. If we base the
knife, in many cases the law has put its stamp of approval on causing right to life on quality of life standards, there is no logical place to
death by omitting needed care. Further, many states have “living draw the line.
will” laws designed to protect those who withhold treatment, and
there have been numerous court rulings which have approved of To protect vulnerable patients, we must foster more positive
patients being denied care and even starved and dehydrated to attitudes towards people with serious and incapacitating illnesses
death. and conditions. Despite the ravages of their diseases, they are still
our fellow human beings and deserve our care and respect. We
Because such deaths occur quietly within the confines of hospitals must also enact positive legislation that will protect vulnerable
and nursing homes, they can be kept hidden from the public. Most people from those who consider their lives meaningless or too
euthanasia victims are old or very ill, so their deaths might be costly to maintain and who would cause their deaths by
attributed to a cause other than the denial of care that really killed withholding life-sustaining care such as food and water.
them. Further, it is often relatives of the patient who request that
care be withheld. In one court case, the court held that decisions to
es
ss
RC 1 RC 2 RC l3a RC 4 RC 5

t C
Genre: Education
gh
Private School vs Public Good

Session Flow Words: 540

Question Ni Type % correct


#13 General 66%
#14 Detail 89%
#15 Interpretation 32%
#16 Interpretation 29%
#17 Interpretation 24%
#18 General 58%
Overall Difficulty : Moderate to Difficult
What is the relationship between private schools and the public they can bring to bear on social and economic life? These are

s
good? Opinions tend to be shaped chiefly by philosophical the questions that we must answer if educating students Question 13

e
commitment to either individual choice or communal welfare. matters. But if education is merely a positional good, we need
Arguments rarely examine the tension between private schools only ask: are their credentials perceived as more valuable than

s
Which of the following best describes the
and the public good, or address whether it can be resolved. the credentials possessed by others? This approach

s
main point of the passage?
undermines learning for all parties, including those enrolled
At the root of that tension is the issue of status competition. at high-prestige schools.

la
1) Private schools must discontinue a
Families in the United States choose private schools for many
system of positional advantage and
reasons, religious affiliation historically first among them. But The second reason that status competition conflicts with the
pursue a goal of public good.

C
for many parents, enrolling their children in private school is public good is that if status is the aim, there must be losers –
primarily about giving them an edge over their peers. And that, lots of them. After all, if we are all roughly the same, there is

t
2) The pursuit of a positional advantage
it turns out, is incompatible with the public good. When status no difference upon which to base unequal distribution of
by the private schools undermines
is the chief aim of schooling, as it so often is in private social and economic rewards. Thus, a valuable education is

h
public good.
education, everyone ends up suffering – even the privileged. not only predicated upon something tangential to real

g
learning, but also requires that a majority of young people
3) Public schools, in contrast with private

i
Parents at all kinds of schools desire a broad and humanistic draw short straws.
schools, do not pursue a goal of
education for their children. But private school tuition is often
positional advantage.

N
justified by the idea that it will produce a return on investment. As inequality pulls at the seams of the social fabric of the
Private schools, then, face tremendous pressure to provide developed world, private schools have faced strong criticism
4) Public schools must work to include a
students with an advantage over others, particularly on the for their role in reproducing advantage. If they are going to
broad representation of the public to
admissions rolls of prestigious colleges and universities. This, in make a case for their existence, they need to resist the
achieve the goal of public good.
turn, situates education as a very particular kind of commodity inherent contradiction between the private good and the
– what economists call a positional good. The value of a public good that status competition engenders. As long as
positional good is dictated not by any inherent worth, but such schools remain well-situated to pursue a positional
rather by its relation to what is possessed by others. And this advantage – standing apart from the public system in the
directly undermines the public good in two ways. marketplace, as they do, with the ability to present themselves
as a higher-prestige alternative for a higher-prestige clientele
First, if the purpose of school is to give students an advantage – they will need to intentionally cultivate a relationship with
over others, then the content of education is largely the public good.
unimportant. When we conceive of education as a public good,
by contrast, learning is the only thing that matters. Are young
people learning to be citizens and functional members of the
community? Do they have interesting and valuable skills that
What is the relationship between private schools and the public they can bring to bear on social and economic life? These are

s
good? Opinions tend to be shaped chiefly by philosophical the questions that we must answer if educating students Question 14

e
commitment to either individual choice or communal welfare. matters. But if education is merely a positional good, we need
Arguments rarely examine the tension between private schools only ask: are their credentials perceived as more valuable than

s
In the conception of education as a public
and the public good, or address whether it can be resolved. the credentials possessed by others? This approach

s
good:
undermines learning for all parties, including those enrolled
At the root of that tension is the issue of status competition. at high-prestige schools.

la
1) there is no other thing that matters as
Families in the United States choose private schools for many
much as learning.
reasons, religious affiliation historically first among them. But The second reason that status competition conflicts with the

C
for many parents, enrolling their children in private school is public good is that if status is the aim, there must be losers –
2) credentials should be given due
primarily about giving them an edge over their peers. And that, lots of them. After all, if we are all roughly the same, there is

t
importance.
it turns out, is incompatible with the public good. When status no difference upon which to base unequal distribution of
is the chief aim of schooling, as it so often is in private social and economic rewards. Thus, a valuable education is

h
3) quality of education is the only thing
education, everyone ends up suffering – even the privileged. not only predicated upon something tangential to real
that matters.

g
learning, but also requires that a majority of young people

i
Parents at all kinds of schools desire a broad and humanistic draw short straws.
4) competition between students is
education for their children. But private school tuition is often
eliminated.

N
justified by the idea that it will produce a return on investment. As inequality pulls at the seams of the social fabric of the
Private schools, then, face tremendous pressure to provide developed world, private schools have faced strong criticism
students with an advantage over others, particularly on the for their role in reproducing advantage. If they are going to
admissions rolls of prestigious colleges and universities. This, in make a case for their existence, they need to resist the
turn, situates education as a very particular kind of commodity inherent contradiction between the private good and the
– what economists call a positional good. The value of a public good that status competition engenders. As long as
positional good is dictated not by any inherent worth, but such schools remain well-situated to pursue a positional
rather by its relation to what is possessed by others. And this advantage – standing apart from the public system in the
directly undermines the public good in two ways. marketplace, as they do, with the ability to present themselves
as a higher-prestige alternative for a higher-prestige clientele
First, if the purpose of school is to give students an advantage – they will need to intentionally cultivate a relationship with
over others, then the content of education is largely the public good.
unimportant. When we conceive of education as a public good,
by contrast, learning is the only thing that matters. Are young
people learning to be citizens and functional members of the
community? Do they have interesting and valuable skills that
What is the relationship between private schools and the public they can bring to bear on social and economic life? These are

s
good? Opinions tend to be shaped chiefly by philosophical the questions that we must answer if educating students Question 15

e
commitment to either individual choice or communal welfare. matters. But if education is merely a positional good, we need
Arguments rarely examine the tension between private schools only ask: are their credentials perceived as more valuable than

s
Which of the following best describes the
and the public good, or address whether it can be resolved. the credentials possessed by others? This approach

s
phrase ‘draw short straws’?
undermines learning for all parties, including those enrolled
At the root of that tension is the issue of status competition. at high-prestige schools.

la
1) Persons regarded as having no
Families in the United States choose private schools for many
substance or integrity.
reasons, religious affiliation historically first among them. But The second reason that status competition conflicts with the

C
for many parents, enrolling their children in private school is public good is that if status is the aim, there must be losers –
2) To take short-cuts in a difficult task.
primarily about giving them an edge over their peers. And that, lots of them. After all, if we are all roughly the same, there is

t
it turns out, is incompatible with the public good. When status no difference upon which to base unequal distribution of
3) To take desperate attempts to salvage a
is the chief aim of schooling, as it so often is in private social and economic rewards. Thus, a valuable education is

h
situation.
education, everyone ends up suffering – even the privileged. not only predicated upon something tangential to real

g
learning, but also requires that a majority of young people
4) Be the unluckiest of a group of people.

i
Parents at all kinds of schools desire a broad and humanistic draw short straws.
education for their children. But private school tuition is often

N
justified by the idea that it will produce a return on investment. As inequality pulls at the seams of the social fabric of the
Private schools, then, face tremendous pressure to provide developed world, private schools have faced strong criticism
students with an advantage over others, particularly on the for their role in reproducing advantage. If they are going to
admissions rolls of prestigious colleges and universities. This, in make a case for their existence, they need to resist the
turn, situates education as a very particular kind of commodity inherent contradiction between the private good and the
– what economists call a positional good. The value of a public good that status competition engenders. As long as
positional good is dictated not by any inherent worth, but such schools remain well-situated to pursue a positional
rather by its relation to what is possessed by others. And this advantage – standing apart from the public system in the
directly undermines the public good in two ways. marketplace, as they do, with the ability to present themselves
as a higher-prestige alternative for a higher-prestige clientele
First, if the purpose of school is to give students an advantage – they will need to intentionally cultivate a relationship with
over others, then the content of education is largely the public good.
unimportant. When we conceive of education as a public good,
by contrast, learning is the only thing that matters. Are young
people learning to be citizens and functional members of the
community? Do they have interesting and valuable skills that
What is the relationship between private schools and the public they can bring to bear on social and economic life? These are

s
good? Opinions tend to be shaped chiefly by philosophical the questions that we must answer if educating students Question 16

e
commitment to either individual choice or communal welfare. matters. But if education is merely a positional good, we need
Arguments rarely examine the tension between private schools only ask: are their credentials perceived as more valuable than

s
The passage suggests that parents
and the public good, or address whether it can be resolved. the credentials possessed by others? This approach

s
enrolling their child in a private school
undermines learning for all parties, including those enrolled
apparently believes:
At the root of that tension is the issue of status competition. at high-prestige schools.

la
Families in the United States choose private schools for many
1) in the concept of positional good.
reasons, religious affiliation historically first among them. But The second reason that status competition conflicts with the

C
for many parents, enrolling their children in private school is public good is that if status is the aim, there must be losers –
2) In the philosophy of humanism.
primarily about giving them an edge over their peers. And that, lots of them. After all, if we are all roughly the same, there is

t
it turns out, is incompatible with the public good. When status no difference upon which to base unequal distribution of
3) in educational productivity.
is the chief aim of schooling, as it so often is in private social and economic rewards. Thus, a valuable education is
education, everyone ends up suffering – even the privileged.

gh
not only predicated upon something tangential to real
learning, but also requires that a majority of young people 4) that public good is not important.

i
Parents at all kinds of schools desire a broad and humanistic draw short straws.
education for their children. But private school tuition is often

N
justified by the idea that it will produce a return on investment. As inequality pulls at the seams of the social fabric of the
Private schools, then, face tremendous pressure to provide developed world, private schools have faced strong criticism
students with an advantage over others, particularly on the for their role in reproducing advantage. If they are going to
admissions rolls of prestigious colleges and universities. This, in make a case for their existence, they need to resist the
turn, situates education as a very particular kind of commodity inherent contradiction between the private good and the
– what economists call a positional good. The value of a public good that status competition engenders. As long as
positional good is dictated not by any inherent worth, but such schools remain well-situated to pursue a positional
rather by its relation to what is possessed by others. And this advantage – standing apart from the public system in the
directly undermines the public good in two ways. marketplace, as they do, with the ability to present themselves
as a higher-prestige alternative for a higher-prestige clientele
First, if the purpose of school is to give students an advantage – they will need to intentionally cultivate a relationship with
over others, then the content of education is largely the public good.
unimportant. When we conceive of education as a public good,
by contrast, learning is the only thing that matters. Are young
people learning to be citizens and functional members of the
community? Do they have interesting and valuable skills that
What is the relationship between private schools and the public they can bring to bear on social and economic life? These are

s
good? Opinions tend to be shaped chiefly by philosophical the questions that we must answer if educating students Question 17

e
commitment to either individual choice or communal welfare. matters. But if education is merely a positional good, we need
Arguments rarely examine the tension between private schools only ask: are their credentials perceived as more valuable than

s
Each of the following cannot be inferred
and the public good, or address whether it can be resolved. the credentials possessed by others? This approach

s
from the passage EXCEPT:
undermines learning for all parties, including those enrolled
At the root of that tension is the issue of status competition. at high-prestige schools.

la
1) Most parents enrol their children based
Families in the United States choose private schools for many
on religious affiliation.
reasons, religious affiliation historically first among them. But The second reason that status competition conflicts with the

C
for many parents, enrolling their children in private school is public good is that if status is the aim, there must be losers –
2) Competition and positional good are
primarily about giving them an edge over their peers. And that, lots of them. After all, if we are all roughly the same, there is

t
incompatible.
it turns out, is incompatible with the public good. When status no difference upon which to base unequal distribution of
is the chief aim of schooling, as it so often is in private social and economic rewards. Thus, a valuable education is

h
3) Private schools can be logically justified
education, everyone ends up suffering – even the privileged. not only predicated upon something tangential to real
with the notion of investment returns.

g
learning, but also requires that a majority of young people

i
Parents at all kinds of schools desire a broad and humanistic draw short straws.
4) Competition in education offsets public
education for their children. But private school tuition is often
good.

N
justified by the idea that it will produce a return on investment. As inequality pulls at the seams of the social fabric of the
Private schools, then, face tremendous pressure to provide developed world, private schools have faced strong criticism
students with an advantage over others, particularly on the for their role in reproducing advantage. If they are going to
admissions rolls of prestigious colleges and universities. This, in make a case for their existence, they need to resist the
turn, situates education as a very particular kind of commodity inherent contradiction between the private good and the
– what economists call a positional good. The value of a public good that status competition engenders. As long as
positional good is dictated not by any inherent worth, but such schools remain well-situated to pursue a positional
rather by its relation to what is possessed by others. And this advantage – standing apart from the public system in the
directly undermines the public good in two ways. marketplace, as they do, with the ability to present themselves
as a higher-prestige alternative for a higher-prestige clientele
First, if the purpose of school is to give students an advantage – they will need to intentionally cultivate a relationship with
over others, then the content of education is largely the public good.
unimportant. When we conceive of education as a public good,
by contrast, learning is the only thing that matters. Are young
people learning to be citizens and functional members of the
community? Do they have interesting and valuable skills that
What is the relationship between private schools and the public they can bring to bear on social and economic life? These are

s
good? Opinions tend to be shaped chiefly by philosophical the questions that we must answer if educating students Question 18

e
commitment to either individual choice or communal welfare. matters. But if education is merely a positional good, we need
Arguments rarely examine the tension between private schools only ask: are their credentials perceived as more valuable than

s
Which of the following best describes the
and the public good, or address whether it can be resolved. the credentials possessed by others? This approach

s
passage?
undermines learning for all parties, including those enrolled
At the root of that tension is the issue of status competition. at high-prestige schools.

la
1) Pointing out a concern in a certain kind
Families in the United States choose private schools for many
of education.
reasons, religious affiliation historically first among them. But The second reason that status competition conflicts with the

C
for many parents, enrolling their children in private school is public good is that if status is the aim, there must be losers –
2) Providing a solution to a problem in an
primarily about giving them an edge over their peers. And that, lots of them. After all, if we are all roughly the same, there is

t
educational system
it turns out, is incompatible with the public good. When status no difference upon which to base unequal distribution of
is the chief aim of schooling, as it so often is in private social and economic rewards. Thus, a valuable education is

h
3) Clarifying a misconception in a certain
education, everyone ends up suffering – even the privileged. not only predicated upon something tangential to real
education system.

g
learning, but also requires that a majority of young people

i
Parents at all kinds of schools desire a broad and humanistic draw short straws.
4) Elucidating a model which can help
education for their children. But private school tuition is often
circumvent a problem.

N
justified by the idea that it will produce a return on investment. As inequality pulls at the seams of the social fabric of the
Private schools, then, face tremendous pressure to provide developed world, private schools have faced strong criticism
students with an advantage over others, particularly on the for their role in reproducing advantage. If they are going to
admissions rolls of prestigious colleges and universities. This, in make a case for their existence, they need to resist the
turn, situates education as a very particular kind of commodity inherent contradiction between the private good and the
– what economists call a positional good. The value of a public good that status competition engenders. As long as
positional good is dictated not by any inherent worth, but such schools remain well-situated to pursue a positional
rather by its relation to what is possessed by others. And this advantage – standing apart from the public system in the
directly undermines the public good in two ways. marketplace, as they do, with the ability to present themselves
as a higher-prestige alternative for a higher-prestige clientele
First, if the purpose of school is to give students an advantage – they will need to intentionally cultivate a relationship with
over others, then the content of education is largely the public good.
unimportant. When we conceive of education as a public good,
by contrast, learning is the only thing that matters. Are young
people learning to be citizens and functional members of the
community? Do they have interesting and valuable skills that
es
ss
RC 1 RC 2 RC l3a RC 4 RC 5

t C
Perspective Language
Genre: Philosophy
gh
Session Flow Words: 314

Question Ni Type % correct


#19 Interpretation 71%
#20 Interpretation 63%
#21 Interpretation 23%

Overall Difficulty : Moderate


If we were to ask of a person ‘What are his moral principles?’

s
the way in which we could be most sure of a true answer would Question 19

e
be by studying what he did. He might, to be sure, profess in his
conversation all sorts of principles, which in his actions he

s
The comparison with solving a crossword
completely disregarded; but it would be when, knowing all the

s
puzzle implies or states all of the following
relevant facts of a situation, he was faced with choices or
in the argument except
decisions between alternative courses of action, between

la
alternative answers to the question ‘What shall I do?’, that he
1) We can’t put off ethical problems.
would reveal in what principles of conduct he really believed.

C
The reason why actions are in a peculiar way revelatory of
2) Solving crosswords is easier than
moral principles is that the function of moral principles is to

t
problems of conduct.
guide conduct. The language of morals is one sort of
prescriptive language. And this is what makes ethics worth

h
3) Solving a problem of conduct affects
studying: for the question ‘What shall I do?’ is one that we
our actions, unlike solving a crossword.

g
cannot for long evade; the problems of conduct, though

i
sometimes less diverting than crossword puzzles, have to be
4) Doing crossword puzzles is a waste of
solved in a way that crossword puzzles do not. We cannot wait
time.

N
to see the solution in the next issue, because on the solution of
the problems depends what happens in the next issue. Thus, in
a world in which the problems of conduct become every day
more complex and tormenting, there is a great need for an
understanding of the language in which these problems are
posed and answered. For confusion about our moral language
leads, not merely to theoretical muddles, but to needless
practical perplexities.

An old fashioned, but still useful, way of studying anything is


‘per genus et differentiam’; if moral language belongs to the
genus ‘prescriptive language’, we shall most easily understand
its nature if we compare and contrast first of all prescriptive
language with other sorts of language, and then moral
language with other sorts of prescriptive language.
If we were to ask of a person ‘What are his moral principles?’

s
the way in which we could be most sure of a true answer would Question 20

e
be by studying what he did. He might, to be sure, profess in his
conversation all sorts of principles, which in his actions he

s
By ‘per genus et differentiam’, the writer
completely disregarded; but it would be when, knowing all the

s
means:
relevant facts of a situation, he was faced with choices or
decisions between alternative courses of action, between

la
1) Prescriptive language is different from
alternative answers to the question ‘What shall I do?’, that he
moral language
would reveal in what principles of conduct he really believed.

C
The reason why actions are in a peculiar way revelatory of
2) Prescriptive language is the same as
moral principles is that the function of moral principles is to

t
moral language.
guide conduct. The language of morals is one sort of
prescriptive language. And this is what makes ethics worth

h
3) Moral language is only one kind of
studying: for the question ‘What shall I do?’ is one that we
prescriptive language.

g
cannot for long evade; the problems of conduct, though

i
sometimes less diverting than crossword puzzles, have to be
4) Prescriptive language is only one kind
solved in a way that crossword puzzles do not. We cannot wait
of moral language.

N
to see the solution in the next issue, because on the solution of
the problems depends what happens in the next issue. Thus, in
a world in which the problems of conduct become every day
more complex and tormenting, there is a great need for an
understanding of the language in which these problems are
posed and answered. For confusion about our moral language
leads, not merely to theoretical muddles, but to needless
practical perplexities.

An old fashioned, but still useful, way of studying anything is


‘per genus et differentiam’; if moral language belongs to the
genus ‘prescriptive language’, we shall most easily understand
its nature if we compare and contrast first of all prescriptive
language with other sorts of language, and then moral
language with other sorts of prescriptive language.
If we were to ask of a person ‘What are his moral principles?’

s
the way in which we could be most sure of a true answer would Question 21

e
be by studying what he did. He might, to be sure, profess in his
conversation all sorts of principles, which in his actions he

s
Which of the following is an unstated
completely disregarded; but it would be when, knowing all the

s
assumption of the writer?
relevant facts of a situation, he was faced with choices or
decisions between alternative courses of action, between

la
1) Moral questions get more complex all
alternative answers to the question ‘What shall I do?’, that he
the time.
would reveal in what principles of conduct he really believed.

C
The reason why actions are in a peculiar way revelatory of
2) Language and ethics are related.
moral principles is that the function of moral principles is to

t
guide conduct. The language of morals is one sort of
3) We know what someone’s moral
prescriptive language. And this is what makes ethics worth

h
principles are because of the way they
studying: for the question ‘What shall I do?’ is one that we
behave.

g
cannot for long evade; the problems of conduct, though

i
sometimes less diverting than crossword puzzles, have to be
4) We ought to be concerned with ethical
solved in a way that crossword puzzles do not. We cannot wait
issues.

N
to see the solution in the next issue, because on the solution of
the problems depends what happens in the next issue. Thus, in
a world in which the problems of conduct become every day
more complex and tormenting, there is a great need for an
understanding of the language in which these problems are
posed and answered. For confusion about our moral language
leads, not merely to theoretical muddles, but to needless
practical perplexities.

An old fashioned, but still useful, way of studying anything is


‘per genus et differentiam’; if moral language belongs to the
genus ‘prescriptive language’, we shall most easily understand
its nature if we compare and contrast first of all prescriptive
language with other sorts of language, and then moral
language with other sorts of prescriptive language.
es
ss
RC 1 RC 2 RC l3a RC 4 RC 5

t C
Intelligent Computer
Genre: Philosophy
gh
Session Flow Words: 453

Question Ni Type % correct


#19 Interpretation 71%
#20 Interpretation 63%
#21 Interpretation 23%

Overall Difficulty : Moderate


Chinese room has no windows and no doors. Its only opening I reject Searle’s argument that computers could not be made

s
is a narrow slit through which questions written on a slip of to understand the information they manipulate. The analogy Question 22

e
paper in Chinese may be passed into the room. Shortly after a of the Chinese room is confused. Searle views a computer as
question is passed through the slit, an intelligent answer, again separate from the instructions provided by its programmer, in

s
The main point of John Searle’s analogy of
written on a slip of paper in Chinese, is passed back out of the the same way as the human in the Chinese room is separate

s
the Chinese room is:
room. The room is occupied by a human who does not from the instructions with which he is provided. In fact, a
understand the Chinese language. Whenever he receives a

la
computer is defined by its instructions; indeed, a computer is
1) The information is inside the room.
question, he analyses the Chinese characters according to a incapable of manipulating information, let alone
comprehensive set of instructions written in a language he understanding information, without instructions. The
2) Information is searched.

C
does understand. For every possible question, the instructions computer must be compared not to the human inside the
indicate whereabouts on the countless shelves in the room the Chinese room, but to the room as a whole, instructions

t
3) The language is not understood.
slip of paper giving an appropriate answer may be found. By included, and at this point Searle’s analogy breaks down. A
following the instructions, the human appears intelligent computer cannot be considered to ‘contain’ an intelligent

h
4) A relevant answer is given out.
enough to provide an intelligent answer to any question. But being in the same way as the Chinese room contains the

g
because he does not understand Chinese, he has no human, any more than the human brain can be considered in

i
understanding whatsoever either of the questions or the this way. As I will argue in the chapter on consciousness, any
answers. Searle compares the Chinese room to a computer. He conception of the human brain that considers it to ‘contain’ an

N
suggests that by following the instructions provided by its intelligent being is misconceived. Searle further seems to
programmer, a computer may appear to be intelligent, but in consider the only way in which a computer can manipulate
fact it has no grasp at all of the information it processes. … information is by following comprehensive instructions that
specify an appropriate response to every possible stimulus (or,
to persist with the analogy of the Chinese room, an
appropriate answer to every possible question). As I will argue
in the chapter on intelligence, a computer programmed in
such a way would indeed be incapable of understanding. But
computers could be made to manipulate information in far
more flexible ways than this.
Chinese room has no windows and no doors. Its only opening I reject Searle’s argument that computers could not be made

s
is a narrow slit through which questions written on a slip of to understand the information they manipulate. The analogy Question 23

e
paper in Chinese may be passed into the room. Shortly after a of the Chinese room is confused. Searle views a computer as
question is passed through the slit, an intelligent answer, again separate from the instructions provided by its programmer, in

s
According to the writer, the main reason
written on a slip of paper in Chinese, is passed back out of the the same way as the human in the Chinese room is separate

s
the analogy breaks down is:
room. The room is occupied by a human who does not from the instructions with which he is provided. In fact, a
understand the Chinese language. Whenever he receives a

la
computer is defined by its instructions; indeed, a computer is
1) The human brain does not contain
question, he analyses the Chinese characters according to a incapable of manipulating information, let alone
intelligence within it.
comprehensive set of instructions written in a language he understanding information, without instructions. The

C
does understand. For every possible question, the instructions computer must be compared not to the human inside the
2) A human brain does not need
indicate whereabouts on the countless shelves in the room the Chinese room, but to the room as a whole, instructions

t
instructions.
slip of paper giving an appropriate answer may be found. By included, and at this point Searle’s analogy breaks down. A
following the instructions, the human appears intelligent computer cannot be considered to ‘contain’ an intelligent

h
3) A computer cannot be separated from
enough to provide an intelligent answer to any question. But being in the same way as the Chinese room contains the
its instructions.

g
because he does not understand Chinese, he has no human, any more than the human brain can be considered in

i
understanding whatsoever either of the questions or the this way. As I will argue in the chapter on consciousness, any
4) A computer needs human input to
answers. Searle compares the Chinese room to a computer. He conception of the human brain that considers it to ‘contain’ an
work

N
suggests that by following the instructions provided by its intelligent being is misconceived. Searle further seems to
programmer, a computer may appear to be intelligent, but in consider the only way in which a computer can manipulate
fact it has no grasp at all of the information it processes. … information is by following comprehensive instructions that
specify an appropriate response to every possible stimulus (or,
to persist with the analogy of the Chinese room, an
appropriate answer to every possible question). As I will argue
in the chapter on intelligence, a computer programmed in
such a way would indeed be incapable of understanding. But
computers could be made to manipulate information in far
more flexible ways than this.
Chinese room has no windows and no doors. Its only opening I reject Searle’s argument that computers could not be made

s
is a narrow slit through which questions written on a slip of to understand the information they manipulate. The analogy Question 24

e
paper in Chinese may be passed into the room. Shortly after a of the Chinese room is confused. Searle views a computer as
question is passed through the slit, an intelligent answer, again separate from the instructions provided by its programmer, in

s
Which of the following is not a possible
written on a slip of paper in Chinese, is passed back out of the the same way as the human in the Chinese room is separate

s
description of the writer’s views on the
room. The room is occupied by a human who does not from the instructions with which he is provided. In fact, a
nature of human intelligence inferred from
understand the Chinese language. Whenever he receives a

la
computer is defined by its instructions; indeed, a computer is
this passage:
question, he analyses the Chinese characters according to a incapable of manipulating information, let alone
comprehensive set of instructions written in a language he understanding information, without instructions. The
1) Creative

C
does understand. For every possible question, the instructions computer must be compared not to the human inside the
indicate whereabouts on the countless shelves in the room the Chinese room, but to the room as a whole, instructions

t
2) Flexible
slip of paper giving an appropriate answer may be found. By included, and at this point Searle’s analogy breaks down. A
following the instructions, the human appears intelligent computer cannot be considered to ‘contain’ an intelligent

h
3) Independent
enough to provide an intelligent answer to any question. But being in the same way as the Chinese room contains the

g
because he does not understand Chinese, he has no human, any more than the human brain can be considered in
4) Knowledgeable

i
understanding whatsoever either of the questions or the this way. As I will argue in the chapter on consciousness, any
answers. Searle compares the Chinese room to a computer. He conception of the human brain that considers it to ‘contain’ an

N
suggests that by following the instructions provided by its intelligent being is misconceived. Searle further seems to
programmer, a computer may appear to be intelligent, but in consider the only way in which a computer can manipulate
fact it has no grasp at all of the information it processes. … information is by following comprehensive instructions that
specify an appropriate response to every possible stimulus (or,
to persist with the analogy of the Chinese room, an
appropriate answer to every possible question). As I will argue
in the chapter on intelligence, a computer programmed in
such a way would indeed be incapable of understanding. But
computers could be made to manipulate information in far
more flexible ways than this.
es
ss
C la
h t
ig
N You!
Thank
+91 97 698 54 234
gejo@careerlauncher.com