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CHAPTER-I

INTRODUCTION

The tribal’s are an integral part of the Indian civilization. The tribal’s are believed contribute

various elements to the ancient civilization of India. Tribals are believed to be the earliest

among the present inhabitant of the country. India is unique in the tribal map of the world

holding the second largest tribal population only next to Africa. As per the 1991 census, there

are 67.76 million tribal people constituting 8.08 percent of the total population. It has been

stated that very thirteenth Indian is a tribal person. Madhya Pradesh has the largest tribal

population, followed Maharashtra, Orissa, Bihar and Gujarat. Some state like Goa, Haryana,

Punjab, and Delhi have no tribal population .The tribal belongs to 550 communities though

only 427 are officially recognised whereas the amneses is the smallest one.

The English word tribe has come from the Latin word “tribes” which signifies

a particular type of common and political organization which is alive in all these societies.

The name “tribe”refres to a category of people and designate a step of development in human

society .as a type of society the term signifies set of typical feature and as a point of

advancement it can notes a definite from of social organization .Tribal population is found in

almost all parts of Indian and Odessa claims to be the second largest leading tribal state in the

country. About 68 million people of the state of India are members of schedule tribes and one

of the most studies tribal religious is that of Orissa (2011).of all the state of India, Orissa

has largest number of tribes ,as many as 62. Tribal’s of Orissa are known as adivasis,

vanabasis, and girijanas. They are described as aboriginals of Orissa in anthropological

literature. The adibasi (aborigine), Vanabasi (forest dweller) and Girijana(mountain dweller)

represent an impressive 22.13% population of Orissa .Government of India has notified 62

endogamous tribal groups of Orissa as scheduled tribes. Surround by these 62 local

indigenous groups have different sub-tribes who have continued to preserve their original

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harmony. Government of Indian and census of India have been enumerating all tribal

inhabitants and classifying them into 62 tribal group. amongst these malkangiri district is one

of the majority densely settled tribal regions in Orissa according to the “Revised paper

presented in the census data dissemination worshop, “status of scheduled caste and scheduled

tribes in Orissa : census 2001” organised by directorate of census operations, Orissa and SC

ST Research and training Institute, Govt.of Orissa ,at Bhubaneswar on 29 august ,2007.

KOYA TRIBE

The koyas are an ancient tribe credited with a unique why of community life and a common

cultural heritage. In the long past the Koyas were identified as a warrior tribe. The last queen

of Malkangiri, Bangaru Devi who rural over malkangiri from 1855A.D To 1872 A.D had a

powerful large Koya army and defeated king ramachandra diva 3rd of jeypore. During the

British period in 1880, Koya Rebellion led by a Koya youth tama dora took place. Then the

Koyas started offering resistance off and on to the British Government .

In Malkangiri, Koyas constitute the principal tribe and are widely found

in Kalimela, Mottu, Podia, Mathili, Korkonda and Malkangiri blocks. They call themselves

koya or koitor meang ‘People”. Ethno-culturally, the Koyas of malkangiri are more

connected with the Bison-Horn Murias of adjacent Chhattisgarh, The koya are known as

Madia and Dorla in the Sukuma and bastra region of Chhattisgarh.

modernity is a resultant of the development and advance of practical sciences which leads to

the development of industrialism, individualism, democracy, freedom and the ideologies of

social philosophies opposed to metaphysics and theology. The concept of modernity is based

upon the social structure prevailing in highly advanced countries mainly characterized by

rapid urbanization, growing, literacy, meangful concourse of idea among people by means of

new media, radio, television and books, etc; increase in proficiency and skill which builds up

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man power the support the economic progress of the country and growth of political

consciousness. The result in increasing geographical mobility and mechanization invades

most of the walks of life. Modernity is a different indicator of culture whose characteristic are

discernment, broadmindedness, diversity, and the respect for individual which implies the

freedom to follow one’s own ideas. In India, social change in evident in various walks of life

which is taking place through the instrumentality of factors like urbanization,

industrialization, westernization, secularization, democratization and sanskritisation. In the

perspective of contradictory goals being pursued through social change in India, the social

scientists have pointed towards the interaction of tradition and modernity. The role of

modernity and tradition in social change in the developing countries was very relevant to the

India scenario. The role of modernity has been very profound in creating a social change in

religion andcaste allowing the people of backward class to get acquainted to the outside

world through education and culture transformation. This study aims to identy the role of

modernity in bringing about social change exploited for centuries from hand of upper class on

various pretexts.

India, a country with diversified cultural heritage, spread widely with

various cultures, traditions, castes based on their respective professions. Banjars a tribe in

India, meant for their efficient logistics is a shining beacon to the nation’s culture and are the

best known for their migrating from one place to other in search of merchandise, with their

pack- Bullocks. They have shown path to various empires from north to and are meant to be

the outstanding service providers to the kings in showing path to them, as they themselves are

the explorers of the place. Indian society is very carefully and dexterously stratified on the

basis of castes and sects. This carefulness and dexterity are used not only to divide the society

into thousands of sections also to protect and preserve this system for ages, banning and

barring mobility and interaction between castes. Each castehas a caste lower than itself in

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hierarchy. Even the most downtrodden and discriminated against section like ‘untouchables’

are divided sharply among themselves according to their caste and practice untouchability

against one another. Subservience to one caste and subjugating another caste will put each

caste’s agenda, and attitude in tact by making it rigid in hierarchical behaviour.

Koya tribe is the most exploited tribe among other tribes despite their socio-

economic development. They still kill their children due to their poverty, especially girl

children beacous of dowry system. They still drink (alcohol) as sacred drink during their

festivals. still believe in their mythological stories as they are origin of their existing. Myths,

folklores, practices, etc. are formatting them in their social and public life which are

exploiting their own kita and kin every day, but lot of changes has taken place in their lives.

MEANING OF TRIBE

The word “Tribe” is derived from the Latin word “Tribus” meaning “one third”. The word

originally referred to one of the three territorial groups that united to form Rome. Romans

applied the word “tribus” to the 35 people who became a part of Rome before 241 B.C.

They also called the conquered Gallic or Germanic populations tribus. Originally a tribe was

simply a territorially defined social group. The Romans identified tribe as a political unit that

had a distinct name, occupied a common territory, and had a common leadership.

A tribe is a social group, which occupies a definite area. It is characterized by

cultural homogeneity and a unifying social organization. The identity and culture of tribes are

closely linked to the natural resources and the environment in which they live.

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DEFINITIONS OF TRIBES

A tribe is a collection of families bearing a common name, speakin a common dialect,

occupying a common territory and is not usually endogamous, though originally it might

have been so.

 D.N. Majumdar : A tribe is a group united by a common name in which the

members take pride by a common language, a common territory and by feeling

that all those who do not share their names are outsiders, ‘enemies’ in fact.

 G.W.B.Hunting Ford: Ideally , tribal societies are small in scale, are restricted

in the spatial and temporal range of their social, legal, and political relations,

and possess a morality, a religion and a world –view of corresponding

dimension; characteristically too, tribal Languages are unwritten, and hence

narrow. At the same time, tribal societies exhibit remarkable economy of

design, have compactness of self – sufficiency lacking in modern society.

 I.M. Lewis: A group of people in primitive or barbarous stage of development

acknowledging the authority of a chief and usually regarding themselves as

having a common ancestor.

 Oxford Dictionary: A tribal society is an aggregate of group held together

by status rights rather than contractual rights.

 Henry Maine:

Oxford dictionary: A social division in a traditional society consisting of

families or communities linked by social, economic, religious; or blood this,

with a common culture and dialect, typically having a recognized leader. A

tribal is a society that has a common territory, a common name, a common

culture, a common dialect, a tradition of common descent and sometimes the

presence of a chieftain.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF TRIBES

Tribal societies are characterized by a number of distinct feature through whoch they are

recognized. Some of the commonly found characteristic features of the tribal societies are as

follows:

1. Common ancestors: Every tribe traces its history to some common ancestor and

makes use of myths in order to explain their origins.

2. Tribes are small in size: The tribal’s are a compact community with a small

population. In india, the size of tribes varies considerably from each other. The tribal

community living on hills in the forests tend to be mucha smaller than the oter tribal

communities as they are dependent on hunting and gathering.

3. Definite Territory: The tribal’s live in isolation. Tribal’s are identified according

to their geographical inhabitance. The tribes inhabit and remain within specific

geographic areas in isolation, as there is less mobility and contact with the external

world. Hence, the degree of identification with the local territory is greater among the

tribals.

4. Homogeneous societies: The tribal societies are more homogenous with respect

to language, eligion, culture, and economy.

5. Common name: All the tribal’s have their own common names, which are either

generic or territorial in nature.

6. Common language: Tribes speak a common language or dialect of their own.

Most of the tribes do not have a script.

7. Endogamous in nature: All the members of the tribe marry within themselves,

ie., is in their own groups. But within every tribe, there are groups and sub-groups,

which help in regulating marriage ties and other relationships.

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8. Distinctive culture: Every tribe has distinctive culture of its own. Tribal societies

and tribal life is characterized by their own customs and traditions, which guide their

entire social life.

9. Primitive in nature: A tribal society is a pre- literate society. Their societies are

primitive and do not have adequate technological knowledge.

10. Distinct religion: Most of the tribal societies are more homogeneous witjh regard

to their religion.The tribal religion is dominated by the ideas of spirits, ancestral

worship, magic, and witchcraft. Religion is an important eliment, which regulates

their social life.

11. Common taboos: The members of each tribe share common taboos that specify

the magico- religious beliefs and practices for adoption and non- adoption in all

aspects of their life.

12. Social organization: The social system of every tribe is a combination of

different social units into a functioning totality. The units of a tribe may be families,

kinship, lineages, clans, phratry, moieties, and sub- tribes though it is not necessary

that in every tribal all the social units. Some of the social units may exist in some

tribes, and in some, it may not exist. But as a tradition, particular combinations of

social units exist in all tribal societies.

13. Self-Sufficient economy: The economy of every tribe is, to some extent, self-

sufficient. Most of the tribal communities lead their lives as hunters or food-gatherers

or horticulturists or as shifting cultivators. The level of technological development is

low and they use very simple tools. Most of the tribal societies have very simple

division of labour. Tribal societies follow the barter system.

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14. Political organization: As a general rule, a chief heads each tribe. But the political

systems of tribes at present show different combinations of political units .several

tribes have councils or panchayats at sub-group level, i.e. clan, moiety, etc.

Meaning of Modernization

Modernisation is a historical inescapable process of social change. Modernisation first

occurred in the West through the twin process of commercialisation and

industrialisation. In sociology, the transformation from a traditional, rural, agrarian

society to a secular, urban, industrial society. To modernise a society is, first of all, to

industrialise it. Historically, the rise of modern society has been inextricably linked

with the emergence of industrial society.

Definition of Modernization

Wilbert E. Moore defines modernisation as “the total” transformation of traditional or

pre-modern society into the types of technology and associated social that

characterise the ‘advanced’ economically prosperous, and relatively politically stable

nations of the Western World.”

According to Neil J.Smelser, the term modernizations “refer to the fact that technical,

economic and ecological change ramify through the whole social and cultural fabric”

Theory of modernization

Modernization theory is used to explain the process of modernization within societies.

Modernization refers to a model of a progressive transition from a 'pre-modern' or

“tradition” to a 'modern' society. Modernization theory originated from the ideas of German

sociologist Max webe (1864–1920), which provided the basis for the modernization

paradigm developed by Harvard sociologist Talcott parsons (1902–1979). The theory looks at

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the internal factors of a country while assuming that with assistance, "traditional" countries

can be brought to development in the same manner more developed countries have been.

Modernization theory was a dominant paradigm in the social sciences in the 1950s and

1960s, then went into a deep eclipse. It made a comeback after 1991 but remains a

controversial model

Characteristics of Modernization

1. Application of technology and mechanization

This means in other words that the people give up their old ways of living, old methods of

agriculture and travelling. Previously, the majority of the people in India used to live in

villages in old ways in Kuccha houses and they used to cultivate their lands through ploughs

and travel by means of bullock-carts. Now this has been given up entirely as the people now

live in well-built houses, cultivate their fields through tractors and use other modern

methods of agriculture (chemical fertilizers or manure, good seeds, irrigation system and

harvesting through machines).Now the ordinary people prefer to travel by means of buses

and trains but the more affluent section of the society i.e. the rich people prefer to travel by

super-fast trains and aeroplanes. This means in other words that the people are using

modern methods of technology and mechanization.

2. Industrialization:

Previously the people used to spin cloths through spindles and live in traditional ways

and use their old patterns of occupation and places of residence. When the

industrialization of a country takes places, the people give up their traditional rural and

agricultural economy. Its place is taken over by industrialization. New factories and mills

continue to grow daily and use latest techniques.

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3. Urbanization:

When the industrialization of a country takes place, then the new centers of industries

develop. Consequently, the people of villages particularly the laborers migrate in large

number to these new centers in the cities with the hope that they will return to their

villages after making enough money but well their livelihood in the villages and

agriculture cannot bear so much-burden.

Moreover, it is very inconvenient to them to come and go daily from

the villages to the cities as there is much rush in buses and trains and the traveling is

very costly. So with the growing industrialization of the country, the people in large

number continue to migrate from the villages to cities and settle permanently there.

This in return causes many problems in the cities, housing, and sanitation, improving

methods of communication and acquiring more and more lands for manifold purposes.

4. Rise in national and per capital Income:

The agricultural economy alone cannot increase the national wealth and per capita

income as it has to support the idle members of the society also. Therefore in order to

raise the national and per capita income, the old economy based on agriculture has to

be supplemented by industrial growth and its income because by exporting the

industrial goods the country can make huge profits.

5. Increase in Literacy:

Another prominent feature of modernization is that all-out efforts are made by the

Government and the society to wipe out illiteracy and strenuous efforts are made not

only to send every child to school but the adults is also persuaded to learn three Rs. This

education does not remain limited only to arts, science and commerce but also spreads

to higher medical education, research, technology and crafts. Thus the avenues of higher

education are made available to every person in all fields. So everybody runs after

attaining higher education.

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6. Political participation:

When the best possible opportunities are offered to every person to attain higher

education, the people become enlightened. Economic development and equal

distribution of wealth enables everybody to share sometime from the pressing necessity

of daily wants and devote it in political participation. Every voter begins to read

newspaper and learn something about politics. The voter ultimately becomes

enlightened and votes for that party which is likely to solve economic problems and take

the country to further heights unattained so far.

Therefore the political participation is made possible in a

democracy through political parties, interest groups, and various other

organisations. They influence the government for the welfare of citizens and equal

opportunities are made available in services to everybody irrespective of caste,

colour, creed, religion, sex or such other considerations.

7. Development of Mass-Media techniques:

The modernization brings in its wake development of mass-media techniques. These

mass-media techniques include newspapers, broadcasting, postal facilities, movies,

road, rail and air services, electricity, and T.V. Through all these facilities, the citizens

become enlightened and well-informed and these in turn enable the citizens to serve

the state in a better way.

8. Social Mobility:

When the modernization of a country begins to take place, then the people go on

migrating from the villages to cities in search of better amenities and jobs. The

role of village Sarpanch becomes insignificant and is replaced in the cities by the

role of the leaders of various political parties and the Unions. As the people

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become conscious, so they rally round that leader, who is likely to deliver them

goods.

9. Cultivation of national identity:

When the modernization of any country takes place, then the people begin to give

up their narrow loyalties and parochial ‘Considerations of caste, color, sex or

creed. Their interests become identified with ‘he interests of the nation.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

Modernization is new concept in the society which started gradually and spread all over the

world. The notion of modernization emerged from West which the Indians imitate their life

style. Modernization as a growth and process relating to cultural aspects, science and

technology and the trend of use of those technology by the individuals in the society.

Modernization basically has huge impact on tribal people and it affects their life style and

living style, their culture in different influential ways.

In my study the problems are basically related to the concept of modernisation and perception

of tribe on it. It very difficult part of tribal people to define what is modernisation and its

impact on their whole society in general and their life style and living pattern in particular. So

that this study is will be emphasise on what is modernisation of perception of tribal people

and how it module the whole tribal society and what are the factor related to modernisation

and helps it to change them. One of the most important matters of my study is to understand

is modernisation a factor of change in tribal society or not something else.

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Many studies have been conducted on the tribal’s., the present review is limited to the impact

of modernisation on the religious customs social economic education etc and traditions of

tribals. The review of literature is done for the study by considering various journals and

articles done by individuals to show the relevance of the study.

 N.K.Behura in his book entitled “Tribal’s and the Indian constitution “meaning

of the term “tribe” To define the concept of the term tribe is an old attempts.

However, the attempts made by different scholar at different point of time often

overlap. While defining, scholars have emphasised on universality, validity, and

applicability of the term. The term ‘tribe’ has assumed different meanings in

different historical contexts, basically refers to ‘people’ (Leach, 1994) or

communities of people mentioned as ‘Janah’ in Vedic and Sanskrit literature

(Choudhury, 1977:6-12).

Since the days of extensive fieldwork carried out by Morgan

among the American Indians and by evans-pritchard among the Nuers of East

Africa, a structural definition has been drawn on this concept. However, it was

basically confined to the small- scale communities. In rare cases, the

neighbouring communities have been included if they figure as an integral part

of the concerned community. Gradually, the demand was generated to define

the tribe as a type of distinct social formation. However, it has always been a

difficult task befor the scholars. The conceptual understanding of the tribe by

the scholars during 19th century was based on the stages of evolution and type

of society and other features like relative isolation, common territory, common

name and a common language, simple social formation, strong kinship bond,

single social rank, distinct customs, existence of youth dormitory, common

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ownership over land and other natural resources and low level of technological

development or combination of few such attributes.

 Nilakantha Panigrahi in his book entitled “Tribal’s and the Indian

constitution” In the Indian context, many attempts have been made to

distinguish the tribe from that of non- tribal groups which help in understanding

the concept of the term tribe (Mandelbum, 1956; Bailey, 1961). For the first

time Ghurye (1943) brought forward a wealth of evidences from classical,

medieval, and modern sources to demonstrate the interpretation of tribal and

non-tribal cultural practices and social organisations. While gaining experiences

through cross-cultural ethnographic studies Naroll (1964) and Moreman (1965)

had attempted to define the boundaries of the tribe for cross-cultural purposes.

 Prof. Himansu Sekhar patnaik (M.A.D.Lit) his book “Indian society and

culture” (2005) describes that Indian society, by and large, is a complex and

plural in nature. Its ‘social mosaic comprises many races, language groups,

religious faiths, castes and tribes. The survey of people of India brings to our

notice the existence of as many as 4,635 communities. The nature of Indian

society can be understood in relation to the interaction of four important factors

such as space, time, and population. In terms of space India is the seventh

largest country in the world covering a territory of 3.7 million kms. In terms of

time it has a hoary past covering a span of over 5,000 years. In population,

India is the second population country in the world. Because of this

heterogeneity India appears to be land of diversity or land of contradictions. But

beneath this manifold diversity there exists a thread of unity.

The uniqueness of Indian culture lies in her wonderful power of

accommodation and synthesis. It has assimilated all contradictions however

recalcitrant they were. Hence; cooperation, coexistence not confrontation is its

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élan vital. The beautiful tapestry of multi-coloured pattern of unity in diversity

has made of the Greek philosopher W.G. Hegel remark “The Rome is the land

of empire, parsia is the land of knowledge, Greece is the land of grace and India

is a land of dream”.

 D.r.Rabi Narayan Mohanty(M.A.D.Lit) his book “Indian society and culture”

India is unique in the tribal map of the world holding the second largest tribal

population only next to Africa. The term ‘tribe “is derived from the Latin word

“tribus’. Which means differently in different countries? For Greek, the word meant

fraternities, for the Roman, it meant political divisions, and the lrish history used it to

refer to communities having a common surname. However, in India, it has a different

connotation referring to a bordering and enchanting group of people. Tribes in India

are called janajati, ‘vanyajati,” ‘vanvasi,’ ‘Pahari,” ‘Adimjati”, ‘Adivasi”, ‘Anusuchit

jati”, etc. in India. G.S. Ghurye called them “Backward tribes”. Tribes were called

“scheduled tribes” after 1950. A Scheduled tribe is he who has been mention in the

scheduled list of the Indian constitution under Articles 342(i) and 342 (ii) by

presidential orders.

 D.r. Kharavela Mohanty (M.A. PhD) his book “Indian society and culture”

Modernization is one of the few terms that have come to be the keywords in

contemporary discourse on the dynamic of social change. Social scientist use

modernization in three senses: first, as a criterion to distinguish between traditional;

transitional and modernized societies. Second, as an ideal desired by the national elite

of the third world countries and lastly as a process of movement of a traditional

society or culture to a modern state. Some other term such as Anglicization,

Europeanization, westernization, urbanization, industrialization were in vogue before

the term “modernization” was born.

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The word ‘modernization” derived from the Latin root “mode” means

just now in Chronological sense, it means, the latest. The oxford dictionary defines

the term modern as “of the present and recent times, new fashions, not concerned with

classic.” Thus, literally the term modern refers to anything which is new or latest in

the style of dress, art thinking.

 Sanjay Ketan jena his book “An introduction to social change”(2011) Impact of

modernization on Indian society some of the positive changes which are associated

with modernisation are; the urbanisation, economic growth and development,

industrialization etc. industrialisation has imparted western, secular and national

values along with economically elevating the status of the men. The scientific

temperament has strengthened the secularism due to which traditional mystic and

dogmatic belief in religion and magic are scientifically evaluated. The caste system,

the notion of purity and pollution and traditionally ascribed social status have been

evaluated in terms of rationally and secular.

 Dr. Ch.P.K.Mohapatra his book “The Koya” (1992) The Koyas, one of the

Dravidian-speaking tribes of south Orissa, numbering about 87,261 according to 1981

census are found in malkangiri district. The area has thick forest cover and has been

the home of several tries, such as the Bondo, Bhumiya, Didayi and Paraja etc. and

among them the koyas constitutes the principal tribe. The Koyas are widely

distributed in the area. However, their concentration is maximum in the southern

portion and in some portions in the north extending up to Mathili. There has been

considerable migration of the Koyas from Bastar in Madhya Pradesh.

 S Krishna Reddy, k Rathnaiah, MP Narasimha Raju his book contemporary

society: social realities 4, 150,1997 By and large, the tribal people have remained

isolated and backward. Their participation in national politics is not very significant.

They are almost the last of the Indian communities to be politicized. But research into

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the freedom movement in different parts of the country, which has been recently

undertaken in terms of the social composition of regional movement of local

communities in regional politics. Evidence suggests that like other communities,

tribals participated intensely in local politics, but with a difference. There was an

attempt on the part of the tribal community to seek integration into the regional and

national systems and also to preserve own identity.

A careful review of literature reveals that there exist a very limited

number of studies on tribal movements in India. Further most of the existing studies

are fragmentary by nature and thereby do not appreciably add to our understanding on

the problem at hand. However, here mention may be made of Singh (1982),

Jayaprakash Row (1985), Krishna Rao(1982), Sivarama Krishna Rao and Bobbili

(1985), and Doshi (1990), Who have done some useful research in this regard.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

 The objective of the study is to know about the impact of modernization on tribal

economy.

 To examine the extent to which modernisation is affecting the religious customs and

traditions of Koya tribe.

 To examine changing pattern of food habit, culture, language, marriage, and dress

pattern.

 To find out educational change, livelihood, communication, community leadership,

political system and the changes in health pattern and their approaches towards the

medicines (traditional or modern/scientific).

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METHODOLOGY

Methodology is considered as one of the most significant aspects for conducting any

research methodology is nothing but a systematic, theoretical analysis of method

applied to a field study. It comprises of the theoretical analysis of the body of methods

and principles associated with a branch of knowledge. Typically it encompasses

concepts such as paradigm, theoretical model, phases and quantitative or qualitative

techniques. Methodology defines the means or model, phases and quantitative or

qualitative techniques. Methodology defines the means or mode of data collection or

sometimes how a specific result is to be calculated. Methodology does not define

specific methods, even though much attention given to the nature and kind of

processes to be followed in a particular procedure or to attain an objective.

SELECTION OF THE STUDY AREA

It is very important to the study area for conducting any research. In the other hand it

can be said that selection of the study areas the primary task under taken by the

research for conducting any research work, the study area is Kalimela block, village

Pusuguda, district Malkangiri.

SELECTION OF THE RESPONDENT

Selection of the respondents is considered as one of the significant parts for

conducting research. In the present research the researcher has chosen 60 respondents

for conducting research.

SELECTION OF METHODS

For conducting present research the researcher has chosen methods like

OBSERVATION, INTERVIEW and Past for collection of data from the study area.

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INTERVIEW METHOD

Interview method is considered as one of the primary source of data collection. It is a

method of data collection in which information is obtained through inquiry and record

by the researcher. Interview method can be discussed under two ways: structured and

open- ended. Structured interview are performed by using survey forms, where as

open interviews are notes taken while talking with respondent.

OBSERVATION METHOD

It is commonly used in studies relating to behavioural science. Under this method

observation becomes a scientific tool and the method of data collection for the

researcher, when it serves a formulated research purpose and is systematically

planned and subjected to check and control.

SELECTION OF THE SOURCES OF DATA

There are two types of data: primary data and secondary data.

Primary data

Primary data is a type of data collected at direct source. This type of information is

obtained directly from first hand sources by means of surveys, observations and

experimentation and manipulation called primary data.

Secondary data

It refers to data collected by someone other than the user. The data is already available

and analyzed by someone else. Common sources of secondary data include various

published or unpublished data, books, magazines, news papers, journals, etc.

UNIT OF ANALYSIS

The unity of the present research work is individual.

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CHAPTER-2

MODERNIZATION AND KOYA TRIBE A CRITICAL REVIEW

MODERINIZATIION

Modernization in sociology, the transformation from a traditional, rural, agrarian society to a

secular, urban, industrial society. Modern society is industrial society. To modernize a society

is, first of all, to industrialize it. Historically, the rise of modern society has been inextricably

linked with the emergence of industrial society. All the features that are associated with

modernity can be shown to be related to the set of changes that, no more than two centuries

ago, brought into being the industrial type of society. This suggests that the terms

industrialism and industrial society imply far more than the economic and technological

components that make up their core. Industrialism is a way of life that encompasses profound

economic, social, political, and cultural changes. It is by undergoing the comprehensive

transformation of industrialization that societies become modern.

Modernization is a continuous and open-ended process. Historically, the span

of time over which it has occurred must be measured in centuries, although there are

examples of accelerated modernization. In either case, modernization is not a once-and-for-

all-time achievement. There seems to be a dynamic principle built into the very fabric of

modern societies that does not allow them to settle, or to achieve equilibrium. Their

development is always irregular and uneven. Whatever the level of development, there are

always “backward” regions and “peripheral” groups. Concept of Modern, Modernity and

Modernisation are tremendously notorious, mostly because of their ambiguity and vagueness.

Each one lacks any precise meaning. Modernisation has assumed a lot of significance

particularly after the end of the Second World War, in the 1950’s and 1960’s. Industrial

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Revolution in England and to some extent, French Revolution in France brought

Modernization to limelight. Volumes of literature written about these three concepts have

contained many contradictory observations and conclusions. As a result, no single theory of

modernisation has been justifiably presented to explain the process of modernisation for

social change. The process of modernisation dates back to the age of Renaissance and

formation in all walks of life-like literature, science religion etc.

Modernisation, it’s meaning and theory

Modernisation and the aspirations to modernity are probably the most overwhelming theme

which has engaged the attention of sociologists, political scientists, economists and many

others. In recent years the term ‘Modernizations’ has come to be used with starting frequency

to characterize the urge for change.

A massive body of literature has cropped up on modernization to comprehend

the process of modernization a large number of theoretical approaches have emerged. These

approaches have distinct philosophical presuppositions, divergent prescription for

modernizing underdeveloped societies.

Policy Implication:

Modernizations theories are not merely academic exercise only. These approaches provided

the matrix for policies adopted by advanced capitalist countries for modernizing

underdeveloped now called developing societies. All the modernization theories aim at the

explanation of the global process by which traditional societies are modernizing or have

modernized.

Modernizations theories were originally formulated in response to the new

world leadership role that the United States took on after World War II. As such they had

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important policy implications. First, as says D.C Tipps, modernization theories help to

provide an implicit justification for the symmetrical power relationship between ‘traditional’

and ‘mode.’ societies. Since the United States is modern and advanced and the Third World

is traditional and backward, the latter should look to the former for guidance.

A massive body of literature has cropped up on modernization to comprehend

the process of modernization a large number of theoretical approaches have emerged. These

approaches have distinct philosophical presuppositions, divergent prescription for

modernizing underdeveloped societies.

Causes of modernisation

In order to answer this, we must first understand what modernization is.

Modernization, in social sciences terminology, is the process by which a country moves from

having a traditional, agrarian, rural society to having a more secular, urbanized, industrialized

society. When this happens, the country changes in many ways. It changes in terms of its

values and beliefs, moving from traditional beliefs to more scientific and secular beliefs. It

changes in its geography, with its population become more and more urban. It changes

economically, moving from subsistence farming or something close to it to an economy in

which hardly anyone farms and the country makes its money producing goods and services.

There are at least two major and related causes of modernisation. One is the

growth in science that came along with the enlightenment. The other is growth in available

technology. When a country is pre-modernization, its people generally do not believe in

science. They hold traditional beliefs that typically hold that life is affected by supernatural

forces. They do not major ways. In the enlightenment, people came to challenge this idea.

They came to believe that life is affected by forces that are understandable via science. For

example, they came to believe that disease is caused by microorganisms, not by demons.

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Once they had this outlook, they came to believe that life could change the way live, making

us less afraid of disease or of other natural calamities.

Science, of course, helps people to develop technology. Technology pushes modernization

along. Technology allows farmers to grow more food, freeing people to go live in cities.

Technology allows factories to arise, thus giving the new city dwellers jobs. Technology also

improves life, giving us things to do for entertainment, things that can improve our health,

and many other beneficial innovations. These things lead our society to become more

modernize.

Modernization has its good and bad points. On the good side, modernization improves

our lives in many tangible ways. It is certainly safer to live in a world in which we have

doctors who can cure infections and in which women are not very likely to die in childbirth.

It is more convenient to live in a world where we have access to many material goods to

make our lives more comfortable and more fun. Modernization also helps people who are

oppressed in traditional society. Modernization allows women to have more opportunities. It

helps to liberate oppressed minority groups. In these ways, modernization seems like a very

positive thing.

Impact of Modernization :

The impact of the West on India, following Alatas, can be discussed in five phases. The first

phase is that of hostile contact with the conquest of Alexander, etc., followed by contact of

peaceful interchange as the result of trade and commerce of successive centuries. The second

phase began by the end of the fifteenth century when Vasco de Gama arrived with his ships at

Calicut in 1498 A.D. Within a few years, the Portuguese occupied Goa.

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But the effect of these westerners was relatively restricted. The third phase began when East

India Company established its rule in the beginning of the eighteenth century and later on the

British rule was established in the country by the middle of the eighteenth century. This was

the first step in the expansion of western culture in India. The fourth phase commenced with

the beginning of the nineteenth century following the industrial revolution. With the

economic exploitation of India by the British as source of raw materials, began the spread and

dominance of western culture in social and cultural fields too. The fifth and the last phase

began after the political independence of the country in 1947.

Positive and negative impact of modernization:

Positive impact of modernization:

Smart cities: Modernization is responsible for creating smart cities wherein close circuit TV

cameras are installed at every road intersection to monitor the traffic. They house educational

institutions of higher learning that impart rational and scientific thinking. Students graduating

from the universities and colleges participate in research and business to improve the quality

of life of the people. Smart cities are equipped with modern transport system such as Metro

trains carrying millions of passengers from one place to another. Efficiency is the concept

used in enhancing the quality of the life of the citizens.

Quality of communication: Modernization has played an important role in the invention of

the internet. People can communicate with each other through smart phones and tablets. They

are able to access the website and gain information about the distant countries and tourist

spots. Aviation technology has led to an increase in air travel with tourists flying from one

continent to another. People engaged in manufacturing and services get employed in huge

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Negative impact of modernization:

Change in culture: Increased modernization has led to the creation of new technologies

changing the socio-economic structure of the society. People by nature tend to maintain the

status quo which is challenged by the new generation. New ideas lead to a novel outlook on

life however they are opposed by the traditionalists leading to conflict in the society.

Deforestation: Increased urbanization has led to the cutting of trees and forests resulting in

the disappearance of the greenery. Wild animals are losing their habitats due to

modernization as they attack humans encroaching into their areas. Balanced approach is the

need of the hour or else the whole planet will become uninhabitable in the future

Pollution: Clearing of the forest has resulted in the loss of trees which in turn increased

pollution level of the environment. Moreover, the setting up of manufacturing industries has

worsened the problem. Countries have introduced legislations but they are not effectively

implemented because of corruption and economic problems.

Income disparity: Modernization has led to a huge gap between haves and the have not’s.

As a result, a certain section of the population is agitated with the economic policy of the

governments leading to a rise in crime and the political movements.

Conclusion: It is important for people to use the concept of modernization is a constructive

manner. Instead of focusing on uneven development, a holistic approach should be carried

out to get the desired results.

Impact of modernisation on tribe:

Modernization produces both positive and negative impact on tribal societies of India. Some

of them are discussed;

1.Tribal societies mostly depend on forests, animals and its derivatives to go

on with their lives. Here, for modernization the forest cover had to be reduced.

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Tribal people living in such areas had to face problems of many a kind as their

living basically dependent on forests.

2. Modernization in India has also given tribal societies some basic laws to

protect their welfare as people of scheduled tribes.

3. Modernization in India has also given tribal societies some basic laws to

protect their welfare as people of scheduled tribes.

3. Modernization in India has also been helpful to promote education among

such tribes. As a result most of them hold good degrees these days and further

help their societies to grow in positive way.

 Government Efforts for Tribal Development

their Since independence, considering the general socio-economic backwardness of the tribal

communities, the Government of India has been planning and launching programmes to

develop and integrate them with the mainstream of Indian national life. To sustain the

Constitutional safeguards given to them, Government adopted so many programmers through

the Plan periods. The Fifth Five Year Plan is considered as the turning point in the history of

tribal development in the post independent India for the launching of Tribal Sub Plans. Tribal

Sub Plans have been in operation in 22 states and two Union Territories, i.e., in all states

except the tribal majority states of Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland

and in the Union Territories of Lakshadweep and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Initially it was an

area development programme. But in the subsequent plan periods it was becoming a target

group approach where individual family was to be benefited specifically from the programme

to build up their economic base. The objective of assisting the targeted number of tribal

families is to cross the poverty line and to increase the access to health, education and

employment opportunities and thereby to improve their quality of life.

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In the course of tribal development approaches in the post independent

India, the Fifth Five Year Plan may be mentioned as the turning point for the launching of

Integrated Tribal Development Programmed (ITDP). ITDP was launched in the year 1972.

The main aim of ITDP is to bring the fruits of development to tribal areas. During the Sixth

plan, emphasis was placed more on family oriented programmers than on infrastructure

development. Thus, from the Sixth Plan period it was becoming a target group approach

where individual families were to benefit specially from the programme. During the Seventh

plan, Tribal Development with ITDP pattern was continued without any basic changes in the

approach, pattern or structure. In this plan period thirty lakhs tribal families were assisted to

build up their economic base. The Eighth Five Year Plan gave emphasis on development of

essential infrastructure facilities to achieve the objective of assisting the targeted number of

tribal families to cross the poverty line and to increase their access to health, education and

employment opportunities. These families were selected on the basis of absolute economic

status, the poorest being given the first preference.

 Changes in Income and Employment Generations

Income, employment and wealth generation is taking place among the Koya mechanized

farmers. In the existing cropping pattern, the return over variable cost per acre (ROVC/acre)

is high, so the income is increasing. Due to the modernization in agriculture, the cropping

intensity is increasing and the farmers are engaged in cultivation round the year and get a

substantial income from the occupation. Due to increase in income, the Koya are obtaining a

substantial amount of wealth, which was negligible earlier. For the cultivation purpose,

before the mechanization, they mostly used family labour. Hired labor was very few and the

payment was in kind or in exchange. But, now, due to the mechanization in agriculture,

hiring in labour is gradually increasing and mode of payment is in cash not in kind. Family

labour in agriculture has been steadily replaced by hired laborers among the mechanized

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tribal and occupational diversification is taking place more and more. The entry of

agricultural modernization, education, better transport facilities and communication enabled

the villages to develop certain skills. The Koyas have definitely developed some skills which

enabled them to give up their old work of hunting, gathering and cutting of wood. The skills

which they have acquired are now being used for any development purposes.

Income distribution is crucial in the sense that this would give an overall idea

of the level of living. Most of the mechanized farmers are marginal and small farmers. Very

few percentages of households have large quantity of land. It has been found that the higher

land holding households have higher average incomes. On the other hand, due to the

mechanization in agriculture, the average income is higher among the mechanized

households. Due to the higher annual income, the standard of living is better among them.

 Changes in Indigenous to Modern Trends in Agriculture

Agriculture is the main source of income for the majority of the Koyas. Earlier, they used to

practice traditional method for agriculture and their technology was indigenous. But now,

they are adopting modern technologies like shallow tube-wells, pump sets, power tillers,

threshers, sprayers, and so on. They are also using HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers, pesticides

etc. to achieve better yield. For irrigating their lands, earlier they were entirely dependent on

monsoon rainfall and thus only one crop (monocrop) was cultivated. But the introduction of

pump-sets and shallow tube-wells has brought changes in their modes of production. Now,

they are cultivating double crops sometimes triple crops. Those farmers who do not have

pump sets or shallow tube-wells; they hire it from the other sources for irrigation purposes

and get the benefit. Thereby, the irrigation facility is gradually increasing. Land tilling and

threshing is also being done in the mechanized way by most of the Koyas now. Earlier those

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were done by bullock power and manual labour. A substantial percentage of households have

threshers and sprayers. On the other hand, all the Koya households are now using high

yielding variety of seeds, chemical fertilizers, pesticides etc. to increase their yield. There

have occurred many changes in the aspects of their social organizations and cultural

activities. A Spartan glance can be given to get nature of changes taken place among the

Koyas due to the adoption of agricultural modernization. The cultivation of Koyas was

normally subsistence in nature. Now, this tendency is decreasing. Commercial nature of

farming has been gradually taking place among the mechanized farmers. The market

orientation is also increasing among the Koyas.

 Changes in Education

The tribal people were very conservative in assessing the relevance of present education in

life. They experienced that those who got education at the school turned out to be useless.

After completing education they did not do any manual work, though the schools increasingly

provide facilities to the tribal people. Having enjoyed the facilities, when a Santal turned

home after completing his school education, he found himself completely alienated from his

own village, his clan and his kin. He had little inclination to work in the field and to perform

manual work. To a Koyas, education, thus, became irrelevant. Relevance of school education

for a Koyas arises only when they are assured in entering into the government services. It is

only from then he would allow his son to continue his education. The use of education as he

understands today is for government employment only. They feel that the reservation in

services is sufficient to get employment if one is just educated.

The Koyas, despite their dismal views on education, have accepted schooling for their

children. It is due to the hope that if educated they would get some opportunities of service as

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government reservation policy is there. The tribal mechanized farmers are getting the benefit

of the government policy and the advantage of education more. The literacy and level of

higher education is highest among the mechanized farmers even among the tribal women.

The illiteracy is highest among the landless category of people. It has been found that the

tendency towards higher education is increasing. Most of the old members of the tribal

community are illiterate. But due to the effect of agricultural modernization, they are now

coming forward. They are trying to give education to their children. Now they are aware

about the government reservation policy and they think that if their children get education

then they can get government services and be better off in the larger society.

 Changes in Expenditure Pattern

Expenditure pattern is the most important indicator to understand the level of living. Earlier,

the Koyas used to expend most of their incomes for food. But due to the increase in income

and awareness, they are now spending money for other durable consumer goods, education,

health care etc. Savings tendency has also been developed. Food is the basic necessity of all

living beings, and consists of several components. It has been observed that with an increase

in income, the amount of money spent is proportionately lesser on grains, and more on oils

and fats, vegetables, meat, fish and eggs. They are also spending the money for recreation

purposes. After the satisfaction of demand for food, the mechanized farmers make efforts to

fulfill the needs of clothing and housing. Other necessities like health, education, travel, fuel,

ceremony etc. come later. Some percentage of money is spent for luxury goods. The Koyas

are habituated in liquor. But after mechanization and increase of income the expenditure on

intoxicants like liquor is gradually decreasing. The mechanized farmers are not only

expending the money for consumption purposes but also expending some percentage of their

income for education, health purposes and even for some other income generating activities,

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which is the most remarkable change. The conspicuous consumption expenditure is

increasing with income augmentation among the mechanized farmers.

 Changes in House Types

The tribal people used to live in forests or river banks. Their housing conditions are normally

not good, made by mud with thatched roof. Now, the housing condition is developing, as they

are getting more production from agriculture. There are three types of houses found in the

tribal villages - kunchha, pucca and mixed. The kunchha structure usually has mud walls,

kunchha floor with mud plaster and the roof thatched with straw. The next stage of

improvement in the structure is the replacement of thatch on the roof by corrugated iron

sheets, cement flooring and the walls are made of bricks. These houses are mixed type. And

finally the pucca houses are those which are made of brick, cement and masonry.

All most all the non-mechanized and landless farmers live in kunchha houses. Among the

mechanized farmers, many houses are mixed and a few percentages are living in pucca

houses. So, due to the agricultural mechanization and improvement of agriculture among the

tribal farmers, the housing condition is improving now.

 Changes in Family Structure

Structurally, the Koya family is different from the regional family of the caste Hindus. The

Koya, like other Mundari groups of tribes in India, is characterized by a segmentory social

system based on kin groups - lineages and clans. Though the traditional nature of their

segmentory social system has been attenuated to a great extent, the idiom of groups based on

kinship is still of paramount importance for a proper understanding of the social structure of

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the Koya. Among the Koya, families formed of the marital union of a man and a woman and

the children born of them constitute their primary kin group lineages, in term of their

genealogical connection to a common ancestor. The lineage groups are again merged into still

larger kin groups based on common descent. These descent groups locally termed as Paris,

together forms the society of the Koya.

Both types of families namely joint and nuclear have been found among the tribal people.

Nuclear family is based on monogamy i.e. marriage of one man with one woman. The

married couple together with their children forms a nuclear family. On the other hand, when

several individuals through the father's or the mother's line live together with their respective

wives and children, they form joint family. The joint family must have a common head,

common kitchen and share of common residence. Among the Koyas, it has been found that

the percentage of nuclear family is higher than the joint family. In the Koyas community,

when a grown up son marries, he separates from his parents and establishes his new family.

The separation is complete when the son and the father do not work on the common farm; a

separate piece of land is allotted to the son for his maintenance on which he alone operates.

Nuclearisation or individualization is increasing slowly but steadily. Family structure is

gradually diversified to nuclear one and attachment to the family is diminishing.

 Changes in Health and Hygiene

Now-a-days the general health condition of the Koyas is far better than before. Earlier they

suffered from malnutrition and always were depended on indigenous medicine or ojhas. The

sense of personal hygiene among the Koyas is very poor. Malnutrition and uncleanly habits

have made the Koyas victims of several diseases. Main complaint is about their anemic

condition. During the rainy season, they generally suffer from ulcers, eye-ache and stomach-

ache. Malaria is also common during this season. Both male and female suffer from these

diseases. The only remedy they seek is from the tribal quacks or ojhas.

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Now, among the Koya the awareness regarding health and hygiene is increasing. Due to the

modernization in agriculture, their income has increased and they are consuming better foods.

They are going to hospital for treatment and some percentages of money are spending for

medical care. They are also keeping their health clean. Most of the mechanized households

have separate kitchen and separate cattle shed facilities. A good number of households also

have latrine. These facts show the increase in awareness among the tribal regarding health

and hygiene and their stepping towards a better living as a community.

 Changes in Cosmo Politeness

Earlier the Koyas were a non-political entity. They lived in the hills and forests of the region

and hardly had any contacts with the princely rulers. The Koyas have a long tradition of

managing their village affairs through traditional panchayats. In olden days, the traditional

panchayats were the only means through which disputes were settled and justice dispensed in

the tribal areas. Since 1949 Gram Panchayats are being established in the rural and tribal

areas through government efforts. Sometimes there is a jurisdiction between the traditional

panchayats and the newly established Government panchayats. Very few Koyas take their

cases for decision to the government panchayat. Another institution which exercised some

power was that of some well to do Koyas families of the village. Though there is less of

stratification in the traditional tribal society, still there are some families which enjoy higher

prestige owing to larger number of cattle and higher size of land holdings. Such families are

known for providing resources of employment and money lending. Anytime they could stand

as sureties for the late payment of land revenue or loan. Crisis situation could be met

adequately with the help of these dominant families in the village. They also take part to

solve the disputes.

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Since independence and promulgation of the constitution, the Koyas have assumed a new

status. They are supposed to participate in the national political system not only as ordinary

citizens but bestowed with some special privileges and discriminations. The Constitution

provides them such privileges with the idea that their involvement and participation in the

political system would bring them closer to the core of national life. The Constitution

envisages that the political and economic forces released by the national structures would in

the end bring the tribal people in the mainstream of national life.

 Changes in Indigenous Koyas Rituals and in Agro Ecosystem

The Koyas are ritually intricate with their agro ecosystem. The different phases of agriculture

and other allied activities of the Koyas are always accompanied by some rituals and

ceremonies that are held communally in the village. The Koyas perform rituals and

ceremonies at first in each case communally and then the households of the village are

permitted to perpetuate their independent productive activities. This kind of ritual sanction, in

fact, acts as a moral force in binding the households of the village into a corporate productive

organization and stands in the way of complete Nuclearisation or individualization of the

family households, their primary productive units. A number of social festivals and the

accompanying communal worship are directly linked to agricultural production. All the

festivals of the Koyas are partly ‘vegetation’ ceremony and partly ‘fecundity’ ceremony. The

invocations are reminiscent of Vedic prayers for plenty and peace. But there is always the

feeling that much is left to the operation of the goodwill of the gods and Bongas. After all

they will finally determine the quality of the harvest and nothing that they can do will really

change the picture. The Koyas belief is that if the Bongasor not properly worshipped or they

are not pleased, or if for some reason they incite their wrath then there will be poor crop or

34
even large scale failure of crop. Many cultivators in the Koyas villages exhibit lazy and

complacent attitude, which hinder their good crop. But now, the Koyas are learning slowly

from non-tribals, who are good cultivators and who do not care much for extra-rational forces

of Bongasor gods and goddesses.

KOYA TRIBE

History

The Koya live in the forests, plains, and valleys on both sides of the Godavari River, which
lies in the central Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Many also live in the states of Madhya
Pradesh and Orissa. The Koya are said to have migrated to central India from their original
home in Bastar, northern India. They believe their main deity still resides in a cave in the
Bastar region. According to Koya mythology, life originated from water.

The Koya language, also called Koyi, is closely related to Gondi and has been
strongly influenced by Telugu, the tongue of the neighboring Hindu population. The Koya
are one of the few multi-racial and multi-lingual tribal communities in India. Most Koya
speak either Gondior telugu Gondior Telugu, in addition to Koyi.

Since India's independence from the British in 1947, the Indian government has increased its
influence over the Koya. As a result, the Koya have rebelled numerous times. The Koya
resent the restrictions that have been placed on their use of reserve forests and distillation of
liquor. They also resent the hydroelectric projects and rehabilitation of refugees in their land.

What Are Their Lives Like?

The Koya are primarily farmers. They once shifted from one plot to another, farming various

areas. However, the government has now restricted their movement and has encouraged them

to farm on fixed plots. They showed the Koya how to farm coconut and coffee. They also

granted the Koya permanent ownership rights to their land if they would grow rice there. In

the hill regions occupied by the Koya, there are still no permanent farms. Crops are grown in

35
small clearings for only two or three years. Rice and tobacco are the main cash crops for

those in the hill regions. Their staple diet is sorghum. The Koya's consider the palm tree as a

gift of nature and every family owns at least four to eight of them

Because the income from farming is very low, many of the Koya who do not

own land work as hired farm laborers. Others weave bamboo baskets and sell them at the

weekly markets to Hindu merchants. They also are excellent hunters. Good hunters are

regarded as heroes. Hunting is valuable to provide food and protection from wild animals.

Many still use bow and arrows for hunting and to attack their enemies. Koya gather forest

produce to supplement the vegetables grown in their home gardens. Cattle are symbols of

wealth, and they are kept for their dairy products, meat, fertilizer, and trade.

The Koya usually live in villages. Occasionally, they can be found living with

other tribal and non-tribal peoples. Koya villages are located near dependable water sources.

The larger villages are situated near the rivers, while the smaller ones can be found in the

hills and jungles. Their wood, thatch, and mud houses are built without windows. They

usually have two rooms and a porch around the outside.

All Koya belong to one of five sub-divisions called gotrams. Every Koya is

born into a clan, and he cannot leave it. Birth, marriage, and death are three important

celebrations in Koya villages. The family group is called the kutum. Sons usually live

separately from the family, but still work the farm with their parents and brothers. Monogamy

is practiced. Most marriages among adolescents are arranged by the parents with the consent

of the girl. Marriage ceremonies last for three days in the summer when palm juice is

plentiful. They involve both the bride and groom's villages.

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What Are Their Beliefs?

The Koya practice their own ethnic religion, but also worship a number of Hindu gods and

goddesses. Many Koya deities are female, the most important being the "mother earth."

Sacrifices are carried out by the village priests. The Koya do not believe in heaven, hell, or

reincarnation. When a person dies, his body is carried on a cot which is covered with grain,

liquor, new clothes, money, and a cow's tail. At the appropriate place, the cot is faced towards

the West, and the body is burned. The ashes are placed in a clay pot. The Koya believe that

their spirits linger about the clay ancestor pot, patrol the sky over the village, or wander about

the village disturbing daily life.

What Are Their Needs?

The Bible is available in Telugu.

Prayer Points

* Scripture Prayers for the Koya in India.


* Pray that God will give missions agencies strategies for reaching the Koya with the Gospel.

* Ask God to give Koya Christians a burden to share the Good News with their own people.

* * Ask God to rise up prayer teams who will begin breaking up the soil through worship and

intercession.

Impact of modernisation on Koya tribe:

Impact of Modernisation and Urbanization on Tribal Culture

In the modern process of change, modernisation and urbanization have brought a new

change in more or less all localities of Rourkela. For the period of the last 60 years and

especially through the plan periods, the speed of mining and establishment of manufacturing

industries, as well as the exploitation of power and forest resources has been greatly

37
accelerated. This has led to a high degree of displacement and dislocation that is in urgent

need of rehabilitation and relocation of the uprooted villages. Experienced villagers of the

communities say that this process of rehabilitation and relocation is going on for years but

without proper functioning or responsibility on the part of the authorities.

These agricultural people when uprooted were in a great trouble. First was

about their alternative place for rehabilitation as well as alternative occupation to earn their

livelihood. Though these affected families were given reasonable compensation they had to

face numerous social problems, cultural crisis, economic disorganization and social

disintegration.

Tribals vis-à-vis Development

The process which were undertaken for bringing about the rapid national development were

seen as an important method for the addition of tribal societies into the national guidelines.

But the national aim to make resourceful entities like Rourkela Steel Plant for future growth

and revenue generation for growth was given far more value than issues relating to the

wellbeing of the tribes. Activities such as building infrastructure, setting up industries and

constructing dams for irrigation and power projects for electricity and light included taking

out and exploitation of minerals and forest resources. A large part of these projects were

initiated in the areas where the tribals were settled. As these areas happened to be a rich

reservoirs of mineral and forest resources. This led to an expected clash between tribals and

groups professing allegiance towards national interest.

As a result tribals were most severely affected by the use of land and forest.

Tribal areas in Rourkela have also seen an entry of people from outside in search of

employment. These activities have not only given rise to increasing urbanisation of tribal

38
areas but also have caused large scale migration of non-Tribals into tribal territory depriving

the tribals of fruits of development in their own areas.

Poverty and lack of development have extracted a terrible price and one of

them has been the rise of Naxalism. Tribals now see no other option but to embrace Naxalism

in the present model of development, where forceful acquisition of land and displacement of

thousands by the State are order of the day. Tribals saw this as an opportunity to escape out

of the poverty, displacement and deSocial Consequences of Development As a result of

progress the tribals have gone through some changes not only changes occurred in their

relation with land but also in their relation with forests. Tribal people were very much

dependent on forests for their day-to-day requirements, including food, shelter, equipment,

medicine, and in some cases even clothes. As long as the tribes were in co ntrol of forest and

open use of its produce, they had no difficulty meeting these needs. In return they conserved

the forest as it was their life support system. For all the tribes, the religious concepts,

terminologies, and practices are different and various, but all the members of these groups

contribute to somewhat which is common in them, they are below regular stress from the

main prepared religions, like Hinduism and Christianity. Some of this force is intentional, as

the missionaries work among tribal group to gain converts. Most of the pressure, however,

comes from the process of integration within a national, political and economic system that

brings tribes into increasing contact with other groups and different, prestigious belief

systems. In general only those tribes that remain geographically isolated in desert, hill, and

forest regions or on islands are able to retain their traditional cultures and religions for longer

periods. Those tribes that make the transition away from hunting and gathering and toward

agriculture, usually as low-status labourers, find their ancient religious forms in decay and

their place filled by practices of Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, or Buddhism (Thakur &

Pandey, 2009).privation of lands being forced upon them by successive governments.

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Problems of Tribal People

1. The Problem of Geographic Separation:

Living in the unapproachable physical areas such as deep valleys, dense forests,

hills, mountains, etc. It is difficult for them to establish relations with others. This

kind of physical as well as social isolation or seclusion has contributed to various

other problems.

2. Cultural Problems:

The tribal culture is entirely different from the way of life of the civilized people.

They are suspicious towards the civilized people. They are clinging tenaciously to

their customs and traditions. The cultural gap between the civilized and the tribal

people is hindering the integration of the tribal people into the mainstream of the

national life of India.

3. Social Problems:

The tribals have their own social problems also. They are traditional and custom-

bound. They have become the victims of superstitious beliefs, outmoded and

meaningless practices and harmful habits. Child marriage, infanticide, homicide,

animal sacrifice, exchange of wives, black magic and other harmful practices are

still found among them.

4. Economic Problem:

The tribal people are economically the poorest people of India. Majority of them

live beta the poverty line. The tribal economy is based on agriculture of the

crudest type. The main economic problems of the tribals are explained below.

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 Exploitation:

The innocence, illiteracy and helplessness of the tribals are exploited by the

outsiders.

 Unprofitable Agriculture:

they practice shift cultivation and possess uneconomic holdings because of which

their crop yield is very less.

 Problems of land ownership:

A good portion of the land in the tribal areas has been legally transferred to non-

tribals. Tribals demand that this land should be returned to them.

 Unemployment and Underemployment:

A large number of tribal young men and women are either unemployed or

underemployed. They are unhappy for they are not able to get jobs that can keep

them occupied throughout the year Non-Availability of Banking

Facilities: Banking facilities in the tribal areas are so inadequate that the tribal’s

have mainly to depend on the money-lenders. The tribals, therefore, demand that

“Agricultural Indebtedness Relief Acts” should be enacted so that they may get

back their mortgaged land.

5. Educational Problems:

Illiteracy is a major problem of the tribals. More than 3/4 of the tribals are

illiterate. They have no faith in formal educational organization. The illiterate

parents do not consider it as their primary responsibility to give education to their

children.

 The Problem of Language and The curriculum of education is another

main problem

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6. Problem of Health and Sanitation:

Due to illiteracy and ignorance the tribal’s are not able to appreciate modern

concept of health and sanitation. They do not take much care pertaining to their

own health. They have their own traditional means of diagnosis and cure.

7. Problem of Separatism:

The “divide and rule” policy adopted by the British did a lot of damage to the

tribal community of India. The tribal groups such as Kolis, Mundas, Khasis,

Santals, Naga, etc, who fought against the British were branded as “dacoits” and

“robbers”. The British government which wanted to humble these tribal’s and

“correct” them gave direct encouragement to the foreign Christian missionary

activities especially in, the Central and the North-Eastern Zone. These activities

which led to numerous Tribal Revolts and Uprisings:

 Smuggling, Infiltration and Drug Addiction is also another major

problems

Problems of tribal communities

Issues of tribal development, integration and autonomy have confronted the Indian society

right from the British rule in India. Complexity of Indian tribal population made the task of

integration and autonomy even difficult. Ethnic tribal sub nationalism posed serious

challenges and hampered the progress of the communities over the time. Autonomy is desired

so that development policies are evolved to suit the tribal culture and lifestyle. On the other

hand leaving the tribal in their own state will deepen the developmental divide between the

mainstream and the tribals even deeper. Post independence the basic issue is that the

integration is largely directed from above and not from below. Integration of tribes has

neglected their own needs and desires. Integration has been on the terms of the mainstream

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society and it is also accused of benefitting the mainstream society only. The government

monopoly over forests continued. The exploitation of forests accelerated as most of the

mineral resources fall in forest and tribal areas. The policy of capital intensive

industrialization adopted by the Indian government required mineral resources and power

generation capacities that were concentrated in the tribal areas. Tribal lands were rapidly

acquired for new mining and infrastructure projects. In the process tribal’s were displaced

without any appropriate compensation or rehabilitation justified in the name of economic

growth. These policies were often seen subjugating tribals and causing the degradation of the

resources upon which they depended.

Land alienation

The history of land alienation among the tribes began during British colonialism in India

when the British interfered in the tribal region for the purpose of exploiting the tribal natural

resources. Coupled with this tribal lands were occupied by moneylenders, zamindars and

traders by advancing them loans etc. Opening of mines in the heart of tribal habitat and even

a few factories provided wage labour as well as opportunities for factory employment.

But this brought increasing destitution and displacement. After the British came to power, the

Forest policy of the British Government was more inclined towards commercial

considerations rather than human. Some forests were declared as reserved ones where only

authorized contractors were allowed to cut the timber and the forest -dwellers were kept

isolated deliberately within their habitat without any effort to ameliorate their economic and

educational standards. The expansion of railway in India heavily devastated the forest

resources in India.

The Government started reserving teak, Sal and deodar forests for the manufacture of railway

sleepers. Forest land and its resources provide the best means of livelihood for the tribal

people and many tribes including the women engage in agriculture, food gathering and

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hunting they are heavily dependent on the products of the forest. Therefore when outsiders

exploit the tribe's land and its resources the natural life cycle of tribal ecology and tribal life

is greatly disturbed.

Poverty and indebtedness

Majority tribes live under poverty line. The tribes follow many simple occupations based on

simple technology. Most of the occupation falls into the primary occupations such as hunting,

gathering, and agriculture. The technology they use for these purposes belong to the most

primitive kind. There is no profit and surplus making in such economy. Hence there per

capita income is very meager much lesser than the Indian average. Most of them live under

abject poverty and are in debt in the hands of local moneylenders and Zamindars. In order to

repay the debt they often mortgage or sell their land to the moneylenders. Indebtedness is

almost inevitable since heavy interest is to be paid to these moneylenders. Banking facilities

in the tribal areas are as inadequate that the tribal’s have been forced to rely on

moneylenders.

Health and Nutrition

In many parts of India tribal population suffers from chronic infections and diseases out of

which water borne diseases are life threatening. They also suffer from deficiency diseases.

The Himalayan tribes suffer from goiter due to lack of iodine. Leprosy and tuberculosis are

also common among them. Infant mortality was found to be very high among some of the

tribes. Malnutrition is common and has affected the general health of the tribal children as it

lowers the ability to resist infection, leads to chronic illness and sometimes leads to brain

impairment. The ecological imbalance like cutting of trees have increased the distances

between villages and the forest areas thus forcing tribal women to walk longer distances in

search of forest produce and firewood.

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Education

Educationally the tribal population is at different levels of development but overall the formal

education has made very little impact on tribal groups. Earlier Government had no direct

programme for their education. But in the subsequent years the reservation policy has made

some changes. There are many reasons for low level of education among the tribal people:

Formal education is not considered necessary to discharge their social obligations.

Superstitions and myths play an important role in rejecting education. Most tribes live in

abject poverty. It is not easy for them to send their children to schools, as they are considered

extra helping hands. The formal schools do not hold any special interest for the children.

Most of the tribes are located in interior and remote areas where teachers would not like to go

from outside.

Cultural problems

Due to contact with other cultures, the tribal culture is undergoing a revolutionary change.

Due to influence of Christian missionaries the problem of bilingualism has developed which

led to indifference towards tribal language. The tribal people are imitating western culture in

different aspects of their social life and leaving their own culture. It has led to degeneration of

tribal life and tribal arts such as dance, music and different types of craft.

Concept of private property

The advent of the concept of private property in land has also adversely affected tribals

whose community-based forms of collective ownership were placed at a disadvantage in the

new system. Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest's Dwellers (Recognition of Forest

Rights) Act 2006 popularly known as Forest Rights Act, 2006 tried to restore this status quo

and ownership of the tribals but its implementation is not up to the mark.

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In Migration

Many tribal concentration regions and states have also been experiencing the problem of

heavy in migration of non-tribals in response to the pressures of development. The industrial

areas of Jharkhand have suffered dilution of the tribal share of population. These processes

continue to prevail and have become even more powerful since the 1990s when the country

was opened up for liberalization. The huge agitations in Maharashtra against Jaitapur Nuclear

Power Plant and Mining giant Vedanta in Niyamgiri in Orissa are the examples of reactionary

movements against policy of alienation and exploitation of the tribal’s.

Types of Indian tribes

What draws India closer to an obscure and indifferent picture are the indigenous tribes. Far

from the contemporary trend and economical development, they own their personal identity

as Adivasi having their own language, religion, festivals, cuisine, dance and music. With such

an enigmatic culture and hospitality they also significantly hold a contrasting patriarchal and

matriarchal society.

I can’t say that for sure the total number of tribal groups in India, but after a wide research I

can say that it exceeds more than 500 and comprises approximately 9% of the total

population of the country. The lively tableau of the tribal community in India stretches from

the remote villages tucked in the Indian Himalayan region to southern – most tip of India

AND from the farthest corner of North East India to the dunes of Rajasthan. The tribal

population in India covers approximately 15% of the country and the majority is found in

central India.

The major tribes in India

In its mysterious past it encompasses all the dim origins of life. Their lifestyle is completely

different from the rest of the world. With an obscure history they are still competing to get

46
along with the modern trend. Their livelihood is mainly dependent on agriculture and

handicrafts but the tribes of India still display a wide spectrum of “another India” you hardly

know about. One cannot, however, get the complete picture about the whole tribe just by

studying or getting close to one particular tribe as each one of them has its own respective

culture – food, festival, dance, music, religion and language. Still to get a brief idea about

Indian tribes… here is a comprehensive list of 20 tribes, picked from different corners of

India.

1. Gonds

Known for their valor, the Gond tribes are mostly found in Central India in the Chhindwara

district of Madhya Pradesh. They are also spotted in the Bastar district of Chhattisgarh, parts

of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, and Orissa. So when you are on a tour in Madhya Pradesh,

muttering and mulling over the titillating sculptures of Khajuraho and Sanchi Stupa

respectively and wheeling from majestic palaces to whispering woods

of Kanha and Bandhavgarh… steer towards the Gondi forest and experience the unique

lifestyle of the Gonds. The Gond tribes have a good command over Telgu, Hindi, Marathi,

Parsi and many other Dravadian languages.

What to experience? The rural colour with mud walls and thatched roof houses, earthen pots,

traditional wears – men in dhoti and women in sari and ornaments… the festivals of Keslapur

Jathra and Madai and ritual performances are the ones to experience. Try out Kodo or Kutki,

which is the staple food of the Gonds; moreover, they are mostly meat consumers.

2. Bhils

If you are on your royal wheels for a trip to Rajasthan, moving from massive forts and

palaces to Jain temples, then discovering the lifestyle of the Bhil tribes is an absolute

contrast. This tribal community in India is mostly spotted in the Aravali Ranges of Sirohi

in Udaipur and some places of Dungarpur and Banswara districts of Rajasthan. Further, the

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settlements of the Bhil tribes are also found in parts of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh,

Maharashtra and Tripura. What to experience? The cultural harmony – Ghoomar dance,Than

Gair (a religious dance and drama) are Baneshwar Fair that is held in the month of January or

February are the major attractions. Whereas the Bhili language, which is an Indo – Aryan

language, is one of the most interesting features to experience.

3. Santhals

The Santhal tribes are the major tribes of West Bengal and are mostly seen in the districts of

Bankura and Purulia. They are also widely seen in parts of Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha and

Assam. The journey to the abode of Santhals heads from the cultural capital of India,

Kolkata, en route the terracotta temples of Bishnupur and Bolpur. The Santhals are largely

dependent on agriculture and livestock; further, they are well versed in the art of hunting.

What to experience? The Santhali dance and music is one of the major attractions that you

can’t miss when you are wheeling to Bankura and Purulia. Moreover, festivals like Karam,

Maghe, Baba Bonga, Sahrai, Ero, Asaria, Disum Sendra and Namah often fascinate

travellers.

4. Great Andamanese Tribe

Back in 2010 when Boa (one of the speakers of two Great Andamanese languages, Khora and

Bo) died, the world lost two languages. So before the extermination of these unique tribes,

speaking Jeru and Sare, plan an ocean cruise to Andaman and explore the indigenous survival

land. The Great Andamanese Tribe, which includes the Onge, Jarawa, Jangil and Sentinelese,

are said to be the first inhabitants of the islands. But today a significant number is on its way

to extinction. Nonetheless, the left over population of the Great Andamanese are largely

dependent on the vigorous campaign by Survival and Indian organizations. What to

experience? Well… it is hard to distinguish them by their appearance – complexion and

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dress, still you are another traveller who will end up capturing their lifestyle. The Great

Andamanese are mostly spotted in Strait Island and parts of Rutland Island.

5. Khasi

If you are seeking to discover the culture hidden in the mystical mountains of Meghalaya…

the ethnical clamour of the Khasi tribes, who are filled with lots of music, playing musical

instruments like drums, guitars, flutes, wooden pipes and metal cymbals, surely going to

make your tour to Meghalaya bright and striking. The Khasi tribes are mostly spotted in the

Khasi Hills of Meghalaya and are also found in parts of Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur

and West Bengal. What to experience? Other than the language, which is an Austro- Asiatic

language AND dress – Jainsem for women and Jymphong for men… the five day long

extravaganza, the Nongkrem festival is a feast for travellers’ eyes.

6. Garo

One of the few remaining matrilineal societies in the world that are mostly spotted in the hills

of Meghalaya, the Garo Tribes are ideally known for their vivid lifestyle. They are also

spotted in the neighbouring areas of Bangladesh and parts of West Bengal, Assam and

Nagaland. It is easy to distinguish the Garo tribes from other tribes of Meghalaya. Women

are often found in varieties of traditional ornaments, whereas men are seen wearing turbans

with feathers stuck behind them. What else to experience? The unique form of Garo

architecture like Nokmong, Nokpante, Jamsireng and Jamadaal are some abstract capture in

your lense. Further, the Wangala festival of Asanang is something that you can’t miss.

7. Angami

It’s the famous Hornbill Festival of the Angami Naga tribes that pulls in travellers to the

farthest corner of North East India, Nagaland. The Angami Nagas are one of the major tribes

of Nagaland, widely present in the district of Kohima. Apart from the Hornbill Festival, the

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major attraction remains their intricate and beautiful woodcraft and artwork. The Angami

Nagas are known for the producer of bamboo work, cane furniture, beds, shawls and

powerful machetes. What else to experience? The form of language, the Angami Language

that is identified with different names such as Gnamei, Ngami, Tsoghami, and Monr, is

another major feature to get hold off. Further, their dressing style – men in white Mhoushu

and black Lohe and women in Mechala along with ornaments like Beads, miniature mask

pendants, bangles and bracelets – is surely going to arrest your eyes. Well… the hardcore

carnivore travellers may try out some unique pork dishes from the Angami.

8. Munda

Don’t miss the Nupur dance when you are in the abode of the Munda tribes. Their settlement

is largely based in the Chota Nagpur Plateau region and is mostly spotted in the dense of

Jharkhand. Further, parts of West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Odisha are also inhabited by

the Munda Tribes. Amidst the vast eco sphere… these Munda tribes display a simple and

basic lifestyle that follows the Sarna religion, believing in a God called Singbonga. What to

experience? Mage, Phagu, Karam and Sarhul are the major festivals of the Munda tribes that

attract travellers from different parts of the world. Further, the Killi language is also another

major feature to get hold off.

9. Bhutia

Dominating the landlocked territory of Sikkim that is bordered by the Indian Himalaya, the

Bhutias are widely known for their traditional grandeur, art and cuisine. One cannot forget

the unique preparation of momo, steamed meat dumplings and thukpa… slurpy, burpy and

yummy! Travel into the land of the Bhutias during the Losar and Loosong festivals and

experience the vivid culture – dance, music and religion. The hardcore carnivores can try out

some spicy beef.

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10. Chenchu

The Chenchu tribes are one of the indigenous people of Andhra Pradesh inhabiting over the

years in the midst of the forest of Nallamala Hills. They are mostly seen in the districts of

Mahboobnagar, Nalgonda, Prakasam, Guntur and Kurnool. Life is hard for them as they are

largely dependent on hunting and trading jungle products like roots, tubers, fruits, beedi

leaves, mahua flower, honey, gum, tamarind and green leaves. What to experience? Well,

other than the languages having Telegu accent… they are skilled in various form of arts and

crafts. Further, the Chenchu tribes are extremely ritualistic. Their ritual performances of

various gods and goddesses are the major attractions for travellers.

11. Kodava

So… when you steer onto the Mysore – Madikeri Road from Mysore, you are slowly heading

to the abode of one of the distinct race in India, the Kodava tribes, known for their bravery

since ages. Coorg, flourishing as one of the eco – tourist destinations in India, attracts lot of

weekenders from nearby cities of Karnataka and travellers from different parts of the country

and world… BUT the harmony and ethnicity of the Kodava tribes is one of the major

attractions for the explorers. Digging into the cultural diorama, the Kodava tribes are fond of

music and dance. One can witness such hues during the festivals of Puttari, Kaveri

Sankramana and Kailpodhu. Moreover, these people are also passionate about hockey with

both men and women playing the game. If you want to seek such a playful panorama then be

there during the Kodava Hockey Festival, which is held every year.

12. Toto

One of the isolated tribal groups inhabiting the village of Totopara in Jalpaiguri district of

West Bengal is the Toto tribes. They have a simple lifestyle and are largely dependent on

trading vegetables and fruits. In spite of the fact that they define themselves as Hindus, the

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Totos are believers of god Ishpa and goddess Cheima. If you are wheeling to Totopara during

the peak winter season…then steer to Jaldapara National Park, which is one of the popular

national parks in India popular national parks in india that is located approximately 20

kilometers from Totopara. Don’t forget to try out Eu, which is a type of country liquor made

from fermented marua, rice powder and malt and is served warm in Poipa (wooden glass).

13. Irulas

Expert snake and rat catchers… that’s what make the Irula tribes of South India special. With

a population of approximately 3,00,000 the Irulas inhabits parts of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka,

Andhra Pradesh and Kerala. Moreover, the Irulas are the second largest tribe in Kerala and is

mostly seen in the district of Pallakad. So, when you are on a holiday in Kerala to enjoy the

sprawling hues of the Nilgiri Mountains and cruise down the sparkling backwaters of

Alleppey, just for a day steer to Pallakad. What to experience? The Irulas are largely

dependent on agricultural products like paddy, raggi, dhal, plantains, chilies, and turmeric.

Further, the major attraction remains their varied ritual performances. All though most of

them are Hindus but they still believe in worshiping their own diety… Irulas are also known

to be conversant in white and black magic.

14. Nyishi

The Nyishi tribes are the largest inhabitants of the mountainous state of Arunachal Pradesh

and are mostly spotted in the districts of Papum Pare, Lower Subansiri, Kurung Kumey, East

Kameng, parts of Upper Subansiri. Whilst a majority of them have converted to Christian,

their religion still involves a belief in spirits associated with nature. What to experience? The

Nyokum Festival, which is dedicated to goddess Nyokum, held in the month of February, is a

major attraction where you as a traveller can seek the interesting cultural heritage and

ethnicity of the Nyishi tribes.

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15. Bodo

Believed to be the early settlers of Assam… the Bodo tribes today are found in Udalguri and

Kokrajhar of Assam and parts of West Bengal and Nagaland. If you are keen to seek the

traditional colours of the Bodo people, then travel to North East during the time of the

Baishagu Festival, dedicated to Lord Shiva (locally known as Bathou),which is celebrated

during the spring season every year. Further, the Bodo tribes are meat – eating people and

hence MY FELLOW NON – VEG travellers… just wake up the carnivorous nature in you

and try out some unique preparation of pork and fish. What else to experience? Weaving is

one of the most intrinsic part of Bodo culture and hence you can buy some handloom

products.

16. Warli

The Warli or Varli tribes of Maharashtra and Gujarat display a unique form of art and

painting that reflects the mural paintings of 500 – 10,000 BC carved in the Rock Shelters of

Bhimbetka, in Madhya Pradesh. Their form of art follows the rudimentary technique with

mixture of earth and cow dung, branches, red ochre, rice paste, bamboo stick and more. If

you want to seek such grandeur then visit during the Warli Art Folk Art Dancing People

Festival, which is held during the month of March every year. Well… don’t miss the Tarpa

Dance, which is a folk dance performed during the harvest season.

17. Toda

Dominating parts of the Nilgiri Mountains, the Toda tribes are largely dependent on cattle-

herding and dairy-work. They are also skilled in art and architectural works like embroidery

products and dogles, type of oval and pent – shaped huts made of bamboo canes and thatched

roof. If you are travelling to Ooty, which is one of the popular hill stations in South India,

you will come across several such Toda huts as well as people inhabiting the area.

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18. Kurumban

Another major tribe dominating parts of Kerala and Tamil Nadu, the Kurumban tribe exhibits

a simple lifestyle, depending largely on agricultural products. Moreover, they are widely

known for witch-craft and magical performances as well as traditional herbal medicines.

19. Soliga

Inhabiting the dense forest of BR Hills of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, the Soliga tribes are

yet another indigenous group of people, further divided to five sub groups – Male Soliga,

Urali Soliga, Pujari, Kadu and Burude. Even if you steer your wheels towards Bandipur

National Park, you may chance upon the Kadu Soliga tribes and hence can experience little

bit of their lifestyle.

20. Siddis

The Siddi tribes of Karnataka are believed to have descended from the Bantu people of

Southeast Africa who were treated as slaves by Portuguese merchants. Today, the Siddi

people are predominantly found around Yellapur, Haliyal, Ankola, Joida, Mundgod, Sirsi,

Belgaum and Dharwad in Karnataka apart from some pockets of Pakistan. The Siddi people

are mostly Roman Catholic but some follow Hinduism and Islam. What to experience? Other

than mulling over their historical facts… the major attraction remains the ritual practices,

dance and music.

some pockets of Pakistan. The Siddi people are mostly Roman Catholic but some follow

Hinduism and Islam. What to experience? Other than mulling over their historical facts… the

major attraction remains the ritual practices, dance and music.

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Tribes of odisha

History

History Orissa has originally been inhabited by aboriginal tribes like Bhuiyans and

Gonds.They confined themselves to the forests and hills when the Dravidian race settled here.

As understood from the history of the state the geographical location of Orissa led to

assimilation of races and culture of Aryans and Dravidians. Orissa was known as Kalinga in

the early period. Kalinga was related with the greatest Mauryan Empire Asoka. In the 2nd

century AD, Kharavela established a strong rule in Kalinga. Guptas dominated over this

region in about the 4th century AD. Till the 10th century, Orissa witnessed the rule of

Bhoumakara dynasty followed by the soma dynasty from 11th to 12lh century AD. Then the

Guptas ruled Orissa. In 13th and 14th century AD, the Muslim sultanate influence their

dominion and this continued till 1568. This was followed by the rule of Mughals till the death

of Ayurangzeb. After his death, the nabab of Bengal ruled this territory till 1803 and then the

state of Orissa ruled by the British East India Company and Orissa attained its present status

in 1949. Since pre-historic days various people have inhabited the land of Orissa. Now, at

about 22.13% of tribal population comprising 62 major tribes and 233 minor tribes are found

in Orissa1. The earliest settlers of Orissa were primitive hill tribes. Although primitive tribes

cannot be identified. It is well known that the primitive tribe like Saora or Sabar from the

Mahabharata days had inhabited Orissa. This tribe is one ofthe most ancient and is known

from being Marathon walkers, expert hunters and climbers. Most of the tribal people and

much of the population in Orissa belong to the Australoid group in racial history, while most

of the general population belongs to the broad-headed Alpinoid type. Besides this, a

sprinkling of Mediterranean type is found in the general population. Orissa occupies a unique

position in the ethnographic map of India for having the largest sections of tribal

communities, with the Kondh tribe having a particularly strong presence. Her ancient people

55
who continue to inhabit their traditional dwelling places in remote areas in the deep forest

and hilly interiors endorse the antiquity of Orissa. Orissa has 62 distinct tribal groups, making

it the largest collection of tribal people in a single state in the country. Each ofthese tribal

group have their own indigenous customs and have been Government of Orissa (2001),

Census of Orissa, Districtwise ST Population for the state of Orissa, Census Directorate,

Bhubaneswar, A (2): 117-120. 23 continue to practise them even today. They have their own

system of culture, traditions, religious practices, inheritance of property, marriage system,

healthcare practices and magico-religious practices. Orissa has a large tribal population. Out

of India’s 427 Scheduled tribes, Orissa accounts for 62 tribal communities2 who constitute

22.13% of state’s population3 (2001). The tribal communities living in the state range from

small communities to large communities. Almost 44.21% of the total land area of the state

has been constitutionally declared as scheduled area, which covers most of the districts

except the costral and few in-land areas. Thuamul Rampur and lanjigarh blocks of Kalahandi

district are involved in these areas. The tribal communities ofthe state can be categorized as

hunter-gatherer-nomads, hunter-gatherer and shifting cultivators, simple artisans, settled

agriculturists, industrial and urban unskilled and semi-skilled workers, etc. The tribes of

Orissa are ethno-linguistically classified into three categories, namely (i) Austro-Asiatic

(Mundari) (ii) Dravidian and (iii) Indo Aryan. Tribal communities belonging to the Austro-

Asiatic category mainly inhabit north Orissa, the Dravidian category in south Orissa while the

Indo-Aryan scattered all over the state. The Munda and Saora belong to Austro-Asiatic

category, The Gonds, Kondhs and Paraja belong to Dravidian category, the Indo-Aryan

category includes Banjara, Bhuyan, Juang, Kandha, Savara, Raj Gond, etc. Tribal

communities belonging to Austro-Asiatic and Dravidian language families have their own

spoken languages; where as tribal communities of the Indo-Aryan category speak various

regional dialects, which are variants ofthe standard Oriya dialects. Orissa has 62 distinct

tribal groups, making it the largest collection of tribal people in a single state in the country.

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Each of these tribal groups has their own indigenous customs and continues to practise them

even today. ‘Offspring of Immortals’: this is the title of a major novel by the eminent

Jnanpith award winning novelist from Orissa, Gopinath Mohanty, on the life of the Kondhs, a

major Adivasi tribe of Orissa. The felicitous epithet, which harks back to a well-known verse

in the Svetasvataropanishad, must have naturally occurred to the author as he observed these

innocent people from close quarters year after year. The Kondhs are only one of the Sixty-

two tribes identified in Orissa as Adivasis who are believed to be the original *Govt. ofOrissa

(2008), Tribes in Orissci-At a Glance, Bhubaneswar, "SCSTRTI, Orissa. •’Government of

India (2005), The Scheduled tribe Census ofIndia, Census Directorate, New Delhi. 24

inhabitants of the land. According to their origin and habitat they are variously designated as

Adimajati (primitive castes), Janajati (folk communities), Girijana (hill folk), Vanajati (forest

dwellers), etc. However, these names do not bring out their essential characteristic of primal

innocence and spontaneous living; they are the inheritors of immortality. Time seems to have

stopped in their sylvan hamlets. Their ways of living with are meagre needs of food, shelter

and clothing and the vivre through music and dance seem to have remained unaltered through

the ages of social evolution. The sacred God-nature-man relationship that works among them

is an amazing experience to the fragmented and alienated mind of modem man. Orissa has

one ofthe largest concentrations oftribal population in the whole country. In concrete figure

they number around 8 million. Tribal communities differ from all others in many aspects,

their distinctive features being clan organization and territorial exogamy, class’s social

structure, youth dormitory, colourful rituals and folk art, music and dance. The 62 tribes in

Orissa wary in their size, degree of acculturation and economic patterns. While the Kondhs

numbering around nine lakh are numerically the largest in the state4, the Santals are among

the three largest and advanced tribes in the country. The major tribes living in Orissa are the

Santhals, Oraons, Gonds and Kondhs. Although many of the Adivasi tribes are found in other

parts ofthe country, the Juangs, Bhuyans, Saoras, Bondas and Bathudis are exclusive to

57
Orissa. The tribal Communities are in various stages of economic and social development

starting with the least developed Bondas and ending with the comparatively advanced

Santals, the spectrum covering seminomadic to semiurban conditions. While a few tribes like

the Lanjia Saoras and Kutia Kodhs are entirely primitive, the Santals have a high degree of

acculturation. Most tribal people are basically working people, working to gather food and

fuel or engaged in agriculture, which is often at a primitive level or may be in some primitive

craft. Their work is usually ofsubsistence type.'The Adivasis may not be the so-called

gentlemen, for they have to dig and delve, slash and sow or, pin and weave, but their

uncomplicated adamic approach to life and the basic human virtues, which constitute the

hallmark of their integrated culture is fit for emulation, if feasible, by our acquisitive society.

Previously they were engaged in shifting cultivation. For this they select a patch ofland, cut

the trees around the patch during summer and burnt Government of India (2005J, The

Scheduled tribe Census ofIndia, Census Directorate, New Delhi. 25 into ashes before rainy

season. During first rain they spread the ashes and scattered it in the selected areas. They

started sowing seeds in the already prepared land for one or two years according to the

fertility of the soil. When the fertility of the soil reduced, they select another patch of land

like the previous practice and it continued. Generally the forestland is upland and the

rainwater never settles. So, they cultivate mays, ragi, harad, etc. according to their need and

demand. One thing evident from the tribal society that they are not in favour of hoarding food

materials.

58
Popular Tribes of Odisha

KONDH

Kond is one of the largest tribe in Odisha who worship hills, nature, and streams. The

people of Kondh tribe have an essential knowledge of the mountains, trees, forest, and

plants.

SAURAS

Sauras is one of the ancient tribes in India that also find their mention in the Hindu epics

of Mahabharata and Ramayana. The tribe has a unique shamanic culture and its people are

the great craftsman of Saura paintings.

59

BONDA

One of the country’s primitive tribes living in the quaint hills in Malkangiri district,

Odisha. The unique culture, enthralling customs, and typical attire make Bonda the most

popular tribal community in the state.

SANTHALS

The great fighters during British regime in India and also most fun-loving ones are the

people of the third largest tribe of India - Santhal. Music and dance are activities which

are loved the most by Santhals.

60

GONDS

A warrior tribe that resides in the hills of Koraput, Balangir, Sunderbagh, Kalahandi, and

Sambalpur is Gonda. Not just India’s but Gond is one of the largest tribes in South Asia.

BHUMIAS

Esteemed as the most-celebrated tribes in the state, Bhumia tribe is rich in tradition and

culture. The unique marriage trends and peculiar rituals make Bhumia a must-visit tribe in

India.

61

ORAONS

Considered as the most progressive and developed tribes amongst all mentioned in the

list, Oraons are mastered in tea plantation. Today, many of the Oraon people are shifted to

Indian metro cities.

KOYAS

Amongst the more than 60 Odisha’s tribes, Koyas is one of the top tribes with rich ancient

tradition, culture, art, and customs. Apart from Malkangiri, Odisha, the chivalrous people

of Koya tribes also resides in some parts of Andhra Pradesh and Chattisgarh.

62

PARAJAS

Devotees of numerous gods and goddess, the Prajas are the inhabitants of forests and hills.

The people of this beautiful community have a different passion and love for music and

dance and are mainly agriculturists.

GADAVA

Said to be the oldest and ancient tribe in Odisha that traces its history from

Ramayanaerais Gadava. It is also the most colourful tribe that sustain their livelihood

through agriculture, hunting, and fishing. some pockets of Pakistan. The Siddi people are

mostly Roman Catholic but some follow Hinduism and Islam. What to experience? Other

63
than mulling over their historical facts… the major attraction remains the ritual practices,

dance and music.

Koya tribe:

The Koyas constitute the principal tribe of malkangiri district, and are most widely

distributed throughout this area. As pre 1981 census, the total population of the tribe in

the state was 87,261 out of which 87,052 are found in Koraput region and as per 2001

census, the total population of the tribe in the state was 87,261 out of which 87,-052 are

found in Koraput region and as per 2001 census their total number is 1,21,479 in the

Koraput region. Their concentration is limited to the entire southern portion and som

portion in the north up to Mathili, they are found settlements lie in the midst of forests in

patches of clearings. Expect a few villages located by side of the road that pass in the

area, most villages are approached by narrow footpaths. The number of houses in a village

usually contains 4 to 5 houses. The size of the house varies according to the capacity and

need of the individual constructing the house. A wealthier man need a bigger house for

storing his grains and other household where as a poor man has a small house to

accommodate everything within it. Thus there are houses having a length of 30 to 40 feet

and a breadth of 10 to 15 feet respectively. Each length of 30 to 40 feet and a breadth of

10 to 15 feet respectively. Each house has side shed for pigs and goats. Each house has a

verandah and it is most frequently used place in the entire house. From morning to

evening all types of household works done here by all the members of the family. There

are no windows in the house. Each house has a guda or kitchen garden which is at the

back of the house. The garden is fenced all around and koya grow tobacco, mustard and

vegetables like tomato, brinjal and beans Koya were originally shifting cultivators. The

availability of large tracts of virgin forest made them primarily dependent on this

primitive cultivation practice. They were completely unfamiliar with the wet cultivation

system. However, due to gradual increase in population due to migration and growth of

64
birth rate on the one hand and the effort made by the government to birth rate on the one

hand and the efforts made by the government to stop shifting cultivation practices on the

other, the extent of shifting cultivation practices have reduced to some extent in recent

years. The Koyas do not possess sufficient amount of low lying land suitable for wet do

not possess sufficient amount of low lying land suitable for wet cultivation because of the

dearth of such land for various reasons. Due to undulating topography in the region the

availability of this type of land is extremely limited. The collection of root, tubers and

fruits from the forests in sufficient quantities supplement the meager yield of crops from

slash and burn type of cultivation. As expert hunters, they also depend on the wild games

to satisfy their want for meat.

65
CHAPTER-3

SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE

The socio-economic structure of the study area has divided in to two sections, that is: section-
A and section-B. Section-A is profile about Odisha and Malkangiri focuses on the
geographical profile of the state, district and region of the study and in other hand the section-
B is profile about the study village focuses on the socio-economic profile of the study area,
which is constructed on the basis of respondent view.

SECTION – A

ODISHA: BRIEF PROFILE

Odisha, also called Orissa, state of India. Located in the northeastern part of the country, it is
bounded by the states of Jharkhand and West Bengal to the north and northeast, by the Bay of
Bengal to the east, and by the states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana to the south
and Chhattisgarh to the west. Before India became independent in 1947, Odisha’s capital was
at Cuttack. The present capitol was subsequently built at Bhubaneshwar, in the vicinity of the
city’s historic temples in the east-central coastal plains. In late 2011 the state’s name was
officially changed from Orissa to Odisha. Area 60,119 square miles (155,707 square km).
Pop. (2011) 41,947,358.

Scheduled Tribes (the official government designation applied to indigenous peoples who fall
outside the predominant Indian social hierarchy) and Scheduled Castes (formerly called
“untouchables”; the official name for groups that occupy a low position within
the castesystem) together constitute some two-fifths of the population of Odisha. The tribal
peoples are divided into three linguistic groups: the speakers of Munda languages of
the Austroasiatic language family, the speakers of various languages of the Dravidian family,
and the speakers of Oriya(or Odia), which is an Indo-Aryan language. Historically,
the Santhal, Savara, and Juang peoples have been among the most prominent of the Munda
speakers, while the Khond, Gond, and Oraon (Kurukh) have been the principal speakers
of Dravidian languages. The Bhuiyan speak Oriya. By the early 21st century, many of the
tribal peoples had adopted Oriya as their primary language. Oriya is the official language of
Odisha and is spoken by most of Odisha’s nontribal population, except in some parts of the
northeast, where Bengali is widely spoken.

66
Map 2

There are 30 districts in Odisha — Angul, Balangir, Balasore, Bargarh, Bhadrak, Boudh,
Cuttack, Deogarh, Dhenkanal, Gajapati, Ganjam, Jagatsinghpur, Jajpur, Jharsuguda,
Kandhamal, Kalahandi, Kendrapara, Keonjhar, Khordha, Koraput, Malkangiri, Mayurbhanj,
Nabarangpur, Nayagarh, Nuapada, Puri, Rayagada, Sambalpur, Subarnapur, Sundargarh.
Mayurbhanj is the largest district and Jagatsinghpur is the smallest district by area and
Ganjam is the largest district and Deogarh is the smallest district by population in Odisha.

KBK: BRIEF PROFILE

The old districts of Koraput, Balangir and Kalahandi (popularly known as KBK districts )
have since 1992-93 been divided into eight districts: Koraput, Malkangiri, Nabarangpur,
Rayagada, Balangir, Subarnapur, Kalahandi and Nuapada. These eight districts comprise of
14 Sub- divisions, 80 Tahsils, and as many Community Development Blocks. The total
number of revenue villages forming part of KBK region is 12,293.( “National Informatics
Center, Koraput’’, “www.kbk.nic.in’’)

67
Map 3
MALKANGIRI
Malkangiri is a town and a Municipality in Malkangiri district in the India state of Odisha. It
is the headquarters of the Malkangiri district. Malkangiri is the new home of the Bangladeshi
refugees, who were rehabilitated since 1965 under the Dandakaranya Project. Also some Sri
Lankan Tamil refugees were rehabilitated in Malkangiri town, following the armed struggle
of LTTE in the early 1990s (most of them have returned, baring a couple of households).
Currently it is one of the most naxalite-affected areas of the state and is a part of the Red
Corridor.

Geography

Malkangiri is located at 18°21′N 81°54′E18.35°N 81.90°E / . It has an average elevation of 170 m


(560 ft).

68
Demography
As of 2011 India census Malkangiri had a population of 31,007. Males constitute 52% of the
population and females 48%. Malkangiri has an average literacy rate of 57%, lower than the
national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 65%, and female literacy is 48%. In Malkangiri,
15% of the population is under 6 years of age.
Politics
As of 2011 India census Malkangiri had a population of 31,007. Males constitute 52% of the
population and females 48%. Malkangiri has an average literacy rate of 57%, lower than the
national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 65%, and female literacy is 48%. In Malkangiri,
15% of the population is under 6 years of age.

About Kalimela Block


Kalimela is a Block located in Malkangiri district in Odisha. Positioned in rural part of
Odisha, it is one among the 7 blocks of Malkangiri district. According to the government
records, the block number of Kalimela is 314. The block has 146 villages and there are total
26414 homes in this Block.

Population of Kalimela Block

As per Census 2011, Kalimela's population is 118129. Out of this, 58979 are males whereas
the females count 59150 here. This block has 20147 children in the age bracket of 0-6 years.
Out of this 10177 are boys and 9970 are girls.

Literacy rate of Kalimela Block

Literacy rate in Kalimela block is 42%. 50050 out of total 118129 populations is educated
here. Among males the literacy rate is 49% as 29407 males out of total 58979 are educated
while female literacy rate is 34% as 20643 out of total 59150 females are educated in this
Block.
The Negative side is that illiteracy rate of Kalimela block is shockingly high -- 57%. Here
68079 out of total 118129 people are illiterate. Male illiteracy rate here is 50% as 29572
males out of total 58979 are illiterate. In females the illiteracy rate is 65% and 38507 out of
total 59150 females are illiterate in this block.

69
Agricultural status of Kalimela Block

The count of occupied individual of Kalimela block is 59881 still 58248 are non-working.
And out of 59881 working individual 25459 persons are completely reliant on cultivation.

Kalimela Block Population, Caste, Religion Data - Malkangiri district, Odisha

Kalimela Block of Malkangiri district has total population of 76,811 as per the Census 2011.
Out of which 38,331 are males while 38,480 are females. In 2011 there were total 17,185
families residing in Kalimela Block. The Average Sex Ratio of Kalimela Block is 1,004.

As per Census 2011, all of the population of Kalimela Block lives in urban areas. The
average literacy rate in urban area is 52.3% and the sex ratio of Kalimela Block is 1,004.

The population of Children of age 0-6 years in Kalimela Block is 12992 which are 17% of
the total population. There are 6600 male children and 6392 female children between the ages
0-6 years. Thus as per the Census 2011 the Child Sex Ratio of Kalimela Block is 968 which
is less than Average Sex Ratio ( 1,004 ) of Kalimela Block.

The total literacy rate of Kalimela Block is 52.29%. The male literacy rate is 51.16% and
the female literacy rate is 35.76% in Kalimela Block

Kalimela Block Data

As per the Population Census 2011 data, following are some quick facts about Kalimela
Block.

Table:3.1

Total Male Female


Children (Age 0-6) 12,992 6,600 6,392
Literacy 52.29% 51.16% 35.76%
Scheduled Caste 26,092 13,315 12,777
Scheduled Tribe 31,420 15,091 16,329
Illiterate 43,442 18,722 24,720

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Caste-wise Population - Kalimela Block
Schedule Caste (SC) constitutes 34% while Schedule Tribe (ST) were 40.9% of total population in
Kalimela Block of Malkangiri District.

Table:3.2

Total Male Female


Schedule Caste 26,092 13,315 12,777
Schedule Tribe 31,420 15,091 16,329

Religion-wise Population - Kalimela Block


Table:3.3

Religion Total Male Female


Hindu 76,184 (99.18%) 37,989 38,195
Muslim 162 (0.21%) 88 74
Christian 395 (0.51%) 213 182
Sikh 22 (0.03%) 16 6
Buddhist 4 (0.01%) 3 1
Jain 1 (0%) 1 0
Other Religion 1 (0%) 0 1
No Religion Specified 42 (0.05%) 21 21

Literacy Rate - Kalimela Block

Average literacy rate of Kalimela Block in 2011 were 52.29% in which, male and female
literacy were 61.8% and 42.88% respectively. Total literate in Kalimela Block were 33,369
of which male and female were 19,609 and 13,760 respectively.

Sex Ratio - Kalimela Block

The Sex Ratio of Kalimela Block is 1,004. Thus for every 1000 men there were 1,004
females in Kalimela Block. Also as per Census 2011, the Child Sex Ratio was 968 which is
less than Average Sex Ratio (1,004) of Kalimela Block.

Child Population - Kalimela Block

According to Census 2011, there were 12,992 children between age 0 to 6 years in Kalimela
Block. Out of which 12,992 were male while 12,992 were female.

Urban/Rural Population - Kalimela Block

71
As per Census 2011, there are total 0 families under Kalimela Block living in urban areas
while 0 families are living within rural areas. Thus around 0% of total population of Kalimela
Block lives in urban areas while 100% lives under rural areas. Population of children (0 - 6
years) in urban region is 0 while that in rural region is 12,992.

Table:3.4

Total Urban Rural


Population 76,811 0 76,811
Children (0 - 6 years) 12,992 0 12,992
Schedule Caste 26,092 0 26,092
Schedule Tribe 31,420 0 31,420
Literacy 52.29% - 52.29%
Sex Ratio 1,004 - 1,004

Working Population - Kalimela Block

In Kalimela Block out of total population, 38,578 were engaged in work activities. 56.5% of
workers describe their work as Main Work (Employment or Earning more than 6 Months)
while 43.5% were involved in Marginal activity providing livelihood for less than 6 months.
Of 38,578 workers engaged in Main Work, 15,975 were cultivators (owner or co-owner)
while 2,201 were Agricultural laborers.

Table:3.5

Total Male Female


Main Workers 21,781 17,408 4,373
Cultivators 15,975 13,511 2,464
Agriculture Labourer 2,201 1,158 1,043
Household Industries 289 118 171

Other Workers 3,316 2,621 695


Marginal Workers 16,797 4,643 12,154
Non Working 38,233 16,280 21,953

Pusuguda village is located in India and listed under Taluks: Podia, in the district of
Malkangiri, Odisha state.

72
SECTION-B

VILLAGE PROFILE

Socio- economic profile of the study area as have already discuses in section “A” about
profile of the “Odisha”, KBK And Malkangiri, this section deals with the, details profile of
the study village and the socio- economic profile of respondent in the study village.

The present study has been conducted in the village Pusuguda. Could ‘Pusuguda”
Grampanchayat Kalimela, block-Kalimela, Odisha. It is 49 K.m from district headquarter. It
is located entire aria of geographical area where is not proper transformation. It is surround
by, mounting, hills, behind the village river could. This is the surrounded by the forest. This
is very beautiful.
Pusuguda village is poorly tribal dominated village we can found that the total household
Pusuguda is 50, then where Koya tribe. Where-50 household Koya tribe than village total
population 425.Male-208, female-217. Drain system no facility. Road connection normal.
There are two primary school in Pusuguda village and one Anganwadi centre.Large number
of people uses ponds for bathing and cooking purpose and one tube well is there, there also
canal system exit.
Pusuguda Information

 Pusuguda is a Village in Podia Tehsil in Malkangiri District of Odisha State, India


 It is located 49 KM towards west from District head quarters Malkangiri
 594 KM from State capital Bhubaneswar Pusuguda is surrounded by Kalimela Tehsil
towards East , Sukma Tehsil towards North , Malkangiri Tehsil towards East , Konta Tehsil
towards South
 Malkangiri , Bade Bacheli , Manuguru , Bhadrachalam are the nearby Cities to
Pusuguda
 Demographics of Pusuguda Oriya is the Local Language here.

73
Pusuguda Location

Tehsil Name:Podia
District: Malkangiri
State: Odisha
Language: Oriya and Hindi
Time zone: IST (UTC+5:30)
Telephone Code / Std Code: 06850

HOW to Reach Pusuguda

By Train

There is no railway station near to Pusuguda in less than 10 km. However Rajahmundry Rail
Way Station is major railway station 150 KM near to Pusuguda
Pin codes near Pusuguda 764047 ( Kalimela ) , 764087 ( Lachipeta ) , 764048 ( Malkangiri
Colony )

Nearby Railway Stations


Kirandul- 67 KM
Bacheli- 75 KM
Bhansi- 82 KM
Kamalur- 82 KM

Places near Pusuguda

Papi Kondalu- 86 KM
Dantewada- 92 KM
Bhadrachalam- 98 KM
Bastar- 125 KM
Jagdalpur- 127 KM

Pusuguda nearby Places


Few nearby places of Pusuguda are listed below for your reference:

74
Cities
Malkangiri- 48 KM
Bade Bacheli- 74 KM
Manuguru- 90 KM
Bhadrachalam- 97 KM

Taluks
Podia- 0 KM
Kalimela- 27 KM
Sukma- 30 KM
Malkangiri- 48 KM

Airports
Rajahmundry Airport- 136 KM
Vishakhapatnam Airport- 207 KM
Vijayawada Airport- 222 KM
Raipur Airport- 376 KM

District Head Quarters


Malkangiri- 47 KM
Dantewada- 90 KM
Bijapur- 116 KM
Bastar- 136 KM

75
Table-3.6
Sex wise distribution

Sex Number of respondent Total %

Male 29 58%

Female 21 42%

Transgender 0 0%

Total 50 Total=100%

Table 3.6 shows sex wise distribution of total population. Where male 29(58)%,female
21(42)% and transgender 0(0)%.

Table-3.7

Age wise distribution

Age Number of respondent Total percentage


20-30 9 18%
30-40 30 60%
40-50 6 12%
50 and above 5 10%
Total 50 Total=100

Table 3.7 shows age wise distribution of total population. Where 9(18)% coming under ( 20-
30), 30(60)% coming under 30-40 , 6(12)% coming under 40-50 and 5(10)% coming under
50 and above.

76
Table-3.8

Marital status wise distribution

Marital status Number of respondent Total %


Married 21 42%
Unmarried 9 18%
Divorce 0 0%
Widow 12 24%
Total 50 Total=100

Table-3.8 shows marital status wise distribution. Where married 21(42) %, unmarried 9
(18)%, divorce 0(0)% and widow 12(24)%.

Table-3.9

Religion wise distribution

Religion Number of respondents Total %


Hindu 50 100%
Muslim 0 0%
Christian 0 0%
Total 50 Total=100%

Table 3.9 shows religion wise distribution. Where Hindu 50 (100)%, Muslim 0(0)% and
Christian 0 (0)%.

77
Table 3.10

Housing pattern wise distribution

House structure Number respondent Total %

Kucha house 23 46%

Semi pucca house 18 36%

Pucca house 9 18%

Total 50 Total=100%

Table 3.10 shows housing pattern wise distribution of total population. Where 23(46)% are
kacha , 18(36)% semi pacca and 9 (18)% are pacca house.

Table-3.11

Family wise distribution

Types of Family Number of respondent Total %


Joint Family 9 18%
Nuclear Family 41 82%
Total 50 Total=100%

Table 3.11 shows Family wise distribution of total population. Where 9 (18)% coming under
joint family and 41(82)% coming under nuclear family .

78
Table -3.12

Occupation wise distribution

Occupation Number of respondent Total %


Agriculture 38 76%
Labour 8 16%
Business 0 0%
Government job 4 8%
Total 50 100%

Table-3.12 shows occupation wise distribution of total population where 38(76)% engaged in
agriculture, 8(16)% labour, 0(0)% are business man and 4(8)% are governmental service.

Table 3.13

Education qualification wise distribution

Educational Number of respondent Total %


status(qualification)
Illiterate 34 68%
Primary 6 12%
Secondary 5 10%
Higher secondary 3 6%
Graduate above 2 4%
Total 50 100%

Table 3.13 shows education qualification wise distribution, where 34(68)% are illiterate,
6(12)% have studied primary education, 5(10)% coming under secondary, 3(6)% studied
higher education and 2 (4)% studied graduate.

79
Table 3.14

Annual income wise distribution

Annual income Number of respondent Total %


5,000-10,000 19 38%
10,000-20,000 12 29%
20,000-30,000 16 32%
30,000 Above 3 6%

Table 3.14 shows annual income wise distribution, where 19(38)% belongs to 5,000-10,000,
12(29)% belongs to 10,00-20,000, 16(32)% belongs to 20,000-30,000 and 3(6)% belongs to
30,000 and above.

Table 3.15

Land holding pattern wise distribution

Land holding Number of respondent Total %


Landless 4 8%
Small farmer 40 80 %
Middle farmer 6 12 %
Rich farmer 0 0%
Total 50 100 %

Table 3.15 shows land holding pattern wise distribution, where 4(8) % are landless, 40(80)%
small farmer, 6 (12)% middle farmer and 0(0)% rich farmer.

80
Table 3.16

Economic security wise distribution

Economic security Number of respondent Total%


BPL Card 46 92%
APL Card 4 8%
Total 50 100%

Table 3.16 shows economic security wise distribution, Where 46(92) % are BPL Card, and
4(8) APL Card.

Table 3.17

Social security wise distribution

Social security Number of respondent Total %


Old age pension 5 10 %
Widow pension 9 18%
Handicap pension 4 8%
Non beneficiary 32 64%
Total 50 100%
Table 3.17 shows Social security wise distribution, where5(10)% are old age pension,9(18)
% widow pension,4(8)% are handicap pension, and 32(64)% are non beneficiary.

81
Table 3.18

Housing Facility wise distribution

Housing facility Number of respondent Total respondent


India Awas 38 76%
Non facility 12 24%
Total 50 100%

Table 3.18 shows Housing facility wise distribution, where 38(76) % are Indira awas and
12(24) % non facility.

Table 3.19

Dressing pattern wise distribution

Dressing pattern Number of respondent Total %


Traditional 28 56%
Modern 22 44%
Total 50 100%

Table 3.19 shows dressing pattern wise distribution, where 28(56) % are tradition and 22(44)
% Modern dressing pattern.

Table 3.20

Linguistic pattern wise

Linguistic pattern Number of respondent Total%


Change 19 38%
Unchanged 31 62%
Total 50 100%
Table 3.20 shows linguistic pattern wise change other language 19(38)% and unchanged
31(62) %.

82
Table 3.21

Positive and negative response on impact of modernization

Respondent on Number of respondent Total%


modernization
Positive 42 84%
Negative 8 16%
Total 50 100%

The table 3.21 above shows that maximum numbers of respondents 42(84)% have the
positive opinion on modernization. The remaining of 8(16)% respondents gave negative
response.

Table 3.22

Facilities at drinking water

Well pond Hand pump


0 6 4

From above table the number of respondent 50 as required to 6 number of pond and 4 number
of hand pumps are their in village.

83
CHAPTER-4

IMPACT OF MODERNIZATION ON KOYA TRIBE AND ANALYSIS

This chapter deals with about the social institution of the Koya tribe of Malkangiri and the
impact of modernization on these institutions. It covers mainly four section first is ceremony,
marriage, tradition and second is religion, custom and belief third is food habit-health and
forth covers Communication and Transportation pattern of Koya tribe and trying to know the
changes in institution with modernization effect.

1. Age at Marriage

The Koya have no definite idea regarding the marriageable boys and girls. They
mostly calculate the age of marriageable boys and girls by physical makeup and capacity to
handle farm labour and household work. The usual age for marriage of a boys, of course 16
to 20 year and in case of girls 14 to 16 year.

Table No.-4.1

Age at Marriage

Age of marriage (In Years) Frequency Percentage

15-20 30 60.00
21-25 12 24.00
25-30 8 16.0

Total 50 100

Table no.-5.1 shows that maximum (60%) respondents got marry at the age of 15-20 year and
only 16% respondent take late marriage at the age 25 to 30 years. There is no significant
impact of modernization in these people as they don’t have access to television, radio,
mobile,etc. Very few people use it.

84
2. Use of modern ornament and cosmetic in routine life

Koya woman wears their traditional ornaments. Women wear several ornaments on their
wrists, ankles, ears,nose and neck. The woman loves jewelry of silver, gold. They used
mostly traditional jewelry. Uses of cosmetic product like fair & lovely cream, talcum powder,
kajal, lipstick, nail paint are very less but they have learnt to wear sindoor,bangles as these
things are easily available in local hatt(Market). Though traditional ornaments are still in
fashion, but decorative plastic ornaments have been adopted by some as it is cheap and easily
available items. So they easily buy and took in routine life.
Table No.-4.2

Use of modern ornament and cosmetic in routine life

Use of cosmetic Particular Percentage


Yes 7 14.00
No 43 86.00

Total 50 100.00

In this study very few people (14%) said that their family member used this product daily
life, but 86% said their family member did not use these it. They are busy in their work to
earn living . They don’t think much about these.

3. Traditional dress and change exist in dress

In every tribal society its own dressing pattern which is very special for them. Similarly Koya
also have their own traditional dressing sense. Koyas of older generation use very scanty
clothes,
Men use only loin cloth. Older women wear narrow shorts covering the portions of body
from waist to
knee, and use another piece to cover the upper part of the body. Now-a-days women of
younger
generation wear saree, blouse and petticoat and young men wear dhoti, half pant, lungi etc.
This is an impact of modernization, they did learn it from by watching people.

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Table No.-4.3

Traditional dress and change exist in dress

Traditional dress Change in dressing Percentage


Yes No
Saree 45 5 100
Dhoti,half pant,lungi
Total 45 05 50

But now a day’s maximum respondents (90%) said that they did not like their traditional
dress and they happily wear pant, jeans, shirt and women took sari etc, 10% respondents who
had old age they wear their traditional dress and didn’t accept any change in dressing pattern.
Respondents said that the main reason of changing dressing pattern is the effortless
availability of new modern clothes in local market with budget.

4. Do you take Liquor & which type liquor take

Liquor is not only drink for Koya people, it is as important as food for them. They celebrate
their function and festival with liquor. In their culture, most people take liquor either male or
female. They work very hard to earn their living and in reply they told it lessen their pain.
But in festive season and special occasion liquor is compulsory for everyone. Mahula and
Salapa are their ideal drinks.

Table No.-4.4

Do you take Liquor & which type liquor take

Liquor taken Which type liquor Particular


Yes Desi 94% 47
Videsi 6%
No - 03
Total 50

In this study only 6% respondents said did not taken home made liquor. Those respondents who
are taken liquor by two way mostly 94 % are taken desi mahua and they also drink salapa.
Videshi liquor is more expensive than mahula, as they do not have a good economic condition
they don’t prefer this.

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RELIGION, CUSTOM AND BELIEF

Religion of the Indian tribal is usually characterized by Animistic. This is correct to the
degree that tribal place an emphasis on the existence and activity of deities and sprits of
various kinds.

5. Belief in Deities

Koya tribe is influenced by Hindu religion so they believe Hindu god and goddess with their
folk deity like their ancestor and sprits, etc. Animal sacrifices are made and the new crop, fruit or
vegetable are offered to the deities after which the Koyas eat them.

Table No.-4.5

Belief in Deities

Belief in deities Particular Percentage Total


Hindu deities 50 100 50
Other deities 0 0 (100%)

This study shows that they are only Hindu people. They do not worship any other
deities. They are not influenced by any other religion.

6.Tattoo custom

In Indian tribal community tattoo tradition is very old. It is a customary practice of Koya
tribe. Their belief that tattoo is everlasting it cannot fade with time. After the death only
tattoo is the thing on earth which is gone with them. Koya women used tattoo to decorate
their body and men used for identity of their clan. Very few people do not do it. People of
urban area also do tattoo in their body , so in this there isn’t much impact of modernization.

Table No.4.6

Tattoo Custom

Tattoo custom Particular Percentage


Yes 35 70

No 15 30

Total 50 100

This shows that maximum respondent (70% follow their tattoo custom only 30%
didn’t follow.

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7.Belief in Magic

Koya people still do believe in Magic and spirits as there is not much impact of
modernization as they don’t have access to knowledge source. But a small amount of
decrease in these beliefs can be identified.

Table No.-4.7

Belief in Magic

Belief in magic Particular Percentage


Yes 44 88

No 07 12

Total 50 100.00

Only few people did not believe in magic because they said magician take more money in the
name of treatment. They do know about hospitals but due to lack of true knowledge , they
still in large number believe in these practices.

8. Medium of entertainment-

In tribal Entertainment pattern mostly they love songs and dancing.Koya people are still fond
of dancing and singing to their traditional music and songs. They do not have modern music
systems nor do they have tv or mobile. They are poor and innocent people. They spent most
of their time working in field. In Festival, Marriages, etc they do the ceremonial dancing and
singing. There is impact as near their village some people like village head the sarpanch and
school teachers do have television at their home, yes there is little impact of modernization ,
they may want to use it but lack of money and knowledge don’t allow them to entertain like
the modern people.

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Table No.-4.8

Medium of Entertainment

Medium of Particular Percentage Total


entertainment
Folk dance 30 60

Folk song 10 20

Drama 5 10 50
Radio 0 (100%)
T.V. 5 10.

Other 0 0

9.Watching Movies

As they don’t have tv at their home they don’t watch movies. Young Koya people may watch
it if they go out side their village to work but that is also very rare, as they go out to earn their
living.

Table No.-4.9

Watching Movies

Watching movies Particular Percentage


Yes 5 10

Rarely 5 10.

No 40 80

Total 50 100

Only 10 % of respondent’s watch movie and 90 % do not watch. This may increase
in the coming future as electronic gadgets are becoming less expensive. But lack of
knowledge creates problem.

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10. Do you take modern food?

They eat their traditional food. They sometime have bread, bun, biscuits etc as their
food, because it is easily available in local market. They are hard worker so this won’t give
them much energy to work. So most of them are happy with their traditional food.

Table No.-4.10

Do you take modern food

Modern food Particular Percentage Total

Bread 20 40

Bun 20 40

Maggi 2 4 50

Biscuit/namkeen 8 16 (100%)

Chips 0

Chowmeen 0

Table no.4.10 shows that Most of respondents are using Bread, Bun and few people
take biscuit, namkeen and they do not eat chowmin and chips.

11.Medium of Treatment

In tribal area treatment is basically depend on their own method of treatment like
jadibutti, jhad-fook but impact of modernization leads these tribal people to Hospital. Their
lack of knowledge and language proficiency may create problem sometime but In hospital
they get cure from these diseases.

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Table No.-4.11

Medium of Treatment

Medium of treatment Particular Percentage


Govt.hospital 43 86
Private hospital 0 0
Jdibutti 02 4
Jhad- fook 5 10
Total 0 100.00

Table No.4.11 shows that now most (86%) of Koya tribes used Government Hospital and
only 4 and 10 percent having treatment with Jdibutti and Jhad-fook respectively. This data
clear the picture that tribes are aware for health and using hospital facility. Modernization
helped these people greatly but still awareness is necessary.

12. Do you know about vaccination by whom-?

Koya people have knowledge about vaccination.

Table No.-4.12

Do you know about vaccination by whom

Particular Percentage
Yes 45 90
No 5 10
Total 50 100

This shows many people know about vaccination. They do know about polio. This
data clear Govt. iniceative programs for health that run smoothly in this areas. Under NRHM
program ANM have responsibility to inform people about vaccination and increase the rate of
vaccination in particular area. But sometimes These worker do not behave well these people.

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13. Delivery of Pregnant Women

In Koya tribe, people commonly aware about health related problems and they
generally attach with hospital facility. Under the hospital facility they found safe, secure
institutional delivery with nominal charges and cash benefit in form of money from hospital.
After delivery they got free of cost medicine for health care.

Table No.-4.13

Delivery of Pregnant Women

Delivery of pregnant women Particular Percentage


In home 5 10
Hospital 45 90
Total 50 100

This data shows that maximum all women happily go to hospital for delivery and 10
% respondents didn’t go to hospital. Modernization has impacted very nicely in this area. In
old times when many babies were dying due to delivery at home but due to hospital this is
now very less.

COMMUNICATION AND TRANSPORTATION

14. Mode of transportation

Modern technology and vehicle is a great help in transportation. There are many vehicle
available these days. But as Koya people live in remote villages these are connected by few
bus and some places only auto , motorbike and cycle. .

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Table No.-4.14

Mode of Transportation

Mode of transportation Particular Percentage Total

Bus 30 60

Train 0 0 50

Motar cycle 2 4 (100%)

Cycle 15 30

Auto 3 6

Most Koya people use Bus as the mode of transportation , some use cycle and few uses auto.

5.15 Use of Language

Language is a special characteristic of human being which make different him to the animals.
By the medium of language people share their feelings, emotions, messages one to another
people. In another aspect language is an important element of culture. So in any cultural
study language is a necessary part to know about their community/ society.

Table No.- 4.15

Use of language of Communication

Communication with Particular Percentage

outer people

Koya 48 96

Odia 2 4

Total 50 100

The above table shows that 96 % Koya people speak only in their mother touunge.
Very less people know odia i.e., 4% which is a problem for commnication with outer people.

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CHAPTER-5

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

SUMMARY

Here is an attempt to summarize research work “Impact of Modernization on Koya Tribe of


Malkangiri District”, under the research a new direction of tribal research found by
researcher.

Modernization is the societal change from the traditional to the modern one. Furthermore, it refers
to the interactive processes of economic growth and social change whereby historical and
contemporary underdeveloped societies are thought to have developed or remain underdeveloped.

Modernization produces both positive and negative impact on tribal societies of India. Some
of them are discussed;

1.Tribal societies mostly depend on forests, animals and its derivatives to go on with their
lives. Here, for modernization the forest cover had to be reduced. Tribal people living in such
areas had to face problems of many a kind as their living basically dependent on forests.

2. Modernization in India has also given tribal societies some basic laws to protect their
welfare as people of scheduled tribes.

3. Modernization in India has also given tribal societies some basic laws to protect their
welfare as people of scheduled tribes.

4. Modernization in India has also been helpful to promote education among such tribes. As a
result most of them hold good degrees these days and further help their societies to grow in
positive way.

Here researcher tried to research impact of modernization on Koya Tribe and their various
aspects of life like custom, tradition, things, language, food habit, living style, cosmetic
product,etc , which is easily accepted or adopted by them without any pressure.

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In the chapter 1 (Introduction) the researcher has presented introduction, review of
literature, the Social Work Research methods and strategies applied by her for the
exploration of the problem under study. In this chapter the objectives of the study and the
hypotheses to be tested have been illustrated. Also, the researcher has presented the research
design, the sampling method and the sources, tools and methods of data collection used in the
study.

In the Chapter 2 (Modernization And Koya Tribe A Critical Review) the researcher has
described about Tribe and its charecteristics, history and impact of modernization with detail
description of The Schedule Tribe of India and Koya Tribe is mainly described here.

In Chapter-3 (SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE) the researcher has described the the socio-
economic status of Research Village Pusuguda, Kalimela Block, Malkangiri district. . It
covers social status, economic status and general livelihood , population, etc.

This identified according to the research are as follows:

1. Maximum respondents are male (58%) while only (42%) are female respondent.
2. 18% coming under ( 20-30) Age, 60 % coming under 30-40 Age , 12% coming under
40-50 Age and 10% coming under 50 Age and above.
3. Maximum respondent are married 42%, unmarried-18%, and window 24%.
4. 100 % of the respondent are Hindu in religion.
5. 46% has Kacha house, 36 % and 18 % of people have semi pucca house and pucca
house respectively.
6. 18 % or respondent are joint family and 82 % are nuclear family.
7. Most respondent (76%) are engaged in agricultural activities , 16 % are labourer and 8
% businessman.
8. 68 % of the respondent are illiterate.
9. 80 % of respondent are small farmer, 12 % farmer and 8% are landless.
10. 92 % of the respondent are BPL Card holder and 8 % are APL Card holder.
11. 76% people have Indra Awas House and 14 % do not have.
12. Among the respondents 56 % are traditional and 44 % are of modern designing
pattern.
13. 62 % people have not changed their language but 38 % peoples language have been
impacted.

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14. 82 % people have positive opinion on modernization and 18 % people have negative
response.

In Chapter-4 (IMPACT OF MODERNIZATION ON KOYA TRIBE) researcher has


describe the impact of modernization on Koya tribe and came with following details.
1. Maximum (60%) respondents got marry at the age of 15-20 year and only 16%
respondent take late marriage at the age 25 to 30 years.
2. Very few people (14%) said that their family member used cosematic product in daily
life, but 86% said their family member did not use these it.
3. Maximum respondents (90%) said that they did not like their traditional dress and
they happily wear pant, jeans, shirt and women took sari etc, 10% respondents who
had old age they wear their traditional dress and didn‘t accept any change in dressing
pattern.
4. Only 6% respondents said did not taken home made liquor. Those respondents who
are taken liquor by two way mostly 94 % are taken desi mahua and they also drink
salapa.
5. Koya are only Hindu people. They do not worship any other deities. They are not
influenced by any other religion.
6. 70% follow their tattoo custom only 30% didn‘t follow.
7. Only 10 % of respondent‘s watch movie and 90 % do not watch.
8. (86%) of Koya tribes used Government Hospital and only 4 and 10 percent having
treatment with Jdibutti and Jhad-fook respectively. The Koya tribes are aware for
health and using hospital facility. Modernization helped these people greatly but still
awareness is necessary.
9. Koya people know about vaccination. They do know about polio. This data clear
Govt. iniceative programs for health that run smoothly in this areas. Under NRHM
program ANM have responsibility to inform people about vaccination and increase
the rate of vaccination in particular area. But sometimes These worker do not behave
well these people.
10. All women happily go to hospital for delivery and 10 % respondents didn‘t go to
hospital. Modernization has impacted very nicely in this area. In old times when many
babies were dying due to delivery at home but due to hospital this is now very less.

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CONCLUSION

Modernization is a process which was started in western countries for the development of
science and technology. Human beings think that they have to developed innovative mind
which is required to make some important and technological things. Few years go we
certainly witnessed that there are not proper developed society exist in all over the world.
There people mainly live in traditional society. People paced so many problems in their life.
But today is something is change that while growing science and technology people are able
to using mobile phone TV and all the technological assert which is help full to their life.
Modernization brought about paradoxical change in the world especial human society.
In traditional society people are living simple life style and they do not know how solved
their problems. They always gave importance to subjectivity and they main tend mechanical
solidarity in their society.In now days it is not found to see any society because people are
changed their ideas, thought, especially they living modern life. They maintained organic
solidarity with in their community or society. People are working in their society through
occupational specialization, division of labor with in their community.

India has been considered as multi religious, multi culture, and multi linguistic country. Here
maximum numbers of tribal people lived in this country. Few year go to back there are not
found to proper developed society and people of the society they not able to solved their day
to days problems. When modernization started and spread all over the world in this process
India also involve this process and change everything, which exists in the country.

Tribal people are non as natural shelter of this country. Our Indian constitution have
categories them to 62 group namely nagas, bonda, poraja, konda etc. they live in traditional
society, in joint family and communitarian life. But when modernization comes in the
country tribal people also change in their society and they purely involve this new innovation
process.

At last I conclude my dissertation topic that Impact of modernization on Koya Tribe, Koya
tribe is a well known tribal category in the Odisha especially in Malkangiri district. Koyas is
one of the top tribes with rich ancient tradition, culture, art, and customs . They thought that
their culture is everything to their life. But few years ago slowly slowly changing their
cultural activity.

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Religious belief and practices is the most important part of their culture, which has been
functioning their society up to early time. People in this particular community they are
celebrating some important festivals for the worshiping of their god and goddesses. I found
that when their religious festival is celebrating there are occurred changes because of the
impact of modernization. Koya tribe of this particular society they are thinking that
traditional way of functioning religious practices not necessary for them and it is not affected
on their life. But they always give importance to celebration of the religion practice.

Religious belief practice in playing an important role in their society, that so every people of
their village they are celebrating of religious practices and it has been also celebrate their
future generation.

For the impact of modernization people of that particular community become conscious and
developed their idea thought, and also they are applying their innovation mind to develop
their society. They are interest to studding their children’s. People of this particular
community they involve slowly slowly in the process of modernization and change their all
activity. They says that modernization is brought about development in their society as well
as at the same time it is danger for they through this process their culture and tradition are
destruct.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Dasgupta samir and saha,paulomi, 2012, introduction to sociology, Droling Kindersley


(India) private limited.

N.k. Behura ,Book “Tribal’s and the Indian constitution”1994 Publication.

Dr.ch.p.k Mahapatra, book “The Koya” 1992 Publication.

Prof. Himansu Sekhar Patnaik (M.A.D.Lit) Book “Indian Society and culture”2005
Publication.

Dr.Kharavela Mahanti, book “Indian society and Cuter”

Ahuja, Ram, 2005, Research Method, Jaipur, Rawt Publications.

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