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248 CHAP. 6 Laplace Transforms

6.8 Laplace Transform: General Formulas


Formula Name, Comments Sec.


F(s) ⫽ l{ f (t)} ⫽ 冮
0
eⴚstf (t) dt Definition of Transform
6.1
f (t) ⫽ lⴚ1{F(s)} Inverse Transform

l{af (t) ⫹ bg(t)} ⫽ al{ f (t)} ⫹ bl{g(t)} Linearity 6.1

l{eatf (t)} ⫽ F(s ⫺ a)


s-Shifting
lⴚ1{F(s ⫺ a)} ⫽ eatf (t) (First Shifting Theorem) 6.1

l( f r ) ⫽ sl( f ) ⫺ f (0)

l( f s ) ⫽ s 2l( f ) ⫺ sf (0) ⫺ f r (0) Differentiation of Function


l( f (n)) ⫽ s nl( f ) ⫺ s (nⴚ1)f (0) ⫺ Á 6.2
Á ⫺f (nⴚ1)
(0)
t
le 冮 f (t) dtf ⫽ 1s l( f )
0
Integration of Function

t
( f * g)(t) ⫽ 冮 f (t)g(t ⫺ t) dt
0
t
⫽ 冮 f (t ⫺ t)g(t) dt
0
Convolution 6.5

l( f * g) ⫽ l( f )l(g)

l{ f (t ⫺ a) u(t ⫺ a)} ⫽ eⴚasF(s)


˛

t-Shifting
ⴚ1 6.3
l {eⴚasF (s)} ⫽ f (t ⫺ a) u(t ⫺ a) (Second Shifting Theorem)

l{tf (t)} ⫽ ⫺F r (s) Differentiation of Transform


ⴥ 6.6
f (t)
le
t
f ⫽ 冮
s
F( 苲
s ) d苲
s Integration of Transform

p 6.4
l( f ) ⫽
1
1 ⫺ eⴚps

0
eⴚstf (t) dt f Periodic with Period p Project
16
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SEC. 6.9 Table of Laplace Transforms 249

6.9 Table of Laplace Transforms


For more extensive tables, see Ref. [A9] in Appendix 1.

F (s) ⫽ l{ f (t)}
˛ f (t) Sec.

1 1>s 1
2 1>s 2 t
3 1>s n (n ⫽ 1, 2, Á ) t nⴚ1>(n ⫺ 1)!
t 6.1
4 1> 1s 1> 1pt
5 1>s 3>2 2 1t> p
6 1>s a (a ⬎ 0) t aⴚ1>⌫(a)

1
7 eat
s⫺a
1
8 teat
(s ⫺ a)2
1 1 t 6.1
9 (n ⫽ 1, 2, Á ) t nⴚ1eat
(s ⫺ a) n (n ⫺ 1)!
1 1 kⴚ1 at
10 (k ⬎ 0) t e
(s ⫺ a) k ⌫(k)

1 1
11 (a ⫽ b) (eat ⫺ ebt)
(s ⫺ a)(s ⫺ b) a⫺b
s 1
12 (a ⫽ b) (aeat ⫺ bebt)
(s ⫺ a)(s ⫺ b) a⫺b

1 1
13 sin vt
s ⫹v
2 2 v
s
14 cos vt
s 2 ⫹ v2
1 1
15 sinh at
a
s ⫺a
t 6.1
2 2

s
16 cosh at
s2 ⫺ a2
1 1 at
17 e sinh vt
(s ⫺ a)2 ⫹ v2 v
s⫺a
18 eat cos vt
(s ⫺ a) ⫹ v 2 2

1 1
19 (1 ⫺ cos vt)
s(s ⫹ v )
2 2
v2
x 6.2
1 1
20 (vt ⫺ sin vt)
s 2(s 2 ⫹ v2) v3

(continued )
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250 CHAP. 6 Laplace Transforms

Table of Laplace Transforms (continued )

F (s) ⫽ l{ f (t)}
˛ f (t) Sec.

1 1
21 (sin vt ⫺ vt cos vt)
(s ⫹ v )
2 2 2
2v3
s t
22 sin vt t 6.6
(s 2 ⫹ v2) 2 2v
s2 1
23 (sin vt ⫹ vt cos vt)
(s ⫹ v )
2 2 2 2v
s 1
24 (a 2 ⫽ b 2) (cos at ⫺ cos bt)
(s 2 ⫹ a 2)(s 2 ⫹ b 2) b 2 ⫺ a2

1 1
25 (sin kt cos kt ⫺ cos kt sinh kt)
s ⫹ 4k
4 4
4k 3
s 1
26 sin kt sinh kt
s 4 ⫹ 4k 4 2k 2
1 1
27 (sinh kt ⫺ sin kt)
s4 ⫺ k 4 2k 3
s 1
28 (cosh kt ⫺ cos kt)
s4 ⫺ k 4 2k 2

1
29 1s ⫺ a ⫺ 1s ⫺ b (ebt ⫺ eat)
22pt 3
a⫺b
eⴚ(a⫹b)t>2I0 a
1
30 tb I 5.5
1s ⫹ a 1s ⫹ b 2
1
31 J0(at) J 5.4
2s ⫹ a 2 2

s 1
32 eat(1 ⫹ 2at)
(s ⫺ a) 3>2
1pt
kⴚ1>2
1p t
a b
1
33 (k ⬎ 0) Ikⴚ1>2(at) I 5.5
(s 2 ⫺ a 2)k ⌫(k) 2a

34 eⴚas>s u(t ⫺ a) 6.3


35 eⴚas d(t ⫺ a) 6.4

1 ⴚk>s
36 e J0(2 1kt) J 5.4
s
1 ⴚk>s 1
37 e cos 2 1kt
1s 1pt
1 1
38 ek>s sinh 2 1kt
s 3>2
1pk
k >4t
eⴚk1s eⴚk
2
39 (k ⬎ 0)
3
22pt

(continued )
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Chapter 6 Review Questions and Problems 251

Table of Laplace Transforms (continued )

F (s) ⫽ l{ f (t)}
˛ f (t) Sec.

1
40 ln s ⫺ln t ⫺ g (g ⬇ 0.5772) g 5.5
s
s⫺a 1 bt
41 ln (e ⫺ eat)
s⫺b t

s 2 ⫹ v2 2
42 ln (1 ⫺ cos vt) 6.6
s2 t
s2 ⫺ a2 2
43 ln (1 ⫺ cosh at)
s 2 t
v 1
44 arctan sin vt
s t
1 App.
45 arccot s Si(t)
s A3.1

CHAPTER 6 REVIEW QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS


1. State the Laplace transforms of a few simple functions 15. et>2u(t ⫺ 3) 16. u(t ⫺ 2p) sin t
from memory. 17. t cos t ⫹ sin t 18. (sin vt) * (cos vt)
2. What are the steps of solving an ODE by the Laplace 19. 12t * eⴚ3t
transform?
3. In what cases of solving ODEs is the present method 20–28 INVERSE LAPLACE TRANSFORM
preferable to that in Chap. 2? Find the inverse transform, indicating the method used and
4. What property of the Laplace transform is crucial in showing the details:
solving ODEs? 7.5 s ⫹ 1 ⴚs
5. Is l{ f (t) ⫹ g(t)} ⫽ l{ f (t)} ⫹ l{g(t)}? 20. 2 21. e
s ⫺ 2s ⫺ 8 s2
l{ f (t)g(t)} ⫽ l{ f (t)}l{g(t)}? Explain. 1
16 v cos u ⫹ s sin u
6. When and how do you use the unit step function and 22. 23.
Dirac’s delta? s ⫹s⫹
2 1
2 s 2 ⫹ v2
s 2 ⫺ 6.25 6(s ⫹ 1)
7. If you know f (t) ⫽ lⴚ1{F(s)}, how would you find 24. 25.
lⴚ1{F(s)>s 2 } ? (s 2 ⫹ 6.25)2 s4
8. Explain the use of the two shifting theorems from memory. 2s ⫺ 10 ⴚ5s 3s ⫹ 4
26. e 27.
9. Can a discontinuous function have a Laplace transform? s3 s 2 ⫹ 4s ⫹ 5
Give reason. 3s
10. If two different continuous functions have transforms, 28. 2
s ⫺ 2s ⫹ 2
the latter are different. Why is this practically important?

11–19 LAPLACE TRANSFORMS 29–37 ODEs AND SYSTEMS


Find the transform, indicating the method used and showing Solve by the Laplace transform, showing the details and
the details. graphing the solution:
11. 5 cosh 2t ⫺ 3 sinh t 12. eⴚt(cos 4t ⫺ 2 sin 4t) 29. y s ⫹ 4y r ⫹ 5y ⫽ 50t, y(0) ⫽ 5, y r (0) ⫽ ⫺5
1
13. sin2 (2pt) 14. 16t 2u(t ⫺ 14) 30. y s ⫹ 16y ⫽ 4d(t ⫺ p), y(0) ⫽ ⫺1, y r (0) ⫽ 0
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252 CHAP. 6 Laplace Transforms

31. y s ⫺ y r ⫺ 2y ⫽ 12u(t ⫺ p) sin t, y(0) ⫽ 1, 42. Find and graph the charge q(t) and the current i(t) in
y r (0) ⫽ ⫺1 the LC-circuit in Fig. 151, assuming L ⫽ 1 H, C ⫽ 1 F,
32. y s ⫹ 4y ⫽ d(t ⫺ p) ⫺ d(t ⫺ 2p), y(0) ⫽ 1, v(t) ⫽ 1 ⫺ eⴚt if 0 ⬍ t ⬍ p, v(t) ⫽ 0 if t ⬎ p, and
y r (0) ⫽ 0 zero initial current and charge.
33. y s ⫹ 3y r ⫹ 2y ⫽ 2u(t ⫺ 2), y(0) ⫽ 0, y r (0) ⫽ 0 43. Find the current i(t) in the RLC-circuit in Fig. 152, where
R ⫽ 160 ⍀, L ⫽ 20 H, C ⫽ 0.002 F, v(t) ⫽ 37 sin 10t V,
34. y1r ⫽ y2, y2r ⫽ ⫺4y1 ⫹ d(t ⫺ p), y1(0) ⫽ 0,
and current and charge at t ⫽ 0 are zero.
y2(0) ⫽ 0 C
35. y1r ⫽ 2y1 ⫺ 4y2, y2r ⫽ y1 ⫺ 3y2, y1(0) ⫽ 3,
y2(0) ⫽ 0
36. y1r ⫽ 2y1 ⫹ 4y2, y2r ⫽ y1 ⫹ 2y2, y1(0) ⫽ ⫺4, C L R L
y2(0) ⫽ ⫺4
37. y1r ⫽ y2 ⫹ u(t ⫺ p), y2r ⫽ ⫺y1 ⫹ u(t ⫺ 2p),
y1(0) ⫽ 1, y2(0) ⫽ 0 v(t) v(t)
Fig. 151. LC-circuit Fig. 152. RLC-circuit
38–45 MASS–SPRING SYSTEMS, CIRCUITS,
NETWORKS 44. Show that, by Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (Sec. 2.9), the
Model and solve by the Laplace transform: currents in the network in Fig. 153 are obtained from
38. Show that the model of the mechanical system in the system
Fig. 149 (no friction, no damping) is Li 1r ⫹ R(i 1 ⫺ i 2) ⫽ v(t)

m 1 y1s ⫽ ⫺k 1 y1 ⫹ k 2( y2 ⫺ y1) 1
˛˛ ˛˛˛
˛˛

R(i 2r ⫺ i 1r ) ⫹ i 2 ⫽ 0.
C
m 2 y2s ⫽ ⫺k 2( y2 ⫺ y1) ⫺ k 3y2).
˛˛
˛˛
˛

Solve this system, assuming that R ⫽ 10 ⍀, L ⫽ 20 H,


0 0 C ⫽ 0.05 F, v ⫽ 20 V, i 1(0) ⫽ 0, i 2(0) ⫽ 2 A.
y1 y2
L
k1 k2 k3

i1 i2
v(t) R C
Fig. 149. System in Problems 38 and 39

39. In Prob. 38, let m 1 ⫽ m 2 ⫽ 10 kg, k 1 ⫽ k 3 ⫽ 20 kg>sec2,


Fig. 153. Network in Problem 44
k 2 ⫽ 40 kg>sec2. Find the solution satisfying the ini-
tial conditions y1(0) ⫽ y2(0) ⫽ 0, y1r (0) ⫽ 1 meter>sec, 45. Set up the model of the network in Fig. 154 and find
y2r (0) ⫽ ⫺1 meter>sec. the solution, assuming that all charges and currents are
40. Find the model (the system of ODEs) in Prob. 38 0 when the switch is closed at t ⫽ 0. Find the limits of
extended by adding another mass m 3 and another spring i 1(t) and i 2(t) as t : ⬁ , (i) from the solution, (ii) directly
of modulus k 4 in series. from the given network.
41. Find the current i(t) in the RC-circuit in Fig. 150,
L=5H
where R ⫽ 10 ⍀, C ⫽ 0.1 F, v(t) ⫽ 10t V if 0 ⬍ t ⬍ 4,
v(t) ⫽ 40 V if t ⬎ 4, and the initial charge on the
i1 i2
capacitor is 0.
V C = 0.05 F

Switch
R C
Fig. 154. Network in Problem 45

v(t)
Fig. 150. RC-circuit
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Summary of Chapter 6 253

SUMMARY OF CHAPTER 6
Laplace Transforms

The main purpose of Laplace transforms is the solution of differential equations and
systems of such equations, as well as corresponding initial value problems. The
Laplace transform F(s) ⫽ l( f ) of a function f (t) is defined by

(1) F(s) ⫽ l( f ) ⫽ 冮0
eⴚstf (t) dt (Sec. 6.1).

This definition is motivated by the property that the differentiation of f with respect
to t corresponds to the multiplication of the transform F by s; more precisely,

l( f r ) ⫽ sl( f ) ⫺ f (0)
(2) (Sec. 6.2)
l( f s ) ⫽ s 2l( f ) ⫺ sf (0) ⫺ f r (0)

etc. Hence by taking the transform of a given differential equation

(3) y s ⫹ ay r ⫹ by ⫽ r(t) (a, b constant)

and writing l(y) ⫽ Y(s), we obtain the subsidiary equation

(4) (s 2 ⫹ as ⫹ b)Y ⫽ l(r) ⫹ sf (0) ⫹ f r (0) ⫹ af (0).

Here, in obtaining the transform l(r) we can get help from the small table in Sec. 6.1
or the larger table in Sec. 6.9. This is the first step. In the second step we solve the
subsidiary equation algebraically for Y(s). In the third step we determine the inverse
transform y(t) ⫽ lⴚ1(Y), that is, the solution of the problem. This is generally
the hardest step, and in it we may again use one of those two tables. Y(s) will often
be a rational function, so that we can obtain the inverse lⴚ1(Y) by partial fraction
reduction (Sec. 6.4) if we see no simpler way.
The Laplace method avoids the determination of a general solution of the
homogeneous ODE, and we also need not determine values of arbitrary constants
in a general solution from initial conditions; instead, we can insert the latter directly
into (4). Two further facts account for the practical importance of the Laplace
transform. First, it has some basic properties and resulting techniques that simplify
the determination of transforms and inverses. The most important of these properties
are listed in Sec. 6.8, together with references to the corresponding sections. More
on the use of unit step functions and Dirac’s delta can be found in Secs. 6.3 and
6.4, and more on convolution in Sec. 6.5. Second, due to these properties, the present
method is particularly suitable for handling right sides r(t) given by different
expressions over different intervals of time, for instance, when r(t) is a square wave
or an impulse or of a form such as r(t) ⫽ cos t if 0 ⬉ t ⬉ 4p and 0 elsewhere.
The application of the Laplace transform to systems of ODEs is shown in Sec. 6.7.
(The application to PDEs follows in Sec. 12.12.)