Sie sind auf Seite 1von 90

The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology


International Advisory Board

Agus Budiyono, Prof. Dr., Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT), Australia
Agus Rubiyanto, Prof. Dr.rer.nat., Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology (ITS), Indonesia
Arinto Yudi P. Wardoyo, Ph.D., Brawijaya University (UB), Indonesia
Frederic Merienne, Prof., Ecole Nationale Superieure d'Arts et Metiers (ENSAM), France
Gereon Elbers, Prof. Dr. rer. nat., FH Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Germany
Hans Dieter Liess, Prof. Dr.rer.nat., University of Armed Forces Munich, Germany
Hariyadi, Prof. Dr., Ahmad Dahlan University (UAD), Indonesia
Jakrapong Kawkhao, Prof. Dr., NRPU, Thailand
Jazi Eko Istiyanto, Prof. Dr., Gadjah Mada University (UGM), Indonesia
Khairurrijal, Prof. D.Eng., Bandung Instutute of Technology (ITB), Indonesia
Martin Liess, Prof. Dr., RheinMain University of Applied Sciences, Germany
Mego Pinandito, Dr., LIPI, Indonesia
Mitra Jamal, Prof. Dr.-Ing., Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
Mohd Fua'ad Rahmat, Prof. Dr., University Teknology Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia
Ralf Lucklum, Prof. Dr.rer.nat., Otto von Guericke University, Germany
Tatsuhiko Aizawa, Prof. Dr., Shibaura Institute of Technology (SIT), Japan
Tosawat Seetawan, Prof. Dr., Sakon Nakhon Rajabhat University, Thailand
Warsito, Prof. Dr., Universitas of Lampung, Indonesia

Chairman : Setyawan P. Sakti, Dr.-Ing., Brawijaya University, Indonesia
Co-Chairman : Kuwat Triyana, D.Eng., Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia

Organizing Committee
Achmad Nadhir, D.Eng., Brawijaya University, Indonesia
Agfianto Eko Putra, Dr., Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia
Agus Naba, D.Eng., Brawijaya University, Indonesia
Cuk Imawan, Dr.rer.nat., Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia
Didik R. Santoso, D.Eng., Brawijaya University, Indonesia
D.Djoko H. Santjojo, Ph.D., Brawijaya University, Indonesia
Eri Prasetyo, Dr., Gunadarma University, Indonesia
Ersyzario Edo Yunata, Dr., Shibaura Institute of Technology, Japan

The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Lazuardi Umar, Dr.rer.nat., University of Riau, Indonesia

Hari Arief Dharmawan, Ph.D, Brawijaya University, Indonesia
Idha Royani, Dr., Sriwijaya University, Indonesia
Johan A.E. Noor, Ph.D., Brawijaya University, Indonesia
Masruroh, D.Eng., Brawijaya University, Indonesia
Melania Suweni Muntini, Dr., Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Indonesia
Muhammad Miftahul Munir, Dr., Bandung Institute of Technology, Indonesia
Muhammad Irfan, Sriwijaya University, Indonesia
Ramli, Dr., Padang State University, Indonesia
Riska Ekawita, Dr., University of Bengkulu, Indonesia
Sugeng Rianto, Dr., Brawijaya University, Indonesia
Suprijadi, Bandung Institute of Technology, Indonesia
Suyatno, Dr., Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Indonesia
Yono Hadipramono, Dr., Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Indonesia
Yulkifli, Dr., Padang State University, Indonesia

Technical Program Committee

Prof. Khairurrijal (Bandung Institute of Technology)
Prof. Mitra Djamal (Indonesia Physics Society)
Dr. Ford Lumban Gaol (Bina Nusantara Univ.)
Dr.-Eng. Didik R. Santosa (Brawijaya University)
Dr. Cuk Imawan (University of Indonesia)
Dr. Melania Suweni Muntini (Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology)
Dr. Muhammad Miftahul Munir (Bandung Institute of Technology)

The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology


On behalf of the Organizing Committee of The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors,

Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology, it is a great honor and pleasure to welcome you to
the conference. The conference will be held in Brawijaya University, Malang, East Java, Indonesia,
from 10th to 11th August 2016.
ISSIMM 2016 is jointly organized by Brawijaya University (UB), Gadjah Mada University (UGM),
Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Indonesia University (UI) and Sepuluh Nopember Institute
of Technology (ITS). It is supported by Indonesian Physical Society (IPS), Instrumentation and
Metrology (Puslit KIM-LIPI) and sponsored by IEEE Indonesia Section. The conference is a fusion
of “International Conference on Sensor, Sensor System and Actuator (ICSSSA)” and “International
Seminar on Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology."
The conference is for the exchange of information, research, and development in the fields of
Sensor, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology. We hope that the ISSIMM 2016 also creates
an opportunity for scientist, engineer, practitioners, students in the fields to meet and make a contact
with new peers and colleagues in the fields. The Organizing Committee are doing all efforts to
ensure a successful conference. We also hope you enjoy Malang with its beautiful climate,
hospitality, and its historic places. Malang is surrounded by active volcanoes, i.e. mount Bromo,
Semeru, Welirang and Arjuno. In a clear weather, you can see the volcanoes in the morning from
where you stay in Malang.
I cordially invite all of you to join the conference, take the chance to meet with colleagues in the
fields and share your research result and knowledge at ISSIMM 2016. We wish you all have a good
experience, friendships and memories on this
conference. We wish to meet you again in the next
ISSIMM conference.
The organizing committee would like to deeply
thanks to the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural
Sciences, Department of Physics of the Brawijaya
University and Advanced System and Material
Technology Research Centre (ASMAT) for
sponsoring and supporting this conference.

Malang, August 2016

Setyawan P. Sakti (Chairman of ISSIMM 2016)

Kuwat Triyana (Co-Chairman of ISSIMM 2016)

The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology


Prof. Tatsuhiko Aizawa

Shibaura Institute of Tachnology
Prof. Tatsuhiko Aizawa received B.E (1975), M.E. (1977), and D.E. (1980)
degrees in Nuclear Engineering from University of Tokyo. He is a professor in
Department of Engineering and Design, Shibaura Institute of Technology. His
current interest includes nano- and micromanufacturing, plasma processing, high
dense nanotechnology, and surface design engineering.

Prof. Jakrapong Kaewkhao

NRPU, Thailand
Prof. Jakrapong Kaewkhao received Ph.D. degree in physics from King
Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi (KMUTT), Thailand, in 2008.
He attended a postdoctoral short course research of an X-rays induced
luminescence study in glasses, supervised by Prof. HongJoo Kim, at
KyungPook National University (KNU), Korea, in 2012. In the same year, he
has been awarded as the best alumni of Silpakorn University, Thailand. Through
his academic career, his research interests involve glass scintillators, photonic
glasses, color glasses, radiation shielding glasses (gamma and neutron), gemstone enhancements,
and imitation jewelry from glasses. His research on imitation jewelry from glasses has been
awarded by several national organizations, e.g., Thailand Research Fund (TRF), National
Innovation Agency (NIA), The Science Society of Thailand (SST), and National Research Council
of Thailand (NRCT). His recent work focuses on the development of imitation of color-changed
gemstone for ornament products, and has recently been awarded by National Research Council of
Thailand (NRCT) in 2015. This project has also been awarded the Best Innovation Awards by the
43rd International Exhibition of Innovation of Geneva, Switzerland, and the Medaille D’Argent
Silver Medal Silbermadaille in 2015.

Prof. Gereon elbers

FH Aachen University of Applied Sciences
Prof. Elbers got his Ph.D (Dr. rer. nat.) in 1986, at Institute of Physical
Chemistry of Muenster University, with Prof. Dr. G. Lehmann, University as his
advisor. His thesis entitled Spectroscopy of Solids, UV/Vis and Electron
Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) of transition metal impurities in diamagnetic
single crystals. He then worked at Agency of Nature, Environment and
Consumer Protection (LANUV NRW, former: North Rhine-Westphalia State Center of Air Quality,
Noise and Vibration), Germany. At LANUV NRW, his work focus on the topics of
chemical/physical analysis of hazards, air quality monitoring, development of measuring and
analysis methods.

The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Prof. Mohd Fu'aad bin Rahmat

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Prof. Mohd Fu'aad bin Rahmat received Bachelor of Electical Engineering
degree in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, in 1989. In 1993 he received Master
of Science degree in control system engineering from University of Sheffield,
England. In 1996 he received PhD degree in electronic instrumentation
engineering from Sheffield Hallam University, England. He got Hinckley Prize
for Outstanding Academic Achievement in the field of Engineering in 1997. In 2011, he got the title
of professor. His field of specialization in control is system identification and estimation, controller
design and process control instrumentation. In instrumentation, he has specialization for process
tomography, flow measurement and sensor design.

Prof. Tossawat Seetawan

Center of Excellence on Alternative Energy, Research Development Institute,
Sakon Nakhon Rajabath University
Prof Tossawat Seetawan received his Ph.D. in Physics. In 2011, he has been
awarded “Outstanding National Research Award” in recognition of his research
in thermoeletric entitled “Thermoelectric Generator by Using Raw Materials in
Thailand”. His expertises are in the area of thermal properties, thermoelectric,
conductivity and material characterization. At present he is Associate Dean Faculty of Science and
Technology, chief of Centere of Excellence on Alternative Energy and Chief of Thermoelectric
Research Centre at Sakon Nakhon Rajabhat Univeristy, Thailand and President of Thai
Thermoelectric Society.

Dr. Mego Pinandito, M.Eng

Director of Research Center for Metrology LIPI
Dr. Mego Pinandito received his bachelor in 1992 and master degree in 1994
from Ehime University, Japan. He received his doctoral degree from Shinshu
University, Japan in 2001. His current position is the Director of Research Center
for Metrology of the Indonesian Institute of Science. His works includes
telemetry, lidar, navigation system, calibration and metrology. He also known as
an expert in radiometry and photometry.

The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology


The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology


1st Floor

The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology


2nd Floor

The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology


August 09, 2016

Date & Time Location Event
12:00 - 16:00 1 Floor, MIPA Center Registration & Seminar Kit

August 10, 2016

07:30 - 08:00 1st Floor, MIPA Center Registration & Seminar Kit
08:00 - 08.15 Main Conference Opening ceremony
Room, MIPA Center
08:15 - 09:00 Main Conference Keynote Speaker: Prof. Tatsuhiko Aizawa
Room, MIPA Center
09:00 - 09:45 Main Conference Invited Speaker I: Prof. Jakrapong
Room, MIPA Center Kaewkhao
09:45 - 10:00 Coffee break
10:00 - 10:45 Main Conference Invited Speaker II: Prof. Gereon Elbers
Room, MIPA Center
10:45 - 11:30 Main Conference Invited Speaker III: Prof. Mohd F. Rahmat
Room, MIPA Center
11:30 - 12:30 Lunch
12:30 - 13:00 Main Conference Invited Speaker IV & V:
Room & MC 2.6
Prof.Tossawat Seetawan &

Dr. Mego Pinandito

13:00 - 14:30 2nd Floor, MIPA Parallel Session I
14:30 - 14:45 1st Floor, MIPA Center Poster Session
14:45 - 15:15 1st Floor, MIPA Center Coffe break
15:15 - 17:00 2nd Floor, MIPA Parallel Sesion II
19:00 - 21:00 Main Hall MIPA Closing Ceremony
Hospitality (Round table dinner)

August 11, 2016

08:00 - 11:00 Main Conference Instrumentation, Measurement & Sensor
Room, MIPA Center open Discussion.

Prof. Jazi Eko Istiyanto (Nuclear Energy

Regulatory Agency)

Prof. Mitra Jamal (Indonesia Physics


Dr.-Ing. Setyawan P. Sakti, M.Eng.

(Brawijaya University)

The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Page | 2
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Page | 3
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Page | 4
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Page | 5
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Page | 6
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Micro-Texturing into DLC, CNT and Diamond Coatings for MEMS
Tatsuhiko Aizawa
Department of Engineering and Design
Shibaura Institute of Technology
3-9-14 Shibaura, Minato-City, Tokyo 108-8548, Japan

Keywords: Micro-texturing, Carbon-based materials, DLC (diamond like carbon), CNT (carbon nano-tube),
Diamond, Plasma oxidation printing, DLC-pillars, DLC-nozzle, MEMS

ABSTRACT. The carbon-based materials such as DLC (diamond like carbon), CNT (carbon nano-tube) and
diamonds have been used as a protective coating of mechanical parts and manufacturing tools. With aid of
micro- and nano-texturing into them, their functionality in performance was much improved than the bare
coatings. Miniature systems and products must have micro- or nano-engineered or micro- or nano-decorated
surfaces by micro- and ano-texturing. Among several candidate methods, the plasma oxidation printing was
proposed as a powerful means not only to make micro-texturing into these films but also to construct the
three dimensional parts from thick DLC and diamond films. Three methods were employed to prepare for
the initial two dimensional micro-patterns: the metallic masking, the ink-jet printing and the maskless
patterning. In particular, the maskless patterning by the lithography, was suitable to accurate and fine
drawing of the micro-patterns onto DLC films. The aligned DLC-pillars as well as the DLC-nozzles were
built on the stainless steel and tool steel substrates.

Oxygen Atoms

Mask Etching via


DLC Film


Fig. 1: Homogenous, anisotropic plasma oxidation process to remove the un-masked coatings into the
depth of the carbon-based films.

[1] H. Saito (ED.): Handbook of DLC films. NTS-Publication (2008).
[2] S. Park, M. Vosguerichian, Z. Bao: A review of fabrication and applications of carbon nanotube film-
based flexible electronics. Nanoscale 5 (2013) 1727-1752.
[3] Toyota: Low friction sliding materials. Japanese Patent with #2011-32429 (2011).
[4] M. Ikenaga: DLC coating technologies for high functionalization. Nikkan-Kougyo Shinbun (2007).

Page | 7
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Interaction of Radiation with Glass: Development of
Radiation Shielding Glass and Glass Scintillator
J. Kaewkhao
Center of Excellence in Glass Technology and Materials Science (CEGM),
Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University, Nakhon Pathom, 73000, Thailand

ABSTRACT. Transparent radiation shielding materials have been a fascinating field in nuclear engineering
which offer not only sufficient protection from radiation but also visibility through it. Glasses can perform
the double task of allowing visibility while absorbing radiations and ensuring the protection of worker. Their
properties can be altered to a great extent by altering the composition and adopting variations in the
preparation techniques. In radiation shielding glass, while gamma-rays can be attenuated due to loss their
energy in glass matrices. If this energy can be transferred to appropriate dopant, which can emit light signal,
thus we can fabricate glass scintillator for development of radiation sensing material. The good dopant is
Ln3+ which is strong emission in visible light, sharp emission and stable in different glass formers. In this
work, Pb-free high density glasses have been fabricated in different glass formers and investigated their
radiation shielding properties. The results show that the developed glasses show better radiation shielding
properties than conventional radiation shielding materials. Moreover, the development of glass scintillator
has been described and discussed in term of glass structure and type of dopant.

Page | 8
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Development of measuring methods for air quality research and biogas
technology using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)
Katharina Druckenmüller1, a, Shabnam Tawabi Kaschani1, Katharina
Hoffmann1, Monika Nieren1, Martina Gäb1, Gereon Elbers*1, b
Faculty of Chemistry and Biotechnology, FH Aachen University of Applied Sciences,
Campus Jülich, Germany
a, (corresponding author)

Keywords: biogas, diffuse reflectance, fine dust, NIRS online-measurement, plant stress detection,
PM-10 screening
1st Der. Absorption

ABSTRACT. Near Infrared


Spectroscopy (NIRS) has become a

powerful technique in the last two

decades. It is useful in many fields of

material analysis e.g. food, raw material,
1. Ableitung Absorption

pharmaceutical products, polymers and


medicine. Spectra can be measured

rapidly and not destructive with a

minimum of sample pretreatment.

However, in air quality measurement and

research NIRS is not known very well

although the spectra exhibit a lot of

information which are useful for

environmental research and 5200
Wavenumber cm
5000 4800 4600
Wellenzahl /cm-1 -1
4400 4200 4000

monitoring. Here we give an

overview about our studies how Figure 1. NH3 induced stress to stellaria media detected by near infrared
diffuse reflectance spectra of plant material
NIRS can be used for air quality
research and biogas monitoring:
 We tested NIRS to characterize fine dust samples from ambient air. NIR diffuse reflectance spectra were
recorded directly from PM-10 fine dust samples which were collected in different cities on filter. Principal
component analysis show that the spectra pattern contain information about sampling site and month.
Multivariate calibration models were derived to estimate the concentrations of some toxic elements in the
finedust, these models depend on sampling site.
 In the next project plants were exposed to defined concentrations of O 3 (to trees) and NH3 (to herbs/gras)
[1]. The leaves of the plants were measured by NIRS and reference analyses were carried out by e.g.
GC/MS, HPLC, IC. NIRS calibration models were developed for the concentrations of a numerous chemical
compounds like soluble carbohydrates and minor components. Surprisingly the NIR spectra of the plants
treated with gas directly correlate to the concentrations of O 3 or NH3 in the fumigation chambers. This is as a
consequence of the induced stress and its influence on plant metabolism. Thus NIRS can be used as a tool to
detect plant stress and to derive detection limits for air pollution effects on plants.
 NIRS often is used in biogas technology to analyze the substrate phase [2]. We developed different
methods for online monitoring of the gas phase during fermentation process. A modified NIRS sensor was
tested inside a laboratory biogas fermenter to detect the composition of the biogas. NIR spectra yield much
more detailed information about the gas composition compared to the mostly used Not Dispersive Infra Red
(NDIR) technique.

[1] M. Gäb et al. “NIR-spectroscopic investigation of foliage of ozone-stressed Fagus sylvatica trees”, J For
Res 11, pp. 69-75, 2006
[2] A. Stockl and H. Oechsner,”Near-infrared spectroscopic online monitoring of process stability in biogas
plants”, Eng. Life Sci. 12, pp. 295-305, 2012

Page | 9
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Optimization of the Geometric Size of Electrode
for Electrostatic Sensor in Pneumatic Conveyor Application
Mozhde Heydarianasl and Mohd Fua'ad Rahmat*
Department of Control and Mechatronics Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,
81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
* Correspondent author email:;

Keywords: electrostatic sensors; particle swarm optimization (PSO); spatial sensitivity; circular-ring

ABSTRACT. Electrostatic sensors have been applied to measure the velocity of solid particles in several
industries and laboratories. Optimal value of the electrode dimensions is the key to obtaining better sensing
characteristics which include spatial sensitivity and signal bandwidth. The consistent spatial sensitivity is
necessitated in the particle velocity measurement to reduce the effect of flow regimes. In this paper, a new
optimization technique - Particle Swarm Optimization was proposed to overcome this issue. Characteristics
of distinct- shaped electrodes, including circular-ring and quarter-ring, were optimized to attain more
uniform spatial sensitivity. The uniformity of the spatial sensitivity of electrodes is influenced by several
factors, such as their length, and thickness. As such, spatial sensitivity was regarded as the fitness function in
the PSO method, and the other factors were investigated as PSO parameters. From observations, the spatial
sensitivity of the circular-ring electrode is more uniform than that quarter- ring. In addition, the optimal
length and thickness of circular-ring electrode respectively equals to 5.771 mm and 4.746 mm. Based on
experimental tests, correlation velocity and spatial sensitivity distribution of electrostatic sensors were
captured. A close agreement between experimental and optimization results verify that the proposed method
is feasible for optimizing the electrode size of electrostatic sensors.

(a) circular electrode (b) quarter-ring electrode

( e ) hemisphere
(c) pin electrode (d) rectangular electrode

Fig. 1 Different shapes of electrostatic probes.

[1] I. Barratt, Y. Yan, B. Byrne, and M. Bradley, "Mass flow measurement of pneumatically conveyed
solids using radiometric sensors," Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, vol. 11, pp. 223-235, 2000.
[2] R. Green, M. F. Rahmat, K. Evans, A. Goude, M. Henry, and J. Stone, "Concentration profiles of dry
powders in a gravity conveyor using an electrodynamic tomography system," Measurement Science and
Technology, vol. 8, p. 192, 1997.
[3] M. F. a. Rahmat and T. Tajdari, "Particles mass flow rate and concentration measurement using
electrostatic sensor," International Journal On Smart Sensing And Intelligent Systems, vol. 4, pp. 313-
324, 2011.
[4] Z. X. Lu, G. Yang, and Z. S. Wang, "Velocity Measurement for Flow Particles by Using Spatial
Filtering Technique Based on Sensor Array," in Advanced Materials Research, 2012, pp. 263-266.
[5] M. F. a. Rahmat, M. D. Isa, R. A. Rahim, and T. A. R. Hussin, "Electrodynamics sensor for the image
reconstruction process in an electrical charge tomography system," Sensors, vol. 9, pp. 10291-10308,
[6] M. Rahmat and N. Kamaruddin, "Application of fuzzy logic and electrodynamic sensors as flow pattern
identifier," Sensor Review, vol. 32, pp. 123-133, 2012.

Page | 10
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Thermoelectric Oxide for Thermal Sensors
Tosawat Seetawan1, 2, a
Center of Excellence on Alternative Energy, Research Development Institute, Sakon Nakhon
Rajabath University, 680 Nittayo Rd., Sakon Nakhon, Mueang District, 47000, Thailand
Program of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology,
Program of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sakon Nakhon Rajabath University, 680
Nittayo Rd., Sakon Nakhon, Mueang District, 47000, Thailand

Keywords: Ca3Co4O9, CaMnO3, thermopile sensors, thermal converters, thermal radiation sensors

ABSTRACT. The thermoelectric effects in oxide materials are developed to the Seebeck effect for thermal
sensing. Thermal sensors are the thermal converters, in which an electrical, magnetic, mechanical, radiation,
chemical signal are measured by converting it into heat and measuring the resulting temperature changes in
the device. This proposes an analysis the electrical converters and radiation sensors by using single−junction
of p−Ca3Co4O9 and n−CaMnO3 materials are presented into possible thermal sensing. Several thermal
converters are measured the signal electrical resistivity, and Seebeck coefficient depended on temperature.
Thermal radiation sensors are included the sensitivity, electricity, and specific detectivity. For application,
thermoelectric oxide cell can be fabricated crowbar circuit for protection an overvoltage condition of a power
supply which it yield 1.2 s turn off switch.

Figure 1. Thermoelectric oxide cell of p-Ca3Co4O9 and n-CaMnO3 (a) TE cell, (b) drawing

Figure 2. Short circuit voltage and electrical current as temperature difference of TE cell

[1] T. Seetawan, “Possibility of Thermoelectric Oxide for Thermal Sensors,” vols. 675-676, pp. 601-606,
[2] T. Seetawan, “Designing and Fabricating of Low Cost Thermoelectric Power Generators,” App. Mech.
Mater, vols. 110−116, pp. 4101−4105. 2012.

Page | 11
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Dr. Mego Pinandito, M.Eng
Director of Research Center for Metrology LIPI
Indonesian Institute of Sciences
Komplek Puspiptek Building 420, Serpong, Tangerang Selatan, Banten

ABSTRACT. Global trade is now required the product in the most high quality. Quality of products in many
countries are determined based on the national and or international standards and technical regulations in the
country. This means that all existing products are required to meet those standards and regulations.
To obtain a quality of product that can meet the technical requirements requested, many things must be
considered, from the quality of raw materials, process of production in manufacturing, production machines
and facilities, human resources, and other circumstates related to production. Every step in every process
requires measurements that will then determine the outout result of measurement. It required measurement
system, measuring instruments, measuring methods that should be fitted for purpose. Starting from simple
measurement to sophisticated measurement, which requires high competence as well. An understanding of
the basis of measurement will come to appropriate measurement process and the final measurement results
will be the truth.
The development of technology, discovery of new materials, undertakings of the fulfillment of the demands
of consumers, will make the production process more complicated and require more precise measurement
systems. These require the development of measurement technology in accordance with demands. Precision
measurement requires further understanding of measurement. The sensitivity of the sensor, algorithmic
process of calculation and calculation speed, simplicity of the system equipment and the use of equipment,
including the efficiency of the electrical energy needs, will become an important factor to be considered in
the development of systems and methods of measurement in the future.
Development of standards and technical regulations that continue to emerge, requiring the development of a
measurement system and a higher degree of precision, complexity is more complicated. Standard measure,
the international eventually become necessary to be developed, in order to answer the demands of
measurement. Systems and methods of measurement that appear demanding the fulfillment of the existing
technical requirements.
In supporting industrial development and improving the competitiveness of national products, in order to
answer the challenges of national and international, it is required of national measurement infrastructure that
is reliable and can include national needs. Increased understanding of standards and technical regulations
will become very important to be able to meet the requirements. Coordination and cooperation between
institutions, agencies, laboratories, industry became an important key and will be implemented as well in the
development of precision measurements nationally. Those then will support the nasional sustainable

Page | 12
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Mobile Mode of Mobile Monitoring System for Indonesian Volcano
Maria Evita 1,2,d, Mitra Djamal 1,a , Bernd Zimanowski 3,b and Klaus Schilling 2,c
Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia
Department of Computer Science VII, Universität Würzburg, Würzbug, Germany
Department of Geography I, Universität Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany
d; (corresponding author)

Keywords: Bandwidth management, mobile monitoring, power management, quality of service management,
volcano, wireless sensor network.

ABSTRACT. Fixed-mode of MONICA (Mobile Monitoring System for Indonesian Volcano a new volcano
monitoring system which uses WSN for sensing, processing, distributing and transmitting the data; satellite
technology for remote sensing data of the volcano; and mobile robot for replacing a died sensor node in
hazard condition) has been simulated and shown satisfied result to overcome some problems occurred in
seismicity monitoring system of Merapi Volcano, Indonesia. In this research, we simulated the mobile mode,
the second mode of MONICA using our mobile mode algorithm for emergency condition application (where
volcano often erupts, cause explosion, fatality, damage of infrastructure and also the monitoring system
itself) of a slow motion earthquake from Merapi Volcano. The simulation result in 10 minutes of OMNET++
showed that our system still could manage the power even for only a direct transmission (Fig. 1) as efficient
as the bandwidth (100% throughput for all conditions) and guaranteed by the quality of service management
to be adaptive and robust to its environment (100% delivery rate of data and 15-35% average packet loss of
data for all conditions).

Figure 1. Average energy consumption of the system for 0-10 died node

[3] M. Evita, M. Djamal, B. Zimanowski and K. Schilling, "Mobile Monitoring System for Indonesian
volcano," 2015 4th International Conference on Instrumentation, Communications, Information
Technology, and Biomedical Engineering (ICICI-BME), Bandung, 2015, IEEEXplore, pp. 278-281.
[4] M. Evita, M. Djamal, B. Zimanowski and K. Schilling, "Fixed-mode of mobile monitoring system for
Indonesian volcano," 2015 4th International Conference on Instrumentation, Communications,
Information Technology, and Biomedical Engineering (ICICI-BME), Bandung, 2015, IEEEXplore, pp.
[5] M. Evita, “Power Management for Fixed-Mode of Mobile Monitoring System for Indonesia Volcano”,
to be submitted for publication in ITB Journal, 2015
[6] M. Djamal, M. Evita, B. Zimanowski, K. Schilling, “Pengembangan Sistem Deteksi Dini Gunung Api”,
SNF 2015, Mataram, 2015

Page | 13
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Optimization in Acid Gas Sweetening Plant Based on Least-Squares
Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) Using Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO)
Totok Ruki Biyanto1,a, Naindar Afdanny1,b
Process Design, Control and Optimization Laboratory, Department Engineering Physics, Institut
Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya, Indonesia
a (corresponding author),

Keywords: Acid Gas Sweetening Plant, Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO), Least-Squares Support Vector
Machine (LS-SVM), Optimization;

ABSTRACT. Natural Gas is an energy source that widely used during this decade, the exploration and
refinery process for natural gas is required, so natural gas can be used for all purpose, natural gas has a wide
variety of acid and corrosive compound and those compound can reduce quality of natural gas, then it need a
refinery process to eliminate those compound, one of those refinery process is Acid Gas Sweetening process,
this process had a purpose to eliminate H2S and CO2 compound from natural gas. In all industrial process,
there must be something that can be optimized. In this research, the purpose of optimization is minimizing
operational costs and maximizing product quantity from the Plant. Aspen HYSYS used to collect process
data from Acid Gas Sweetening process by built a model Plant, method and initial data are followed from
Aspen HYSYS guidelines. Least-Square Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) are used to modeled Acid Gas
Sweetening Plant based on data process that are CO2 in Lean Amine, Q value from Condenser and Re-boiler.
In the other hand, Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO) is used to find minimum operating costs based on energy
load from Re-boiler and Condenser. The result from this research are LS-SVM had a great performs for data
estimation from Plant proven by RMSE calculation and GWO implemented to the Plant can save an
operational cost up to 0.0451 USD/kg.

Figure 1. Fitness Result of GWO

[1] Van Gestel, T., De Brabanter, J., De Moor, B., Vandewalle, J., Suykens, J. A. K., & Van Gestel, T.
(2002). Least squares support vector machines (Vol. 4). Singapore: World Scientific.
[2] Mirjalili, S., Mirjalili, S. M., & Lewis, A. (2014). Grey wolf optimizer. Advances in Engineering
Software, 69, 46-61.
[3] Campbell, J. M. (1979). Gas conditioning and processing. vol. 1.
[4] Stewart, M., & Arnold, K. (2011). Gas sweetening and processing field manual. Gulf Professional
[5] A. HYSYS, "Tutorials and Applications. Aspen Technology," Inc., Burlington, Massachusetts, 2007.
[6] Adib, Hooman, et al. "Support Vector Machine based modeling of an industrial natural gas sweetening
plant." Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 14 (2013): 121-131.
Page | 14
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

An Intelligent Irrigation System Based on Fuzzy Logic Controller
Infianto Boimau1,a, Endarko2,b and Dens E. S. I. Asbanu1,c
Jl. Badak No.5A Lokasi 2 SMK N 1 SoE, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Indonesia
Jl. Arif Rachman Hakim Sukolilo Surabaya, Indonesia

Keywords: fuzzy logic, intelligent control, Tsukamoto method.

ABSTRACT. Water is one of the main components that support the growth of the plants. The right amount
of water supports the optimality of plants growth. Therefore, a control system is necessary in the irrigation
process to regulate the amount of water needed by plants. This study developed an intelligent control system
by using fuzzy logic to regulate the amount of water given to the plants. It was based on temperature input
and soil moisture representing the water amount in the soil. Outputs of the control system are water pump
setting and automatic valve that used to water the plants. Time interval of valve ON controls the amount of
water. There were two stages of selection to conduct the control system. One was setting point value used in
critical condition based on temperature and soil moisture. Another was watering time that suits the plants
characteristic in agriculture. This fuzzy logic control system-based conducted by min-max reasoning using
Tsukamoto method. It was operated in computer terminal using Delphi programming. The test result showed
that the control process runs smoothly to ensure the availability of water in the soil. The watering time
happened at 07.00 AM with 50 to 70 second time interval.

Figure 1. Schematic of software system

[1] F. Touati, M. Al-Hitmi, K. Benhmed, R. Tabish, “A Fuzzy Logic Based Irrigation System Enhanced
with Wireless Data Logging Applied to The State of Qatar”, Elsevier. Computer and Electronics in
Agriculture, 2013.
[2] P. A. Bhosale and V. V. Dixit, “Water Saving-Irrigation Automatic Agriculture Controller”,
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, Vol. 1, Issue 11, pp. 118-123, December
[3] W. Y. Chung, J. F. Villaverde, J. Tan, “Wireless Sensor Network Based Soil Moisture Monitoring
System Design “, The 2013 Federated Conference on Computer Science and Information System, pp.
79-82, 2013.
[4] I. Boimau and Endarko, “Designing a Telemetry System of Temperature and Soil Moisture for
Irrigation Control”, Trans Tech Publ. Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vol. 771, pp 38-4, 2015.
[5] L. Gao, M. Zhang, G. Chen, “An Intelligent Irrigation System Based on Wireless Sensor Network and
Fuzzy Logic”, Journal of Networks, Vol. 8, No. 5, May 2013.
Page | 15
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Initial Model Design of Reaction Wheel and Magnetic Torque for Nano-
Erwin Susanto1,a, Ig. Prasetya Dwibawa1, Heroe Wijanto1, Dea Evan Cleo
Patria1, Nanda Wiratama Putra1
School of Electrical Engineering, Telkom University, Indonesia
a (corresponding author)

Keywords: magnetic torque, nano-satellite, reaction wheel.

ABSTRACT. One of the main instruments on satellite technology is Attitude Determination Control System
(ADCS) with reaction wheel, magnet torque or gas as the actuators. Each actuator has the advantage and
disadvantage properties. The advantage of reaction wheel is more accurate than magnetic torque, but the first
needs more power consumption. Gas could not be recharged so the usage is limited. Satellite needs
orientation control during its move and ADCS is used to keep satellite in its desired attitude. This paper
explains the development of reaction wheel and magnetic torque initial models to support ADCS.
Measurement of some sensors applied in reaction wheel and magnetic torque are conducted to test the
performance. Reaction wheel is equipped with gyroscope and accelerometer embedded in inertial
measurement unit (IMU) MPU6050. Magnetic torque utilizes eCompass module LSM303DLHC with
features accelerometer and magnetometer.

System Design
Designing ADCS, both using reaction wheel and magnetic torque as the actuators, is aiming to
maintain the attitude of satellite during its orbit in order to face specific object, earth surface for
example. This object has certain angles (roll and pitch angles) to sattelite. Therefore, one can set
this angle and ADCS will track and keep in target position. Rotation of reaction wheel is used to
adjust satellite’s angle. The varying angle will be read by sensor IMU and it activates the reaction
wheel or magnetic torque via controller’s command. As long as not equal with desired angle target,
controller activates actuators until angle is fulfilled with an acceptable tolerance.
Diagram block of initial model of reaction wheel and magnetic torque are depicted in fig 1., below

Reaction wheels (angle
Set point Controller
/magnetic orientation)
(angle (Arduino
orientation) Uno)
(driver and
Sensor (IMU
Fig 1. Block diagram of ADCS

[1] E.H. Dekens, G.F. Brouwer, J. Bouwmeester, J.M. Kulper, “Development of a Nano-Satellite Reaction
Wheel System with Commercial Off-The-Self Motors,” 7th ESA Roundtable on Micro & Nano
Technologies for Space Applications, 14 September 2010, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands
[2] Long, Frederic William, “Design and Testing of a Nano-Satellite Simulator Rection Wheel Attitude
Control System ”(2014). All Graduate Plan B and other Reports, Paper 448
[3] D.M. Torczynsky, R. Amini, P. Massioni, “Magnetorquer Based Attitude Control for a Nanosatellite
Testplatform,” AIAA Infotech @Aerospace, 20-22 April 2010, Atlanta, Georgia

Page | 16
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Effect of the Sample Temperature on the Accuracy of Electronic Nose to
Differentiate Qualities of Tea
Shidiq Nur Hidayat1 and Kuwat Triyana1,2,a
Department of Physics, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
Interdiciplinary Halal Research Group, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia

Keywords: competitive neural network, electronic nose, headspace, quality, tea;

ABSTRACT. Effect of the sample headspace on the performance of self-developed electronic nose
(e-nose) has been investigated. Tea samples with different qualities as quality-1 (Q1), quality-2 (Q2), and
quality-3 (Q3) purchased from the local tea store were tested in this study. The sample headspace of the tea
was adjusted during measurement process by varying the temperatures of the tea sample, i.e. 25 C (room
temperature) and 80 C. The e-nose used in this study composed of a low-cost dynamic headspace system
and an array of commercial metal oxide gas sensors. Meanwhile, a differential baseline manipulation and a
maximum value were used as feature extraction. The competitive neural networks (CNN) and linear
discriman analysis (LDA) were applied as a pattern recognition system. As a result, the accuracy of the e-
nose coupled with CNN increased from 78% at the temperature of 25 C to 89% at the temperature of 80 C.
Meanwhile, the accuracy of the e-nose coupled with LDA is better. It increased from 78% at the temperature
of 25 C to 100% at the temperature of 80 C. It is related to the improvement of the sample headspace.

Page | 17
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Manufacturing Prototype Equipment for Viscosity Of Crude Oil
Measurement Using The Sensor Proximity
Djaman1,a and Melania Suweni Muntini1,b
Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya, Indonesia

Keywords: component; Crude Oil, Proximity Sensor, Viscosity

ABSTRACT. Have been fabricated viscometer falling ball method which is a measure of viskositas.Dengan
measure the time it takes a ball that is passed through the liquid with a certain distance based on the legal
principle of Stokes. Parallax errors due to the travel time a ball and fluid viscosity value calculated manually.
This causes the parallax error. Therefore, in this study, falling ball viscometer prototype that can measure
travel time ball automatically and process them to get the value of the coefficient of viscosity. The prototype
in this study using, arduino, proximity, and activity sensors to detect the iron ball travel time when the iron
ball was dropped on crude oil tested. The travel time recorded by arduino via proximity sensor is used to
calculate the coefficient of viscosity of crude oil.

Figure 1. Oil viscosity measurement results and crude oil to temperature variations

[1] A. W. Sears and M. W. Zemansky, University Physics (Terjemahan Soerdajana dan Amir Achmad.
Jakarta, Bina Cipta, 1991), n.d.)
[2] A. Budianto, Coefficient of Determination Method of Fluid Viscosity by Using Linear Regression
Stokes Law, Human Resource Seminar IV National Nuclear Technology, 157-166, Yogyakarta:
College of Nuclear Technology, 2008.
[3] Barillas, J.L.M., Dutra, T.V., Mata, W., (2008), "Petroleum and Gas", Improved Oil Recovery Process
For Heavy Oil: A Review, Brazilian Journal of Petroleum and Ga. Vol. 2. Page. 45-54
[4] Hutagaol, N.I, (2009), Study of Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide Levels Found In The Crude Oil Processing
In Di PT. Pertamina EP Region Sumatra Pangkalan Susu Field, Final, University of North Sumatra
[5] Mof. 2001. LAW OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA NUMBER 22 OF 2001 ON OIL AND GAS. Accessed on juni 1, 2016
[6] Measurement Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook, John G. Webster Halit Eren.
[7] M. Chiesa, S. Ingebrigtsen, J.A. Melheim, P.V. Hemmingsen, E.B. Hansen, Ø. Hestad,Investigation of
the role of viscosity on electro coal escence of water droplets in oil, Sep. Purif. Technol. 50 (2006) 267–
[8] (Mathew Van Winkle. 1967. Distillation. USA: McGraw-Hill, IncEdmister, Applied Hydrocarbon
[9] Young and Freedman, 2002, the Tenth Edition of Physics University. Jakarta: Erland.

Page | 18
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Development of Soil Permeability Meter
with Data Acquisition Based on Internet
Fahrur Aslami1, a, Melania Suweni Muntini1,b and Dwa Desa Warnana3,c
Jurusan Fisika, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopemeber Surabaya Indonesia
Jurusan Teknik Geofisika, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya Indonesia

Keywords: coefficient permeability, falling head permeameter.

ABSTRACT. Soil permeability coefficient and measuring instrument using a data acquisition system on
internet has made, the measuring equipment used uses the principle of falling head permeameter , MPX10GP
pressure sensor is used to change the physical quantities of water level becomes electrically scale use
traditional theory of hydrostatic pressure . The measurement range is 6-40 cm water level, in order to obtain
+36 permeability coefficient value of each one cm. The data from subsequent measurement system
transmitted into the Internet network , so that data can be accessed by smartphone .here the value of sample
take from Bengawan solo embankment, slope of ngantang mountain and ITS embankment, the result show
that character of sample are different. Refer to the propertis of soil, value of soil permeability coefficient are
correct. The soil at Bengawan solo embankment included of silt, and the number coefficient permeability is

Figure 1. Comparison between coefficient permeability value

[1] Al-Khafaji, A.W., Andersland, O.B., 1995. “Geotechnical Engineering & Soil Testing,” Oxford
University Press, New York.
[2] Fraden, J, (2016), “Handbook of Modern Sensor, 5 th edition”, springer, switzerland.
[3] Gallage, J.T. “Laboratory Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity Function of Two Unsaturated Soils
During Drying and Wetting Processes”, soils and foundation, Vol.7, pp. 417-430.2013
[4] Jose, A.A. (2009), “Data Acquisition System for Steady State Hydraulic Soil Conductivity
Measurement”, robotics and automotive mechanics conference, Vol, pp. 397-401.
[5] Samadikun, S., Rio, R., Mengko, T., 1989. Sistem Instrumentasi Elektronika. ITB, Bandung.

Page | 19
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Hari Arief Dharmawan
Department of Physics, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia

Keywords: 1-wire, CAN bus, DS18S20, measurement network, spatial temperature measurement

ABSTRACT. This paper explains a design of spatial temperature measurement using some sensors that were
connected using a small network. The sensors were intended to be placed on the ground and few meters
below the ground level. The sensor placement in this way can be applied to perform ground temperature
measurement at various depths. The network contained some DS18S20s as digital temperature sensors, 1-
wire buses, a Controller Area Network (CAN) bus, and some controllers implementing AT90CAN128s.
Each sensor was placed in a pipe made of steel with two 1-wire connectors placed in it. The measurements
located at some points on the ground and below the ground level were firstly done by reading the sensors
through the 1-wire buses and then forwarding the data to a central controller using the CAN bus. This central
controller was connected to a computer containing monitoring software using a serial communication link.
Some experiments were done by reading temperatures in a laboratory and in a field using the designed
network. Results of these experiments showed that the network of temperature measurement could work as
expected. The use of the 1-wire and CAN buses provided easiness during the installation of cables, sensors
and devices in the network. In addition, the use of cables could be minimized as only 3 wires were needed
for sensor connections and two wires for controller connections.

RS232, USB Computer with

monitoring application
C1 S11 S12 S13 S14 S1m
C2 S21 S22 S23 S24 S2m
CAN bus

C3 S31 S32 S33 S34 S3m
Cn Sn1 Sn2 Sn3 Sn4 Snm
Controllers Sensors

Figure 1. General concept for the temperature measurement network

[1] T. Schafer, M. Schubert, and U. Hampel, “Temperature Grid Sensor for the Measurement of Spatial
Temperature Distributions at Object Surfaces,” Sensors, 2013.
[2] C.O. Popiel, J. Wojtkowiak, and B. Biernacka, “Measurements of Temperature Distribution in
Ground,” Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science Volume 25, Issue 5, November 2001, Pages 301–
[3] S.M. Sayeed-Bin-Asad, Y. H. Shin, H. Chung, and H. Jeong, “Measurement of Ground Temperature
Distribution at Various Depths,” Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers Conference, Korea, 2010.
[4] G. Florides, and S. Kalogirou, “Measurements of Ground Temperature at Various Depths,” Proceedings
of the SET 2004, 3rd International Conference on Sustainable Energy Technologies, Nottingham, UK,
[5] Maxim, “DS18S20 High-Precision 1-Wire Digital Thermometer,” Datasheet of component, REV:
[6] H.A. Dharmawan and S.A.M. Ali, “Managing Distributed Temperature Measurements in an Embedded
System of a 3-Phase 10 kVA Energy Efficient Switchable Distribution Transformer Employing a
Modular Approach,” Second International Conference on Advances in Computing, Control and
Telecommunication Technologies (ACT), pp. 15-20, Dec. 2-3, 2010.
[7] Atmel, “Datasheet: 8-bit Microcontroller with 32K/64K/128K Bytes of ISP Flash and CAN Controller,
AT90CAN32, AT90CAN64, AT90CAN128,” Rev. 7679H–CAN–08/08.
Page | 20
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Neny Kurniawati1,a, Melania Suweni Muntini1,b, Risse Entikaria Rachmanita1,c
Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia

Keywords: crude oil, dual source, FEM, heat transfer, microwave propagation.

ABSTRACT. Heating method is the method most widely used in the mining industry in the world, but the
disadvantage are heat loss during distribution of steamed to the well injection and still using fossil fuels for
the production of heat, which is known that fossil fuels are not renewable energy with a limited inventory.
Either alternative heating method can be done by using a microwave. This research aims to simulate the
propagation of microwaves and heat transfer at several points through the length reservoir of crude oil.
Simulation of propagation of microwaves and heat transfer using FEM (Finite Element Method). The
distribution of crude oil on the entire surface of the reservoir is assumed to be homogeneous so that the
results of the simulation are presented in the form of two dimensions. This research will simulation of heat
transfer. The heating of crude oil using the magnetron as a generator of microwave operating with frequency
2.45 GHz, and microwave guided wave in a cylinder. Crude oil heating models with dual sources of
microwaves in computing can be simulated very well with FEM. The results of the simulated crude oil
heating with dual microwave sources showed the model of distribution of temperature with polynomial form.

Figure 1. Average Temperature of Heat Transfer

[1] Chen, H., Tang, J., & Fang, L. “Coupled Simulation of Electromagnetic Heating Process Using the
Finite Difference Time Domain Method,” in Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy,
Vol.41, pp. 50-68, 2007.
[2] Salvi, D., Boldor, D., Ortego, Aita, G., & Sabliov, C. “Numerical Modelling of Continuous Flow
Microwave Heating: A crtical Comparison of COMSOL and ANSYS,” in Microwave Power
Electromagnetic Energy, Vol. 44, pp. 187-197, 2010.
[3] Spight, J. “Handbook of Petroleum Analysis”. New Jersey: Jhon Wiley and Son, INC, 2001.
[4] Wang, T., Zhao, G., & Qiu, B. “Theoretical Evaluation of the Treatment Effectiveness of a Novel
Coaxial Multi-Slot Antenna for Conformal Microwave Ablation of Tumors,” in International Journal of
Heat and Mass Transfer, pp. 81-91. 2015.

Page | 21
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Mobile Robot Deployment Simulation for Mobile Mode of Mobile
Monitoring System for Indonesian Volcano
Maria Evita1,2,e, Robin Hess2,a, Mitra Djamal1,b , Bernd Zimanowski 3,c and
Klaus Schilling 2,d
Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia
Department of Computer Science VII, Universität Würzburg, Würzbug, Germany
Department of Geography I, Universität Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany
(corresponding author)

Keywords: mobile monitoring, mobile robot simulation, volcano.

ABSTRACT. Mobile mode algorithm for mobile mode of MONICA Mobile Monitoring System for
Indonesian Volcano - a new volcano monitoring system which uses WSN for sensing, processing,
distributing and transmitting the data; satellite technology for remote sensing data of the volcano; and mobile
robot for replacing a died sensor node in hazard condition) has been introduce and simulated for a slow
motion earthquake of Merapi Volcano, Indonesia in the Wireless Sensor Network sub-system. Another sub-
system of MONICA has been investigated in this research to complete the algorithm. This sub-system
consists of a mobile robot with a new additional node on it for replacing the highest priority of the fixed node
which was died. The focus of the research was only for mobile robot deployment to the desired place on the
volcano where consists hazard and rough terrain which not easy to be explored by a mobile robot. Here we
used a near optimal navigation of mobile robot which is suitable for volcano environment. After nodes died,
mobile robot was deployed to replace the highest priority die node. For the simulation, it was assumed that it
was deployed from a monitoring post in Merapi. The highest and the second highest priority of node had
assumed die and the mobile robot was deployed to replace the highest priority die node which was assumed
53 meter from the monitoring post. The mobile robot has successfully navigated through the desired
waypoints, while avoiding hazards from its representative terrain in MATLAB simulation. The actual
velocity remained near the optimal velocity, and deviates from the desired velocity during hazard avoidance
maneuvers which was also indicated by the roll angle and slip angle which were reach the highest peak of
angle during these maneuvers.

Figure 1. Representative terrain map and waypoints generated by high-level planning layer and path
generated by low-level navigation layer for mobile robot deployment simulation

[1] M. Evita, M. Djamal, B. Zimanowski and K. Schilling, "Mobile Monitoring System for Indonesian
volcano," 2015 4th International Conference on Instrumentation, Communications, Information
Technology, and Biomedical Engineering (ICICI-BME), Bandung, 2015, IEEEXplore, pp. 278-281.
[2] M. Evita, M. Djamal, B. Zimanowski and K. Schilling, " Mobile Mode of Mobile Monitoring System
for Indonesian Volcano”, to be submitted for ISSIMM 2016 conference
[3] K. Iagnemma et. al., “Near-Optimal Navigation of High Speed Mobile Robots on Uneven Terrain”,
ICRA 2008
Page | 22
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

On-line Fuzzy Time Series-Markov for Air Temperature Amplitude and
Relative Humidity Prediction Using Internet Broadband
Suryono Suryono1,5,a, Bayu Surarso2,b, Ragil Saputra3,c,
Sudalma Sudalma4,d, Hanifuddin Sukri5,e
Department of Physics, Diponegoro University, Semarang, 50273 Indonesia
Department of Mathematics, Diponegoro University, Semarang, 50273 Indonesia
Department of Information Technology, Diponegoro University, Semarang, 50273 Indonesia
Semarang Occupational Health and Safety Office, Semarang, 50363 Indonesia
Graduate School of Information System, Diponegoro University, Semarang, 50241 Indonesia

Keywords: error percentage, Internet connection, on-line, prediction, real time, wireless

ABSTRACT. This research is developed an instrument for air temperature amplitude and relative humidity
prediction using Internet broadband. There are decisive factors of climate in the earth, which are related to
climate change and global warming. Additionally, air temperature amplitude and relative humidity have an
important role in the health world, such as in terms of the spread of dengue fever. The research develops an
instrumentation system of wireless sensor system that transmits data to the web server via on-line Internet
connection. The semiconductor air temperatur and humidity sensor are installed to the remote terminal
station, the acquired data is transformed from analog to digital using a converter circuit, and the result is
stored in the local database. A computer application is developed to send data with on-line and in real time to
the web server using an Internet modem. The transmitted Data is received and saved on the web hosting
database service. The air temperature amplitude and relative humidity predicted by using Fuzzy Time Series
Algorithm Induced by Markov transition matrix. In the Fuzzy Time Series-Markov, transition probabilities
are calculated in relation fuzzy logic group (FLRG) of past time variable to improve the accuracy of
prediction of the future variables. This research uses historical data daily air temperature amplitude for two
months. The results of the amplitude prediction of temperature and humidity is real time displayed in the
dashboard for one-day future. The test show that the Fuzzy Time Series-Markov model have an error
percentage of 4,6 % when calculated by using mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). The value of the
error percentage is varied, depending on the number of data and data characteristics.

[1] S. Banu, W. Hu, Y. Guo, C. Hurst, and S. Tong, “Projecting the impact of climate change on dengue
transmission in Dhaka, Bangladesh”, Environment International Vol. 63, 2014, pp. 137–142.
[2] A. El-Zein, M. Tewtel-Salem, and G. Nehme, “A time-series analysis of mortality and air temperature
in Greater Beirut”, Science of the Total Environment Vol. 330, 2004, pp. 71–80.
[3] Singh, S.R., “A computational method of forecasting based on high-order fuzzy time series”,
International Journal of Expert System with Application, Vol. 36, 2009, pp. 10551-10559.
[4] Q. Song, and B.S. Chissom, “Forecasting enrollments with fuzzy time series”, International Journal of
Fuzzy Set and System Vol. 54, 1993, pp. 1-9.
[5] Tsaur, R.C., and Kuo, T.C., “The Adaptive fuzzy time series model with an application to Taiwan’s
tourism demand”, International Journal of Expert System with Applications, Vol. 38, 2011, pp. 9164-
[6] R. C. Tsaur, “A fuzzy time series - Markov chain model with an application to forecast the exchange
rate between the Taiwan and US dollar”, International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information
and Control, Vol. 8, 2012, pp. 4931-4942.

Page | 23
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Study of Precision Constant Current Sources with Resistor Load and a
Cole-Cole Load For Multi-Frequency in Electrical Impedance
Tomography (EIT)
Ayu Jati Puspitasari1, Endarko1,a
Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia

Keywords: current source, Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT), output impedance.

ABSTRACT. The current source is one of the most important circuits in Electrical Impedance Tomography
(EIT) systems. The current source of EIT should be able to supply low current (1 mA) at 10 kHz - 1 MHz
and can support load between 100 Ω. - 10 kΩ. Moreover, it must have an output impedance greater than 100
kΩ. In this study, we evaluated an Enhanced Howland (EH) and Triple Op-Amps (TOA) current sources
with two different op-amps namely LM741 and AD844. The constant current was measured at 1 kHz to 1
MHz with two different loads (Resistor load and Cole-Cole load). The results showed that the constant
current sources for multi-frequency couldbe fulfilled both EH and TOA current sources prepared with op-
amp AD844 and a Cole-Cole load. The constant current can be achieved up to 100 kHz for the op-amp
AD844 while op-amp LM741 is only able to achieve up to 10 kHz. Meanwhile, measured output impedance
showed that the EH current source is better than TOA current source. The output impedance of the EH
current source was 1.18 MΩ at 1 kHz and was bigger than 600 kΩ at 500 kHz, while the output impedance
of the TOA current source was 1.16 MΩ at 1 kHz and was bigger than 300 kΩ at 500 kHz. Otherwise, the
op-amp LM741 is only able to produce output impedance below 200 kΩ at 10 kHz for both EH and TOA.
The experimental results demonstrate the constant current sources for multi-frequency and high output
impedance achieved for both EH and TOA current sources with op-amp AD844.

(a) (b)
Figure 1. Output Current of Current sources, a) TOA current source using AD844 with Cole-Cole
Load, b) TOA current source using LM741 with Resistor Load

[1] M. Khalighi, B. V. Vahdat, M. Mortazavi, and M. Mikaeili, “Design and Implemetation of Precise
Hardware for Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT),” IJST Trans. Electr. Eng., vol. 38, no. E1, pp.
1–20, 2014.
[2] S. Aguiar Santos, T. Schlebusch and S. Leonhardt, "Simulation of a current source with a cole-cole load
for multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography," 2013 35th Annual International Conference of
the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), Osaka, 2013, pp. 6445-6448
[3] S.M.M. Islam, M.A.R. Rahman Reza and M.A. Kiber, “Performances of Multi-Frequency Voltage to
Current Converters for Bioimpedance Spectroscopy,” Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics, Vol. 5,
No. 1, 2012.
[4] D. Zhao, “High output-impedance current source for electrical impedance tomography,” 2011 4th Int.
Conf. Biomed. Eng. Inform. BMEI, vol. 2, pp. 1106–1109, Oct. 2011.
[5] Z. Li, Z. Xu, C. Ren, W. Wang, D. Zhao and H. Zhang, "Study of Voltage Control Current Source in
Electrical Impedance Tomography System," Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering (iCBBE),
2010 4th International Conference on, Chengdu, 2010, pp. 1-4.
Page | 24
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Digital Synchronoscope Prototype Based on STM32F401 Nucleo
F. Danang Wijaya1,a, Eka Firmansyah1,b and Laskar Pamungkas1,c
Departemen Teknik Elektro dan Teknologi Informasi, UGM,
Jl. Grafika 2 Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta, 55281 Indonesia (ph: 0274-552305; fax: 0274-547506)

Keywords: Automation, Microgrid, Phase Sequence Detector, Synchronization

ABSTRACT. Nowadays, world trend in maintaining energy sustainability is connecting several small and
medium scale generators from renewable energy sources to the main electricity grid through a distribution
network, or popularly known as the microgrid. One of the main problems of the microgrid is the
synchronization of the generators parallel operation. Synchronoscope, generators synchronization detector
and regulator device, will certainly make the microgrid operation easier and more reliable.
Digital synchronoscope which more thorough in the detection of synchronization parameters and equipped
with automation features for the tripping process in generator synchronization, can replace analog
synchronoscope which is still widely used. The phase sequence detector on this digital synchronoscope only
use a simple voltage divider read and processed by microcontroller with the phase sequence detection
algorithm. That’s make this digital synchronoscope has the advantage such as low price, robust, and simple
in electrical schematic.

[1] S. J. Chapman, Electric Machinery Fundamentals, New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005.
[2] Zuhal, Dasar Teknik Tenaga Listrik dan Elektronika Daya, Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 2000.
[3] Miniature Control Relays HH52, 53, 54, Fuji Electric.
[4] TIP120 / TIP121 / TIP122 NPN Epitaxial Darlington Transistor, Fairchild Semiconductor, 2014.
[5] NuMicro MINI51 DE Series Datasheet, Nuvoton Technology Corporation, 2014.
[6] Datasheet STM32F401xD STM32F401xE, STMicroelectronics, 2015.
[7] Datasheet LM311 Single Comparator, Fairchild Semiconductor, 2001.
[8] R. T. Paynter, Introductory Electronic Devices and Circuits, United States of America: Prentice-Hall
International, 1997.
[9] D. P. Kothari and I. J. Nagrath, Electric Machines, 4th ed., New Delhi: McGraw-Hill, 2010.
[10] Datasheet Photocoupler TLP521−1, TLP521−2, TLP521−4, Toshiba, 2001.
[11] Datasheet Photocoupler 4N35, 4N36, 4N37, Vishay Semiconductor, 2010.

Page | 25
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

DC Low Electrostatic Voltage Particulate Filter: PM0.1 And PM2.5
Emission Efficiency Measurement
Arif Budianto1,a and Arinto Y. P. Wardoyo1,b
Physics Department, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia

Keywords: efficiency, electrostatic, emission, filtering, motorcycle, PM 0.1, PM2.5

ABSTRACT. Vehicle emissions in terms of particulate matters PM0.1 and PM2.5 have been recognized to
contribute significant pollutants in the air and adverse to human health. One of the efforts to reduce the
emission is by a designing of particulate filtering system. This study develops a filtering system applying DC
voltage. The objective of this research was to obtain a particulate filtering system with high efficiency based
on electrostatic principles. The filter efficiency was calculated by using measured concentrations of PM 0.1
and PM2.5 emitted by motorcycles before and after passing through the filter. The PM0.1 and PM2.5
concentrations were measured using a TSI 8525 P-Trak Ultrafine Particle Counter and a Kanomax 3443
Digital Dust Monitor. The results showed that the filter efficiency depending on applied DC Voltages in the
range of 35% for PM0.1 and 40% for PM2.5.

Figure 1. The concentrations of PM0.1 and PM2.5 for M1 before passing through filter

[1] References J. Tsai, P. Huang, and H. Chiang, “Characteristics of volatile organic compounds from
motorcycle exhaust emission during real-world driving,” Atmos. Environ., vol. 99, pp. 215–226, 2014.
[2] B. Q. Ho and A. Clappier, “Road traffic emission inventory for air quality modelling and to evaluate the
abatement strategies: A case of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam,” Atmos. Environ., vol. 45, no. 21, pp.
3584–3593, 2011.
[3] M. Kampa and E. Castanas, “Human health effects of air pollution.,” Environ. Pollut., vol. 151, no. 2,
pp. 362–7, 2008.
[4] K. Sabaliauskas, G. Evansa, and C.-H. Jeonga, “Source Identification of Traffic-Related Ultrafine
Particles Data Mining Contest,” Procedia Comput. Sci., vol. 13, pp. 99–107, 2012.
[5] C. Sioutas, R. J. Delfino, and M. Singh, “Review Exposure Assessment for Atmospheric Ultrafine
Particles ( UFPs ) and Implications in Epidemiologic Research,” Environ. Health Perspect., vol. 113,
no. 8, pp. 947–956, 2005.
[6] M. Vanhulsel, B. Degraeuwe, C. Beckx, J. Vankerkom, and I. De Vlieger, “Road transportation
emission inventories and projections – Case study of Belgium: Methodology and pitfalls,” Transp. Res.
Part D Transp. Environ., vol. 27, pp. 41–45, 2014.
[7] a. Pandey and C. Venkataraman, “Estimating emissions from the Indian transport sector with on-road
fleet composition and traffic volume,” Atmos. Environ., vol. 98, pp. 123–133, 2014.
[8] J. Xu, T. Jin, Y. Miao, B. Han, J. Gao, and Z. Bai, “Individual and population intake fractions of diesel
particulate matter ( DPM ) in bus stop microenvironments,” Environ. Pollut., vol. 207, pp. 161–167,

Page | 26
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Optimisation of the Reactive Power Injection to Control Voltage Profile
by Using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm
Hadi Suyono1,a, Rini Nur Hasanah1,b and Khairina Noor .A1,c
Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Brawijaya University, Indonesia
a (corresponding author),,

Keywords: artificial bee colony algorithm, power losses, reactive power injection, SVC, voltage control

ABSTRACT. The increasing of electric power demand, the power system needs to be continuously adapted
to the upgrading and expansion of the network system, both on the transmission or distribution lines system.
The increasing of demand will cause a voltage drop and will further impact to the power loss on the network.
The voltage profile and power losses are caused due to the availability of reactive power resources is very
limited on the system. Therefore, the implementation of the device compensation such as capacitor bank,
Static VAR Compensator (SVC), and other Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) for injecting
reactive power on the network are tremendously required. The location and sizing determinations of optimal
reactive power could be determined by using two optimization approaches including deterministic and
undeterministic methods. The deterministic methods are based on the mathematic approach such as: dynamic
programming, simplex and linear programming, and etc., while the undeterministic methods are based on the
probabilistic and random approach such as: ant colony algorithm, simulated annealing, genetic algorithms,
artificial bee colony, and etc. Artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is an algorithm based on the
metaheuristic techniques to acquire optimum results. This method was developed based on the intelligent
behavior of honey bees in a colony, and its performance is used as a benchmark to calculate the parameter
value of an optimization function. The main advantage of the ABC algorithm includes: simplicity, flexibility,
robustness, less parameter to be controlled, easy to be hybridized with other optimization algorithms, and
adaptable with basic math and logic operations. Therefore, the problem on the determining of the location
and sizing of the reactive power injection with the SVC device in power systems by using ABC algorithm is
discussed in this paper. The IEEE standard-30 bus system data is used to determine the performance of the
ABC algorithm to control the voltage profile and power losses. Based on the analysis performed, before the
optimization, the voltage profile on #BUSNO-18, -19 and -20 will decrease below the permitted standards
(i.e. 0,95pu ≤Vbus≤ 1,05pu) with the magnitude 0.912pu, 0.887pu, and 0.904pu respectively. The SVC
optimization by implementation of ABC algorithm, could boost the voltage profile on the #BUSNO-18, -19
and -20 into 0.973pu, 0.972pu, and 0.972pu respectively. The power losses also improved after optimization
with the amount of 35.36% and 40.90% for active and reactive powers compared without the SVC

[1] Suyono, H., and Nur Hasanah, R.; Analysis of Power Losses due to Distributed Generation Increase on
Distribution System; Jurnal Teknologi, Vol 78/No 6-3, 2016, pp. 23-28
[2] Suyono, H., Hayusman L.M., Dhofir M.; Improvement of Voltage Sag Mitigation using Dynamic
Voltage Restorer (DVR), ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Volume 10 (2015), 2015,
pp. 8684-8691
[3] Suyono, H. and Zainuddin, M.; Injection Impact of Photovoltaic Distributed Generations (PVDG) on
Power Distribution System Stability. Applied Mechanics and Materials. Vol, 785, 2015, pp. 403-408.
[4] Acha, Enrique. FACTS Modelling and Simulation in Power Networks, 2004, John Willey & Sons,
[5] Bolaji, A. Khader, A.; Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm, Its VARiants and Application: a Survey,
Journal of Theoritical and Applied Information Technology, Vol 7, No 2, 2013
[6] Karaboga and B. Akay. A Comparative Study of Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm. Applied
Mathematics and Computation, 214(1), pp. 108 – 132, 2009
[7] Padlyar, K. 2007. FACTS Controllers in Power Transmission and Distribution. New Age International
Publishers, New Delhi.

Page | 27
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

A Simple Light Dependent Resistor-Based Digital Potentiometer
Iful Amri*, Elisabeth Dian Atmajati, Rahmat Awaludin Salam1, Elfi Yuliza1,
Muhammad Miftahul Munir1,a, and Khairurrijal1,b
Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences
Research Center for Disaster Mitigation
Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia

Keywords: digital potentiometer, LDR, LED, PID control, programmable resistor.

ABSTRACT. A digital potentiometer, which can be used to implement automatic calibration procedure in a
circuit, to control a switch of a power supply, or as a load tester, was developed by using light dependent
resistor (LDR) and implementing a proportional controller. It consisted of a light emitting diode (LED) used
to change the resistance of LDR, two LDRs set as the output and the feedback of the controller, a keypad to
enter the set point, an LCD to present the data and the processes of microcontroller, and an ATmega 8535
microcontroller to manage all processes of the system. Under the trial-error tuning method, it has been
obtained that the proportional constant was 500. For the desired resistance ranging from 5 to 10kΩ, its
steady-state error was in the range of 30 to 200Ω. In fact, this maximum steady-state error (200Ω) was
higher than those obtained from the previous works. However, the developed system was simple and low

Figure 1. (a) Block diagram of digital potentiometer system,

(b) Resistances for various set points with Kp of 500.

[1] M. Lenonen, J. Juuti, and H. Jantunen, "Interface circuit for resistive sensors utilizing digital
potentiometers," Sensors and Actuators A, vol. 138, pp. 97-104, 2007.
[2] Khairurrijal, M. Abdullah, and M. Budiman, “Home-made PIC 16F877 microcontroller-based
temperature control system for learning automatic control,” Computer Applications in Engineering
Education, vol. 19, pp. 10–17, 2011.
[3] N. Kuyvenhoven, “PID Tuning Methods- An Automatic PID Tuning Study with MathCad,” 2002.
[Online]. Available:
[4] K. Ogata, Modern Control Engineering, 5th Edition, New Jersey: Pearson Education, 2010.

Page | 28
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Air Temperature Regulation in a Chamber for Rotary Forcespinning
Yogie Sanjaya1,a, Ahmad Fauzi1,b, Dhewa Edikresnha1,c, Muhammad Miftahul
Munir1,d, Khairurrijal1,e
Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences
Research Center for Bioscience and Biotechnology
Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia

Keywords: air temperature, dimmers, PID controller, relative air humidity, rotary forcespinning.

ABSTRACT. Air temperature is an important factor related to evaporation process of the solvent during the
production of nanofibers using rotary forcespinning (RFS). An air temperature regulation system was
developed to maintain air temperature of the RFS chamber with a volume of 63 dm3. It consisted of an AC
(alternating current) heater (220V, 50Hz, 350W), a temperature and humidity sensor SHT11 (DT-SENSE), a
dimmer circuit managed by an ATmega 8A microcontroller, a PWM (pulse width modulator) managed by an
ATmega 16A, a DAC (digital to analog converter) circuit built by a low pass filter (LPF), and displays (LCD
and computer). A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control action was applied to maintain the air
temperature in accordance with the desired temperature. The K p, Ki, and Kd constants used by the PID
controller were determined by employing the second Ziegler-Nichols tuning method. They were Kp of 18, Ki
of 32.5, and Kd of 8.125. For the desired temperature ranging from 34 to 40 oC its settling time was in the
range of 451 to 950 s. The response was therefore quite fast response and the air temperature regulation in
the chamber for RFS could be regarded as a good control system.

LCD 42

Temperature ( C)

ATmega16A 38
TTL Circuit

Plant ATmega8A
AC SHT 32 T34 T36 T38 T40
Heater 11

Dimmer 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200

Circuit Time (s)

(a) (b)
Figure 1. (a) Block diagram of air temperature regulation system,
(b) Temperatures in the chamber for various set points with Kp of 18, Ki of 32.5, and Kd of 8.125.

[1] A. Fauzi, D. Edikresnha, M. M. Munir, and Khairurrijal, “Synthesis of styrofoam fibers using rotary
forcespinning technique,” Mater. Sci. Forum, vol. 827, pp. 279-284, 2015.
[2] S. De Vrieze, et al., “The effect of temperature and humidity on electrospinning,” J. Mater. Sci., vol. 44,
pp. 1357–1362, 2009.
[3] Khairurrijal, M. Abdullah, and M. Budiman, “Home-made PIC 16f877 microcontroller-based
temperature control system for learning automatic control,” Comput. Appl. Eng. Educ., vol. 19, pp. 10–
17, 2011.
[4] K. Ogata, Modern Control Engineering, 5th Edition, New Jersey: Pearson Education, 2010.

Page | 29
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Characterization on Sound Scattering Coefficients of Water Hyacinth
(Eichhornia Crassipes) Diffusers with Different Shapes
Sofian Hanafi Harahap1, a, Melania Suweni Muntini1, b
Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya 60111
Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya, Indonesia

Keywords: Diffusers, Eichhornia Crassipes, Reverberation Chamber Method, Scattering Coefficient, Water

ABSTRACT. Water Hyacinth is an economical and eco friendly material that can be used as a diffuser.
Characteristics of water hyacinth which has high fiber content can be utilized to produce the diffuser panel.
Diffuser is very important in the design of the interior acoustics that can improve the quality of the
distribution of the sound energy in the room. This paper presents investigation on the measurement scattering
coefficient of water hyacinth diffusers with different structures in a reverberation chamber. The results
showed that all structure diffusers provide good scattering effects at frequency range (250-1000 Hz), but can
not provide good scattering at frequency range (2000-4000Hz) when the diffuser perpendicular to the sound
source. Rectangular diffuser had the most excellent scattering properties compared with sawtooth and
triangle diffuser.

0.8 Sawtooth
Scattering Coefficient







5 0
12 25 50
0 00 00 00
10 20 40
Frequency (Hz)

Figure 1. Scattering Coefficient on 0 0 Angle Measurement

[1] Vorländer, M. and Mommertz, E., “Definition and measurement of random-incidence scattering
coefficients”, Applied Acoustics, vol. 60, pp. 187–199, June 2000.
[2] Cox, T.J. and D’Antonio, P., Acoustic Absorbers and Diffusers: Theory, Design and Application, 2nd
ed, Taylor & Francis: London and New York, 2009.
[3] Lin, F.-M., Hong, P.-Y. and Lee, C.-Y., “An experimental investigation into the sound-scattering
performance of wooden diffusers with different structures”, Applied Acoustics, vol. 71, pp. 68–78,
January 2010.
[4] Choi, Y.-J. and Jeong, D.-U., “Effects of unspecified experimental conditions in ISO 17497-1 on the
scattering coefficients measured in a scale model”, Acta Acustica United with Acustica, vol. 97, pp. 75–
81, January 2011.

Page | 30
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Design and Implementation of Ultrasonic Instrumentation
for Intelligent Liquid Level Measurement in Metalic Tank
Pratondo Busono1,a and Ario Fitrianto1
Center for Electronic Technology, BPPT, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Indonesia

Keywords: intelligent system, liquid level measurement, microcontroller, ultrasonic sensor

ABSTRACT. An ultrasonic liquid level measurement system was developed. This system was based on the
measurement of time of flight of ultrasonic pulses generated from the surface of ultrasonic transducer and
reflected back from the liquid surface, and received by the ultrasonic transducer. The system consists of
ultrasonic sensor, temperature and humidity sensor (SHT11), analog front end (TDC1000-Q1), digital back
end, serial communication interface and buzzer. Analog front end (TDC1000Q1) consists of pulser and
receiver circuitry. Digital back end consists of ARM Cortex M4 microcontroller for controlling pulse
repection frequencies, processing the echo signals, acquiring the temperature and humidity data from SHT11
device. Further processing for determining the liquid level based on the ultrasonic liquid level measured data,
and temperature and humidity of the air was conducted on the personal computer. For this purpose, a multi-
layer perceptron (MLP) neural network (NN), and Back-Propagation Algorithm was used to calculate the
height of water level The experimental work was conducted on water containers made from plexiglass and
stainless steel with various water temperature and humidity. The results show that close agreements are
observed between the water real height and the ultrasonic technique for water temperature less than 30 oC.
However, as water temperature increases, discrepancies at less than 5% in water level measurement were
observed between the water real height and the ultrasonic calculated using a multilayer perceptor neural

[1] S.W. Onechowski, “Development of an Effective Fuel Level Sensing Technology for Propane
Powered Vehicles”, Master of Applied Science Thesis, University of Toronto, 1999.
[2] M. Saeed, “Measurement System to Monitor Interface Level Between Oil and Water in a
Rapidly Rotating System”, Master Theses, KTH Industrial Engineering and Management, 2013.
[3] J.D. Gaard, “Grain wagon fill detection using ultrasonic sensor”, Graduate Theses and Dissertations.
Paper 12745, Iowa State University, 2012.
[4] G. Betta, L. Ippolito, A. Pietrosanto, A. Scaglione, “An optical fiber-based technique for continuous-
level sensing”, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44 (1995) 686–689.
[5] W. Zhang, M. Dong, L. Zhu, Y. Guo, H. Chang, “Research on Dynamic Method of Liquid
Level Detection Based on the Probe Type Capacitance Sensor”, AASRI Procedia, Vol.3, p.546-552,
[6] A.G. Chupyra, G.A. Gusev, M.N. Kondaurov, A.S. Medvedko, Sh.R. Singatulin, “The Ultrasonic
Level Sensors for Precise Alignment of Particle Accelerators and Storage Rings”, 9th International
Workshop on Accelerator Alignment, September 26-29, 2006.
[7] B. Dundar, “Neural Network- Based Ultrasonic Liquid Level Measurement for Fluid”, M.Sc Thesis,
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Cukurova, 2010.
[8] M. Minasi, Using Ultrasonic Sensing to Monitor Level in Tanks, Application Report, S N A A 270,
July 2015.
[9] ----, TDC1000-C2000EVM User’s Guide, December 2014.

Page | 31
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Microwaves as Heating Crude Oil with Waveguide Cylinder Models
Muhammad Firdaus A1,a, Melania Suweni Muntini1, b, Yono Hadi Pramono1, c
Physics Department, Faculty of mathematic and Natural Science, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh
Nopember, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia

Keywords: Crude Oil, heat transfer, microwave propagation, simulation, time, waveguide.

ABSTRACT. Heating Crude Oil in Indonesia is still done by using fossil fuels. whereas fossil fuels are non-
renewable energy sources with a limited supply. One alternative heating methods can be performed using
microwave. A modeling study Crude Oil heating using microwaves, with Wave Guide Cylinder models on
Crude Oil, has been done. This study aims to simulate the propagation of microwaves and heat transfer in
Crude Oil. Assumed homogeneous distribution of Crude Oil, using cylindrical coordinates boundary, with
initial temperature of crude oil is C. The study conducted in two phases, namely microwave
propagation simulation and heat transfer simulation. The heating of Crude Oil using a magnetron as the
microwave generator with operating frequency of 2.45 GHz. Microwaves are guided in a cylindrical
waveguide mode TM. Crude Oil has a dielectric constant and electrical conductivity 2.8 and 0.43 (S /m),
respectively. The simulation results show the temperature distribution model with a second order polynomial
mathematical form, T(𝑡) = -1E-09t2 + 2E-05t + 473.01 for the average temperature at the time change,
T(t) = -3E-05t2 + 0.2153t + 250.81 for temperature with time variation in the position closest to the
waveguide, T(s) = 12501s2 - 4866.5s + 679.75 for the temperature distribution in the vertical direction
position variation of the closest point to the waveguide.

Figure 1. The effect of distance on Crude Oil temperature at the time of 4800 s

[1] Muntini, M.S., Pramono, Y.H., Yustiana, 2016. Modeling of well drilling heating on Crude Oil using
microwave, in: AIP Conference Proceedings. Presented at the The 4th International Conference On
Theoretical And Applied Physics (ICTAP) 2014, AIP Publishing, p. 030011. doi:10.1063/1.4943706
[2] Yustiana, Y., Muntini, M.S., Pramono, Y.H., 2014. Penentuan Kelayakan Fungsi untuk Pemodelan
Pemanasan Minyak Mentah menggunakan Energi Gelombang Mikro. J. Fis. Dan Apl. 10, 117–122.
[3] Kalsum, U., Muntini, M.S., Pramono, Y.H., 2015. Modeling and Simulation of Micowave using two
Dimensional FDTD Method. International Conference on Sensor, System Sensor, and Actuator
[4] Salvi, D., Boldor, D., Ortego, Aita, G.M, Sabliov, C.M, (2010), “Microwave Power Electromagnetic
Energy”, Numerical Modelling of Continuous Flow Microwave Heating : A crtical Comparison of
COMSOL and ANSYS. International Microwave Power Institute. Vol. 44, Hal. 187-197
[5] Cherbański, R., Rudniak, L., (2013), “Internastional Journal of Thermal Science”, Modelling of
microwave heating of water in monomode applicator-Influence of heating operating conditions, Science
Direct, Vol. 74. Hal 214-229.
Page | 32
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

The Flexiforce Sensor as a Measurement of Rainfall
Using an Analog Principle
Warsito1,a, Gurum Ahmad Pauzi1, and Afrida Hafizhatul Ulum 1
Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Lampung University
Jl. Soemantri Brojonegoro No. 1, Bandar Lampung 35145
Tel.: +62 8154056557, fax.: +62 721 704625

Keywords: flexiforce sensor, microcontrollers, rainfall, volume.

ABSTRACT. The A201 flexiforce sensor has been characterized for rainfall measuring instrument. The
flexiforce has been used as a sensor to measure the variation of the water mass in the form of water volume.
The sensor response in resistance variation to the water volume is very sensitive with a gradient of 7.3
mOhm/ml. Voltage response of the sensor due to the effect of changes in pressure caused by variation in the
volume of rainfall is processed into precipitation data using ATMEGA32 microcontroller. Rainfall data is
displayed on a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and stored in a Micro Secure Digital (Micro SD) with delay for
6 seconds. The resolution of instrument is up to 5 ml volume variation, that is equivalent to the value of the
precipitation of 0.28 mm.

Figure 1. Flexiforce characterization response as a variation of water volume

[1] Holman-Dodds, J., Bradley, A. A., and Sturdevant-Rees, P. L. (1999). “Effect of sampling of
precipitation on hydrologic model calibration.’’J. Geophys. Res., 104(D16), 19645–19654.
[2] Anagnostou, E. N., and Krajewski, W. F. (1999a). ‘‘Real-time radar rainfall estimation Part I:
Algorithm formulation.’’ J. Atmospheric and Oceanic Technol., 16, 189–197.
[3] Anagnostou, E. N., and Krajewski, W. F. (1999b). ‘‘Real-time radar rainfall estimation Part II: Case
study.’’ J. Atmospheric and Oceanic Technol., 16, 198–205.
[4] Warsito, Sri Wahyu Suciyati, Gurum A. P., Berli L Putra, Sisca Aprila and Laila Kurniati, 2014
“Calibration and digital linearization of ultrasonic transducer responses” Sensors & Transducers Journal,
Vol. 183, Issue 12, December 2014, pp. 48-52.

Page | 33
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Refractive Index Sensor Based on Tapered Optical Fiber Using Comsol
Nina Siti Aminah1,a, Rahmat Hidayat2,b, Hendro1,c and Mitra Djamal1,3,d
Theoretical High Energy Physics and Instrumentation Group, ITB, Indonesia
Magnetic and Photonics Physics Group, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
Institut Teknologi Sumatera, Lampung, Indonesia
a (corresponding author),,,

Keywords: Fiber optic sensors; refractive index; taper.

ABSTRACT. The Comsol Multiphysics is used to investigate conditions that determine the formation of
evanescent field and the interrogation of the transmission intensity change due to the evanescent field
absorption by calculating and analyzing the relationship between the transmission intensity and refractive
index of a medium. Simulation result showed transmission intensity for every fiber geometry and refractive
index variations for a variety of medium. Result suggest that a compact sensor based on this structure may be
useful for refractive index sensors. These findings can provide important and significant information to
design better performance refractive index sensor based on tapered optical fiber.

Figure 1. The electric field propagating along thr tapered fiber

[1] B. D. Gupta and R. K. Verma, “Surface Plasmon Resonance-Based Fiber Optic Sensors: Principle,
Probe Designs, and Some Applications, Journal of Sensors, Volume 2009, Article ID 979761, 12 pages.
[2] S.P. Yushanov, L.T. Gritter, J.S. Crompton* and K.C. Koppenhoefer, “Surface Plasmon Resonance”,
Excerpt from the Proceedings of the 2012 COMSOL Conference in Boston.
[3] S. W. Harun, K. S. Lim, C. K. Tio, K. Dimyati, and H. Ahmad, “Theoretical analysis and fabrication of
tapered fiber,” Optik, vol. 124, no. 6, pp. 538–543, 2013.

Page | 34
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Detection of Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles Using Giant
Magnetoresistance (GMR) Sensors Based on Multilayer And Spin Valve
Thin Films by Wheatstone Bridge Circuit
Indah Nurpriyanti1, Indra Pardede1, Edi Suharyadi1a, Takeshi Kato2, and
Satoshi Iwata3
Departemen of Physics, Gadjah Mada University, Sekip Utara Bulaksumur 21 Yogyakarta,
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho,
Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603, Japan
Institute of Materials and Systems for Sustainability, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku,
Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603, Japan
corresponding author:

Keywords: Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR), Magnetic nanoparticles, wheatstone bridge

ABSTRACT. We demonstrated the detection of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles using giant

magnetoresistance (GMR) sensor based on multilayer and spin valve thin film by in wheatstone bridge. The
fabrication of thin film was done by using DC magnetron sputtering. The structure of multilayer thin film
was [Co (1,5 nm)/ Cu(1,0 nm)]20 and spin valve thin film was IrMn (10 nm) / CoFe (3 nm) / Cu (2.2 nm) /
CoFeB (10 nm). The Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles was synthesized by coprecipitation method. It has
superparamagnetic behavior with saturation magnetization of 77 emu/gram and particles size of 10 nm. The
structure of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles was invers spinel. The output voltage signal of wheatstone bridge
is linear to the Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles concentration (0.1 mg/ml; 1 mg/ml; 10 mg/ml; 100 mg/ml )
(figure 1). That gradient was 0.20 for spin valve thin film and 0.06 for multilayer thin film. The value of
gradient show that spin valve thin film more sensitive than multilayer thin film. Magnetic moment of spin
valve thin film was easier saturated than that of multilayer thin film. Magnetization of spin valve thin film
could be saturated in 20 Oe external field, while multilayer thin film could be saturated in 500 Oe external
field. Magnetoresistance (MR) of spin valve greater than multilayer. Magnetoresistance of spin valve was
6% and magnetoresistance of multilayer was 4%. The Fe 3O4 magnetic nanoparticles was suitable to detect
with GMR sensors. This potential was applied in bio-detection where labels are needed.

Log Output sensor voltage multilayer

Log Output sensor voltage spin valve
Log output voltage (mV)

-1 0 1 2
Log magnetic nanoparticles Fe3O4 (mg/ml)

Figure 1. The Output voltage in wheatstone bridge with combination of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles
in GMR sensors based on multiayer and spin valve thin film

Page | 35
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

A Study on the Petiole’s Response of Puteri Malu (Mimosa pudica L.)
Respects to Colour Light Illumination
Bagus Haryadia, Pramudhita A. Nugraha, and Arifan Q.M. Raharjo
Study Program in Physics (Metrology-Electronics Material-Instrumentations), FMIPA,
Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, Jalan Prof. Dr. Soepomo, S.H., Janturan,
Yogyakarta 55164, Indonesia.
Corresponding author:

Keywords: colour sensor, Mimosa pudica L., petiole.

ABSTRACT. Plant of Puteri Malu (Mimosa pudica L.) is growing wildly in tropical countries such as in
Indonesia. The common characteristic observed from this plant is the response of their petioles (up and
down) by the seismonastic phenomenon. A new study on the petiole’s movement has been carried out when
any different colours (red, green and blue) of light illumination introduced to the plant. Light Emitting
Diodes (LEDs) produced appropriate colours were used as light sources in the experiment with the consistent
intensity of 400 lux. The observation was done using a visible camera to record the petioles’ movement
continuously and real time at room temperature (relative humidity of 63 %). From the experiment it was
observed that the petiole will respond the light environmnent introduced (red, green and blue) by moving
their position from hanging down (in dark condition) to the hanging up (normal position) taking in different
times for 50, 30 and 26 minutes respectively after illumination start. This interesting phenomenon may lead
any potetial applications in sensor performed by living plants, for instance is colour sensor.

Page | 36
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Interlayer Shorts IC Layout Verification
Based CMOS Technology 0,35μm
Robby Kurniawan Harahap1,a, Eri Prasetyo Wibowo1,b Hamzah Afandi1,c
Gunadarma University, Indonesia

Keywords: CMOS, Interlayer Short, Verification Layout.

ABSTRACT. Layout in CMOS-based IC design is a set of layers forming into an IC circuit. In drawing a
layout one thing to be considered the geometry interlayer so there is no short. Shorts on layout is simple
problem but can be major problem when it has been detected after the layout is made. In the verification
stage IC design, process checks shorts have become an early stage before the Design Rules Check (DRC)
and Layout Versus Schematic (LVS) is executed. Objective of this paper is to describe the process steps for
detecting shorts interlayer with a circuit in cmos layout design. These shorts technique using multiplexer
circuit as a experiment on EDA tools use ICshortchecker with design rules based on 0,35μm CMOS

Checker Process
Check Correct
Multiplexe Check
r Path & Short
Layout Geometri Layout

Figure 1. Shorts Checker Flow

[1] Alvin Jee and F. Joel Ferguson, An Analysis of Shorts in CMOS Standard Cell Circuits, “ASIC
Conference and Exhibit, 1994. Proceedings., Seventh Annual IEEE International“
[2] Witold A. Pleskacz, Maksim Jenihhin, Jaan Raik, Michal Rakowski, Raimund Ubar, Wieslaw Kuzmicz,
Hierarchical Analysis of Short Defects between Metal Lines in CMOS IC, Design and Diagnostics of
Electronic Circuits and Systems, 2007. DDECS '07. IEEE
[3] Nidhi M. Prithviraj Singh C., Debendra Kumar P., Ultra Low Power Multiplexer design using Variation
in CMOS Inverter, IEEE International Conference on Computer, Communication and Control (IC4-
[4] Dan C., CMOS IC Layout: Concepts, Methodologies, and Tools, Newnesspress, U.S., 2000

Page | 37
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Optimizing Ultrasonic and Barometric Sensor for Quadcopter’s
Altitude-Hold Using YoHe V1.2 PID and KK V2.0 Board.
Yohanes Gunawan Yusuf1,a, Hendi Wicaksono Agung1,b
Electrical Engineering Dept, University of Surabaya, Indonesia
a (corresponding author),

Keywords: Altitude Hold, Barometric sensor, KK v2.0, PID, Quadcopter, Ultrasonic sensor, YoHe v1.2

ABSTRACT. This paper is part of the research on stabilizing quadcopter altitude in 'Altitude-Hold' mode by
utilizing the commercial KK v2.0 and customized YoHe v1.2 PID board. YoHe v1.2 PID board uses two
sensors: the ultrasonic sensor and barometric sensor. Both sensors are used together to determine and
maintain a quadcopter in a certain altitude. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the sensors and optimizes
them on 'Altitude Hold' mode and provide an explanation of the quadcopter system configuration, especially
for using YoHe v1.2 PID board along with KK v2.0 board. Fig.1 shows the YoHe V1.2 PID board with its
sensors and the relative error comparison graph which is showing very small relative error for ultrasonic
sensor for low altitude and will be greater for higher altitude. It is concluded that the ultrasonic sensor
having better accuracy at low altitude, vice versa for barometric sensor. The barometric relative error will be
smaller when used at higher altitude. The graph shown the height of 175 cm is the intersection between the
relative error of ultrasonic and barometric. This height will be used for YoHE v1.2 PID to choose which
sensor is used as an input sensor for determining quadcopter altitude. The results of this experiment will be
embedded in the programming code to YoHe v1.2 PID board expecting both of these sensors can work
together and complement.

Figure 1. YoHe V1.2 PID Board and The Relative Error Comparison

[1] Hendi Wicaksono, Yohanes Gunawan, Cornellius Kristanto, “A Fast Geometric Type2 Fuzzy
Controller Using Barometric Sensor for Altitude Stabilization QuadRotor”. 7th International Conference
on Information Technology and Electrical Engineering (ICITEE), ChiangMai, Thailand, 2015.
[2] Hendi Wicaksono, Yohanes Gunawan, Arbil Yodinata, Leonardie “Performance Analysis Fuzzy-PID
versus Fuzzy for QuadCopter Altitude Lock System.”. Jurnal Teknologi (Science & Engineering),
Malaysia, 77:22 (2015) p33-38, 2015
[3] Chovancova, “Mathematical Modelling and Parameter Identification of Quadrotor”, Procedia
Engineering 96 p172-181. 2014
[4] Tat Meng Leong, “Low-Cost Microcontroller-based Hover Control Design of a Quadcopter”, Procedia
Engineering 41 p 458-464, 2012

Page | 38
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Design and Characteristics of a Probe Sensor for
Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) Temperature Sensor
Melania S. Muntini1,a and Haerul Ahmadi1,b
Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Indonesia

Keywords: Bragg Wavelength shift, fiber Bragg grating (FBG), Probe Sensor.

ABSTRACT. Design and characteristics of a Probe Sensor for fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensor
tube is presented. The developed probe sensor was configured by encapsulating a bare fiber Bragg grating
(FBG) with an external tube was made from cylindrical ceramic tube and stainless tube. Sensor system FBG
is used to measure temperatures from 27 oC to 250oC. This study uses Bragg wavelength shift effect (λB) due
to the effect of temperature changes on the FBG. Data acquisition Bragg wavelength shift (λB) using an
optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) with a light source from the Internal Wavelength Calibrator. The adapted
encapsulation technique validated the sensor to achieve linearity of 99.89%, sensitivity of 8.04 pm/oC, and
good repeatability.

Figure 1. effect of temperature change from sensor system

[1] J. Crips, Introduction to fiber optics, 2nd ed. Newnes, 2001.
[2] Manuel Silva-López, Amanda Fender, William N. MacPherson, James S. Barton, and Julian D. C.
Jones, “Strain and Temperature Sensitivity of a Single-Mode Polymer Optical Fiber,” Opt. Lett., vol. 30,
[3] W. Wang, X. Jiang, and Q. Yu, “Temperature self-compensation fiber-optic pressure sensor based on
fiber Bragg grating and Fabry–Perot interference multiplexing,” Opt. Commun., vol. 285, no. 16, pp.
3466–3470, Jul. 2012.
[4] Y. Zhan, S. Xue, Q. Yang, S. Xiang, H. He, and R. Zhu, “A novel fiber Bragg grating high-temperature
sensor,” Opt. - Int. J. Light Electron Opt., vol. 119, no. 11, pp. 535–539, Aug. 2008.
[5] Shizhuo Yin, Paul B. Ruffin, and Francis T. S. Yu, Fiber Optic Sensors. CRC Press Taylor & Francis
Group, 2008.
[6] R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings. elsevier academic press, 2010.

Page | 39
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Development of Data Acquisition System of Gas Sensor
Based On Fluctuation-Enhanced Sensing
Kuwat Triyana1,2,a, Trisna Julian1, and Khairurrijal3
Department of Physics, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
Interdiciplinary Halal Research Group, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung, Indonesia

Keyword: data acquisition system, fluctuation-enhanced sensing, gas sensor, soundcard

ABSTRACT. Data acquisition system (DAQ) based on fluctuation enhanced sensing (FES) method has
been successfully developed to acquire gas sensor response. The main part of the DAQ consisted of a gas
sensor (TGS 2602), a series of excitation sensor (current generator), a microcontroller ATmega 328 (10-bit
resolution), a series of passive high-pass filter (RC), an amplifier of op-amp (CA3130), and onboard
soundcards (16-Bit resolution and sampling rate of 46 KHz). The excitation circuit was used to change the
resistance of TGS 2602gas sensor into a DC voltage signal. The microcontroller was used to convert the
value of the sensor voltage signal from analog to digital. The fluctuation component signal was obtained by
passing a voltage signal to a passive high-pass filter (R = 1 kΩ and C = 110 μF). In this study, the
fluctuations of the gas sensor signal were then amplified by 10 times using amplifiers and recorded using the
soundcard. As a result, the DAQ shows the fingerprint of gas, so that it was able to differentiate between the
air, acetone gas and ethanol gas. To control the retrieval and storage of data, the DAQ was equipped with a
Graphic User Interface (GUI). The test results of acetone and ethanol gas DAQ shows that this system has
been able to record the fluctuations of the TGS 2602 gas sensor against both the gaseous with a
concentration of 12, 25, 37 and 49 mg/m3.

Page | 40
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Pesticide Colorimetric Sensor Based on Silver Nanoparticles
Modified by L-cysteine
Abdul Kodir1,a, Cuk Imawan1, Indra Setia Permana1, Windri Handayani2,b
Physics Department, Indonesia University, Depok 16424 Indonesia
Biology Department, Indonesia University, Depok 16424 Indonesia
a, b (corresponding author)

Keywords: colorimetric, l-cysteine, pesticide, sensor, silver nanoparticles

ABSTRACT. This work investigated a new colorimetric sensor for pesticide based on L-cysteine-modified
silver nanoparticles (L-cys-AgNPs). The colorimetric sensor was prepared by reduction of silver nitrate in
the presence of Diospyros blancoi leaf infusion which were then mixed by L-cysteine solution. The L-cys-
AgNPs were characterized by UV-Visible Spectrophotometer measuring optical absorbance. Pesticides,
namely monosultap and cypermethrin, were detected by mixing them with silver nanoparticles. The fresh L-
cys-AgNPs had brownish yellow color inasmuch as surface plasmon resonance absorbance centered at 422
nm. NaCl stimulated color change from brownish yellow to clear which was relied on pesticide
concentration of 20, 50 and 100 ppm. In the presence of cypermethrin, L-cys-AgNPs color turned clear and
the peak absorbance dropped to 0.17 from 1.15. However, the effect of monosultap toward L-cys-AgNPs
was negligible. This sensor allows a direct quantitative check for the detection of cypermethrin.

Figure 1. Formation of silver nanoparticles (left) and sensitivity of L-cys-AgNPs toward Cypermethrin (right)

[1] N. H. Rao, L. N., S. V. N. Pammi, P. Kollu, G. S., and L. P., “Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles
using methanolic root extracts of Diospyros paniculata and their antimicrobial activities,” Mater. Sci.
Eng. C, vol. 62, pp. 553–557, May 2016.
[2] V. Dhand, L. Soumya, S. Bharadwaj, S. Chakra, D. Bhatt, and B. Sreedhar, “Green synthesis of silver
nanoparticles using Coffea arabica seed extract and its antibacterial activity,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C, vol.
58, pp. 36–43, Jan. 2016.
[3] Y. Liu, G. Wang, C. Li, Q. Zhou, M. Wang, and L. Yang, “A novel acetylcholinesterase biosensor
based on carboxylic graphene coated with silver nanoparticles for pesticide detection,” Mater. Sci. Eng.
C, vol. 35, pp. 253–258, Feb. 2014.
[4] Z. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Ni, and S. Kokot, “Unmodified silver nanoparticles for rapid analysis of the
organophosphorus pesticide, dipterex, often found in different waters,” Sens. Actuators B Chem., vol.
193, pp. 205–211, Mar. 2014.

Page | 41
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

A Capacitive-type Humidity Sensor
Using Polymer Electrolytes of PVA-LiCl Thick Films
C. Imawan 1,a, T. Bai 2 and S. Budiawanti 3
Departemen Fisika FMIPA Universitas Indonesa, Depok 16424 Indonesia
Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan, Universitas Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Indonesia
Pendidikan Fisika FKIP UNS - Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia
a (corresponding author)

Keywords: humidity sensor, polyvinyl alcohol, polymer electrolyte, thick films

ABSTRACT. Capacitive-type humidity sensors have been prepared using polymer electrolyte of poly (vinyl
alcohol) (PVA) and lithium chloride (LiCl) thick films. Microstructure of the films were studied using XRD
and SEM. SEM images of resultant polymer electrolytes thick films shown that the films are stacked by
microparticles with particles size about 1 mm. The diffraction spectra confirmed that the LiCl forms
nanocrystallites. Sensing characteristics and the sensing mechanism of the humidity sensors have been
investigated by measuring the complex impedance spectra of at different humidities and at various
frequencies. The PVA-LiCl thick film RH sensors showed excellent humidity sensing properties over the
wide relative humidity range from 33% until 94% RH. The sensitivity of the RH sensors depends on the
operating frequencies and give the best sensitivity at 1kHz.

Figure 1. SEM images of PVA-LiCl composite thick films (left) and

Impedance vs. relative humidity at various frequencies (right)

[1] Almudena Rivadeneyra, José Fernández-Salmerón, Manuel Agudo-Acemel, Juan A. López-Villanueva,
Luis Fermín Capitan-Vallvey, Alberto J. Palma, “Printed electrodes structures as capacitive humidity
sensors: A comparison”, Sensors and Actuators A 244 (2016) 56–65.
[2] A.A. Mohamad, N.S. Mohamed, M.Z.A. Yahya, R. Othman, S. Ramesh, Y. Alias, A.K. Arof, “Ionic
conductivity studies of poly (vinyl alcohol) alkaline solid polymer electrolyte and its use in nickel–zinc
cells”, Solid State Ionics 156 (2003) 171– 177.
[3] S. Rajendran, M. Sivakumar, R. Subadevi, “Li-ion conduction of plasticized PVA solid polymer
electrolytes complexed with various lithium salts”, Solid State Ionics 167 (2004), 335–339.
[4] P. Balaji Bhargav, V. Madhu Mohan, A.K. Sharma, V.V.R.N. Rao, “Investigations on electrical
properties of (PVA : NaF) polymer electrolytes for electrochemical cell applications”, Current Applied
Physics 9 (2009) 165–171.

Page | 42
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

FBG Weight Sensor Based on Laser Diode Transmission Response
Andi Setiono1,a, and Faridhatul Khasanah2,b
Pusat Penelitian Fisika LIPI
Kawasan PUSPIPTEK Serpong Gd. 442, Tangerang Selatan, Banten 15314 - Indonesia
Universitas Airlangga, Jl Mulyorejo No. 4-6 Surabaya 60115 - Indonesia

Keywords: Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG), intensity response, laser diode, weight sensor.

ABSTRACT. Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor for measuring weight was studied. A FBG was bonded on
the cantilever structure using insulating tape. The cantilever structure was loaded with measurable load and
measure the transmitted intensity of laser diode. In this study, we used Tunable Laser Controller which set to
1554.194 nm and uniform FBG with center wavelength of 1554 nm. We also use power meter to measure the
intensity. Change in transmitted intensity of laser diode was found linier and repeatable. The analysis result
show that during the loading and unloading of the cantilever structure, the intensity response was detected
almost the same for each load. Hence it is proved that the sensor is free of hysteresis.

Figure 1. Intensity response of FBG weight sensor

[1] Johannes Skaar and Knut Magne Risvik, A Genetic Algorithm for the Inverse Problem in Synthesis of
Fiber Gratings, Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 16, No. 10, 1998, pp. 1928-1932
[2] Wen Xiong, C. S. Cai, and Xuan Kong. Instrumentation design for bridge scour monitoring using fiber
Bragg grating sensors. 10 February 2012 / Vol. 51, No. 5 / APPLIED OPTICS. 547-557
[3] Kashyap, Raman. 1999. Fiber Bragg Gratings. USA: Academic Press.
[4] Fraden, J. 2010. Handbook of Modern Sensor: Physics, Designs, and Applications fourth edition. New
York: Springer
[5] Hecht, E. 2002. Optics fourth edition. Boston: Adelphi University

Page | 43
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Fabrication of Amperometric Triglyceride Biosensor
for Medical Application
Pratondo Busono1,a and Nur Hajiyah1
Center for Electronic Technology, BPPT, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Indonesia

Keywords: screen printing, triglyceride biosensor

ABSTRACT. Background and objective. Triglycerides (TGs) are the plasma lipids of most interest in the
diagnosis of lipoprotein disorder. It is a major indicator of chronic hepatitis, nephritic syndrome, pancreatitis,
hyperlipidemia, liver disease and diabetes mellitus. Analytical methods such as titrimetric and
chromatographic methods are commonly used for the determination of triglycerides. However, such methods
require expensive reagents, special equipment, time consuming sample preparations, and skilled person to
operate. Recently, biosensor with chemically modified electrodes have received extensive attention due to
high sensitivity, selectivity, stability, and low potential electron transfer. The objective of this study was to
developed screen printing amperometric biosensor for triglyceride detection. Method: Screen printed
biosensor with three electrode configuration, namely working (modified carbon electrode), counter (carbon)
and reference electrodes (Ag/Ag Cl) was prepared for triglyceride detection by co-immobilization of The co-
immobilization of lipase, glycerol kinase (GK) glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase (GPO) and Horse radish
peroxidase on the surface of working electrode. Results: The enzyme electrode showed optimum response
when operated at 34°C in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.5, for 30 s. A linear relationship was
obtained between triolein concentration ranging from 0.2 to 12 mM and amount of current (mA). The
minimum detection limit of the method was 0.2 mM.The levels of TG in serum of apparently healthy persons
and persons suffering from cardiovascular disease and pancreatitis, as measured by this sensor. A good
correlation (r = 0.95) was found between serum triglyceride values obtained by commercial enzymic
colorimetric and the present method. The biosensor was also tested by the inhibitor such as cholesterol,
bilirubin, ascorbic acid and uric acid. Small variation at about 15% and 10% was observed when cholesterol
and bilirubin substance, introduced into the triglyceride serum. The biosensor was used 50 times over 60
days without any considerable loss of activity when stored at 4°C

[1] P. Fossati, L. Prencipe, “Serum triglycerides determined calorimetrically with an enzyme that produces
hydrogen peroxide”, Clin Chem 28, pp. 2077–80, 1982.
[2] C.S. Pundir, B. S. Singh, J. Narang, “Construction of an amperometric triglyceride biosensor using PVA
membrane bound enzymes’, Clinical Biochemistry 43, pp. 467–472, 2010.

Page | 44
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Design precision Comparator of 8-bit SAR ADC
Based 0,35 μm CMOS Technology
Joko Purnomo1,a, Hamzah A.1,b ,Eri Prasetyo1,c and Erma Triawati CH 1,d
Departement of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Gunadarma Univerisity, Indonesia

Keywords: Comparator, Convertion, SAR ADC.

ABSTRACT. This paper proposes a precision comparator design on the SAR ADC based 0,35 um CMOS
technology. The comparator is one of the compiler unit on SAR ADC as convertion center. The process of
conversion from analog signals to digital signals do on the comparator. Precision comparator used because
this type of comparator has a high accuracy. This comparator design method by changing the current (I) to
voltage (V) on the hysteresis stage then compared to the output voltage. The output conversion on this
comparator will determine the accuracy of the ADC when conversion from digital data into analog data,
With output accuracy of digital data by about 0.5 LSB. The others SAR ADC compiler unit is sample hold as
input unit, the swicth capacitor as DAC unit and SAR logic as output unit. The result on this SAR ADC
research is a simulation from schematic design with 8-bit specification, working voltage at 3,3V and
frequency at 100Mhz.

Figure 1. Block Diagram SAR ADC 8-bit

[1] B. S. Song, La Jolla, and Gilman,” Design CMOS Analog-to-Digital Converter,” ECE264C,
International WorkShop in University of California, San Diego, 2007
[2] Chun Cheng Liu, Soon Jyh Chang, Guan Ying Huang, dan Ying Zu Lin "A 10-bit 50-MS/s SAR ADC
with a Monotonic Capasitor Switching Procedure" IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits, vol. 45, no. 4,
pp. 731-740, April 2010
[3] Eri Prasetyo, Hamzah Afandi, Dominique Ginhac and M. Paindavoine,” A 8-bits Pipeline ADC Design
For High Speed Camera Application,”IES 2007, ITS 2007
[4] Jhin‐Fang Huang, Jin‐YuWen and Cheng‐Ku Hsieh. “An 8‐bit 20 MS/s Successive Approximation
Register Analog‐to‐digital Converter with Low Input Capacitance”, National Taiwan University of
Science and Technology, International Journal of Engineering Practical Research (IJEPR) Volume 3
Issue 4, November 2014.

Page | 45
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Measurement of Milk Taste Evolution Using Electronic Tongue
Imam Tazi1,2,a, Anis Choiriyah2, Kuwat Triyana1,4,b, Dwi Siswanta3
Department of Physics, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
Physics Department, UIN Maulana Malik Ibrahim, Malang, 65144 - Indonesia
Department of Chemistry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
Interdiciplinary Halal Research Group, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
a, (corresponding author)

Keywords: cow, electronic tongue, linear discriminant analysis, goat, milk, taste

ABSTRACT. An electronic tongue (e-tongue) based on an array of lipid/membranes has been successfully
developed and used to measure taste evolution of raw milk. The e-tongue used in this study consisted of 16
different lipid/membranes, and a pH sensor. The raw milk of cow and goat were purchased from the local
farming store in Yogyakarta Indonesia. The taste measurement was carried out every two hours under room
temperature condition without any treatment. Then, the responses of the e-tongue were then evaluated using
a method of pattern recognition of linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The LDA data were processed using
stepwise method for selecting discriminator variables that contribute for predicting the discriminant function
model. It is found that the total discriminant function was 99.8% and 100% of total variance for milk of cow
and goat, respectively. This indicates that the taste evolution of raw milk can be observed easily using the e-

Page | 46
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Design and Simulation of Leakage Current Measurement on Medical
Devices Using Helmholtz Coil Configuration
Erwin Sutanto1,a, Franky C. Satria A.1,b, Rizki Dinata2,c and Febdian Rusydi1,d
Airlangga University, Kampus C Unair, Surabaya Indonesia
Badan Pengkajian Fasilitas Kesehatan, Gubeng, Surabaya Indonesia

Keywords: Galvanometer, Helmholtz coil configuration, Leakage current measurement, Medical devices,
Oersted Experiment.

ABSTRACT. Leakage current measurement which can follow IEC standard for medical device is one of
challenges to be answered by this research. The IEC 60601-1 has defined the limit for a leakage current for
Medical Device can be as low as 10 µA and as high as 500 µA, depending on which type of contact (applied
part) to patient. Most people are using ELCB (Earth‐leakage circuit breaker) for that safety purpose as this is
most available plug and play safety device at market. One type of ELCB device is RCD (Residual Current
Device). This RCD type is the one which is measuring the leakage current directly. However this RCD is
designed to follow IEC 60755 which has minimum current limit only as low as 6mA. It is about ten times
higher than the high limited leakage current according IEC 60601-1. This work will demonstrate on how
Helmholtz Coil Configuration can be made to become like the RCD. This configuration can be used for
measuring leakage current. From this simulation it is shown that the measurement’s sensitivity is linear to the
coil’s number of turns.

Figure 1. Magnetic Field Simulation of Helmholtz Coil with different Current Flow

[1] Eisner, L. Brown, R. M. Modi, D.” Leakage Current Standards Simplified”, Medical Device & Diagnostic
Industry, July 2004.
[2] Galan D., Ruben H., Luis d.l.T., Sebastian D., Francisco E. “Automated Experiments on EjsS
Laboratories,” in 2016 13th International Conference on Remote Engineering and Virtual
Instrumentation (REV), February 2016.
[3] Hwang F.K., Wolfgang C., Robert M., “Helmholtz Coils,”, OSP ComPADRE collection June 2014.
[4] Lewin, W. John, B. “Physics II Electricity and Magnetism,”
physics-ii-electricity-and-magnetism-spring-2007/index.htm MIT OpenCourseWare, Spring 2007.
[5] L. A. Geddes. “d'Arsonval, physician and inventor,” in IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology
Society, Vol. 18, Issue. 4, July-August. 1999.
[6] Trout S. R., “Use of Helmholtz coils for magnetic measurements,” in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics,
Vol. 24, Issue. 4, July 1988.
Page | 47
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Development of low-cost data acquisition for QCM 10 Mhz
using binary ripple counter of IC 4040 and IC74HC14
as CMOS crystal oscillator with RC circuit to stability signal
Kuwat Triyana1,a, Darosy Syaiful Imam1, Hilman Aunur Rahman1, Ronalson
Sirait1, Experian Elitiawan1, and Iqmal Tahir2
Department of Physics, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281 Indonesia
Department of Chemistry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281 Indonesia
b (corresponding author)

Keywords: digital inverting, Pierce – Gate Oscillator circuit, quartz crystal microbalance

ABSTRACT. We have developed a device for converting frequency to digital inverter using frequency
divider (counter) to detect the change of resonance frequency of 10-MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM).
In this study, we also used 24-stage binary counter as a micro-weight detector. The counting is able to read
the change of frequency every second in the real time way. The device of crystal oscillator was built using
Pierce – Gate Oscillator circuit. Here, we used a binary ripple counter of IC 4040, a digital inverting Schmitt
trigger of IC74HC14 and signal stability for removing overshoot in frequency signal of RC circuit. It is
found that the overshoot of frequency signal influences the stability of counting results. If the counting
results are not stable the accuracy of the data acquisition system is lower and results in a bigger error of the
frequency shift of QCM. It is overcame using RC circuit, so that for the maximum counting the accuracy is
found to be 99.9%. We also found that the system is also possible for the weight detector of water with
micro-gram range.

Page | 48
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Customized-Optical Sensor Characterization Towards DSSC
(Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell) with TiO2 and Chlorophyta Natural Dye
Eka Maulana1, a, Wuri Roro1 and Sholeh Hadi Pramono1
Advance System and Material Technology (ASMAT), Brawijaya University, Indonesia
Department of Electrical Engineering, Brawijaya University,
Jl. MT Haryono 167 Malang, Indonesia

Keywords: chlorophyta natural dye, optic sensor, TiO2 nanoparticle

ABSTRACT. The optical sensor performance refers to the design and material of DSSC (Dye-Sensitized
Solar Cell) has been characterized. Semiconductor oxide nanoparticle of TiO 2 and extracted Chlorophyta
natural dye are used to absorb and convert incident photon to electric energy using sandwich structure of
1.5x1.5cm2 sensor active area. The sensor material was used include TCO (Transparent Conductive Oxide)
glass as substrate, electrolyte solution and carbon. Method of TiO 2 deposition to the TCO glass substras was
spin coating and firing at 1,500 rpm and 450 °C, respectively. Natural dye was extracted from chlorophyta
(green algae) by different variation of solution concentration according to the ratio of mass and volume. The
chlorophyll absorbance was investigated by spectrophotometer UV-VIS 1800 at wavelength of 300-800 nm.
SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) is used to observe TiO2-coated TCO glass morphology. Fabricated
sensors are characterized using multimeter to measure voltage and current towards light illumination from
the light source. This natural dye-based optical sensor performance has been analyzed to obtain linearity,
sensitivity, uncertainty error and another electrical transient response characteristic. The result of extracted-
chlorophyta absorbance shows wavelength peak at of 500 to 680 nm with different intensity, it was
indicating visible light absorbsion spectra. Sensor measurement using light illumination up to 30,000 lux
produces the highest rated voltage of 626.4 mV and current 78,7 (µA) at ratio of 6:5 (m:v) solution. This
sensor has a voltage sensitivity of 1,0875mV/10lux and current sensitivity of 0,0024 µA/lux in measurement
temperature range of 32°C to 38°C. The voltage and current uncertainty error was 0.36% and 0.481%,
Output Voltage Characteristic Relative Uncertainty
650 2 1

V_ru (%)
I_ru (%) 0,8
550 1,5


450 1
3:5 (m:v)
400 4:5 (m:V)
6:5 (m:v)
350 0,5

250 0 0
0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 3:5 4:5 6:5
1 2 3
Light Illuminance (lux) Ratio [m:v]

Figure 1. Optic Sensor Characteristic with diferent Concentration Ratio

[1] S.H. Pramono, E. Maulana, M.A.R. Sembiring, "The effect of photoelectrode TiO2 layer thickness to
the output power of chlorophyll-based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC), " in Intelligent Technology
and Its Applications (ISITIA), 2015 International Seminar on, pp. 107-112, May 2015
[2] E. Maulana, S.H. Pramono, D. Fanditya, M. Julius, "Effect of Chlorophyll Concentration Variations
from Extract of Papaya Leaves on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell," World Academy of Science, Engineering
and Technology, International Science Index 97, International Journal of Electrical, Computer,
Energetic, Electronic and Communication Engineering, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 49–52, January 2015.
[3] S.H. Pramono, E. Maulana, A.F. Prayogo and R. Djatmika, "Characterization of Dye-Sensitized Solar
Cell (DSSC) Basedon Chlorophyll Dye," International Journal of Applied Engineering Research.
Volume 10, Number 1 pp. 193-205, January 2015.
Page | 49
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Efficacy of CNC-Diode Laser Combine with Chlorophylls
to Eliminate Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm
Suryani Dyah Astuti1,a, Nike DG Drantantiyas 2,b, Abdurachman3,c, Aulia MT
Nasution2,d, Deni Arifianto1,e
Department of Biomedical Engineering Post Graduate School, Airlangga University Indonesia
Postgraduate Program in Engineering Physics Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember
Department of Anatomy Faculty of Medicine Airlangga University Indonesia
a (corresponding author),,

Keywords: Biofilm, chlorophyll, CNC-laser diode, efficacy, Staphylococcus aureus

ABSTRACT. The clinical manifestations of infection by bacteria forming biofilms is their resistance to
antibiotic treatment. So, we need an alternative method that is both effective and selective killing of S.
aureus biofilm bacteria, one of which is a method of photodynamic (PDT) by utilizing light and
photosensitizer. The purpose of this study was to build and determine the efficacy of CNC-laser diode
combine with chlorophyll to eliminate the microbial Staphylococcus aureus biofilm. CNC (Computer
Numerical Control) laser instrument created consist of light source (diode laser), sample holder and
controller to control of the intensity values, the number of lines microplate, time duration of irradiation, the
stepper motor rotation according to predetermined coordinates, activate and deactivate the fan so that the
temperature inside the sample box is stable at room temperature. The characterization of CNC-laser showed
stability of laser power and temperature during irradiation. The laser 405 nm treatment group combine with
and without chlorophylls resulted in statistically did not significant efficacy of log CFU (p<0.05) compared
to each other. Best efficacy was shown under laser irradiation time 75s with endogenous PS with efficacy
18 % and chlorophylls 22.28%. The result of biofilm viewing of confocal microscopy showed that CNC-
laser treatment with exogenous PS (chlorophylls) can eliminate the Staphylococcus aureus biofilm. So CNC-
diode laser combine with chlorophylls can eliminate Staphylococcus biofilm.
Z Axis
Movement Stepper

Temperature Temperature
Sensor Sensor F

Stepper Sample
Motor Holder

Stepper Stepper
X Axis
Motor Motor
Y1 Y2

Power Supply
Controller Unit

Figure 1. The schematic CNC-Diode laser for Figure 2. Results of CNC-diode laser treatment
illumination treatment (PDT) with exogeneous PS. Marker ** shows not
significant level in ANOVA one-way test p>0.05.

[1] F. D. Lowy, “Staphylococcus aureus Infections,” N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 339, pp. 520–532, 1998.
[2] K. Plata, A. E. Rosato, and G. Węgrzyn, “Staphylococcus aureus as an infectious agent: overview of
biochemistry and molecular genetics of its pathogenicity,” Acta Biochim. Pol., vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 597–
612, 2009.
[3] N. K. Archer, M. J. Mazaitis, J. W. Costerton, J. G. Leid, M. E. Powers, and M. E. Shirtliff,
“Staphylococcus aureus biofilm: Properties, regulation and roles in human disease,” Virulence, vol. 2,
no. 5, pp. 445–459, 2011.
Page | 50
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Measurement The Sediment Ability in The Respond of Seismic Wave
using Attenuation Coefficient and Ground Vibration Frequency
Muhammad Farid1,a, Arif Ismulhadi1, Daryono2
Departement of Physics, Bengkulu University, Bengkulu, Indonesia
Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics Agency

Keyword: attenuation coefficient, Ground Vibration Frequency, The ability of sediments

ABSTRACT. The ability of the sediment in response to seismic waves varies greatly, depending on factors
hardness and thickness. This study aims to investigate the response shown by the sediment of the seismic
waves. The indicator used is the frequency of vibration of the ground (fo) and attenuation coefficient (ᾴ).
Ground vibration frequency is used to control the thickness of sediments, whereas the attenuation factor is
used to control the sediment violence. Sediments that are prone to seismic waves will impact physical
damage to buildings and infrastructure built on it. Sediment said if prone to seismic waves have a frequency
of resonance <5. sediments are also said to be prone to seismic wave attenuation coefficient if it has > 0.03.
fo value can be known after the vibration spectrum obtained land and ᾴ known by knowing the value of the
bandwidth of each spectrum generated ground vibrations. Measuring instruments used are short-period
seismometers three components, namely the horizontal component of the Fourier amplitude spectrum (S NS,
SWE) and a vertical component (SV) of micro seismic spectrum. The results show the value fo ranging from
0.5 to 15 Hz, and most are in the frequency range below < 5. Value ᾴ ranged from 0.005 to 0.117, and most
are at ᾴ value > 0.03. These results suggest there are still many areas that were not able to withstand the
seismic waves, which will cause damage to the buildings on it.

Figure 1. The relationship between Koef. Attenuation with Dominant Frequency

[1] Campbell, Kenneth W., and Bozorgnia, Yousef. Campbell-Bozorgnia NGA “Empirical Ground Motion
Model for the Average Horizontal Component of PGA,PGV, PGD and SA at Selected SpectralPeriods
Ranging from 0.01–10.0 Seconds(Version 1.1)”. Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center,
College of Engineering, University of California, Berkeley (2006).
[2] Farid. M., Brotopuspito, K. S., Wahyudi, Sunarto, Suryanto.W. “Ground Shear Strain and Rate of
Erosion in The Coastal Area of North Bengkulu, Indonesia”, Advanced Materials Research Vol. 896
(2014) pp 521-524© Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, doi: 10.4028/ (2014)

Page | 51
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Use of Surface Plasmon Resonance for Identifying Dye Penetration in
Mesoporous Layer
Siti Chalimah1, a, Rahmat Hidayat1,b
Physics of Magnetism and Photonics Research Division, Institut Technology Bandung,
Bandung, Indonesia

Keywords: AZO, light spectrum, Surface Plasmon Resonance

ABSTRACT. Surface Plasmon Resonance is a physical phenomenon of plasmon oscillation at a metal

surface that resonance with the incoming light. The plasmon wave penetrates extensively into the dielectric
layer existing on the metal layer surface. In this presentation, we will report the use of such characteristic of
SPR wave to identify the penetration of dye into a mesoporous layer. ZnO and Al doped ZnO (AZO) were
used as the mesoporous layers, while a Ruthenium complex dye was used as the dye. The SPR spectrum of
AZO containing dye layer shows more shallow deep compared to that of ZnO containing dye layer, although
the shifting of their SPR dips are almost similar. This fact may indicate smaller amount of adsorbed dye
inside the AZO layer, as also indicated by their absorption spectra. Because the SPR wave is generated at the
interface of the metal/mesoporous layer, this may also indicate that the dye molecules are adsorbed deeply
into the interface region and not only on the surface of mesoporous layer. To verify this distinction, this
experimental result is also compared with transfer matrix model.

[1] J Homola, (2006), “Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Sensor”. Springer Series on Sensor and
Biosensor n. 04. Heidelberg GmbH and Co. K, Springer-Verlag Berlin.
[2] Sooyoung, Taerin Chung, and Byoungho Lee, “Overview of the Characteristics of Micro-and-nano-
Structured Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors”, Sensors 2011, 11(2), 1565-1588.

Page | 52
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Measuring Antimicrobial Effectiveness using Non Metric Camera
Asaduddin As Zanky1,a, Adhi Harmoko Saputro1,b, Windri Handayani2,c,
Iman Santoso2,d and Cuk Imawan1,e
Departement of Physics, University of Indonesia, Indonesia
Departement of Biology, University of Indonesia, Indonesia
a, (corresponding author),,

Keywords: Antimicrobial, camera calibration, inhibition zones, measurement system, non-metric camera

ABSTRACT. Currently, an antimicrobial effectiveness that indicated by the diameter of the inhibition zones
of antimicrobial was measured using manual tools such as rulers or calipers. In this paper, a camera based
system for virtual measurement of the diameter of the inhibition zones is introduced using non-metric camera.
The hardware of the system consists of a set of measuring instruments, light source and camera that
connected to PC directly. The software consists of image processing techniques performing camera
calibration, spatial calibration, virtual ruler interface and transforming pixel value to a meter value. A
standard checkerboard with certain dimension and shape was used as calibrator object to generate camera
and spatial calibration parameter. The measurement system was evaluated using a set of standard
checkerboard object at various camera object distances, camera angles and object orientation. The results of
measurement error between actual and computed object dimension at various camera distance are shown in
the figure 1. The average measurement error between actual and computed inhibition diameter obtained from
antimicrobial object are 0.932%, 0.847% and 1.136% at camera object distance 15 cm, 20 cm and 25 cm,
respectively. Finally, the proposed measurement system is very promising and could be used as an
instrument for antimicrobial effectiveness evaluation.

Figure 1. Measurement error between actual and computed object dimension at various camera

[1] M. Ahmed and A. Farag, “Nonmetric calibration of camera lens distortion: Differential methods and
robust estimation,” IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1215–1230, 2005.
[2] J. Xu and B. M. W. Tsui, “An analytical geometric calibration method for circular cone-beam
geometry,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1731–1744, 2013.
[3] W. Song, Z. Miao, and H. Wu, “Automatic Calibration Method Based on Improved Camera Calibration
Template,” in Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (ICWMMN 2013), 5th IET International
Conference on, 2013, pp. 301–305.
[4] L. Song, W. Wu, J. Guo, and X. Li, “Survey on Camera Calibration Technique”, 2013 5th Int. Conf.
Intell. Human-Machine Syst. Cybern., pp. 389–392, 2013.

Page | 53
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Estimating Moving Object Speed Based on Video Processing Using
Horn-Schunck Method on Optical Flow
B. Heru Iswanto 1, a, N. Angelita 1,b and M. Delina1,c
Study Program of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, State University of Jakarta
Jl. Rawamangun Muka, East Jakarta 13220 Indonesia

Keywords: Horn-Schunck, moving object speed, Optical Flow

ABSTRACT. Beside Frame Difference, the common method to measure a moving object speed in
computation is Optical Flow. This optical flow is divided into two methods; Lucas-Kanade and Horn-
Schunck. The Lucas-Kanade method had been used before to study an automatic speed measurement. While
in this research, we studied the Horn-Schunck method to obtain the approximation of a moving object speed
which was monitored by a video surveillance system. In this research, we only needed a video camera and an
algorithm based on Horn-Schunck method to estimate the moving object speed. Here the video recorded a
moving motorcycle with various speed of 20 km/h, 40 km/h and 60 km/h, each speed was repeated five times.
The results from the computation were then compared with the actual speed of the motorcycle. The
comparison showed that the average accuracy was 85.2%, the highest accuracy was 94.1% at the speed of 60
km/h and the lowest accuracy was 79.8% at the speed of 40 km/h. From these results we concluded that the
Optical Flow Horn-Schunck method can be applied to estimate a moving object speed automatically with

Figure 1. Score plot of computational speed compared to actual speed

[1] Panjaitan, B.BW. 2010. Implementing Speed Measurement of a Vehicle Using Optical Flow Method
Based on Video Processing. Undergraduate Thesis, Telkom University, Indonesia.
[2] D. Trambadia, C. Varnagar, and P. Kathiriya, “Moving Object Detection and Tracking Using Hybrid
Approach in Real Time to Improve Accuracy” in International Journal of Innovative Reseaech in
Computer and Communication Engineering Vol.3, Issue 4, 2015, pp. 3578-3584.
[3] B.K.P. Horn and BG. Schunck, Determining Optical Flow. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of
Technology, 1980, pp. 185-203.
[4] J.L. Baron, D.J. Fleet, and S.S. Beauchemin, “Performance of Optical Flow Techniques” in
International Journal of Computer Vision 12:1, 1994, pp. 43-77.

Page | 54
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

HAAR-like feature based real-time neuro car detection system
Agus Naba1,a, Boby M Pratama1, Ahmad Nadhir1 and Heru Harsono2
Study Program of Instrumentation, Fac. of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of
Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia
Study Program of Physics, Fac. of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Brawijaya,
Malang, Indonesia

Keywords: HAAR-like feature, neural network, real-time car detection system

ABSTRACT. A real-time neuro car detection system based on Haar-like feature is presented in this paper.
The proposed system relies on an artificial neural network (ANN) to recognize the car object. ANN was
trained using the Haar-like features extracted from negative and positive car image data. The car objects vary
with their sizes and trademarks. However, they have common features which can be assumed unique for the
car. In this paper, the common features of the various car objects were transformed into the Haar-like
features and then used to train ANN. The system was implemented on the embedded PC Raspberry Pi 3
using the camera SJCAM SJ4000. The research results show that the detection accuracy was influenced by
many factors. The developed system resulted in the accuracy coefficient of up to 95% and the detection
speed of about 700ms per frame.


positive false-positive
object object

Figure 1 Classification of objects Table 2 System Performance

[1] G. Yan, M. Yu, Y. Yu, and L. Fan, “Real-time vehicle detection using histograms of oriented gradients
and AdaBoost classification,” Opt. - Int. J. Light Electron Opt., vol. 127, no. 19, pp. 7941–7951, Oct.
[2] W.-C. Hu, C.-H. Chen, T.-Y. Chen, D.-Y. Huang, and Z.-C. Wu, “Moving object detection and tracking
from video captured by moving camera,” J. Vis. Commun. Image Represent., vol. 30, pp. 164–180, Jul.
[3] N. A. Mandellos, I. Keramitsoglou, and C. T. Kiranoudis, “A background subtraction algorithm for
detecting and tracking vehicles,” Expert Syst. Appl., vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 1619–1631, Mar. 2011.
[4] P. Viola and M. Jones, “Rapid object detection using a boosted cascade of simple features,” in
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2001. CVPR 2001. Proceedings of the 2001 IEEE Computer
Society Conference on, 2001, vol. 1, p. I–511.
[5] S.-K. Pavani, D. Delgado, and A. F. Frangi, “Haar-like features with optimally weighted rectangles for
rapid object detection,” Pattern Recognit., vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 160–172, Jan. 2010.
[6] D. E. Boubiche, F. Hidoussi, H. T. Cruz, A. Mohamed, A. Issam, B. Mohamed, and B. Abdellatif,
“Real-time Detection of Vehicles Using the Haar-like Features and Artificial Neuron Networks,” in
Procedia Computer Science, 2015, vol. 73, pp. 24–31.

Page | 55
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Refractive Index Measurement of Tellurite Glasses by
Using Brewster Angle Method
Mukhayyarotin Niswati Rodliyatul Jauhariyah1,2,a, Woro Seyarsih1,b,
Meta Yantidewi1,c, Ahmad Marzuki3,d, and Cari3,e
Physics Department, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Surabaya, Indonesia
Physics Course, Postgraduate Program Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta, Indonesia.
Physics Department, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta, Indonesia.

Keywords: Brewster angle, refractive index, tellurite glasses.

ABSTRACT. Refractive index is one of the optical properties of glass. There are many kind of measurement
method to determine the refractive index of glass. Tellurite glass have high refractive index than the other
glass, so we can’t use refractometer Abbe to measure the refractive index of tellurite glasses. We propose a
simple and accurate experimental method for finding the refractive index of tellurite glass material using the
polarization of light reflected by a dielectric surface near the Brewster angle. The refractive index
measurement with spectrometer by using Brewster angle method had a good precision cause the accuracy in
the spectrometer measurement scale. For tellurite glasses with the composition of [55 TeO 2-2Bi2O3-35ZnO-
5PbO-(3-x)Na2O-xEr2O3] with x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 % mol, the refractive index of tellurite glasses at
wavelength (642.5293+0.3112) nm are 1.8546 for the first sample, 1.8676 for the sample 2, 1.9074 for
sample 3, 2.0057 for sample 4, 2.0503 for sample 5, 1.8265 for sample 6, and 1.6753 for the last sample. The
refractive index of tellurite glasses is also calculated from Lorentz-Lorenz equation.

Page | 56
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

System Identification based on NARX Neural Networks for Hydrogen
Temperature and Flow Rate in Sintering Furnace
Dede Sutarya1, a, Adhi Mahendra2 and Benyamin Kusumoputro3
Center for Nuclear Fuel Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Tangerang, Indonesia
Department of Electrical Engineering, Pancasila University, Jagakarsa, Indonesia
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia
a (corresponding author)

Keywords: Neural networks, NARX, system identification, sintering furnace.

ABSTRACT. System identification is becoming an important tool which can be used to improve control
performance and achieve robust fault-tolerant behaviour. Among the different nonlinear system
identification techniques, methods based on neural network model are gradually becoming established not
only in the academia, but also in industrial application. Hydrogen is used as an atmospheric gas for the
sintering process uranium dioxide pellets in nuclear fuel fabrication. Controlling temperature and flow rate of
hydrogen is very important associated with the process safety due to the use of highly flammable gases such
as hydrogen. An identification scheme of nonlinear systems for hydrogen temperature and flow rate in in
sintering furnace using neural network autoregressive with exogenous inputs (NNARX) model investigated
in this paper. The main contribution of this paper is to identify the appropriate model and structure to be
applied in control of hydrogen temperature and flow rate at the sintering process. Satisfactory agreement
between identified and experimental data is found with root mean square error 0.1341 and R-squared 0.7192
for hydrogen temperature and root mean square error 0.3322 and R-squared 0.7123 for hydrogen flow rate.
That result shows the model successfully predict the evolution of the hydrogen temperature and flow rate in
the sintering furnace.

(a) (b)
Figure 1. Performance of NARX neural networks model structure.
(a) Hydrogen temperature and (b) Hydrogen flow rate.

[1] Totok R. Biyanto, M. Ramasamy, H. Zabiri, “Modeling heat exchanger using neural networks,” IEEE
International conference on intelligence and advance systems, pp. 120-124, 2007.
[2] Y. W. Lee, Tien Li Chang, “Application of NARX neural networks in thermal dynamic identification of
a pulsating heat pipe,” Elsevier Energy conversion and management, Vol. 50, pp. 1069-1078, 2009.
[3] M. Rajalakshmi, G. Saravanakumar, C. Karthik, “Nonlinear identification of pH processes by using
NNARX model,” Coimbatore Institute of Information Technology-International conference on
computing and control engineering (ICCCE), 2012.
[4] Vesna M. Rankovic, Ilija Z. Nikolic,” Identification of nonlinear models with feedforward neural
networks and digital recurrent network,” FME Transactions, Vol. 36, pp. 87-92, 2008.
[5] Alexander Hosovsky, Jozef Mizak, “Dynamic modeling of biomass fired boiler emissions,” Journal of
applied science in the thermodynamics and fluid mechanics, Vol. 4(1), pp.1-6, 2010.

Page | 57
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Automatic Tilting Correction System for Inhibition Zones Dimension
Measurement using Low Cost Camera
Giri Yudho Prakoso1,a, Adhi Harmoko Saputro1,b, Windri Handayani2,c, Iman
Santoso2,d and Cuk Imawan1,e
Departement of Physics, University of Indonesia, Indonesia
Departement of Biology, University of Indonesia, Indonesia
a, (corresponding author),,

Keywords: Antimicrobial, inhibition zones, measurement system, tilting camera,

ABSTRACT. Currently, manual tools such as rulers or calipers have been used to measure the diameter of
the inhibition zone of an antimicrobial. The inhibition zone is the primer indicator of an antimicrobial
effectiveness. The current camera technology supports for a virtual instrumentation application in measuring
the dimension of an object. The presence of another supporting device such as light sources, causing the
camera is not upright position to the measured object. In this study, an automatic tilting correction system is
introduced using low cost camera to measure the dimension of the inhibition zones in the flexible tilting
angle. The hardware of the system consists of a set of the tilt measuring instruments, a source light and a
camera that connected to PC. The software consists of image processing techniques performing camera
calibration, spatial calibration, geometrical transformations and transforming pixel value to a meter value.
The results of measurement error between actual and computed object dimension at various tilting angle of
camera are shown in the figure 1. The experiments have been conducted using standard checkerboard
calibrator objects and inhibition zone objects at various orientations and the angle of rotation of the object.
Tilt correction system improves the measurement system performance with a reduction in estimated errors
up to 39,6%. The maximum angle with a tolerance level that is acceptable is 40°. Generally, the system has
been successfully implemented and could be used as an instrument for antimicrobial effectiveness evaluation
in flexible tilting position.

Figure 1. Measurement error between actual and computed object dimension at

various tilting angle of camera

[1] Z. Wu and R. J. Radke, “Keeping a pan-tilt-zoom camera calibrated,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach.
Intell., vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 1994–2007, 2013.
[2] J. Xu and B. M. W. Tsui, “An analytical geometric calibration method for circular cone-beam
geometry,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1731–1744, 2013.
[3] [1] S. N. Sinha and M. Pollefeys, “Pan-tilt-zoom camera calibration and high-resolution mosaic
generation,” Comput. Vis. Image Underst., vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 170–183, 2006.
[4] R. Galego, A. Bernardino, and J. Gaspar, “Auto-calibration of pan-tilt cameras including radial
distortion and zoom,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. (including Subser. Lect. Notes Artif. Intell. Lect. Notes
Bioinformatics), vol. 7431 LNCS, no. PART 1, pp. 169–178, 2012.
Page | 58
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

ADC Resolution Enhancement
Using Oversampling and Dithering Method
Kuwat Triyana1,2,a, Experian Elitiawan1, and Khairurrijal3
Department of Physics, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
Interdiciplinary Halal Research Group, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung, Indonesia

Keyword: accuracy, dithering, data acquisition, oversampling

ABSTRACT. Accuracy and resolution in a data acquisition are very important parameters of measurements.
In many cases, an analog signal needs to be converted into digital numbers. Unfortunately, the number of
bits of the representation number limit the accuracy of the representation. The number means more accuracy,
but the cost to do so is expensive. In this study, we developed a data acquisition module for an oversampling
and dithering method to increase the accuracy of the digital representation without the need of additional
hardware cost. Here, we used 10-bit ADC in Atmega8 with an LM35 thermal sensor as the input. These
components assembled together to form a data acquisition module with USB connection to a personal
computer. The dithered signal generator in this module generates a triangle wave to emulate Gaussian data
distribution that happens when white noise is present in the input signal, this distribution is required by the
oversampling process. The module can save result data into a file that can be used for further analysis. The
result shows that dithering is required to do oversampling on a 10-bit ADC, with the frequency required to
lie between oversampling result frequency and ADC sampling frequency. The increase in accuracy as big as
62.9 times of the original one was achieved for additional 6 digital bit with 4096 times of data sampling
which required 0.8 seconds (1.2Hz) to finish.

Page | 59
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Detection of Salt Content in Soil by Employing the Unique Subtarget
Effect in Transversely Excited at Atmospheric (TEA)
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Laser
Nasrullah Idris1, a, Muliadi Ramli2 and Kazuyoshi Kurihara3
Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University,
Jl. Syech Abdurrauf No. 3 Darussalam, 23111 Banda Aceh, Aceh, Indonesia
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University,
Jl. Syech Abdurrauf No. 3 Darussalam, 23111 Banda Aceh, Aceh, Indonesia
Department of Physics, Faculty of Education and Regional Studies, University of Fukui 3-9-1,
Bunkyo, Fukui 910-8507, Japan
a (corresponding author)

Keywords: laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), salt, soil, subtarget effect, TEA CO 2 laser.

ABSTRACT. An experimental study of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy using a TEA CO 2 laser for
detection of salt in soil sample has been carried out. The soil sample was mixed with grease to allow
attachment on surface of a nickel plate acting as subtarget. LIBS equipment used in this work consist of a
TEA CO2 laser operated at wavelength of 10.6 μm with pulse energy and pulse duration of 3J and 200 ns,
respectively. The laser beam was focused onto the soil sample attached on the nickel plate using a Zinc
Selenium (ZnSe) lens (f = 200 mm) through a ZnSe window. The emission spectrum from the generated
plasma was detected using an optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) system consisting of a 0.32-m-focal
length spectrograph with a grating of 1200 grooves/mm and a 1024-channel photodiode detector array
equipped with a micro-channel plate intensifier. At this stage, the soil sample used this work is standard soil
produced by Japan Powder Standard Testing with given salt concentration. The soil samples were also mixed
with salt to have different kind of salt in soil. The experimental data acquisition was made under different
kinds of surrounding gas at a pressure of 1 atm. As the result, as displayed in Figure 1, emission lines from
salt, namely Ca II 393.36 nm, Ca II 396.84 nm, and Ca I 422.67 nm can clearly be seen. It was found that
other salts such Na, Mg, and K also can be detected. This result implies that TEA CO 2 LIBS with metal
subtarget can be used for detection salts, namely Ca, Mg, Na, and K in soil.

Figure 1. Emission spectrum detected from plasma produced on the standard soil sample after focused
TEA CO2 laser irradiation under He surrounding gas at 1 atmospheric pressure

Page | 60
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Design Instrumentation Amplifier (IA) as PreAmp on ECG with 0,35µm
CMOS Technology
Yulisdin Mukhlis1,a, Dyah Nur'ainingsih1,b and Veronica3,c
Gunadarma University, Jl. Margonda Raya no 100 Depok, Indonesia

Keywords: gain, Op-Amp, PreAmp, ECG

ABSTRACT. The heartbeat has a frequency from 0.1 Hz to 150 Hz. The electrical signal which is resulted
from the heartbeat has amplitude of 100μV - 100 mV. In order that the amplitude can be sampled by the
ADC, it must be amplified 100 times, thus amplitude amplifier about 60dB it is required. In this research, the
researcher designs a System on Chip ECG based on Einthoven method which has 3 Leads, so amplitude can
be amplified based on the different voltage of each Lead. Differential amplifier is an initial amplifier that
will amplify the difference of two inputs of voltage. Differential amplifier is designed using 3 operational
amplifiers (op-amp). Op-Amp A1 and Op-Amp A2 are used for detecting and sampling the difference of two
input levels. The function of Op-Amp A3 is to amplify the difference results of the sampled input level. Op-
Amp A1, Op-Amp A2 and Op-Amp A3 are designed with offset voltage of Vos ≈ 0V, Open Loop Gain ≈ 54
dB, Phase Margin ≈ 600 and Unity Gain Bandwidth ≈ 154.8 MHz. Method of the research is design and
simulation using 0.35 micro Mentor Graphics technology. Result of the research is a layout of PreAmp for
System on Chip ECG with gain of 62.4 dB and 0.034 mm2 area.

Figure 1. Block diagram of research

[1] J. Kolczyński, “Design of Operational Amplifier with Low Power Consumption in 0,35µmTechnology”
14th International Conference Mixdes 2007 Ciechocinek, Poland, 21-23 June 2007.
[2] T. Raj Kumar, M. Ganga Ram and M. Maheshwar, “A New High Performance CMOS Differential
Amplifier”, International Journal of Electronic Engineering Research, Vol 1 No 2 pp. 147-154, 2009.
[3] R. Jacob Baker, “CMOS Circuit Design, Layout and Simulation” 3rd Edition IEEE Press, Wiley
pub1998, New Jersey, pp. 711-738.
[4] K. A. Ng and P. K. Chan, “A CMOS Analog Front End IC for portable ECG/EEG monitoring
Application”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and System, 52(11):2335-2347.
[5] Alex Wong and Choy, “An ECG Measurement IC Using Driven Right Leg Circuit”, IEEE International
Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 2006, pp 345-348.

Page | 61
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Automated Segmentation of Hard Exudates Based on Matched Filtering
Hanung Adi Nugroho1,a, Widhia Oktoeberza KZ1,b, Igi Ardiyanto1,c, Ratna
Lestari Budiani Buana1,d, Muhammad Bayu Sasongko2,e
Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Faculty of Engineering
Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine
Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
a, *,,

Keywords: colour fundus image, hard exudates, matched filter, morphological operation, optic disc

ABSTRACT. In 2015, according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), around 415 million of
people worldwide lived with diabetes and it was predicted to be increased by 642 million of people in 2040.
One of the diabetes complications that affect the retina known as diabetic retinopathy (DR). It indicates by
the presence of hard exudates as the main pathology of DR. In retinal fundus image, hard exudates show as
bright lesion which have some similar characteristics with the optic disc. This paper introduces the
development method to detect hard exudates automatically. At first, the green channel is extracted from the
retinal colour fundus image. Furthermore, it is processed by applying the complement operation to increase
the contrast between exudates area and others. The complemented image is filtered by using matched filter.
Optic disc is detected based on initial optic disc enlargement in L band of HSL colour space. Afterwards,
optic disc is removed from filtered image to obtain the exudates candidate area followed by the
morphological operation. The proposed method is validated by using 60 colour fundus images from
DIARETDB1 dataset. The final results of segmented exudates are verified by comparing with their ground
truth images. The average level of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity achieved are 99.99%, 90.38% and
99.99%, respectively. These results indicate that the proposed method successfully detected the hard
exudates and it is recommended to be implemented as a part of DR grading system development.

Figure 1. Validated exudates

(blue area is segmented hard exudates; yellow area is ground truth)

[1] International Diabetes Federation. The IDF diabetes atlas. 7th ed. International Diabetes Federation,
Brussels, 2015.
[2] T. Kauppi, V. Kalesnykiene, J.-K. Kamarainen, L. Lensu, I. Sorri, A. Raninen, R. Voutilainen, J. Pietilä,
H. Kälviäinen, and H. Uusitalo, "DIARETDB1 - Standard Diabetic Retinopathy Database Calibration
[3] M. R. K. Mookiah, U. R. Acharya, C. K. Chua, C. M. Lim, E. Y. K. Ng, and A. Laude, "Computer-
aided diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy: A review," Computers in Biology and Medicine, vol. 43, pp.
2136-2155, 2013.
[4] H. A. Nugroho, KZW. Oktoeberza, T. B. Adji and M. B. Sasongko. "Segmentation of exudates based
on high pass filtering in retinal fundus images." 2015 7th International Conference on Information
Technology and Electrical Engineering (ICITEE). IEEE, 2015.
[5] N. G. Ranamuka and R. G. N. Meegama, "Detection of hard exudates from diabetic retinopathy images
using fuzzy logic," Image Processing, IET, vol. 7, pp. 121-130, 2013.

Page | 62
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Identification of Multi Variants Tuberculosis Sputum Images
Using Self Organizing Map
Riries Rulaningtyas1,a, Endah Purwanti1
Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology
Airlangga University, Indonesia

Keywords: affine moment invariants, color, shape, self-organizing map, sputum smear, Ziehl-Neelsen

ABSTRACT. Lung tuberculosis detection is still identified from Ziehl-Neelsen sputum smear images in low
and middle countries. The clinicians decide the grade of this disease by counting manually the amount of
tuberculosis bacilli. It is very tedious for clinicians with a lot of patient number and there is no
standardization for sputum staining. The tuberculosis sputum images have multi variant characterizations in
sputum color and the shape of tuberculosis bacilli. This research tried to find the best solution to develop the
detection system automatically to identify the tuberculosis bacilli using intelligent systems. With the affine
moment invariants and self-organizing map methods, could solve the invariant problem for the tuberculosis
sputum images with the accurate detection result and short time for examining because based on
unsupervised learning and could map the points which are near each other in the input data.

Page | 63
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

A New Approach for Detection of Retinal Hemorrhages in Color Fundus
Hanung Adi Nugroho1,a, Latifah Listyalina1,b and Dhimas Arief Dharmawan1,c
Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
a, (corresponding author),

Keywords: Color fundus image, diabetic retinopathy, hemorrhages

ABSTRACT. We propose a new approach for retinal hemorrhages detection in retinal image. Our approach
is divided into three steps. Preprocessing step which consists of green and V band extraction, histogram
matching, contrast enhancement and morphological opening operation is needed to improve the image
quality. In the most important step, retinal hemorrhage which is a benchmark of diabetic retinopathy [1] is
extracted from color retinal images using two-dimensional matched filter. Finally, post processing step is
performed to reduce the false positive of detected hemorrhages. Our approach is validated on 89 public
retinal images from DIARETDB1 database. Three validation parameters, namely sensitivity, specificity and
accuracy are calculated by comparing our result to its corresponding hand labelled hemorrhages image. The
obtained average sensitivity, specificity and accuracy are 0.91, 0.98 and 0.98, respectively. This achievement
is much better than that of other published methods [2-4] (See Table 1).

Figure 1. Example of retinal hemorrhages detection result

Table I. Performance of Our Approach Compared to Other Methods

Performance Measurement
Sensitivity Specificity Accuracy
Shivaram et al. [2] 0.89 0.99 Not Reported
Sinthanayothin et al. [3] 0.78 0.89 Not Reported
Marwan and Eswaran [4] 0.88 0.95 Not Reported
Proposed approach 0.91 0.98 0.98

[1] L. Tang, M. Niemeijer, J. Reinhardt, M. Garvin and M. Abramoff, "Splat Feature Classification with
Application to Retinal Hemorrhage Detection in Fundus Images", IEEE Transactions on Medical
Imaging, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 364-375, 2013.
[2] Shivaram JM, Patil R, Aravind HS, “Automated detection and quantification of hemorrhages in diabetic
retinopathy images using image arithmetic and mathematical morphology methods,” Int. J. Recent
Trends Eng., vol. 2(6), pp. 174-176, November 2009
[3] Sinthanayothin C, Boyce JF, Williamson TH, Cook HL, Mensah E, Lal S et al., “Automated detection
of diabetic retinopathy on digital fundus images,” Diabet. Med., vol. 19(2), pp. 105-112, February 2002.
[4] Marwan DS, Eswaran C, “An automated decision-support system for non-proliferative diabetic
retinopathy disease based on MAs and Has detection,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.,
electronically published, April 2012.
Page | 64
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Thermal Resistance Measurements of Building Envelope Components
of Minang Traditional House using the Heat Flow Method
Wahyu Sujatmiko1, a, and Fefen Suhedi1,b
Research Institute for Human Settlements Ministry of Public Works-Indonesia

Keywords: building envelope, conditioned chamber, heat flow methods, thermal resistance, traditional.

ABSTRACT. Thermal properties data of building envelope is a fundamental key in building energy design
or in evaluating energy performance of an existing building. Measurements on field conditions (in situ) are
often constrained by the low temperature difference between indoor and outdoor building, thus requiring a
longer measurement time. This paper attempts to overcome these obstacles by measuring the conditioned
chamber. Material being measured is a replica of a traditional house building envelope components.
Measurements and calculations using the summation method (summation technique) in accordance with
ASTM C1155. The problem is the condition of the wall material as objects of measurement, which is made
from fibers, wood is not homogeneous, making porous walls that interfere with the sensor readings. In this
research effort to overcome these obstacles with the addition of a layer of aluminum foil. The results showed
that the condition of the test specimen is not homogeneous, especially specimens 2 (wall board + woven
bamboo) and specimen 3 (on the order of bamboo fibers) cause the sensor measurement results differ
significantly. Due to irregularities in the thickness and construction of the test specimen, no thick section
there are parts that are thin, heat flow at each position sensor will also differ significantly. The results of
thermal resistance in the average temperature of 25oC Wall boards (thick 0.015 m) is 0.13 m2.K/W, wall
board + woven bamboo slats is 0.38 m2.K/W, and 5 cm roof roofed with bamboo frame is 1, 32 m 2.K /W.

Figure 1. Convergence factor of specimen 1

[1] W. Sujatmiko, Hermawan K. Dipojono, F.X. Nugroho Soelami, and Soegijanto, “In-situ measurement
of thermal resistance of building envelope at the residential occupancy in Indonesia,” Applied
Mechanics and Materials, vol. 771, 2015, pp. 191-194.
[2] ASTM C1155-1995 Standard practise for determining thermal resistance of building envelope
from the in-situ data
[3] F. Suhedi, “Measurement of thermal resistance of building materials by the method of heat flow in the
conditioned chamber,” Jurnal Permukiman vol. 9 no. 3, November 2014.

Page | 65
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Comparison between the Results of Thermal Comfort Measurement
and Simulation Results in a Residential Unit in Bandung
Wahyu Sujatmiko1,2 a, Hermawan K. Dipojono2 b,
FXN. Soelami2 c, and Soegijanto1,d
Research Institute for Human Settlements Ministry of Public Works-Indonesia
Engineering Physics, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia

Keywords: building modeling, building simulation, field thermal comfort measurement.

ABSTRACT. Field measurements of thermal conditions of occupancy is required to obtain real data from
real conditions. It is necessary to overcome a number of constraints on the modeling and simulation of the
thermal conditions of the building room. Limitations of simulation include: simplification of the geometry of
the building, the use of the assumption of the thermal resistance of the wall material of the building, and
climate data input is limited. In this paper will be presented the comparison between the results of field
measurements with the simulation results of four kinds of modes. Modes of simulations were conducted: a.
Mode 1. The condition models are naturally ventilated buildings, and walls using a thermal resistance value
of the wall material according to the requirements ASHRAE 189.1, b. Mode 2. The Model in conditions
there is no natural ventilation and thermal resistance values of the wall material in accordance ASHRAE
189.1, c. 3. There is natural ventilation mode, the value of the thermal resistance of the wall material
according to the results of field measurements, and d. Mode 4. There is no natural ventilation and thermal
resistance values of the wall material is according to the results of field measurements. Bandung simulations
using climate data obtained from weather analytic and designed output per hour. The software used is
EnergyPlus-OpenStudio with depictions of objects that are modeled using Google SketchUp.The magnitude
of the measured include air temperature (oC), relative humidity (%) and wind speed (m / s). The comparison
between measurements and simulations presented in the table in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Table of measurements and simulation results data

[1] W. Sujatmiko, Hermawan K. Dipojono, F.X. Nugroho Soelami, and Soegijanto, “Natural ventilation
and temperature conditions in some high-rise building flats in Bandung and Jakarta in perspective of
adaptive thermal comfort,” Journal online Procedia Environmental Sciences 28 (2015), pp 360-369.
[2] W. Sujatmiko, Hermawan K. Dipojono, F.X. Nugroho Soelami, and Soegijanto, “In-situ measurement
of thermal resistance of building envelope at the residential occupancy in Indonesia,” Applied
Mechanics and Materials, vol. 771, 2015, pp. 191-194.
[3] ASHRAE 189.1 “High performance building standard “, 2009 Edition.

Page | 66
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

The Utilization of the Displacement Sensor System
to Estimate Cavities in Dentures Based On Optical Imaging
R. Apsari1,a, K. Ningsih1, M. Yasin1
Physics Departement, Universitas Airlangga, 60115, Surabaya - Indonesia

Keywords: artificial teeth materials, fiber bundle16 receivers, image processing, micro displacement sensor
system, optical imaging.

ABSTRACT. The purpose of this research is to apply the potential of intensity modulation based on micro
displacement sensor for imaging cavities in denture material. This research discusses the results of cavity
imaging on various types of denture materials, as well as the measurement of the diameter of the cavities.
The samples used in this study were Acrylic Denture, Nano Hybrid Composite, Varplast, Nano Filler, with a
cavity diameter of 5mm per sample. Based on the analysis, the measurement of cavity diameter using the
analog method resulted in 5.00 mm for Acrylic Denture, Nano Hybrid Composite, Varplast samples, and
5.50 mm for Nano Filler, with 97.65% of maximum accuracy. The feasibility of micro-displacement sensor
system with fiber bundle16 receivers using optical imaging technique with a displacement order of 500 μm
was able to measure the width of the sample cavity in denture materials with approximately 89% - 99.48% of
measurement accuracy. High stability, simplicity of design, and low cost of fabrication make the micro
displacement sensor system feasible to be applied in dentistry, especially for measuring and imaging cavities
on denture materials.

Figure 1. Experimental research Set-up Figure 2. Output voltage to displacement

[1] Tinanoff N. 2002. caries Management in Children: Decision-Making and Therapies. Compendium; 23
(12): 9-13.
[2] Indrawati, L. Hima, Laura, S., 2008. Denture Precision Attachment as One Case of Bilateral Free
Alternative Care Top End Jaw; Journal of Dentistry. University of Indonesia, Vol. 23, No. 2.
[3] Philips, B., 2003, Textbook of Dental Materials Science 10thed. Jakarta. EGC: 103-8
[4] Rahman, Husna Abdul Rahim, HRA, Wadi Aaron Solomon, Yasin, M., R. Apsari, A and Harith Ahmad.
2012. (b) Detection of Stain Formation of teeth by Oral Antiseptic Solution Using Fiber Optic Laser
Displacement Sensor Journal of Physic; Vol.20, No.4.
[5] Sukmaningrum, Retno. 2011. Analysis of Power Efficiency Power Transmission Through Optical Fiber
Optic bundle. EEPIS.PolikteknikElktronika State. Surabaya.
[6] Aaron S. W., Yasin. M., HZ, Yang, Kusminarto, Karyono, Harith Ahmad.2009, Estimation of Metal
Surface Roughness Using Fiber Optic Displacement Sensor; Journal of Laser Physics.Vol. 20. No. 4
[7] Rahman, Husna Abdul Rahim, HRA, Wadi Aaron Solomon, Yasin, M., R. Apsari, Harith Ahmad. 2012.
(b) Detection of Stain Formation of teeth by Oral Antiseptic Solution Using Fiber Optic Laser
Displacement Sensor Journal of Physic; Vol.20, No.4.
[8] Yasin. M., Solomon W. Aaron, Kusminarto, Karyono, AH Zaidan, Kavintheran T., Harith Ahmad.
2009, Design and Operation of a concentric- Fiber Displacement Sensor; Vol. 28. No. 4

Page | 67
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

The Early Identification System Air Pollution-Based on Correlation of
Video Sender and GPS Position of UAV VTOL (Vertical Take-Off and
Landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle)
S. R. Sulistiyanti1,a, M. Komarudin1,b, FX. A. Setyawan1,c and C. D. Jaya1,d
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Lampung University, Indonesia

Keywords: air pollution, GPS, Image Processing, UAV, Video Sender.

ABSTRACT. We report our research about identification air pollution based on correlation of video sender
and GPS coordinate. Globalization and improving the quality of human life that drives the advancement of
technology, especially in the field of machinery, the more the more people who use motorcycles,
automobiles, and industrial machines which can trigger an increase in air pollution. Research on "Image
Segmentation for Infrared Image of Environmental Condition base on Wavelet Transform" has a great
influence in the background for this study. This study uses an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) quad-copter
that carry a payload such as a camera that will transmit data in the form of moving pictures via video sender.
Then the images are captured and processed through the GCS (Ground Control Station). Captured from the
camera will also be integrated with GPS coordinate data from the UAV while doing Loiter Time. The testing
of this study consisted of system connection test software video sender with GCS (Ground Control Station),
test distance shipping 5.8 GHz video sender, GPS accuracy test, test the image capture with the camera
angles 1800 and 300, as well as catching up on pollutant test motor vehicle. The results of these tests are
sending video sender distance of not more than 430 m, the GPS accuracy ± 2m, and the average matrix
capture and image processing will be in accordance with the intensity of the pollutants obtained.
Intensity Average Value

Machine off Machine on

Segmentation Value
Figure 1. The comparison of Image Intensity of Air Pollutant Test 1

[1] S.R. Sulistiyanti, M. Komarudin, L. Hakim, A. Yudamson, “Study of Environmental Condition Using
Wavelet Decomposition Based on Infrared Image”, Proc. ICITACEE 2014, Semarang, Indonesia, pp.
170—174, 8—9 November 2014.
[2] S.R/ Sulistiyanti, M. Komarudin, L. Hakim, “Image Segmentation for Infrared Image of Environmental
Condition base on Wavelet Transform”, Proc. 2nd ICITACEE 2015, Semarang, Indonesia, pp. 220—
224, 16—18 Oktober 2015.

Page | 68
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Measurements of PM2.5 Motor Emission Concentrations and the Lung
Damages from the Exposure Mice
Arinto Y. P. Wardoyo1,a, Unggul P.Juswono1,b and Johan A.E. Noor1,c
Physics Department, Brawijaya University, Malang-Indonesia

Keywords: lung damages, measurements, motor cycles, PM2.5.

ABSTRACT. Motor cycles grows very fast from year to year in the developing countries, especially in
Indonesia. On the other sides, the emissions contribute to high pollutants in the air. In terms of PM 2.5
emissions have been known to have impacts on human health [1]–[4]. However, the data of PM2.5 emitted by
motorcycles are unavailable, and the relationship between PM 2.5 containing in the motor smokes and the
impacts on human health is also unknown. This study was aimed to investigate the impacts of PM 2.5 in the
motor cycle smokes on mice/s lung damages by conducting measurements of varied PM 2.5 concentrations
exposure to mice and observing the mice lung damages. The measurements of PM2.5 concentrations in the
smokes were conducted by introducing motor cycle smokes in a chamber with the dimension of 30x20x20
cm3 with a pump with the varies of time. The PM 2.5 concentrations were measured using a Kanomax 3443
Digital Dust Monitor. Investigation of the impacts PM2.5 on mice lung were carried out by exposuring mice
in the chamber with the varied concentrations of PM 2.5 in the smokes for 100 s twice a day. The
measurements of the mice lung damages were carried out by observing the normal and abnormal alveolus
using a Binocular CX-31 Computer Microscope with 400x magnification after the mice experienced smoke
exposures for two days. The results showed that longer time of introducing smokes in the chamber resulted
in higher concentrations of PM2.5. Higher concentration of PM2.5 in the smoked caused more damages of
mice lung.

[1] D. Q. Rich, W. Zareba, W. Beckett, P. K. Hopke, D. Oakes, M. W. Frampton, J. Bisognano, D. Chalupa,
J. Bausch, K. O. Shea, Y. Wang, and M. J. Utell, “Are Ambient Ultrafine , Accumulation Mode , and
Fine Particles Associated with Adverse Cardiac Responses in Patients Undergoing Cardiac
Rehabilitation ?,” Environ. Health Perspect., vol. 120, no. 8, pp. 1162–1170, 2012.
[2] E. R. Jayaratne, Z. D. Ristovski, N. Meyer, and L. Morawska, “Particle and gaseous emissions from
compressed natural gas and ultralow sulphur diesel-fuelled buses at four steady engine loads.,” Sci.
Total Environ., vol. 407, no. 8, pp. 2845–52, Apr. 2009.
[3] M. Kampa and E. Castanas, “Human health effects of air pollution,” Environ. Pollut., vol. 151, pp.
362–367, 2008.
[4] L. D. Martins, J. A. Martins, E. D. Freitas, C. R. Mazzoli, F. L. T. Gonçalves, R. Y. Ynoue, and R.
Hallak, “Potential health impact of ultrafine particles under clean and polluted urban atmospheric
conditions : a model-based study,” Air Qual Atmos Heal., vol. 3, pp. 29–39, 2010.

Page | 69
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

KOH Wet Etching Technique for Patterned Formation
on Surface of Quartz Crystal with AuPd Mask
Masruroh1,a, Irna Nova Lastria2,b , D.J. Djoko H. Santjojo1,c and S. P. Sakti1,d
Department of Physics, FMIPA, Brawijaya University, Indonesia
Undergradute School Department of Physics, FMIPA, Brawijaya University, Indonesia
a (corresponding author)

Keywords: AuPd Mask, KOH, Quartz crystal, Wet etching.

ABSTRACT. Surface patterning is one importance aspect in the development of QCM sensor. This paper
describes a method by which a KOH (Potassium Hydroxide) etchant is used for the patterned formation on
surface quartz crystal. Etching process is preferable to have a smooth surface roughness. Etchant
concentration affect the exthing rate and surface roughness. In this experiment variation of etching
concentration is done to investigate the etching arte and surface roughness. The etching of quartz crystal was
carried out using KOH concentration of 25 %, 30% and 35 % by weight at temperature of 80C for 2 hours.
The AuPd was used as a mask to protect the rest of the quartz crystal. The AuPd mask was coated on the
quartz crystal by sputter coater high vacuum. The etched surface of the quartz crystal was observed using
white light profilometer TMS 1200. The results show that the best anisotropic pattern formation in 30% wt
KOH solution with smooth etched surface. On the other hand, the results using TMS indicates that the
surface roughness of etched surface tends to increase with the increasing of KOH concentration.


Etched surface Boundary

Figure 1. The etched quartz crystal surface profiling with 30% wt KOH solution using TMS

[1] Abe, T., & Itasaka, Y. (2012). A fabrication method of High-Q quartz crystal resonator using double-
layered etching mask for DRIE. Sensors and Actuators, A: Physical, 188, 503–506.
[2] Li, L., Abe, T., & Esashi, M. (2004). Fabrication of miniaturized bi-convex quartz crystal microbalance
using reactive ion etching and melting photoresist. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 114(2–3), 496–
[3] Seidel, H., Csepregi, L., & Heuberger, A. (1990). Anisotropic Etching of Crystalline Silicon in Alkaline
Solutions. Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 137(11), 3612.

Page | 70
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Flow rate effect of Syringe Pump on Quartz Crystal Microbalance
Sensor Resonance Frequency Stability
Ridha N. Ikhsani1,a and Setyawan P. Sakti1,b
Department of Physics, Brawijaya University

Keywords: Flow rate, Microliter syringe pump, QCM.

ABSTRACT. Many QCM immunosensor system working in liquid phase used flow injection system using
continuous peristaltic pump with electronic control. In the development of QCM sensor as a disposable
system, sample injection using syringe pump will be a candidate option as it can be used manually. In this
work, a flow rate effect of the micro syringe pump on the quartz crystal microbalance resonance frequency
stability was investigate. Flow rate result in a pressure change of the liquid on top of the sensor, therefore it
can affect the resonance frequency of the sensor. In this work a microliter syringe pump with a maximum
volume of 100uL is used. Sensor response is observed in two pump direction, which are injection and
ejection of liquid. At beginning 50uL water was injected on top of the sensor surface. This volume fill the
sensor surface cell as the chamber is 30uL. After it steady frequency in contact with water, the water is
ejected for 20uL and then injected back for 15uL. The sequence was repeated several time by changing
injection and ejection speed. At flow rate of less than 0.17uL/second the frequency change of the sensor
resonance frequency during injection into the chamber change by 1-2 Hz. Whilst at liquid ejection, the
frequency of the sensor is remain. Figure 1 shows the resonance frequency of the sensor during water
injection and ejection.



9978302 Ejection
Frequency (Hz)






0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
Time (s)

Figure 1. Sensor resonance frequency caused by water injection and ejection

[1] N. Amortnthammarong, P.B. Ortner, J.Z. Zhang, A simple, effective mixing chamber used in
conjucvtion with asyrunge pump for flow analysis, Talanta, 81 (2010) 1472-1476.
[2] G. Conklin, S.C. Ngourn, A.E. Gerdon, Quartz crystal microbalance with microfluidic multi-stream
solution control for mineralization kinetic analysis, Sensors and Actuators B 214 (2015) 174–180.

Page | 71
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

High Resolution Multiple Channel Frequency Counter
Using Spartan 3E FPGA
Muhammad A. Syahbana1, a Dionysius J.D.H. Santjojo1,b, and Setyawan P.
Department of Physics, Brawijaya University, Malang, indoensia

Keywords: Frequency Counter, High resolution, Reciprocal

ABSTRACT. Frequency counter resolution, accuracy and precision are importance parameter of the quartz
crystal microbalance signal acquisition. The sensitivity of the quartz crystal microbalance is not only depend
on the resonance frequency of the sensor but also the resolution of the counter. Higher counter resolution
result in higher sensitivity measurement of the sensor output. In this development, a three channel reciprocal
frequency counter was developed using FPGA and implemented using VHDL code. The system was
developed based on the block system as depicted in Figure 1. The precision and resolution of the system
depend on the system clock source. In this development a high precision TCXO oscillator with a resonance
frequency of 100MHz is used as reference oscillator. From this oscillator an one-second time gate and period
measurement is constructed in the FPGA. In each measurement channel, dual digital counter were
implemented. One counter counts the incoming signal in between one second gate, and the other counter
counting the 100MHz signal from the beginning to the end of the counted signal within the one second gate.
The accuracy of the frequency measurement of the counter was calibrated using 10MHz standard rubidium
oscillator. The developed system shows a good performance and able to count incoming signal with an
accuracy of 0.1 Hz for one second acquisition time.

Input signal

Time gate one-second

Digital Counter (N)


t time gate for period

Counter (k)

Figure 1. Frequency Counter block diagram

[1] Khadeer. A, & Mcloed. T, “Khadeer, A., & Mcloed, T. (2015). Frequency Measurement for QCM
Applications” (Icic), 1140–1143 (2015).
[2] V.R. Wijayanto and S.P. Sakti, Appl. Mech. Meter. 771,29 (2015).

Page | 72
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Contact Angle Measurement with Tilt Control System
for Non Flat Wide Surface
Rizal Y. Aji1,a, Masruroh Masruroh2,a and Setyawan P. Sakti3,a
Department of Physics, Brawijaya University

Keywords: Contact Angle Measurement, High resolution, Non flat surface, Wide area.

ABSTRACT. Hydrophobicity is one of importance factor in the surface properties of a QCM biosensor.
Hydrophobicity affects the immobilization of bio-molecule. Thus measuring a hydropobicity is importance
on the sensor development. Direct measurement of hysdropobicity of the sensor surface using contact angle
measurement has a a problem on the alignment of the sensor surface. Sensor with a holder is not always well
aligned. Thise result in a tilted surface orientation which result in difference contact angle value between left
side and right side of the sensor. Manual alignment results in a high discrepancy between the left and right
side of the contact angle of more than one degree or event worse. It is difficult to get a discrepancy for less
than one degree for a non-flat surface. Tilt alignment controlled electronically using motor stepper with
micro-stepping has been developed to reduce the discrepancy of left and right contact angle value. The motor
stepper of the system has a step accuracy which can be set from 2.8O to 90O which then translate into a tilt
position. A contact angle with electronic tile adjustment to align the sensor surface again the camera view
has been developed. Using the developed system, the discrepancy of measured contact angle of a QCM
sensor surface with many difference coating can go close to zero. Figure 1 shows the developed contact
angle measurement system

Figure 1. Contact Angle Measurement System

[1] Eral, H. B., ’t Mannetje, D. J. C. M., & Oh, J. M. (2013). Contact angle hysteresis: a review of
fundamentals and applications. Colloid and Polymer Science, 291(2), 247–260.
[2] Measuring, C. A., & Tensiometer, P. (2007). Contact angle measurement in practice (1) With care to
accuracy: preparations and general conditions for contact angle measurements, 49(1).

Page | 73
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Simple Techniques to Improve Functionality of the Leybold-Heraeus
ESR Becomes an Automatics Spectrometer for Free Radicals
Didik R. Santoso1,a, Chomsin S. Widodo1, Unggul P. Juswono1
Department of Physics, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia

Keywords: Automatic Data Acquisition, Electron Spin resonance, Ramp magnetic Field

ABSTRACT. Leybold-Heraeus Electron spin resonance (LH-ESR) is usually used in advance physics
laboratory to study the magnetic properties of a material. LH-ESR can also be used to detect the presence of
free radicals in the material through a Lande constant (g). The value of "g" is derived from the calculation of
the relationship between the strength of magnetic field (B) and the frequency of the electromagnetic wave (v)
that used in the experiment, i.g. (hv = g μB B), where h is Planck constant and μB is Bohr magneton. However,
the working principle of the instrument was not possible to find a number of free radicals quickly and
precisely. This is because working principle of LH-ESR is still conventional (not automatic), and use the
value of the modulated magnetic field (B) in a limited range. So, to find some kind of free radicals in a
material, required repeated setting of the value of B and v, and must be prepared manually. In this paper we
describe simple techniques to improve functionality of the LH- ESR becomes an automatics spectrometer for
free radicals that can be used to find a number of free radicals quickly and precisely. Illustration of this
technique is given in Figure 1.

Figure 1a. LH-ESR experimen setup and image of resonance curve

Figure 1b. Modified LH-ESR instrumentation and image of resonance curve

Page | 74
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Double Layer Impedance Analysis on the Electrical Impedance
Measurement of Solution Using a Parallel Plate
Chomsin S. Widodo1,a, Didik R. Santoso1
Department of Physics, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia

Keyword: Electrical Impedance Masurement; Double Layer

ABSTRACT. This paper discusses the principles of measuring the electrical impedance of a solution by
using probes of parallel plate. The method used is to inject an AC current in the solution in the frequency
range of 1Hz-1MHz. The value of electrical impedance obtained from the calculation of the measured
voltage divided by the value of the injected current, and then plotted as a function of frequency.
Measurements with this method are strongly influenced by the characteristics of the interface between probes
and solution, which is usually called as the Rundle interface. We calculate and analysis the influence of
Rundle interface in some experiments data. The results showed that the surface area of probe, distance
between probe, and the frequency of the injected current, giving the measured impedance value changes
significantly. Interface impedance between probe and solution also can be calculated. Moreover, this method
also proved to be used to identify the value of concentrations of the sugar solution and the level of dilution of
milk with good accuracy.


Randles Circuit

Figure 1. Rundles Model

Page | 75
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Volt-Ampere Characteristics of a Low Frequency
Nitrogen Plasma in a Medium Vacuum Reactor
D.J.D.H. Santjojo1, a and Setyawan P. Sakti1,b
Department of Physics, University of Brawijaya, Indonesia
a (corresponding author),

Keywords: low frequency plasma, medium vacuum, nitrogen plasma.

ABSTRACT. Nitrogen plasma has been used in many processes related to surface modifications. Stability
of a nitrogen plasma in a closed reactor depends on the reactor pressure. Impedance analysis represented in
volt-ampere characteristics of a low frequency nitrogen plasma in a medium vacuum reactor has been carried
out in this study. The effect of pressure at low frequency of power on the characteristics was modeled using a
simple R and C equivalent circuit. Results of this work indicated that the stability of the nitrogen plasma can
be predicted by the volt-ampere characteristics. Variation of R and C deduced from the impedance analysis
can be used to determine the effect of the pressure at the medium vacuum processes.

(volt (A) (volt) (A)

Time (µs) Time (µs)

Figure 1. Volt-ampere characteristics of 40kHz nitrogen plasma at (a) 400 mTorr, (b) 4,7 Torr

[1] N. Spiliopoulos, D. Mataras, and D. E. Rapakoulias, “Power dissipation and impedance measurements
in radio-frequency discharges,” Am. Vac. Soc., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 2757–2765, 1996.
[2] J. V Scanlan, “Langmuir probe measurements in 13.56MHz dischargers,” Dublin University, 1991.
[3] D. Vender, “Measuring Current, Voltage and Impedance in RF Plasmas,” unpublished, 2001.
[4] M. A. Sobolewski, “Characteristics of Argon Radio Frequency Low Discharges in a symmetric Cell,”
IEEE Trans. PLASMA Sci., vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 1006–1008, 1995.
[5] K. Kohler, J. W. Coburn, D. Horne, E. Kay, and J. H. Keller, “Plasma Potentials of 13.56-MHz RF
Argon Glow Discharges in a Planar System,” Appl. physic, vol. 57, p. 59, 1985.
[6] A. J. Miranda, “Impedance modeling of a Cl2/He plasma discharge for very large scale integrated
circuit production monitoring,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A Vacuum, Surfaces, Film., vol. 14, no. 3, p. 1888,

Page | 76
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Impedance Analyzer for Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensor
at Series Resonance
Rona R Diny1, a, Wijono1,b and Setyawan P Sakti2,c
Department of Electrical Engineering, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia
Department of Physics, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indoensia
a (corresponding author),,

Keywords: impedance analyzer, QCM sensor, series resonance frequency.

ABSTRACT. Measuring Quartz Crystal Microbalance sensor responds can be done by measuring its
resonance frequency, impedance at series resonance or by dissipation method. Measuring the impedance at
the sensor series resonance frequency gives more information compare to the frequency measurement. In this
work a simple system to measure a QCM sensor impedance at its series resonance frequency is developed
using a low cost signal generator, gain phase detector and digital to analog converter. The design is based on
gain and phase measurement of two signal from voltage divider circuit that driven by sinusoidal. This design
was implemented with selected device AD8302 to cover 10 MHz measurement and AD9850 to generate
sinusoidal signal. The compatibility with personal computer (PC) over USB connection make easy for
operation and data processing afterward. The device was tested to sweep impedance of 10 MHz QCM
around it series resonant frequency. The measurement shows that the system has error below 14 % for
impedance value and below 3 % for impedance phase. Figure 1 show that measurement of impedance value
has high error before and after series resonant. At small series resonant zone, the error below 10 %.

Figure 1. Sweep impedance value comparison

Page | 77
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Page | 78
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Page | 79
The 2016 International Seminar on Sensors, Instrumentation, Measurement and Metrology

Page | 80