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Review Article

Drilling on fiber reinforced polymer/nanopolymer


composite laminates: a review

Kishore Kumar Panchagnula a,b,∗ , Kuppan Palaniyandi a


a School of Mechanical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore, India
b Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology, Aushapur, Hyderabad, India

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Available online xxx Among various machining operations, drilling is the most commonly employed machining
operation for polymer composite laminates owing to the need for joining structures. Work
Keywords: with commercial composites has identified numerous parameters during the drilling oper-
Drilling ation that can influence the drilling factors and the material damage. The present paper
FRP laminates gives a precise review of drilling on current state of fiber reinforced polymer as well as
Nanopolymer composite laminates nanopolymer composite laminates. Specifically, the influence of machining parameters,
Cutting forces tool geometry, tool materials and tool types on the cutting force generation and delami-
Delamination nation mechanisms. Based on the comprehensive literature survey from the past few years,
it is noticed that limited research has been made and published concerning to nanopolymer
composite drilling and has led to a partial understanding of the cutting mechanics activated
in machining/drilling. Some key contributions such as experimental and numerical studies
are urgently demanded to address accurately various projections in drilling of nano-particle
reinforced FRP composite laminates.
© 2017 Brazilian Metallurgical, Materials and Mining Association. Published by Elsevier
Editora Ltda. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://
creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

goods, marine and oil industries, due to their special physical


1. Introduction and mechanical properties [3].
The basic initiative behind the learning of FRP composite
Composite materials are made-up of least two distinct laminates mainly comprise Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer
intended materials which together improve product perfor- (GFRP) composite laminates, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Poly-
mance and lower manufacturing cost [1]. Many materials, mer (CFRP) composite laminates and nanopolymer composite
continuously designated by other terms are also consid- laminates and their applications are based on the possibility
ered composites including clad, coated metal tools, etc. [2]. of using materials with definite characteristics and ultimate
Nowadays, FRP composite laminates are the materials of properties that are not found in any of the raw materials [4].
option for many engineering applications; namely, automo- The most recent commercial aircraft designs propose
tive parts, sporting goods, aerospace components, consumer a reduction in weight about 50% by replacing the primary


Corresponding author.
E-mail: kishorephd0208@gmail.com (K.K. Panchagnula).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2017.06.003
2238-7854/© 2017 Brazilian Metallurgical, Materials and Mining Association. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. This is an open access
article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Please cite this article in press as: Panchagnula KK, Palaniyandi K. Drilling on fiber reinforced polymer/nanopolymer composite laminates: a
review. J Mater Res Technol. 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2017.06.003
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structural components with fabricated nanopolymer compos- have utilized acoustic emission technique to improve the
ites. Using light weight and elevated strength composites are quality and surface integrity of the machined hole during
essential in order to achieve the reduced fuel consumption drilling on woven glass fabric/epoxy composite laminates.
and better passenger comfort goals of these future com- The effect of cutting parameters on axial force, flank wear
mercial aircraft design innovations [5]. In generally, all the and their influence on the hole shrinkage was monitored and
composite materials will undergo some machining processes correlated with AE parameters. Abhishek et al. [18] employed
in their fabrication procedure or its specific engineering appli- PCA-fuzzy integrated with Taguchi’s philosophy technique to
cation. With the concern of the current industry, drilling is the optimize the cutting parameters for trim down the delam-
most frequently used hole making operation for assembly of ination, sub-surface damage defects while drilling of CFRP
structures or components. Various industries; such as auto- composites. Eneyew and Ramulu [19] have studied the effect
motive, aerospace, marine and oil industries, have already of cutting parameters, cutting direction and fiber orientation
started the utilization of nanocomposites in their structures. on the drilled hole surface quality in the UD-CFRP composite
The composite damage called delamination is an inter- laminate. The lower value of thrust force was identified at a
ply failure phenomenon induced by drilling, which is a very rotational angle of 135◦ and 315◦ , fiber pullouts are observed
serious problem and has been recognized as an unexpected at two cutting regions where the cutting direction and fiber
major damage when drilling composite laminates [6]. Due to orientation interface angle is from 135◦ to 175◦ and 315◦ to
the non-homogeneity, multi-phase structure and anisotropic 355◦ . The examined sub-surface damages i.e. delamination,
nature of the composites lead to an inter-ply failure during surface roughness, fiber pull outs are captured through
drilling [7]. With that reason, about 60% of the drilled holes on SEM.
composites are rejected at the initial stage only [8]. Generally, when the drill tool is commerce with the FRP
In addition to delamination, sub-surface deformation is laminate, the drill chisel edge generates a nominal thrust force
another important drilling induced damage while composite in the axial direction and subsequently initiates the surface
machining. Interfacial debonding, matrix deformation, fiber deformation due to the frictional rubbing action of tool and
pullouts, matrix crazing, cracking, hole shrinkage and spalling work-piece [20,21]. This deformation can remain the same
are few examples of sub-surface deformations [9,10]. So, in upto the last two piles of composite laminates and increases
order to improve the product performance and structural drastically for further drill extent due to the smaller uncut
integrity of machined holes, the material defects such as sub- chip thickness, lower resistance to deformation and stiffness.
surface deformation and delamination has to be trim-down At this instant, the exit side of the laminate undergoes severe
by proper selection of cutting parameters, tool geometries, damage of matrix and initiation of crack propagation result-
tool types and cutting conditions [11,12]. Nevertheless, the ing poor surface integrity [22,23]. Tool-work piece Tribological
structural integrity is also strongly depending on fiber matrix interactions are also reasons for sub-surface deformation of
interfacial interactions, fiber orientations, cutting directions the composites and these thermo-mechanical mechanisms
and tool wear. can be reported in the form of tool wear [24]. Abrasion is con-
Zhang et al. [13] have investigated the spalling, fuzzing exit sidered as chief tool wear mechanism during drilling on FRP
sub-surface deformation defects during drilling of unidirect- as well as nano composite laminates and it can be occurred
ional as well as multi-directional CFRP laminates with HSS mainly on rake and flank face of the tool cutting edge causing
twist drill. Spalling and fuzzing are considered as the major severe abrasive wear on the flank face resulting poor struc-
exit damage mechanisms during drilling of FRP composite tural integrity and long-term performance deterioration of the
laminates and these damages increase with an increase in machined surface [25]. Inoue et al. [26] inspected the effect of
feed rate and decrease in spindle speed. Spalling at hole exit tool wear on the sub-surface deformation in drilling of small
is usually a severe damage and it is bigger for UD-CFRP lami- diameter holes of GFRP composites. Based on experimental
nate as compared to multi-directional CFRP laminate under results, it was concluded that higher flank wear occurs at lower
the same drilling conditions. Khashaba et al. [14] reported feed rates and larger cutting speeds.
that catastrophic shear failure of the composite layers has So, in order to eradicate the defects induced during
been done due to the higher feed rates and cutting temper- drilling on conventional composites such as GFRP and CFRP,
atures resulting poor surface integrity, lower bearing strength these composites are modified with secondary reinforcements
of machined holes while GFRP composite drilling. Heisel called nano-fillers; namely carbon nano-fibers (CNFs), carbon
et al. [15] investigated the influence of point angle, cutting nanotubes (CNTs), polyamide 6, Polypropylene-Silicon for the
parameters on cutting forces and drill hole quality i.e. fry- property enhancement of composite laminates. A typical lay-
ing, burr formation and delamination have been investigated out of classification of composite materials is shown in Fig. 1.
while drilling of CFRP laminates. The increase in point angle Abrao et al. [27] have made an extensive literature on
increases cutting temperature resulting frying of epoxy matrix drilling of FRP composites. Aspects such as tool geometry,
with poor quality drilled hole and severe burr formation. machining parameters and their influence on thrust force,
Brinksmeier et al. [16] tried three (Alu- torque and delamination are examined in the review. Liu et al.
minum/CFRP/Titanium) different materials to investigate [4] provided a review on mechanical drilling of composite
the surface quality of boreholes after orbital and conventional materials such as FRP (CFRP, GFRP) as well as fiber metal com-
drilling processes. Compared to the conventional drilling posite (FML) laminates. This review paper also encloses with
process, orbital drilling gives the finest borehole surfaces with grinding drilling, Vibration-assisted twist drilling (VATD) and
tiny matrix cracks and without fiber breakage under lower high speed drilling (HSD) operations of both FRP and FML com-
cutting temperatures and large cutting speeds. Arul et al. [17] posites.

Please cite this article in press as: Panchagnula KK, Palaniyandi K. Drilling on fiber reinforced polymer/nanopolymer composite laminates: a
review. J Mater Res Technol. 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2017.06.003
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Composite materials

Fiber-reubfirced composites Particle-reubfirced composites

Random orientation Preferred orientation

Single layer composites Multi layer composites

Laminates Hybrids

Continuous fibers Discontinuous fibers

Unidirectional reinforcement Bidirectional reinforcement Random orientation Preferred orientation

Fig. 1 – A typical classification of composite materials.

Starost and Njuguna [28] have prepared a report on used drilling operation and other operations like vibration
the effect of mechanical drilling on nanocomposites lami- assisted drilling, high speed drilling are also used and provides
nates. The effect and influence of various drilling param- superior quality of drilled holes as well as high efficiency [4].
eters on delamination and nano-sized particles have been The research on development of mechanical drilling on com-
analyzed. Davis et al. [29] reported that amino func- posite materials focuses mainly on drilling mechanics, drill
tionalized single-walled CNTs/CFRPs and fluorine doped tool geometry and material, tool types, delamination mecha-
single-walled CNTs/CFRP nanocomposite laminates exhibit nisms and its preventing approaches, cutting force, and tool
good improvement in tensile strength, stiffness and fatigue wear, etc. The composite damage called delamination is an
durability compared to non-functionalized composites under inter-ply failure phenomenon induced by drilling, which is a
tension–tension and tension–compression loadings. The very serious problem and has been recognized as an unex-
multi-walled CNTs/CFRP composite laminates cured by pected major damage when drilling composite laminates. The
microwave process was prepared to prevent delamination SEM images of delamination of GFRP and CFRP were as shown
and drilling ablation and have been compared against in Fig. 2.
normal conventional thermal cured composite without MWC- Based on the review on experimental analysis, it is found
NTs [30]. The fiber reinforced composite laminates thermal that the input parameters such as cutting speed, feed and
conductivity has been increased drastically with the addi- point angle of twist drill, tool types, tool materials, type of
tion of nano-filler/micro-filler; namely, MWCNTs, DWCNTs drilling operation directly affect the drilling induced delam-
[31]. ination on FRP composites. The following observations are
The present work provides a detailed review of drilling noticed from literature survey on drilling in composite lam-
on FRP as well as nanopolymer reinforced composite lam- inates [32–35]:
inates. A huge research work has been done on drilling of
conventional FRP composites, but there is a need to con- Delamination at exit is more severe than at entry.
tinue research in the field of nanocomposite drilling especially Delamination tendency increased with the increase of twist
nano-particle (CNF/CNT) reinforced FRP composites where drill point angle.
there are limited publications. As specified, nanocomposites Special drill bits (straight-flute drill bit, brad point drill bit
are newly introduced materials in the commercial industry as and step drill bit) with larger feed rate shows without delam-
well as unlike properties due to their non-homogeneity struc- ination compared with the twist drill bit.
ture; they can perform in a different way in drilling. In addition Carbide coated and diamond coated tools give up better
to that the identification of effects of cutting parameters, tool results in terms of tool wear and tool life during drilling on
geometry, tool types and tool materials on the thrust force, composites.
torque and delamination in drilling of nanopolymer compos- Generally, the minimum delamination defect on composite
ites is compulsory for better understanding of machinability. materials occurs at low feed rates with high cutting speeds.

In addition to the cutting parameters, tool geometry, tool


2. Drilling operations types, etc., the work piece constituents, laminate orienta-
tion (0◦ /0◦ /0◦ /0◦ , 45◦ /45◦ /45◦ /45◦ , 0◦ /45◦ /0◦ /45◦ , 45◦ /0◦ /45◦ /0◦ ,
2.1. Drilling on conventional FRP composites 0◦ /0◦ /45◦ /45◦ and 45◦ /45◦ /0◦ /0◦ ) also effect the delamination
in drilling of composites [36,37]. Table 1 shows the detailed
There are several types of drilling operations on composite range of cutting conditions during drilling on CFRP and GFRP
laminates but conventional drilling is the most frequently composite laminates.

Please cite this article in press as: Panchagnula KK, Palaniyandi K. Drilling on fiber reinforced polymer/nanopolymer composite laminates: a
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Table 1 – Available literature in drilling on FRP composite laminates.


Material Ply/sheet References Drilling conditions

UD-ply Park et al. [69]; Bhatnagar et al. [70]; Lin and Chen Spindle speed: 800–1600 rpm
CFRP laminates
[71]; Chen [72]; Piquet et al. [73]. Feed rate: 0.05–0.20 mm/rev
Diameter (d): 4–6 mm
Point angle (h): 90–118◦
Laminate thickness (T): 2–3 mm
Woven ply Gaitonde et al. [74]; Karnik et al. [75]; Faraz et al. [76]; Spindle speed: 60–600 rpm
Shyha et al. [77]; Lazar and Xirouchakis [63]. Feed rate: 0.01–0.06 mm/rev
Diameter (d): 6–9 mm
Point angle (h): 85–130◦
Laminate thickness (T): 2–3 mm

UD-ply Mathew et al. [78]; Ramkumar et al. [79,80]; Capello Spindle speed: 375–1500 rpm
GFRP laminates
[81]; Rao et al. [82]; Mkaddem et al. [83]; Lasri et al. Feed rate: 0.075–0.3 mm/rev
[84]; Diameter (d): 6 mm
Kilickap [85]. Point angle (h): 90–118◦
Laminate thickness (T): 2–4 mm
Woven ply Khashaba et al. [86,87]; Velayudham et al. [88,89]; Spindle speed: 60–500 rpm
Arul et al. [90,91]; Rubio et al. [92]; Isik and Ekici [10] Feed rate: 0.05–0.45 mm/rev
Diameter (d): 6–10 mm
Point angle (h): 90–118◦
Laminate thickness (T): 6–9 mm

2.2. Drilling on nanopolymer composites delamination mechanisms, as this is the foremost and most
important cause of component rejection as a result restricts
As polymer nanocomposites are comparatively newly rec- the use of composite laminates for structural applications.
ognized materials, very few studies have been produced on Other defects induced by drilling comprises peel up and push
the drilling on nanocomposites. As of the existing literature, out delaminations, circularity error, tiny cracks are likely to
limited details are available on the development of nanocom- occur.
posites, property evaluation, drilling delamination, processing Drilling induced delamination was also caused by drill
technologies and thermal damage in polymer nanocompos- tool wear when drilling on FRP composites. The experimen-
ites drilling [38–42]. tal results show that the critical thrust force is increased
Li et al. [30] have used microwave curing process to with growing wear which in turns increases the delamination.
prevent delamination and drilling ablation in drilling of car- Drilling delamination of worn twist drill for lower feed rate is
bon nanotube/carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites. The very low compared to sharp drills and these results are agreed
revealed experimental results had given decreased drilling with industrial experience [10].
induced delamination of microwave cured nanocomposites
and increased interlaminar fracture toughness upto 66% com-
pared to normal cured composites. Baker et al. [43] have 4. Drilling factors
studied the drill tool coatings to minimize the wear resis-
tance during drilling on nanocomposites. Paul et al. [44] have The input process parameters like cutting parameters, tool
employed acoustic emission technique for on-line monitoring geometries, tool types and tool materials show the effect on
of drilling induced delamination during drilling on CNF rein- thrust force, torque, tool wear, delamination, surface rough-
forced nanocomposites laminates. The availed literature on ness etc. which are called output process parameters. So,
drilling of nanocomposite laminates and its drilling conditions it is necessary to select the proper process parameters for
are given in Table 2. obtaining the best performance on the drilling operation
i.e. best hole quality, which represents minimum damage of
the machined components and satisfactory machined sur-
3. Need for monitoring drilling on face. Fig. 3 shows the schematic representation of drilling on
composites composite laminates for the better understanding of drilling
studies.
Commercial FRP composite materials have definite character-
istics which impel their machining behavior. Consequently,
the mechanisms involved while drilling composite mate- 5. Cutting parameters
rials are specifically different from those observed when
drilling homogeneous materials such as metals. Work with The cutting parameters such as cutting velocity and feed
commercial composites has recognized numerous param- rate, tool geometry, tool types and tool materials have shown
eters during the drilling operation that can influence the greater effect on the thrust force, torque and delamination
drilling factors and the material damage. Damage particu- while drilling conventional as well as nanopolymer composite
larly related to drilling on composites primarily investigates laminates.

Please cite this article in press as: Panchagnula KK, Palaniyandi K. Drilling on fiber reinforced polymer/nanopolymer composite laminates: a
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Table 2 – Drilling operations typically employed for nanopolymer composite laminates in literature.
Material References Remarks

CFRP/CNF, hybrid carbon/glass Irfan et al. [68]; Sophia Sachse et al. [60]; Spindle speed <1500 rpm and feed rate
fiber, polypropylene/CNT, PA6/CNT, Bello et al. [49]; Paul et al. [44]; Tan et al. <0.1 mm/min.
polypropylene-silicon, Si3 N4 /epoxy [50]; Li et al. [30]; Starost and Njuguna Adjacent to the uncoated HSS drill, other
[28]; Gowda et al. [53]; Baker et al. [43] coated drills such as carbide coated, CBN
coated, diamond coated and diamond-like
coated drills are also used in drilling of
nanopolymer composites.
A combination of high spindle speed and low
feed rate reduces the delamination and
circularity error.

5.1. Effect of cutting parameters on thrust force,


a torque and delamination

The drilling parameters such as spindle speed and feed


rate highly influence the cutting forces and delamination in
drilling of FRP as well as nanocomposites laminates. The
cutting forces decrease with the higher cutting speed and
Delamination increase with the escalating feed rate, drill size and fiber
volume fractions. In drilling of carbon/epoxy composites the
torque, thrust force and delamination factor depends directly
on the feed rate and tool geometry [21,24].
Phadnis et al. [45] experimental study reported that low
50
feed rates (<1500 mm/min) and high cutting speeds (>600 rpm)
are the best cutting parameters for drilling on carbon/epoxy
laminates. An exceeded experiment have been done on FRP
drilling by varying the machining conditions to investigate
the correlations between cutting forces, drilling delamina-
tion, tool wear, temperature and hole quality. In addition
to the cutting parameters, the cutting edge of the drill tool
has also generates some local feed cutting forces which indi-
rectly influences the hole exit delamination on FRP composites
Deep valley
Delamination [46,47]. Palanikumar et al. [48] experimental and analytical
area, Adel results indicated that the low feed rate and drill diameter
leads to increase the thrust force, whereas the increase in the
spindle speed does not show any disparity.
b Bello et al. [49] have conducted a series of drilling experi-
ments on advanced CNT hybrid composites at a spindle speed
range of 725–1325 rpm for optimum cutting conditions. The
spindle speed of 1015 rpm gives the lower thrust force and
Dmax torque values. Tan et al. [50] have done some drilling exper-
iments on hybrid carbon/glass nanocomposite laminates to
optimize the cutting parameters. The experimental results
and statistical analysis reveal that the second order regression
Dnom model is suitable for prediction of drilling induced delami-
nation and surface roughness responses. Paul et al. [44] have
selected the cutting parameters range of 500–1500 rpm in spin-
dle speed and 0.02–0.08 mm/rev in feed rate for minimum
drilling induced delamination and surface roughness during
drilling on CNF reinforced CFRP nanocomposite laminates.
Specifically, the lower feed rate (0.02 mm/rev) and higher spin-
dle speed (1500 rpm) gives the better thrust force and torque
values.
Generally, statistical techniques such as ANOVA, regression
Fig. 2 – SEM images of delamination (a) intersection image analysis etc. were used to establish an empirical relation-
of GFRP; and (b) surface image of CFRP [4]. ship between the drilling parameters (feed rate, spindle
speed, drill diameter and fiber volume fraction) and cutting

Please cite this article in press as: Panchagnula KK, Palaniyandi K. Drilling on fiber reinforced polymer/nanopolymer composite laminates: a
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Drilling of composites

Drilling of Drilling of Drilling of


conventional multi material nanopolymer
composites composites composites

Machining parameters: Tool parameters:


1. Feed 1. Tool geometry
2. Spindle speed 2. Tool material
3. Tool type

Monitoring parameters

Online parameters: Offline parameters:


1. Thrust force 1. Delamination factor
2. Torque 2. Circularity
3. Surface roughness
4. Tool wear

Fig. 3 – The schematic representation of drilling of composite materials.

forces in drilling of FRP composites. Optimizing the machin- angle of a drill tool highly affects the machining forces and drill
ability characteristics like feed rate and spindle speed on whole quality (delamination, fraying, and burr formation) on
nanoploymer composite drilling was an essential task, to drilling of CFRP composites. The increasing of point angles
suppress the drilling defects, thrust force, surface rough- (155◦ , 175◦ , 178◦ and 185◦ ) increases the feed force, drilling
ness and tool life [51,52]. So, the cutting parameters such torque and delamination factor also [15]. Fig. 4 shows the
as cutting speed and feed are deeply influences the thrust delamination factor value for different drill tool geometries.
force, torque and delamination during drilling on conven- Guo et al. [9] have studied carbide twist drills of differ-
tional/nanopolymer composite laminates. Gowda et al. [53] ent diameters (3–8 mm), varying web thicknesses (0.5, 0.55,
have employed Taguchi’s orthogonal array technique to 0.7, and 1.1 mm) and preferred drill tool angles that provides
optimize the cutting parameters in drilling on Si3 N4 nanocom- the optimal cutting parameters and high-quality drilled holes
posite laminates, by varying input parameters like %volume of
Si3 N4 (0, 6, 10), speed (360, 490,680 rpm) and feed rate (0.095,
0.19, 0.285 mm/rev). The output response variables like circu- 1.25
larity error, surface roughness were tabulated through ANOVA
table. 1.2
Fd - de lamination factor

Therefore, in order to produce defect free holes, the process


of drilling on nanopolymer composite laminates needs to be 1.15
observed.
1.1

5.2. Effect of tool geometry on thrust force, torque and


1.05
delamination

The drill tool geometries such as the drill diameter, point 1


Twist 120 twist 85 brad dagger step
angle, helix angle, chisel edge, rake angle and web thickness
Drill bit geometry
have shown greater effect on the thrust force, torque and
delamination while drilling FRP laminates [54–56]. The point Fig. 4 – Drill geometry influence on delamination factor [56].

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on CFRP composite laminates. Based on simulated data, the 140


thrust force and torque values generated by using 8 mm drill Twist drill
Saw drill
diameter are four times higher than that of 4 mm drill diame- 120 Core drill
ter and thrust force increases with the increase of point angle. Step drill
Candle stick drill
The thrust force and torque values increases by 88% and 400% 100
respectively as the web thickness increases from 0.5 to 1.1 mm.

Thrust force (N)


Eneyew and Ramulu [19] conducted some preliminary exper- 80
iments on UD-CFRP composites using PCD tipped eight facet
drill to find out the surface quality and material damage in 60
drilling. During drilling of GFRP/Epoxy composites, the drill
tool geometry and tool material highly influences the cut- 40
ting forces and material damage. Four drills (EDP27199, A1141,
A1163 and A1167A) with different drill geometries and mate- 20
rials and various cutting parameters were used to test the
composite for defect free holes in drilling [57]. 0
Velayudham and Krishnamurthy [58] have carried out a 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
sequence of drilling experiments to study the influence of car- Feed rate (mm/rev) x 10-3
bide drills with different point geometries on thrust force and
Fig. 5 – Graphical representation of the thrust force
delamination of polymeric composite laminates. Investigation
variation related to the feed rate for different drill tools [64].
results reveals that tripod drill performs better cutting forces
compared to other drill geometries and the critical thrust force
observed when feed rate was 0.1 mm/rev, above that there was
a rapid increase in thrust results. possible delamination in case of a composite material. Also,
The drilling experiments using coated tungsten carbide when the diameter of the saw drill is considered to be zero, its
drill (ratio drill) on Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy (GFRE) com- behavior is analogous to twist drill with zero drill diameters
posite rods shows better machinability compared to regular or with infinite delamination zone. In case of a candle stick
twist drill. The new drill geometry called ratio drill was used drill with zero circular load, i.e. no torsional load on the drill
to predict the machining parameters, flank wear, surface bit, the working is the same as that of a twist drill with a point
roughness and circularity errors [59]. Paul et al. [44] study load at the centerline of the drill. Also in cases where the
reported that the conventional twist drill with 118◦ point angle drill centerline load is zero, this drill is analogous to saw drill.
and 6 mm drill diameter exhibits the lower thrust force and This is as the geometry of a saw drill does not accommodate
reduced delaminations in drilling of CFRP nano composite for centerline loads [62–64]. Fig. 5 illustrates the thrust force
laminates. Sachse et al. [60] have used 10 mm diameter drill variation related to the feed rate for different drill tools.
bit for drilling on PA6 nanocomposites under controlled envi- In addition to the standard drill tools, the newly micro
ronment for the evaluating of emission of particles. coated tools such as PCD tools, CBN coated tools, diamond like
So, the proper selection of cutting tool geometry and coated tools coated tools, etc. were also used to acquire good
its nomenclature gives the enhanced cutting forces and surface finish of the drilled holes with less damage [65–67].
minimum material damage in drilling of FRP as well as Paul et al. [44] have selected three different types of drills;
nanocomposites laminates. namely, HSS drill, carbide tipped drill and solid carbide drill for
the purpose of drilling on CNF reinforced CFRP nanocomposite
5.3. Effect of tool types and tool materials on thrust laminates. The drilling defects called delamination, circular-
force, torque and delamination ity error were minimized at entry as well as exit with solid
carbide drill. Irfan et al. [68] have employed a special type
Different types of drills and drill materials have greater influ- of angle drill of 10 mm diameter in drilling of Polyamide 6-
ence on the thrust force, torque and delamination. Drilling and Polypropylene-Silicon Composites for the estimation of
of GFRP composite laminates with distinct and conventional release of nanoparticles.
uncoated cemented carbide drills exhibits a complete analysis In addition to the tool geometry, the tool types and tool
of push-out delamination and drilling load profiles. materials also play a key role in drilling of FRP and nanocom-
Based on the experimental and analytical results, it was posite laminates. The cutting forces, drilling delamination and
concluded that specialized drill tools reduced the drilling other induced defects were reduced by the proper selection of
thrusts for the whole range of machining parameters com- drill tool types and materials.
pared to the conventional drills and also the magnitudes of
push-out delamination damage were noticeable [61]. Adjacent
to the twist drill, the effects of different types of drills such as 6. Summary
core drill, step drill, saw drill and candle stick drill have exhibit
a major impact on the critical thrust force and delamination. Exceptional mechanical and physical properties like extraordi-
In case of a saw drill, the size of the delamination zone is nary tensile strength, modulus, good corrosion and chemical
dependent on the thrust force applied on the FRP composite resistance, elevated adhesion and dynamic stability have
laminate. At high thrust forces, the size of the delamination encouraged the use of composites in a variety of applica-
zone is equal to the drill diameter, which is the minimum tions. The mechanical drilling of nanopolymer composite

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review. J Mater Res Technol. 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2017.06.003
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