EMG classifier with twin svm

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EMG classifier with twin svm

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN BIOMEDICINE, VOL. 14, NO. 2, MARCH 2010 301

Surface Electromyogram

Ganesh R. Naik, Member, IEEE, Dinesh Kant Kumar, Senior Member, IEEE, and Jayadeva, Senior Member, IEEE

Abstract—Surface electromyogram (sEMG) is a measure of the the muscle activity from the surface. It is closely related to the

muscle activity from the skin surface, and is an excellent indica- strength of muscle contraction, and an obvious choice for control

tor of the strength of muscle contraction. It is an obvious choice of prostheses and other similar applications [3]–[6] because

for control of prostheses and identification of body gestures. Using

sEMG to identify posture and actions that are a result of overlap- mechanical sensors are unsuitable for people who have suffered

ping multiple active muscles is rendered difficult by interference amputations. Earlier attempts to use sEMG signals to identify

between different muscle activities. In the literature, attempts have hand and other body gestures were able to provide reliable

been made to apply independent component analysis to separate command signals only when one primary muscle was active

sEMG into components corresponding to the activities of differ- and the contraction level was high. When the muscle activity is

ent muscles, but this has not been very successful, because some

muscles are larger and more active than the others. We address small and multiple muscles are simultaneously active, such as

the problem of how to learn to separate each gesture or activity during maintained hand gestures, there is a relatively very high

from all others. Multicategory classification problems are usually level of noise, and this makes identification of gestures based

solved by solving many one-versus-rest binary classification tasks. on sEMG very unreliable.

These subtasks naturally involve unbalanced datasets. Therefore, In the recent past, there has been work done to classify sEMG

we require a learning methodology that can take into account un-

balanced datasets, as well as large variations in the distributions associated with relatively smaller and complex actions to iden-

of patterns corresponding to different classes. This paper reports tify hand or facial actions. Momen et al. [7] used strength of

the use of twin support vector machine for gesture classification the signal measured using rms to classify subject determined

based on sEMG, and shows that this technique is eminently suited wrist actions. This has number of applications, but is unsuitable

to such applications. for controlling prosthetic hand because the actions are user de-

Index Terms—Independent component analysis (ICA), learning, fined and not universal. Gabor transform and absolute mean [8]

multiclass, support vector machines (SVMs), surface electromyo- were used to identify ten wrist and finger motions in real-time

gram (sEMG), unbalanced data. learning. Canonical component analysis was used to obtain suit-

able features to identify four wrist motions and five finger mo-

I. INTRODUCTION

tions [9]. Yu et al. have used entropy of sEMG with statistical

ACTILE input devices, including keypads, keyboards, and

T mice, support only very low levels of information commu-

nication. We must consciously translate our intent into an exact

classifiers to identify five finger flexions [10]. Tenore et al. [11]

have used a large array of electrodes to identify hand actions.

However, both these techniques are limited because large array

sequence of binary key presses before a device can use this of electrodes makes the system unsuitable for people who had

information. There is a need for devices to understand more suffered transradial amputation.

natural forms of human communication such as hand gestures. In the recent past, support vector machines (SVMs) have

A hand gesture mode of communication and controlling offers been used to improve the accuracy of classification. Bitzer and

privacy and naturalness [1], [2]. Such systems are required to Smagt [12] have used a large set of electrodes to identify finger

help people with special needs such as with hand amputation actions using SVM. The system described in this paper requires

and defence personnel. On a broader level, all people who use an array of electrodes placed very close to the wrist to identify

devices such as computer mouse would benefit from such de- the actions, making it unsuitable for most transradial amputees.

vices, as it will allow them to have a natural control. This will Lucasa et al. [13] have used a combination of wavelets and svm,

increase productivity and reduce computer-related injuries such but it is not clear how the experiments were conducted. Jorgesen

as repetitive strain injury (RSI). and van der Binsted [14] have used SVM to classify subvocal

Hand actions and maintained gestures are a result of complex sEMG to identify unspoken speech, which has similar problems

combinations of contractions of multiple muscles in the forearm. as wrist sEMG. However, their confusion matrix suggests a

Surface electromyogram (sEMG) is the electrical recording of very low accuracy system, which may be suitable for subvocal

applications, but would not be suitable for prosthetic control.

Manuscript received November 21, 2008; revised July 18, 2009 and The authors are unaware of any systems that use upper forearm

November 1, 2009. First published December 15, 2009; current version pub-

lished March 17, 2010.

recordings of EMG to identify finger and wrist actions.

G. R. Naik and D. K. Kumar are with the Department of Electrical and Com- To reliably identify small movements and gestures of the

puter Engineering, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne 3001, hand, there is a need to decompose the sEMG into components

Australia (e-mail: ganesh.naik@rmit.edu.au; dinesh@rmit.edu.au).

Jayadeva is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute

corresponding to activity originating from different muscles.

of Technology, New Delhi 110016, India (e-mail: jayadeva@ee.iitd.ac.in). Spectral and temporal filtering is not suitable for this because of

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TITB.2009.2037752 overlapping spectra and simultaneously active muscles. Blind

302 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN BIOMEDICINE, VOL. 14, NO. 2, MARCH 2010

source separation (BSS) techniques have been developed re- constraints is M K 2 , where K is the number of classes and M

cently, and they provide a solution for such a situation. Inde- is the number of patterns, making the system very complex for

pendent component analysis (ICA) is a statistical technique that larger problems.

is suitable for estimating independent components (ICs) from Classification of the sEMG for gesture recognition thus

a mixture. It has been used very successfully for audio and presents all of these challenges. This paper reports a novel tech-

biosignal applications [15], [16]. One of the shortcomings of nique that uses Twin SVM (Twin SVM) [18] to classify the

ICA is that the estimated outputs are scaled and the order is not ICA-separated sEMG to accurately identify hand gestures from

known. While this is generally not an issue for audio signals, it is sEMG recorded from upper regions of the forearm, making it

very important for estimating hand gestures, where the relative suitable for prosthetic applications. The Twin SVM solves two

strength of contractions and location of the different muscles related SVMs, one for each class, and generates two separate

is important [15], [17]. One of the difficulties with classifying hyperplanes. In each binary classification task, the hyperplane

decomposed sEMG using traditional approaches is that some for class 1 is close to patterns of class 1, with the constraints aris-

weak muscle activities are associated with a number of actions. ing from patterns only of class (–1). The converse is true for the

Since each gesture involves a different pattern of activation of other SVM. Each SVM thus has half the constraints of a regular

a number of muscles, the sEMG signals corresponding to each SVM. Solving two independent problems allows us to over-

gesture can be understood to arise from a different distribution. come the skew in class cardinalities, and also provides speedup,

Therefore, we require a learning methodology that can take into since the individual SVMs are smaller. The results demonstrate

account large variations in the distributions of patterns corre- a striking improvement in classification results. Twin SVM also

sponding to different classes or categories. does not assume that patterns in each class arise from similar

Multiclass classification problems are usually solved by solv- distributions. It allows the use of a different kernel for each

ing many one-versus-rest binary classification tasks. These class, which can be separately optimized based on the data. The

subtasks naturally involve unbalanced datasets. In the pres- facility for data dependent kernel optimization for each class

ence of unbalanced datasets, conventional error-minimization- is particularly valuable in our application, and the results show

based learning, as commonly employed in neural networks and that significant improvements can be obtained by exploiting this

SVsMs, tends to favor the larger set, since we minimize the sum feature.

of errors across patterns. Although smaller class tests yield poor The remainder of this paper is organized as follows.

performance, the accuracy is good enough for practical use. Section II describes the Twin SVM and section III describes the

Consider a multiclass problem with M samples and K classes, basis of ICA related to this study. Section IV is the methodology

and (M /K) patterns in each class. We usually build one binary section. Section V contains experimental results and observa-

classifier for each class, which is learnt by using the one-versus- tions. Section VI contains concluding remarks.

rest approach. Consider how the classifier for, say, class 1 is

built. We construct a binary or two-class classifier that learns to II. TWIN SVMS

distinguish patterns of class 1 from other class patterns. Sam-

ples for class 1 comprise (M /K) patterns and samples for class A. Summary of the Twin SVM Formulation

(–1) are obtained by merging patterns from the remaining (K– Let the patterns to be classified be denoted by a set of m

1) classes, i.e., M – (M /K) patterns. It is clear that the resultant row vectors Ai ∈ Rn , where Ai = (Ai1 , Ai1 , . . . ,Ain )T . Let

binary classification problem is highly unbalanced, with a small y ∈ {−1, 1} denote the class to which the ith pattern belongs.

fraction of patterns in class 1 and a significant number of pat- The classical L1 norm soft margin SVM classifier [18] finds a

terns in the other. Therefore, multiclass problems naturally lead hyperplane wT x + b = 0 that separates patterns from the two

to highly unbalanced binary classification tasks. Most learning classes. The parameters of the hyperplane are determined by

algorithms minimize a sum of misclassification errors across all solving the optimization problem

patterns. Consequently, the error on M – (M /K) patterns will 1 m

dominate on the relatively fewer (M /K) patterns of class 1. Minw ,b w2 + C qi (1)

2 i=1

For instance, with M = 1000 and K = 10, we can conceiv-

ably obtain a classifier that is 95% accurate (it makes no error subject to the constraints

on the 900 patterns in one binary class), but misclassifies 50% yi (Ai w + b) + qi ≥ 1, i = 1, 2, . . . ,m (2)

of the patterns belonging to category 1. In practice, the classi-

fier is useless because it is as bad as a coin toss in recognizing where qi is an error variable associated with the ith pattern and

category 1 patterns. This problem has been highlighted in the lit- C is a hyperparameter that determines the relative importance

erature, where researchers have observed that classes might not of the misclassification error in comparison to the regularization

be recognized at all, particularly if they have a small number term in the objective function.

of patterns [18]–[20]. Recognizing gestures from sEMG data If the patterns are not linearly separable, then the data are

thus demands an appropriate classification methodology that is implicitly transformed to a higher dimensional space through a

suitable for handling unbalanced datasets. map φ(x), and the corresponding quadratic optimization prob-

There are a few other notable approaches in the literature that lem is given by

address multiclass SVMs. Notable among these is the M-SVM 1 m

[21] that solves a single optimization problem. The number of Minw ,b w2 + C qi (3)

2 i=1

NAIK et al.: TWIN SVM FOR GESTURE CLASSIFICATION USING THE SURFACE ELECTROMYOGRAM 303

subject to the constraints B points from the hyperplane (w(2) )T x + b2 = 0.. The second

term is the misclassification error. The scalar C2 indicates the

yi wT φ (Ai ) + b + qi ≥ 1, i = 1, 2, . . . , m. (4)

relative importance of the misclassification error in the objective

The SVM classifier is usually obtained by solving the dual of function. The decision about the membership of a point x is

(3) and (4), which is given by made by determining which of the two hyperplanes it is closest

1 m m m to. Note that the number of constraints in each of the two SVMs

Min λi λj yi yj Kij − λi (5) is smaller than in the original SVM. Therefore, the Twin SVM

2 i=1 j =1 i=1

formulation enhances the speed of operation [18].

subject to the constraints

The extension of the Twin SVM to nonlinear kernels is

0 ≤ λi ≤ C (6) straightforward. The kernel-generated surfaces (in place of the

linear hyperplanes) are given by K(A, C T )u(1) + b1 = 0 and

where λi ’s are Lagrange parameters and Kij is the (i, j)th entry

K(A, C T )u(2) + b2 = 0. The parameters of the two hypersur-

of the Kernel matrix; the entries of the Kernel matrix are values

faces are obtained by solving the following pair of optimization

of the Kernel function evaluated at pairs of training samples,

problems:

which are given by

1 2 m 2

Kij = K (Ai , Aj ) = φ (Ai )T φ (Aj ) . (7) Minu ( 1 ) ,b 1 K A, C T u(1) + e1 b1 + C1 q1i

2 i=1

The primal objective function in (1) or (3) sums up classification (12)

errors over all patterns. It does not distinguish between the num- subject to the constraints

bers of training patterns in either class. As a consequence, if the

two classes are highly unbalanced, the error term is dominated − K B, C T u(1) + b1 + q1i ≥ 1, i = 1, 2, . . . , m2 .

by the larger class; the solution attempts to minimize any clas- (13)

sification errors over the larger class. As illustrated in Section I, The second problem tries to similarly find a hyperplane that

this may lead to classifiers that cannot discriminate a specified is close to patterns of class (–1) and at least a distance of 1

category in a multiclass scenario, even though overall accuracy away from the points of class 1. This leads to the following

figures may be high. optimization task:

To explain the Twin SVM better, we assume that the patterns

of classes (+1) and (–1) are represented by matrices A and 1 2 m 1

Minu ( 1 ) ,b 1 K B, C T u(2) + e2 b2 + C2 q2i

B, respectively. The sizes of A and B are thus (m1 × n) and 2 i=1

(m2 × n), respectively. The Twin SVM with a linear Kernel (14)

finds two hyperplanes (w(1) )T x + b1 = 0 and (w(2) )T x + b2 = subject to the constraints

0 by solving a pair of optimization problems. The first problem

tries to find a hyperplane that is close to patterns of class 1 and K A, C T u(2) + b2 + q2i ≥ 1, i = 1, 2, . . . , m2

at least a distance of 1 away from the points of class (–1) (15)

m 2 where C T = [AB]T and K is the kernel matrix. Note that C1

1 2

Minw ( 1 ) ,b 1 Aw(1) + e1 b1 + C1 q1i (8) and C2 are two constants analogous to the constant C in the

2 i=1

case of the SVM.

subject to the constraints In multiclass problems, patterns in each of the categories can-

not be assumed to come from similar distributions. The note-

− Bi w(l) + b1 + q1i ≥ 1, i = 1, 2, . . . , m2 . (9)

worthy aspect of Twin SVMs is that we can optimize the kernel

where e1 is a vector of m1 1s. The first term in the objective for each of the Twin problems separately [22]. In the sequel,

function is the sum of squared distances of points belonging to we show that significant improvements in prediction accuracies

class A from the hyperplane (w(1) )T x + b1 = 0. The second can be obtained by applying kernel optimization to Twin SVMs

term is the misclassification error. The scalar C1 indicates the on the sEMG data.

relative importance of the misclassification error in the objective

function.

The second problem tries to similarly find a hyperplane that III. INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS

is close to patterns of class (–1) and at least a distance of 1 A. ICA Formulation

away from the points of class 1. This leads to the following

optimization task: ICA is a BSS technique for estimating the s independent

sources from x recordings, where the x recordings are the linear

1 2 m 1

Minw ( 2 ) ,b 2 Bw(2) + e2 b2 + C2 q2i (10) mixtures of s independent sources, and when neither the orig-

2 i=1 inal sources nor the actual mixing matrix A is known. This is

subject to the constraints achieved by exploiting higher order signal statistics and opti-

mization techniques [15], [16].

Ai w(2) + b2 + q2i ≥ 1, i = 1, 2, . . . , m1 . (11)

The aim of BSS techniques is to recover unobserved signals

where e2 is a vector of m2 1s. The first term in the objective or sources from a mixture when the observer is blind to the

function (equation 10) is the sum of squared distances of class signal properties and the mixing matrix. Given a set of

304 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN BIOMEDICINE, VOL. 14, NO. 2, MARCH 2010

observations recorded by the sensors x (t) = The successful separation of the original signals is dependent

[x1 (t) , . . . , xn (t)], the mathematical formulation of BSS on the fulfillment of the following conditions.

is typically given in the form of a statistical estimation problem. 1) The source signals s(t) are independent

This model is generative, and it estimates how the observed data 2) The source signals must have non-Gaussian distributions.

are generated by a process of mixing the source components. It 3) The number of sensors (recordings) must be greater than

is assumed that s (t) = [s1 (t) , . . . , sn (t)]T are the unknown or equal to the number of sources N ≥ M.

source signals, which have undergone mixing according to a 4) The recorded signals must be (approximately) linear com-

vector function f . binations of the independent sources.

For linear mixing models, ICA is a valuable tool for BSS, and 5) There should be no (little) noise common to the sources.

the mathematical formulation of the classical ICA is a simplified While ICA has demonstrated success in separating signals,

form of the BSS problem the output of ICA suffers from the following ambiguities.

1) The order of the ICs cannot be fixed and this may change

x (t) = As (t) (16)

for each estimate.

where A is an N × M scalar matrix representing the unknown 2) The amplitude and sign of the ICs cannot be determined.

mixing coefficients and it is called transfer or mixing matrix. In most applications such as the cocktail party problem, these

For most ICA applications, the noise is either assumed to be are not serious problems. The supervisor is able to identify the

white Gaussian with variance σ 2 or negligible. Apart from the different sources and determine the quality of the separation

source signals, the noise can also be assumed to be part of the based on the audio information by listening to the sounds [15],

sources. In this case, the noise is assumed to be statistically [24]. When dealing with signals such as sEMG, the order of

independent of other source components. The goal of ICA is to signals and the relative value of the signal magnitude are very

find a linear transformation W of the dependent sensor signals important for estimating the action correctly.

x(t) that makes the outputs as independent as possible:

ŝ (t) = W x (t) = W As (t) (17) IV. METHODOLOGY

where ŝ (t) is an estimate of the sources. The sources are exactly Experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of

recovered when W is the inverse of A up to a permutation and the proposed system to identify finger and wrist flexion from

scale change. Since both the sources and the mixing coefficients sEMG recorded on the forearm. The Royal Melbourne Institute

are unknown, it is impossible either to determine the variances of Technology (RMIT University) Human Experiments Ethics

or the order of the ICs. Numerous ICA algorithms are used for Committee approved the experimental protocol.

signal processing research. For isometric hand gesture identifi-

cation, we use FastICA algorithm [15], [23]. FastICA technique A. Subjects

and the algorithm are briefly explained in the next section. Seven healthy subjects (six males and one female) volun-

teered to participate in this study. Mean age was 25.2 (σ = 2.05)

B. FastICA Algorithm

years; mean weight 70.2 (σ = 6.56) kg; and mean height was

FastICA is a fixed point algorithm that employs higher order 170.2 (σ = 7.42) cm. The participants inclusion criteria were: 1)

statistics for the recovery of independent sources. Separation is no history of myo or neuropathology and 2) no evident abnormal

performed by minimization of negentropy of the mixture such motion restriction. Only right-hand dominant participants were

that uncorrelated and independent sources whose amplitude dis- included in this study. Each participant was given an oral and

tributions as non-Gaussian as possible are obtained. The non- written summary of the experimental protocol and the purpose

Gaussianity is measured with the differential entropy J, called of the study, and then was required to sign a consent form prior

negentropy, which is defined as the difference between the en- to participation.

tropy of a Gaussian random variable yGauss (having the same

mean and variance of the observed random variable y) and the B. Data Acquisition

entropy y

The sEMG was recorded using DELSYS (Boston, MA) pro-

J (y) = H (yGauss ) − H (y) (18) prietary sEMG acquisition system. Each channel consists of a

where the entropy H is given by pair of differential electrodes with a fixed interelectrode dis-

tance of 10 mm and a gain of 1000 (see Fig. 1). The system has

H (y) = − f (y) log (f (y)) dy. (19) a fixed bandpass filter range of 20–450 Hz and a sampling rate

of 1024 samples/s. The frequency range ensures that artefacts

Since Gaussian random variables have the largest entropy H due to muscle and electrode movement are removed.

among all random variables having equal variance, maximizing Prior to placing the electrode, the skin of the participant was

the negantropy, J (y) leads to the separation of independent prepared by shaving (if required) and exfoliation to remove dead

source signals [23]. skin. The skin was cleaned with a 70% v/v alcohol swab to re-

FastICA can estimate ICs one by one (deflation approach) or move any oil or dust from the skin surface. The skin impedance

simultaneously (symmetric approach). FastICA uses simple es- between the electrodes was measured, and in all cases, it was

timates of negentropy based on the maximum entropy principle. less than 60 kΩ. Standard isometric manual muscle testing was

NAIK et al.: TWIN SVM FOR GESTURE CLASSIFICATION USING THE SURFACE ELECTROMYOGRAM 305

do not get any feedback because the muscles do not move any

finger.

D. Data Analysis

The data analysis was performed in MATLAB on a Windows

platform. As a first step, the sEMG was segmented to remove

the start and end of each recording corresponding to the mark-

ers. This was done to eliminate transient conditions. FastICA

was then used to separate the four channels of sEMG using

4 × 4 matrix structures for the first day experiments. The es-

timated unmixing matrix W was saved and given an identifier

corresponding to the participant. The rms was computed for

a 2500-samples window size of the four estimated separated

signals to obtain one number corresponding to each source of

Fig. 1. Hand gesture experimental setup with four electrodes.

sEMG for each action. Calculating the rms is computationally

TABLE I

efficient, a good estimate of the strength of contraction of the

MUSCLE ANATOMY FOR THE PLACEMENT OF ELECTRODES OVER THE FOREARM muscle, and suitable for real-time applications. It also allows a

direct comparison with most other techniques reported in litera-

ture for similar applications. The aforementioned was repeated

for each of the seven participants. There were 84 datasets, cor-

responding to seven classes, for each of our subjects.

This paper proposes the use of Twin SVM for identifying

the finger actions. Most approaches in the literature deal with

a neural network. The intention was to present a comparison

with the baseline. We have proposed that standard SVMs have

clear drawbacks with skewed or unbalanced datasets. On the

performed to verify electrode placement. Four muscle groups in other hand, Twin SVMs solve two smaller problems instead of a

forearm were chosen for this study. These muscles are responsi- large one. They can be applied to a multiclass problem by using

ble for wrist and finger flexion movements. The locations of the the one-versus-rest approach, in which a separate classifier is

electrodes and associated actions have been tabulated in Table I. built for each category. Neural networks can be directly applied

to multicategory discrimination by using multiple neurons in

the output layer. Since the hidden neurons are common, multi-

layer neural networks could possibly exploit correlations among

C. Experimental Protocol

classes to yield superior accuracies. However, our results show

Subjects were asked to keep the forearm resting on the ta- that Twin SVMs can significantly outperform them.

ble with the elbow at an angle of 90◦ (approximately) and in a The inputs to the classifiers were the four rms values. In a

comfortable position. Seven subtle (low-level contraction) ac- later experiment, the kernels of the Twin SVM were optimized

tions involving finger and wrist flexion followed by relaxation for this dataset. The design of the neural network was obtained

were performed and repeated 12 times. Markers were manually heuristically such that it gave the minimum classification error.

inserted using a pushbutton connected to the marker channel. The network that was used had four input nodes, a total of 20

These identified the start and completion of each action. The ac- hidden nodes spread over two hidden layers and four output

tions were chosen such that these corresponded to simultaneous nodes, and had a sigmoid threshold function. The network was

contraction by multiple muscles. This was done to test the ability trained using the error backpropagation algorithm. The neural

of the system to decompose the measured signal into compo- network and Twin SVM were trained for each subject separately.

nents corresponding to simultaneously active multiple muscles. Each of these was trained using 35 randomly selected datasets,

The seven actions are as follows: and was tested using the remaining 49 sets of data.

1) wrist flexion; The performance of the neural network and Twin SVM classi-

2) finger flexion—ring finger and the middle finger together; fiers were evaluated using the standard tenfold cross-validation

3) wrist flexion toward little finger; methodology. The total number of data samples for all the seven

4) wrist flexion toward thumb; subjects, each performing seven gestures, repeated 12 times, and

5) fingers and wrist flexion together; for two days is 1176 (7 × 7 × 12 × 2). This set was partitioned

6) fingers and wrist flexion toward little finger; into ten folds, each with approximately 117 data points. One

7) fingers and wrist flexion toward thumb. fold was left out and the balance nine folds out of ten were used

The subjects were allowed to conduct the actions at their own to train the system. The fold that was left out was used to test

preferred speed. This made the actions more reproducible and the trained system. This was repeated ten times such that all ten

306 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN BIOMEDICINE, VOL. 14, NO. 2, MARCH 2010

TABLE II TABLE IV

OVERALL AVERAGE RESULTS FOR HAND GESTURES USING ICA WITH NEURAL GESTURE CLASSIFICATION WITH THE TWIN SVM (IN PERCENT)

NETWORK (IN PERCENT)

TABLE III

OVERALL AVERAGE RESULTS FOR SEVEN HAND GESTURES USING ICA WITH

NEURAL NEURAL NETWORK (IN PERCENT)

TABLE V

GESTURE CLASSIFICATION WITH THE TWIN SVM USING AN OPTIMIZED

KERNEL CONSISTING OF A SUM OF RBF KERNELS

folds were tested against the other nine. The results from the ten

tests were averaged.

To test the reliability of the techniques, sensitivity and speci-

ficity of Twin SVM and neural networks were calculated using

the following formula:

Number of recognized true gestures

Sensitivity = (20)

Number of true gestures

Number of rejected false gestures

Specificity = . (21)

Number of false gestures

same kernel is not the best choice for different categories; the

V. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

linear kernel is better for some, while the polynomial kernel is

Table II shows the results obtained by running the neural better for others.

network on the test data. The results indicate that the perfor- The earlier observation motivated us to examine kernel op-

mance rapidly degrades with an increase in the number of ges- timization in the Twin SVM. The kernels for each of the Twin

tures, i.e., categories; for three classes, the overall efficiency problems were optimized and the classifier built by using an

was 99.34%, whereas for seven classes, it decreased to 59.34%. alternating optimization scheme, as outlined in [22]. Tables V

The detailed results for the seven gestures’ case are presented and VI summarize the results. In Table V, the optimal kernel

in Table III. Note that on one category, the classification ac- consists of a weighted sum of three Gaussians, with σ = 0.1,

curacy is worse than a coin toss. This reinforces our earlier 0.01, and 0.001, respectively. The kernel weights indicate the

viewpoint—conventional learning algorithms tend to work well weights of the three Gaussian kernels in the optimal mix. Note

for binary classification tasks, but are not as effective in a multi- that the weights µ(1) that correspond to the class 1 kernel are

class scenario, since minimizing the sum of classification errors different from µ(2) , the weights for the optimal kernel for the

favors fewer errors on the larger class. This is not effective in a other class.

multiclass scenario. In Table VI, the optimal kernel consists of a weighted sum of

The tenfold cross-validation prediction results on test data for a linear kernel, a degree two polynomial kernel, and a Gaussian

the Twin SVM are presented in Table IV. The table shows results kernel with σ = 0.5. The kernel weights indicate the weights of

for the Twin SVM with linear as well as polynomial kernels. the individual primary kernels in the mixture corresponding to

The results show significant performance improvements over the the optimal kernel.

neural network. On an average, the gesture recognition accuracy The confusion matrix has been provided in Table VII. This

varies from 79.07% to 85.07%. The results indicate that the table is a measure of the accuracy and specificity of the system.

choice of kernel can have a significant bearing on the prediction The overall performance of this classifier was 86.0%. The recog-

accuracy. Moreover, the best kernel is category dependent—the nition accuracy ranged from 84.8% to 87.3%, and the order of

NAIK et al.: TWIN SVM FOR GESTURE CLASSIFICATION USING THE SURFACE ELECTROMYOGRAM 307

GESTURE CLASSIFICATION WITH THE TWIN SVM USING AN OPTIMIZED

KERNEL CONSISTING OF A SUM OF THREE DIFFERENT KERNELS

distributions across categories.

These results indicate that appropriately optimized Twin

SVM can accurately identify hand gestures and actions from

sEMG that has been separated using ICA. Such a system over-

comes the weakness of previous sEMG-based hand gesture iden-

tification systems, where there are issues related to the reliability.

Such a system could find applications for giving the user with

a natural control, and may be used for controlling devices such

as prosthetic hand or the computer cursor.

VI. CONCLUSION

Learning from multiclass data, where patterns in different

classes arise from different distributions, requires taking these

differences into account. Multiclass data inherently lead to un-

balanced binary classification tasks. Biosignal analysis and in-

TABLE VII

terpretation abounds with applications that exhibit both of the

CONFUSION MATRIX FOR SEVEN GESTURES aforementioned characteristics. In this paper, we addressed the

task of gesture recognition using sEMG data and observed sim-

ilar challenges. The Twin SVM was shown to be an effective

approach in meeting these challenges, since it is a more natural

choice for applying to unbalanced datasets.

In the literature, classifiers used for similar applications in-

clude neural networks [25], [26] and SVMs [7]. More recently,

the multiclass problem of identifying complex actions has been

addressed using statistical classifiers [10] and one-versus-rest

TABLE VIII

style SVM [12]. However, all these systems are based on the

SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY FOR G1 USING TWIN SVM AND NEURAL implicit assumption that the dataset is balanced, which is not an

NETWORK accurate assumption. Thus, even though high accuracy results

may be obtained, the outcomes of such an approach are not

consistent.

A notable multiclass approach is the M-SVM [21] that solves

a single optimization problem. However, the M-SVM requires

solving a problem with M K 2 constraints, where K is the num-

ber of classes and M is the number of patterns. This is difficult

the recognition was: G7 (87.3%), G6 (86.9%), G2 (86.3%), G3 for larger problems.

(85.9%), G4 (85.6%), G5 (85.4%), and G1 (84.8%). G1 (wrist This paper overcomes the hurdles posed by unbalanced

flexion versus the rest) was misclassified highly with G4 (4.2%) datasets by employing the Twin SVM. The use of ICA leads

and partly with G5 (1.2%), while G2 was misclassified highly to a smaller dataset where the user does not have to conduct

with G4 and G6 (2.9%), and partly with G5 (1.2%). Similarly, numerous repetition of the experiment. The system is able to

G3 was misclassified highly with G4 (3.1%) and partly with G2 accurately identify actions by using sEMGs recorded from near

(1.2%). From this list, it can be observed that there is little dif- the upper region of the elbow, making it suitable for applications

ference between the misclassification of the different gestures. such as transradial amputees.

The sensitivity and specificity of the classifiers (Twin SVM The facility for separately optimizing the kernel for each class

and neural network) results for G1 are presented in Table VIII. in a binary classification problem turns out to be very valuable

From these results, it is observed that for G1, the Twin SVM has when learning multiclass problems with disparate categories.

sensitivity and specificity of 84.8% and 88.1%, respectively, and The proposed approach lends itself to the development of a va-

neural network sensitivity and specificity for the same gesture riety of people friendly interfaces that use biosignals such as

are 58.3% and 42.5%, respectively. This indicates that Twin prosthetic hand or even to control the computer cursor. Experi-

SVM is more reliable compared with neural networks. mental results clearly demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed

The results indicate that choosing an appropriate data- approach. This technique can be extended for other biosignals

dependent kernel can significantly improve prediction accu- and other applications using similar methodology.

racies. The optimal weights show that for class (–1), which

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