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E3S Web of Conferences 64 , 07 0 0 7(2018) https://doi.org/10.

1051/e3sconf/20186407007
ICPRE 2018

Analysis and Design of Filament Power Supply with Voltage-Fed


Single-Switch ZVS Inverter
Yueh-Ru Yang
Ming Chi University of Technology, New Taipei City, Taiwan

Abstract. In this paper, an off-line voltage-fed single-switch zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) inverter is


analyzed and designed for the filament power supply of cooker magnetrons. Due to the low resistance of
cathode filament, an isolation transformer with large turn ratio is used. To obtain the ZVS operation, a
parallel-resonant capacitor is connected to the primary of transformer. The capacitor, transformer and
filament constitute a parallel resonant tank. Both the transformer leakage inductance and the transistor
output capacitance are merged into the resonant tank. The resonant energy provides the ZVS operation of
the inverter switch, and the secondary voltage drives the cathode filament. To verify the analysis, a
prototype inverter is built and tested. Experimental results validate the circuit design.

1 Introduction to the thermionic emission temperature before applying


negative high voltage to the cathode filament. In general,
Microwave heating is an important contactless heating the pre-heating of cathode filament may take more than
approach and the related techniques DQG applications in two seconds. Inappropriate start-up and filament
temperature usually shorten the filament life and degrade
household, industrial, agricultural and medical fields are
the performance. In order to keep filament at proper
continuously developed [1-3]. The microwave generator
temperature, the filament driving voltage should be
of microwave ovens is a continuous-wave magnetron.
decreased with the average anode current. Shown in
Its basic components include a hollow metal cylinder, a
Fig.1 is an example that the filament driving voltage
cathode filament, two ring magnets, even-number anode
decreases with the average anode current. Accordingly,
resonant cavities and an output antenna. The cathode
as shown in Fig.2, besides the anode power supply
filament is located in the central of the hollow cylinder
and is surrounded by the even-number anode cavities. (APS) a complete magnetron driver needs a separate
The space between the anode and cathode is the working filament power supply (FPS) to preheat and regulate the
space of magnetron. In the space, the dc voltage filament power. In this work, the voltage source Vd is
between anode and cathode forms a horizontal electric rectified from the utility line. The anode of magnetron is
field and the two ring magnets respectively located on grounded to the heat sink. The APS supplies a negative
the top and bottom of the hollow cylinder build a vertical dc voltage to the cathode and the FPS heats the filament
magnetic field. As the cathode filament is heated to a with a small ac voltage. To preheat the filament, switch
critical temperature, the cathode filament emits thermal S1 is turned on before switchS2.
electrons to the working space. Then, the perpendicular
electric and magnetic fields respectively exert forces to VF ( V ) 5
the space electrons. As the space electrons sweep across 4
the opening of anode cavities, the polarities of adjacent
anode vanes are alternately changed and hence the LC 3
resonance of the anode cavities is caused. At proper
conditions, the space electron clouds eventually form 2
rotating spokes. As the spoke number is a half of the 1
anode cavity number, the magnetron enters the pi mode
operation. To easily enter the pi mode, the even and the 0
odd anode vanes are respectively tied together. The 0 0.4 1.0 I AK (A )
anode output antenna intercepts the energy of anode
resonant cavities and radiates microwaves. With the Fig. 1. The required filament voltage decreased with the
constant magnetic and electric fields, the anode power is average anode current.
determined by the average anode current. Currently, there are many types of soft-switching
The cathode filament is the heart of magnetrons. To circuits can be used to improve the circuit efficiency and
prolong the usable life, the filament should be preheated

© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
E3S Web of Conferences 64 , 07 0 0 7(2018) https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20186407007
ICPRE 2018

reduce the volume and weight of power supplies. Due to ip


simplicity and reliability, single-switch zero-voltage- is
switching (ZVS) circuits have been widely used in    

Vd Cr vp i
induction heating, cooking, LCD TV, EV chargers and  Lm
    
other industrial applications [4-10]. Vd
Vd Tr
  isw
S1 FPS Q1 
D1 vg  v sw
Vf  
(a ) t 0 ~ t xp (b) t xp ~ t 1
S2
 K
 
vd 
  A  

APS I AK
(c) t1 ~ t xn (d) t xn ~ t 2

Fig. 2. The block diagram of an off-line magnetron driver.


Fig. 5. The circuit operations of the single-switch ZVS inverter.

2 Circuit operations As switch Q1 is turned off, transformer Tr and


capacitor C r comprise a parallel resonant tank. The
Fig.3 shows the circuit diagram of the FPS designed in
this paper. It is a voltage-fed single-switch ZVS inverter. primary leakage inductance and the transistor output
A step-down transformer is used to attain the required capacitance are included in the resonant tank. By low-
voltage conversion ratio and the secondary voltage damped resonance, the resonant energy makes the
drives the cathode filament. resonant voltage reach the dc voltage Vd . Thus, switch
Q1 can be turned on at zero-voltage condition and hence
switch loss is reduced.  Fig.4 conceptually shows the
ip L 1 1 : n L 2 i s current and voltage waveforms of the ZVS inverter.
 i Lm According to the primary current waveform, a switching
vp Cr Lm Rf cycle is divided into four stages. The detailed circuit
  operations are sketched in Fig.5.
Vd
 isw Tr At ON stage, t 0  t  t1 , the primary voltage equals
Q1 
 D1 v sw to Vd . The switch current i sw is negative at t 0 . Since
v
 g  D1 is conducted, Q1 is turned on at zero voltage
condition. After t xp , switch current rises from zero.
Fig. 3. The circuit diagram of single-switch ZVS inverter.
As Q1 is cut off at t 1 , the OFF stage begins. At OFF
vg
ON OFF
t stage, t1  t  t 2  Tr resonates with capacitor C r , and the
vp ip filament R f consumes the resonant energy. At t xn , the
sinusoidal resonant current crosses zero and the resonant
Vd
t voltage reaches maximum. By small damping ratio, the
i Lm primary resonant voltage rises to Vd at t 2 . Then, D1
naturally conducts and Q1 can be turned on at zero
voltage condition.
is i sw
v sw
t 3 Circuit analyses
t xp t xv t xn
t0 t1 t2 Fig.6 shows a simplified resonant circuit, where L p is

Fig. 4. The principal waveforms of single-switch ZVS inverter. the primary inductance, L p  L m  L 1 , L m is the
magnetizing inductance, L m  kL p , k is the transformer
coupling factor, k  L m /( L m  L 1 ) . Csw is the switch
output capacitance and C p is the primary capacitance,
C p  C r  Csw . As the secondary leakage inductance is

2
E3S Web of Conferences 64 , 07 0 0 7(2018) https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20186407007
ICPRE 2018

ignored, the primary resistance can be approximated as the constants B1 and B 2 are determined.
R p  R f / n 2 . For driving low resistance filament, the
transformer turn ratio is much less than unity, V 1
B1  V0 , B 2  V0  (I 0  0 ) . (7)
n  N s / N p  1 . The initial inductor current and initial d R d C p
capacitor voltage are I 0 and V0 respectively.
With the voltage response, the resistive current is
L 1 L 2  ip i Lp i Rp
n2
i Cp i Rp ( )  v p ( ) / R p . (8)
Rf

Csw Cr Lm V0 Cp vp I0 Lp Rp
n2  The inductive current obtained by the KCL is

dvp ( )
Fig. 6. The simplified equivalent circuit. i Lp ( )  i Rp ( )  i Cp ( ) , i Cp ( )  Cp . (9)
dt
With coupling factor k and turn ratio n, the secondary
voltage of ON stage can be approximately expressed as
For undamped case,  0 , B1  V0 , B 2  I 0 Z 0 , the
v s ( t  t 0 )  knv p ( t  t 0 )  knV d . (1) primary voltage and current are respectively
The transformer secondary current is
v p ( )  V0 cos( 0 )  I 0 Z0 sin( 0 ) . (10)
knVd knVd R
is (t  t 0 )   [i s ( t 0 )  ] exp[  f ( t  t 0 )] (2)
Rf Rf L2 V0
i p ( )  I 0 cos(0 )  sin( 0 ) (11)
At OFF stage, the characteristic equation of resonant Z0
tank is
1 1 The primary voltage equation (10) can be written as
s2  s  s 2  2 s  02  0 , (3)
R pCp LpCp v p ( )  Vpk sin( 0  ) (12)

1 I 0 Z0 1
Here is the damping factor,  ,  0 is the Vpk  V0 1   2 ,   ,   sin 1 ( ).
2R p C p V0 1 2
1
natural frequency, 0   The damping ratio is As shown in Fig.4, the parallel resonance begins at
L pCp t 1 and ends at t 2 . The resonant voltage crosses zero
at t xv and the phase angle between t xv and t 1 is  . The

 . With the loaded quality factor Q L , (3) can be
0 total angle of the OFF stage is   2 . As the angle of
rewritten as ON stage is expressed as  , 0    1 . The relation
between  and  can be found by the volt-second
0
s 2  2 s   02  s 2  s  02  0 . (4) balance.
QL
  

QL 
0

1

Rp
, Z 0  0 L p 
1

Lp
. 
 Vd   2 v p (  )d  v

p (  )d  Vd  (13)
2 2
Z 0 0 C p Cp 0

For under-damped case,


 1 or Q L 0.5 , the   0 t For undamped case,  0 ,
characteristic equation has two conjugate complex roots,
2
   1  (14)
s1,2   jd , d  02  .2
(5) 
The voltage stress applied on the switch Q 1 is
The natural voltage response of the primary Ls
Vsw  Vd  Vpk  Vd (1  1   2 ) (15)

v p ( )  e [B1 cos(d )  B2 sin( d )] ,  t  t1 . (6)
In case that   0.3 ,   2.04 , Vsw  3.27 Vd .
In order to reduce the switch voltage stress, the interval
With initial conditions of the ON stage should be decreased and hence a smaller
dv p (0) V0 I inductance and a larger capacitance are adopted at the
v p (0)  V0    0 , desired natural angular frequency.
dt R pCp Cp

3
E3S Web of Conferences 64 , 07 0 0 7(2018) https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20186407007
ICPRE 2018

To easily obtain the ZVS condition, the damping Fig.8, Fig.9, and Fig.10 respectively show the
ratio of the RLC tank should be smaller than 0.1. waveforms simulated at 100  , 0.32  , and 0.16 
Namely, the loaded quality factor should be greater than loads. It can be found that the reflected current increases
5. In case of
 0.1 , the primary minimum resistance is with the decrease of the filament resistance. As shown
R p  5Z0 . With the minimum resistance, the condition in Fig.8, the transformer magnetizing current is equal to
the primary current, and the negative switch current that
of the characteristic impedance can be expressed as flows through the anti-parallel diode is greater than that
of Fig.9 and Fig.10. The switch voltage stress is about
Lp R f ,min 800V. The simulated waveforms demonstrate the circuit
   (16) analyses. The switch current is a part of the primary
Cp 5n 2
current, and the difference between the primary and the
magnetizing currents is the reflected load current. The
As the exponential term of (2) is ignored, the energy transistor switch obtains the ZVS operation and the
dissipated at the ON stage can be expressed as sinusoidal resonant waveforms can be observed at the
OFF stage. Fig.11 and Fig.12 display the practical
t1 waveforms of a scale-down inverter respectively
knVd

WON  i s2 ( t  t 0 )R f dt  i s ( t  t 0 ) 
t0
Rf
  measured at light-load and heavy-load conditions. The
ac output voltage of the inverter is rectified and filtered
to a dc signal and then fed back to the control chip
At OFF stage, the dissipated energy can be expressed as L6561 to control the conduction time of switch. The
output power of the ZVS inverter is dominated by the
t2 switch conduction time. And, the switch off time is
knv p ( )

WOFF  i s2 ( )R f dt  i s ( ) 
t1
Rf
  t  t1  (18) determined by the resonant parameters. The measured
waveforms coincide with the simulated waveforms. The
waveforms shown in Fig.13 depict the relation between
the filament current and the anode to cathode voltage.
4 Simulation and experiment At start-up stage, the inverter heats the filament, and the
preheating time lasts about 3 seconds. The anode to
An off-line single-switch ZVS inverter circuit is
cathode voltage reaches about 7kV. In order to protect
designed for a 33W/3V filament. The widely used 8-pin
the magnetron from high voltage stress, the anode power
control chip L6561 is used to control the switch
supply should be turned on after the pre-heating process.
conduction time and detect the zero point of switch
voltage. The switching frequency is about 20 kHz at 1 isw 2 vp 3 vsw 4 ip 5 ilm

rated power and input voltage. To easily obtain the ZVS 1.60k 8.00

condition, the loaded quality factor of the RLC parallel


resonant tank is set larger than 5. The designed circuit 800 4.00

parameters are listed as follows.


isw, ip, ilm in amperes

Pavg  33W . R f ,min  0.16 , R f  0.32  ,


vsw, vp in volts

2
Plot1

3
1
0 0

Vd  300 V . n  0.02 , k  0.92 , L p  480 uH ,


C p  0.1uF , Z 0  69  , f sw  20 kHz .
-800 -4.00

4
5

Fig.7 displays the natural responses of the primary -1.60k -8.00

voltage with initial voltage 300V and initial current 6A.


132u 157u 182u 207u 232u
The four traces respectively correspond to the 0.1, 0.16, time in seconds

0.32 and 100 Ohms filaments. It illustrates that the RLC


Fig. 8. The waveforms simulated with 100 Ohms load.
parallel circuit with above initial conditions can obtain
the ZVS operation while the filament is greater than 0.1 1 isw 2 v2 3 vsw 4 ip 5 ilm

Ohm, and the corresponding switch voltage stress at


16.0 1.60k 8.00
100Ohms load is about 800V.
600
0.1 8.00 800 4.00
0.16
isw, ip, ilm in amperes

400 0.32 2

100
vsw in volts
v2 in volts

3
1
0 0 0
200
Vp

0
-8.00 -800 -4.00
4
5

-200

-16.0 -1.60k -8.00

-400
132u 157u 182u 207u 232u
time in seconds
-600
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Sec -5
x 10
Fig. 9. The waveforms simulated with 0.32Ohms load.
Fig. 7. The simulation of characteristic equation at four
different loads.

4
E3S Web of Conferences 64 , 07 0 0 7(2018) https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20186407007
ICPRE 2018

1 vsw 2 v2 3 isw 4 ip 5 ilm

5 Conclusions
8.00 16.0 1.60k

Before applying dc high voltage to a cooker magnetron,


4.00 8.00 800
the cathode filament is preheated to reach the thermionic
2 emission temperature. As the magnetron starts working,
isw, ip, ilm in amperes

vsw in volts

the filament power is regulated according to average


v2 in volts

0 0 0 1
3

anode current. This paper designs an off-line single-


-4.00 -8.00 -800 4
5
switch zero-voltage-switching inverter as the filament
power supply. As the transistor switch of the inverter is
-8.00 -16.0 -1.60k turned on, the input voltage drives the cathode filament
132u 157u 182u 207u 232u
via a step-down isolation transformer. As the transistor
time in seconds

switch is turned off, the transformer resonant voltage


Fig. 10. The waveforms simulatedwith 0.16 Ohms load. drives the filament. The output power is dominated by
the switch conduction time. The resonant parameters
determine the switch off time.
v sw
This work is supported by the MOST of Taiwan; the
ip i sw contract number is MOST 107-2637-E-131-003.

References
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Fig. 11. The steady-state waveforms at light load conditions. 2. Luiz P. P Junior, Marcos E. T, Juliano S. B. and Leandro M.,
“Modeling and control of a high-frequency magnetron power
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Electronics Conference COBEP/SPEC, (2015), pp.1-6.
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Fig. 13 The waveforms of filament current (10A/Div) and
anode to cathode voltage (2kV/Div) at start-up stage,
Time:1s/Div.