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Plants – are living organisms that cover much of the land of the planet earth, it includes grass, trees,

flowers, bushes, ferns, mosses etc. They are belong to the members of kingdom plantae.


 Vascular(Tracheophytes) – These plants have specific tissues that help to move materials such as
water through the plant. They are divided into nonflowering plants and flowering plants.
 Nonvascular(Bryophytes) – these are smaller plants with no roots, stems, and leaves.


 Leaf – is an organ of a plant that is specialized for photosynthesis.

 Stem – is the main structure that supports leaves and flowers, plans often store food in their
 Roots – the roots of the plants grow underground. They help to keep the plant from falling over
and absorb water and minerals from soil.
 Taproots – roots that grows very deep.
 Fibrous roots – have many roots that grow in all directions.
 Flowering plants – type of vascular plants that produce flowers in order to reproduce.
 Mococots – these are plants that have one seed leaf.
 Dicots – these are plants that have two seed leaves or cotyledons.

Life cycle of Flowering Plants

1. Seed – they begin their lives as a seed

2. Germination – when seeds begin to grow, the first growth will usually be small root.
3. Sprout/Seedling – when the first sign of life appears above the soil
4. Mature Plant – the seedling will continue to grow with leaves ,roots and stem
5. Flowering – through pollination, the flowers will produce seeds.

 Flower – reproductive organs of the flower

1. Sepal – support structure of the petal
2. Petal – the bright colorful leaves of the flower
3. Stamen – produces pollen
4. Filament – it holds the anther
5. Anther – lobes hold sacs which contain pollen
6. Pistil – female part of the flower
7. Stigma – area where pollen is received.
8. Carpel – ovary of the flower.

 Fruits – way which many plants spread their seed.

 Seedc- is the embryo of a plant, sort of like a baby plant.
 Pollination – transferring of pollen to another plant.

 Nonflowering plants – do not use flowers to reproduce.

 Gymnosperms – “ naked seeds” the seeds are open to the air with no covering unlike the seeds
of flowering plants.
 Conifers – “bearing cones” use cones to house their seeds.
 The cones can be male or female and the seeds winged seeds.
 Spores – they do not produce seeds.
 Mosses – are soft and spongy plants that typically grow only a few inches tall.
 Ferns – type of spores, that produces pant. Produces spores casings on the underside of the