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FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

HYDRAULICS

EQUATION OF CONTINUITY

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COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

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REYNOLDS NUMBER

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FRICTION FACTOR FOR LAMINAR FLOW and TURBULENT FLOW

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HEAD LOSS IN TERMS OF REYNOLDS NUMBER

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HEAD LOSS USING DARCY WEISHBACH FORMULA

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HEAD LOSS USING DARCY WEISHBACH FORMULA •

HEAD LOSS USING MANNING’S FORMULA

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HEAD LOSS USING MANNING’S FORMULA •

HEAD LOSS USING HAZEN WILLIAMS FORMULA

HEAD LOSS USING HAZEN WILLIAMS FORMULA
HEAD LOSS USING HAZEN WILLIAMS FORMULA

HAZEN WILLIAMS FORMULA

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Minor losses

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PROBLEM 1:

A pipe has a diameter of 25mm and a length of 60m. A liquid having a kinematic viscosity of 3.5x10^-5 m^2/s is flowing thru the pipe at a velocity of 3m/s.

a.

Compute the Reynolds Number

b.

Compute the friction factor “f”.

c.

Compute the head loss of pipe.

PROBLEM 2:

An oil with ρ = 900kg/m^3 and kinematic viscosity ν = 0.0002 m^2/s flows upward through an inclined pipe. Assuming steady laminar flow, compute the following:

a.

Head lost between section 1 and 2.

b.

Flow rate

c.

Reynolds number

PROBLEM 3:

A 0.60m diameter pipeline 30m long carries of 0.40 m^3/s of water. Compute the head loss using the following formula.

a. Darcy Weishbach with f= 0.014.

b. Manning’s Formula with n = 0.012.

c. Hazen Williams with C = 120.

PROBLEM 4:

Two pipes A and B which are connected in series have a diameter and lengths equal to 400mm diameter 200 meter, 600mm diameter 300 meter, respectively. Water flows in the pipe 300 Liters/sec. The

difference in elevation between the entrance and exit of the pipe is 5

meters. Assume f = 0.02 for all pipes.

a.

Compute the head loss due to friction.

b.

Compute the change in pressure between A and B.

c.

Compute the equivalent length for a 300mm diameter pipe (made

of same material).

PROBLEM 5:

The system consists of 1000m of 500mm cast iron pipe, two 45 ° , and four 90 ° flanged long radius elbows, a fully open flanged globe valve and a sharp exit into a reservoir. Water flows at a rate of 5 L/s, from point 1 into the reservoir whose free surface lies 100m above point 1.

Kinematic viscosity ν = 1.02x10^-6 m^2/s, f = 0.0315.

a.

Compute the Reynolds Number.

b.

Compute the total head loss.

c.

Compute the gage pressure at 1 to deliver water into the reservoir.

2019/1/21

ORIFICE

PROBLEM 1:

A closed cylindrical tank 5m high contains 2.5m of water. A 100mm circular orifice is situated 0.5m from the bottom. What air pressure must be maintained in the air space in order to discharge water at 10hp.

PROBLEM 2:

A 50mm diameter circular sharp edged orifice at the side of a tank discharges water under a head of 3m. If the coefficient of contraction Cc = 0.63, and the head lost is 240mm, compute the discharge and the coefficient of velocity Cv and discharge C.

PROBLEM 3:

Water flows through an orifice at the vertical side of a large tank under

a constant head of 2.4m. How far horizontally from the vena contracta

will the jet strikes the ground 1.5m below the orifice.

PROBLEM 4:

For the water shooting out the pipe and nozzle under the condition shown, compute the ff:

a.

Velocity at A

b.

Velocity at the nozzle

c.

Height above the nozzle to which the water will shoot. Assume

negligible loss.