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Publish in Berlin (1887)

 Novel- a long written story most often about fictional events and characters.
 Setting (in a novel)- the context in which the event take place, covers geographical areas
in particular periods of time.
 Plot- the flow of the narrative in a story.
 Europe- Rizal participated in the movement of the Ilustados to utilize propaganda to
campaign for reform in the Philippines.
 Ilustrados- the enlightened ones. Release various written outputs from news bits, to
feature articles, and commentaries. Also produce creative out puts from satirical.
 January 2, 1884- Rizal proposed the writing of a novel about the Philippines at the
Paterno’s residence in Madrid.
 It did not materialize because they did not write anything.
 Rizal was determined to write alone
 1884- He finish about one half of the novel in Madrid
 1885- After studying at Central University of Madrid he finished one half of the second
 Germany- he finished the last fourth of the novel
 April-June, 1886- He wrote the last few chapter of Noli in Wilhelsfeld.
 February 1886- Rizal made the final revisions on the manuscript of the Noli in Berlin.
 He was depressed during this time and almost threw the novel into the fire.
 Dr. Maximo Viola- the savior of Noli. Scion of a rich family of San Miguel, Bulacan. He
wrote telegram to Rizal stating that he would come to Berline. He was shocked to find
Rizal living in the poverty. And the one who financed the printing of Noli.
 Rizal deleted passages in his manuscript, including a whole chapter, “Elias and Salome,”
to save printing expenses.
 February 21, 1887- Rizal found a printing shop named “Breliner Buchdruckrei-Action-
Gesselschaft”, with the lowest rate of 300 pesos for 2,000 copies of the novel.
 March 21, 1887- Noli Me Tangere Came to the press.

 Sent the first copies of the printed novel to his intimated friends; Blumentritt, Dr. Antonio
Ma. Regidor, G. Lopez-Jaena, Mariano Ponce, and Felix R. Hidago
 March 29, 1887- Gave Viola the galley proofs of the Noli Carefully rolled with the pen
that he used in writing it.


 The title of the novel Noli Me Tangere is a Latin phrase which means Touch Me Not
 Noli Me Tangere- are words taken from the Gospel of John (Chapter 20, Verses 13-17).
 The initial pages of Noli, the dedication title “A Mi Patria” means “To My Fatherland”
clearly articulated Rizal’s purpose of writing the novel.

To My Fatherland

Recorded in the history of human sufferings is a cancer of so malignant a character that the least
touch irritates it and awakens in it the sharpest pains. Thus, how many times, when in the midst of
modern civilizations, I have wished to call thee before me, now to accompany me in memories,
now to compare thee with other countries, hath thy dear image presented itself showing a social
cancer like to that other!

Desiring thy welfare, which is our own, and seeking the best treatment, I will do with thee what
the ancients did with their sick, exposing them on the steps of the temple so that everyone who
came to invoke the Divinity might offer them a remedy.

And to this end, I will strive to reproduce thy condition faithfully, without discriminations; I will
raise a part of the veil that covers the evil, sacrificing to truth everything, even vanity itself, since,
as thy son, I am conscious that I also suffer from thy defects and weaknesses.

 The project of writing the Noli, as stated was geared towards exposing the ills of Philippine
colonial society under Spain.


 Crisóstomo Ibarra (Juan Crisóstomo Ibarra y Magsalin), commonly called Ibarra, a Filipino-
Spanish and the only descendant of the wealthy Spaniard Don Rafael Ibarra.

 María Clara (María Clara de los Santos y Alba), is the most dominant yet weakest
representation of women in the setting. When thinking of Noli, the name of María Clara

 can be seen predominantly as the image of the ideal Filipino woman.She is the daughter of
Capitán Tiago and Doña Pía Alba.
 Padre Dámaso (Dámaso Verdolagas), commonly known as Padre Dámaso/Padre Damaso or
Father Damaso of Franciscan order, was the former curate of the parish church of San
 Kapitán Tiago (Don Santíago de los Santos), the only son of a wealthy trader in Malabon.

 Pilósopo Tasyo (Don Pablo), (Philosopher Tasyo) the wise old man whose ideas were too
advanced for his times so that the people who could not understand called him “Tasio the
 Eliás came from the family which the Ibarra clan had oppressed for generations. He grew
up in a wealthy family until he discovered something that changed his life forever. Despite
 Doña Victorina (Doña Victorina de los Reyes de Espadaña) the one who pretended to be a
meztisa (a Spaniard born in the Philippines) and always dreamed of finding a Spanish
husband, in which she married Don Tiburcio.
 Sisa (Narcisa) is married to the man named Pedro and the mother of Basilio and Crispín.
 Doña Consolacíon (Doña Consolacíon, la musa de los guardias civiles y esposa del Alférez)
once a laundry woman who worked for the town Alferez. She became wealthy after
marrying a Spanish husband.


 The novel contains 63 chapters and epilogue.

 It begins with a dinner given in honor of Crisostomo Ibarra by Capitan Tiago at his house
in Calle Anloague on the last day of October.
 During the dinner, other conversation centered Ibarra’s studies and travels abroad. Padre
Damaso was in a bad mood because he had a bony neck and a hard wing of the chicken
tinola. He tried to discredit Ibarra’s remarks.
 After dinner, Ibarra left Capitan Tiago’s house to return to his hotel. On the way, the kind
Lieutenant Guevara told him the sad story of his father’s death in San Diego.
 The following morning, he visited Maria Clara, his childhood sweetheart. After the
romantic reunion with her, he went to San Diego to visit his father’s grave.
 A most tragic story in the novel is the tale of Sisa, who was formerly a rich girl but became
poor because she married a gambler, and a wastrel at that. She became crazy because she
lost her two boys, Basilio and Crispin, the joy of her wretched life.
 An incident of the picnic was the saving of Elias’ life by Ibarra.
 Another incident was the rendering of a beautiful song by Maria Clara who had a sweet

 During the picnic also, Ibarra received a telegram from the Spanish authorities notifying
him the approval of his donation of a schoolhouse for the children of San Diego.
 Last chapter, as life’s breath slowly left his body. Elias looked toward the east and
murmured: “I die without seeing the dawn brighten over my native land.” You, who have
it to see, welcome it! And forget not those who have fallen during the night.


 The life and works of Jose Rizal by Rhodalyn Wani-Obias , Aaron

Abel Mallari and Janet Reguindin-Estella; page 108-111

 Jose Rizal: Life, works, and writings of a genuis, writer, scientist,

and national hero by Gregorio F Zaide; page 88-104