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Aim- To determine the boiling point of the given organic compound.

Apparatus:

Chemicals:

Reference:

PRINCIPLE:

The boiling point of a compound is the temperature at which it changes from liquid to a gas. The
boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which its vapour pressure becomes equal to
atmospheric pressure. Boiling point is used to identify and check the purity of the given
compound.
A Liquid vaporizes into the space above it until the pressure exerted by the vapour reaches a
characteristic value called the vapour pressure. When the rate of condensation of the gas
becomes equal to the rate of evaporation of the liquid, the amount of gas and liquid no longer
change. The pressure exerted by the gas in equilibrium with a solid or liquid at a given
temperature is called the vapor pressure. As the temperature is increased, the vapour pressure
increases. At the boiling point, bubbles of vapor form within the liquid and rise to the surface.

Vapour pressure is determined by the kinetic energy of a molecule. Kinetic energy depends on
the temperature, mass and velocity of a molecule. When the temperature increases, the average
kinetic energy of particles also increases. When the temperature reaches the boiling point, the
average kinetic energy becomes sufficient to overcome the force of attraction between the liquid
particles. As the force of attraction decreases, the molecules in the liquid state escape from the
surface and turn into gas.

Boiling point of a liquid decreases as the atmospheric (or applied) pressure decreases. For
example, at sea level the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm Hg and pure water boils at 1000C.
However, at 3500 feet above sea level, the atmospheric pressure is approximately 660 mm Hg,
and water boils at about 96.50C.

FACTORS WHICH AFFECT BOILING POINT

1. Strength of intermolecular forces

The relative strength of intermolecular forces such as ionic, hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole
interaction and Vander Waals dispersion force affects the boiling point of a compound. The
influence of these forces depends on the functional group present. For example,

n-butane (C4H10) contains no polar functional group. The only attraction between the butane
molecules is weak Vander Waals dispersion forces. Therefore butane boils at a temperature
much lower than diethyl ether. In the case of diethyl ether, the molecules are held together by
dipole-dipole interaction which arises due to the polarized C-O bond. Its boiling point is 35oC.
The boiling point of n-butanol is 117oC. This is due to presence of OH group which causes
intermolecular hydrogen bonding. The boiling point of sodium butoxide is higher than that of
butanol because the attractive force in sodium butoxide is very strong ionic bond.

The intermolecular forces go in the order :

Ionic > Hydrogen Bonding > Dipole-Dipole > Van der Waals dispersion force.

2. Length of carbon-carbon chain

As the length of carbon-carbon chain increases, the boiling point also increases. This is because
the force of attraction between the molecules increases as the molecule gets longer and has more
electrons. It takes more energy to overcome the force of attraction, and so the boiling point rises.

3. Branching decreases the boiling point

As the length of carbon chain increases, the surface area of the compound will also increase. Van
der Waals dispersion force is proportional to the surface area. So the increase of surface area
increases the ability of individual molecules to attract each other. Branching in molecules
decreases the surface area thereby decreasing the attractive force between individual molecules.
As a result, the boiling point decreases.

4. Polarity

Polarity of the molecule determines the force of attraction between the molecules in the liquid
state. In polar compounds, the positive end of one molecule is attracted by the negative end of
another molecule. The greater the polarity, the higher is the boiling point.

PROCEDURE:
Fill a Thiele tube with paraffin oil until the level of the oil is just above the top of the side-arm
neck and attach to a support stand. Place a small quantity of the liquid sample about 5 mm in
height in a Ignition tube and drop a melting point capillary tube (sealed at one end), with the
open end down. Attach the ignition tube to a thermometer with a thread and immerse it in a
Thiele tube.

1. Ignition tube should be on the same side of the Thiele tube’s side arm and should not touch the
glass walls of the Thiele tube.

Carefully heat the Thiele tube, very slowly. The inverted capillary tube acts as a reservoir to trap
the compound's vapors. As the apparatus is heated, the air initially trapped in the capillary tube
expands and causes bubbles to emerge from the tube. With further heating, the compound's
vapors eventually displace all of the trapped air, which is why heat is applied until there is a
continuous stream of bubbles.When the apparatus is cooled, eventually the pressure inside the
capillary tube will equal the atmospheric pressure. At this point the bubbles will slow and liquid
will be drawn into the tube. The temperature where this begins is the compound's boiling point.
ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS

Lassaigne’s Test

Preparation of sodium Fusion Extract

Procedure:

Using a forceps and a knife, cut a small piece of sodium metal and dry it with a filter paper. Then
introduce the freshly cut sodium metal into a fusion/ignition tube. Heat gently so that sodium
melts and becomes a shining globule. Drop carefully about 0.1g of the sample (two drops if the
sample is a liquid) into the fusion tube, so that the sample goes into contact with the sodium.
Heat gently in the beginning and then strongly till the ignition tube becomes red hot. Heat for a
minute to red hot and plunge the redhot tube suddenly into 10ml of distilled water contained in a
china dish or mortar covering with a wire gauze. Ignition tube shatters and residual sodium reacts
with water. Triturate the contents and transfer to a beaker. Boil and filter. The filtrate obtained is
called Sodium Fusion Extract (S.F.E) and it is used for detection of elements.