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Dynamics

„ Kinematics „ Kinetics
‰ Geometry of motion ‰ Relation between forces
‰ Position, Velocity, and motion
Acceleration ‰ F=ma
„ 1-D, Chapter 2 „ Module 2
„ 2-D, Chapter 3 „ Chapters 4-6
‰ Special applications ‰ Energy methods &
„ Constant acceleration impulse-momentum
„ Projectile motion „ Module 3
„ Chapters 7-9

Rectilinear Motion

„ Motion along a line


„ Need three things:
1. Zero
2. Positive direction
3. Units
„ This is our coordinate system.
„ Motion variables are vectors since they
have magnitude and direction.

1
Velocity
Δs s2 − s1
Average velocity vavg = =
Δt t 2 − t1
Δs ds
Instantaneous velocity v = lim = = s&
Δt →0 Δt dt

Work backwards Δs = ∫ vdt

Slope of position graph = velocity


Area under velocity graph = change in position

Acceleration
Δv v2 − v1
Average acceleration aavg = =
Δt t 2 − t1
Δv dv
Instantaneous acceleration a = lim = = v& = &s&
Δt →0 Δt dt

Work backwards Δv = ∫ adt

Slope of velocity graph = acceleration


Area under acceleration graph = change in velocity

2
Example 1
s(t ) = 6t 2 − t 3
where,
t is in seconds
s is in feet

Qualitatively plot v-t


and a-t graphs.

Physically
describe the
motion.

Example 1

s(t ) = −t 3 + 6t 2
v(t ) = −3t 2 + 12t
a(t ) = −6t + 12
At t = 6sec, where
is the particle?

How far has the


particle traveled in
6 seconds?

3
The Kinematics Ladder

Differentiate
Down the ladder: Up the ladder:

s(t ) t
s(t ) = s0 + ∫ v (t )dt
0
ds
v (t ) = t
dt
v (t ) = v 0 + ∫ a(t )dt

Integrate
0
dv
a(t ) =
dt
a(t )

Example 2
a(t ) = 12t 2
v 0 = 200
s0 = −500
where,
t is in seconds
s is in m
Qualitatively plot v-t
and s-t graphs.
Physically
describe the
motion.

4
Example 2

s(t ) = t 4 + 200t − 500


v (t ) = 4t 3 + 200
a(t ) = 12t 2

At t = 6sec, where
is the particle?

How far has the


particle traveled in
6 seconds?

Example 3
v (t ) = 4t
s0 = −10
where,
t is in seconds
s is in feet

Qualitatively plot a-t


and s-t graphs.
Physically
describe the
motion.

5
Example 3
s(t ) = 2t 2 − 10
v(t ) = 4t
a(t ) = 4

At t = 6sec, where
is the particle?

How far has the


particle traveled in
6 seconds?