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1. Lulu Nur Azizah 17/411928/FA/11357

2. Lutfia Nadiatuz Zakiyah 17/411929/FA/11358
3. Luthfiah Eka Sulistyaningrum 17/411930/FA/11359
4. Maria Novia Puspita N 17/411931/FA/11360
5. Marina Elsaida H 17/411932/FA/11361
6. Maya Septiana 17/411933/FA/11362
7. Mega Apriliana 17/411934/FA/11363
8. Meutia Faza Meitrika 17/411935/FA/11364

Administration drug or drug delivery system can be devided into 5 ways. There are oral
administration, sublingual administration, intra venous administration, rectal administration, and
transdermal administration. Transdermal administration drug is a passive mode of drug delivery
through the skin into the bloodstream. This interview is used to know more information about
transdermal administration drug from pharmacist.


This interview is used to know more about :
1. What is transdermal administration
2. The mechanism penetration of the drug into the body
3. Why the active pharmaceutical ingredient must be made transdermal administration
4. The advantages of transdermal administration
5. The disadvantages of transdermal administration
6. The advantages and disadvantages of each generation of transdermal administration


Day : Friday
Date : 30 th November 2018
Place : Canteen in the Faculty of Pharmacy UGM
 Interviewees
Name : Elisabeth Hilda Wisda Putri
Born : Jakarta, 3rd July 1996
Addres : Taman KTJ/429 YK RT 03 RW 09 Patehan Kraton Yogyakarta
 Interviewer
Name : Luthfiah Eka Sulistyaningrum
NIM : 17/411930/FA/11359
 Documentation
Name : Maya Septiana
NIM : 17/411933/FA/11362

Elisabeth Hilda Wisda Putri or can be called Hilda is our interviewees. She was graduated from
Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada on 2014. Now she is continuing her study on Pharmacist
Profession Study Program at Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada. When she was studying on
Bachelor Program of Pharmacy, She chosen to specialize in the pharmaceutical industry so she knew how
to make a medicine and evaluate the quality of medicine.

We ask her some question about transdermal drug administration, there are :

1. Do you know about transdermal administration drug ?

2. How the mechanism penetration of the drug into the body ?
3. What is every active pharmaceutical ingredient can be made by transdermal administration ?
4. Can you tell us the advantages of transdermal administration ?
5. Can you tell us the disadvantages of transdermal administration ?
6. There are 3 generation of transdermal administration patches, ionthoporesis, and microneedle.
What the advantages dan disadvantages each generation ?
Transdermal administration drug is a route the drug by penetration through the skin into
bloodstreams at the predetermined and controlled rate. For every transdermal adiminstration drug are
generally comprised of five component, there are :

1. The active drug/active pharmaceutical ingredient

2. Polymer matrix, is used to store the drug
3. Enhancers, is used to enhances the penetration of the drug through the skin
4. Adhesives, is used to attachedon the patch and helps in adhering to the skin
5. Backing layers

The mechanism of penetration the drug into the skin starting from releasing the drug from the
base material and then the enhancer will help the drug to penetration through the skin. The drug will
move into bloodstream and the drug will spread throughout the body systematically.

The manufacture of transdermal dosage form must comply several conditions. The dose of the
drug each dosage form is must less than 20mg. The molecular weight is must less than 400 dalton.
This is because the pores of the skin is small so the drug must be small too. The aqueous solubility is
more than 1 mg/ml. This is because our blood contains a lot of water so the drug must dissolve so
that it can be circulated.

The advantage of transdermal administration is more practical than other administration. Beside
that, transdermal adimintration can avoid the drug from first pass metabolism so the dose of the drug
will remain and the patient can get the therapeutic effect more than other administration of drug.
The disadvantage of transdermal drug is patient the patient may get an allergic reaction because the
patch is attached to the skin.

There are three generation of transdermal drug administration. First the patch, how to use it by
attaching a patch on the skin then the drug will penetrate into the skin. Second the iontophoresis, it
uses low voltage to increase permeability of the skin. Third the microneedle, it uses a small needle
to penetrate the drug into the skin. The patches are easy to use but can cause allergic reactions. The
iontophoresis is requires electrical voltage so that the drug can penetrate into the skin. The
microneedle is more expensive than patches so it requires more costs for treatment.