09835,1905.

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

0 Aufrufe

09835,1905.

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- CHAPTER 3
- Atlas of Disease
- F report
- Plasma Module Users Guide
- PERCDC (COACHING-GEAS) - 1
- FTIR Studies and Dielectric Properties of Cu Substituted Nano Crystalline Nickel-Zinc Ferrites Synthesized By Citrate-Gel Auto Combustion Technique
- F5 MID-TERM PHYSICS PAPER 1 (SMKRPK 2007)
- Contactless characterization of low conductivity semiconductors
- Chapter 2
- Nmazing Energy
- Earth Electrode Resistance Caluculations
- EDM, ECM and Graphene
- .....Imp Maitaing Surface Unform Tesdfsdfzmp
- dapus
- Copper Smp Prop2
- pendon grafeno j.pdf
- 57090500714
- [S__O_Pillai unit 1 rr.pdf
- 0c9605297137d047ba000000
- 13. Vapour Transmission

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 10

1

Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PU, UK

Using the semiclassical quantum Boltzmann equation (QBE), we numerically calculate the DC

transport properties of bilayer graphene near charge neutrality. We find, in contrast to prior dis-

cussions, that phonon scattering is crucial even at temperatures below 40K. Nonetheless, electron-

electron scattering still dominates over phonon collisions allowing a hydrodynamic approach. We

introduce a simple two-fluid hydrodynamic model of electrons and holes interacting via Coulomb

drag and compare our results to the full QBE calculation. We show that the two-fluid model

produces quantitatively accurate results for conductivity, thermopower, and thermal conductivity.

arXiv:1905.09835v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall] 23 May 2019

Two-dimensional materials such as graphene[1] BLG[29, 30]. Compared to [29], which studies the

have attracted an enormous amount of attention case of clean BLG, we calculate the conductivity

in the last decade. While the transport properties away from CN, which requires including additional

of graphene have been extensively studied[2], other scattering mechanisms. The paper [30] does study

related materials are only beginning to be exam- the conductivity of BLG away from CN by includ-

ined. Advances in nanotechnology have recently ing the effect of disorder, however we aim to pro-

allowed electrical measurements on suspended bi- vide a more quantitative analysis allowing for com-

layer graphene (BLG) samples[3–11]. Motivated parison with experimental data. We compare our

by these advances, we theoretically examine the results for the electrical conductivity to the exper-

DC transport properties of BLG using a quantum imental results from Ref. [3] in order to extract the

Boltzmann equation (QBE) approach. value of the only free parameter of the theory: The

As in the case of monolayer graphene[12, 13], phonon scattering rate. The value we determine

we expect that electrons in BLG will have high for the phonon deformation potential lies within

mobility and scattering of electrons among them- the range reported by previous authors. We then

selves will be the dominant scattering mecha- use this value to calculate the thermal conductiv-

nism. We thus expect that the quantum Boltz- ity and the thermo-electric coefficient. Finally, we

mann equation (QBE) will reduce to some form of introduce the two-fluid model and show that it

hydrodynamics[14–20]. agrees quantitatively with the more detailed QBE

Measurement of the electrical conductivity in numerics.

BLG has been reported in Ref. [3] and we show QBE —At low energies, bilayer graphene can be

that our QBE results agree with the experimental described in a two-band model with a quadratic

data over a wide range of parameters. We focus dispersion λ (k) = λ|k|2 /2m where λ = +(−) for

our calculation on the regime explored in that ex- electrons in the conduction (valence) band [25, 31],

periment, i.e., close to charge neutrality and at m = 0.033me is the effective mass [32], and k is

temperatures T ∼ 10K – 40K (using the common the two-dimensional momentum. There are two

Bernal stacked BLG with no out of plane field). valleys (K and K 0 ) and two spin states in each

We show that in this regime, surprisingly, the ef- valley, thus giving Nf = 4 flavors. We neglect ad-

fect of phonon scattering plays an essential role ditional effects at low temperatures such as trig-

(with the effect of finite sample size playing a mi- onal warping [33] and opening of an interaction

nor role). We then use the QBE to make predic- induced gap [34], restricting the applicability of

tions for the thermopower and thermal conduc- our approach to T & 10K [3].

tivity that can verified in future experiments. We The QBE is a semiclassical approach which is

then show that our transport results can be quanti- valid when the de Broglie wavelength is much

tatively understood with an extremely simple two- shorter than the scattering lengths. This is equiv-

fluid hydrodynamic model[21–24]. This simplifica- alent to the condition αx ≡ βτx−1 1, where τx

tion allows intuitive understanding of the physics stands for the scattering time due to any of the

that is not otherwise possible. scattering mechanisms in the problem, and β is

In this paper we begin by briefly discussing our the inverse temperature.

QBE method, which we elaborate in detail in a In equilibrium the occupancy of a k state is

companion paper[25]. This approach is similar to given by the usual Fermi factor. The QBE de-

previous work on the conductivity of monolayer termines the change in occupancy of the k states

graphene [26, 27], two coupled monolayers [28] and due to small perturbations such as an external

electric field E or temperature gradient ∇T . For-

mally the QBE is derived from the Kadanoff-Baym 3.0

12K

equations for the evolution of Green’s functions 14K

using a Born collision integral to describe scatter- 2.5 16K

ing. Once Boltzmann equations are formally de- 20K

σ(βµ)/σ(0)

25K

rived, the solution is obtained by expanding the 2.0 30K

k space occupation function f (k) in a set of ba- 35K

sis functions, which then reduces the QBE to a 40K

1.5 QBE

set of linear equations which can be numerically 2 fluid model

solved. The size of the basis set is then expanded

to convergence[27–29, 35]. This method of solu- 1.0

−1.0 −0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0

tion for the Boltzmann equation is well-known in βµ

the plasma physics community and goes by the

name Spitzer-Härm method [36]. Details of both FIG. 1. Electrical conductivity σ(βµ) for different val-

the derivation of the QBE, and the method of so- ues of the temperature. From the experimental data,

lution are presented in detail in Ref. [25] and the we fit the value αph = 0.05. The experimental data is

Supplementary Material[37]. from [3]. The black solid curve is the result of the QBE

We calculate the electrical current J and the calculation. The black dashed curve shows the result

from the two-fluid model and shows good agreement

heat current, which is defined as Q = JE − µe J,

with the full QBE calculation.

where JE is the energy current and e < 0 is the

electron charge. From this we can determine the

electrical conductivity σ, the thermal conductivity temperatures would not collapse when plotted as a

K and the thermo-electric coefficient Θ by function of βµ, and this does not agree with the ex-

perimental data. We thus disregard these two scat-

J σ Θ E

= (1) tering mechanisms. The situation, however, is dif-

Q TΘ K −∇T .

ferent for phonon scattering. The experiment is at

The open circuit thermal conductivity [38] which temperatures above the Bloch-Grüneisen temper-

is usually measured in experiments is given by κ = ature and hence the longitudinal acoustic phonons

K − T Θσ −1 Θ. have a scattering time [41, 42]

Coulomb and phonon scattering— We first con-

sider Coulomb (electron-electron, electron-hole) −1 D2 mkB T

scattering, which we expect to be dominant. We τph = , (2)

2ρc2

use the form of the screened Coulomb potential

valid in the experimentally-relevant regime βµ . where c is the speed of sound in graphene, D is

1. In the experimental data[3], to a good approx- the deformation potential and ρ is the mass den-

imation the conductivity only depends on the di- sity of BLG. The relevant dimensionless parame-

−1

mensionless combination βµ. (See Fig. 1 [39]). If ter αph = βτph is then independent of tempera-

only Coulomb interactions are included then βµ is ture and should result in the conductivity being

the only dimensionless parameter of the problem a function of βµ only, in close agreement with

(the electromagnetic fine-structure constant can- experiment[3]. We emphasize the surprising result

cels out when the screened potential is used[37]). that even at these comparatively low temperatures

However, away from charge neutrality (CN), the of 12 − 40K, phonons provide the primary momen-

so-called momentum mode (i.e., a simple Galilean tum relaxation mechanism.

boost), where electrons and holes move in the same Electrical conductivity.— In the absence of a

N f e2

direction, carries electrical current, and is not re- magnetic field the conductivity σij = 2~ σ̃δij

laxed by Coulomb scattering since it conserves mo- depends on the dimensionless numbers βµ and

mentum. Thus, to obtain a finite conductivity, an- αph . The thermal density of electrons (holes)

other scattering mechanism that relaxes momen- for the free Fermi gas is given by ne(h) =

tum must be considered. We identify three pos- (Nf m/(2πβ)) ln(1 + e±βµ ) and as we increase |βµ|

sible such mechanisms: Impurity scattering, scat- there are more charge carriers. However the to-

tering off the boundary of the finite-size sample, tal number density of electrons plus holes only in-

and phonons. In the former two cases, the rel- creases by 17% between |βµ| = 0 and 1 (at fixed

evant dimensionless scattering parameter αx de- T ), and therefore this effect alone is too small to

pends on temperature[40]. Therefore, if either of account for the electrical conductivity more than

these scattering mechanisms were most important doubling in this range. To understand this we re-

(after Coulomb scattering) the curves for different alize that the primary scattering is electron-hole

2

collisions[3] and therefore the conductivity at large

chemical potential is large both because we have

many electrons to carry the charge and also be-

cause there are not many holes to scatter from. A

non-zero αph makes the conductivity finite and, as

mentioned above, the curves for different temper-

atures approximately collapse when plotted as a

function of βµ. We treat the deformation poten-

tial D as a fit parameter being that various dif-

ferent approaches have given different estimates of

this quantity[43–47]. Our best fit value αph = 0.05

corresponds to D ≈ 27eV, which is consistent with

prior expectation that it lies in the range 10−30eV.

Including the effect of finite size (boundary scat-

tering) reduces the phonon scattering required to

match the experiment. Taking account of the fact

that the typical size of the system is around 3µm,

and there will be additional momentum-relaxing

scattering off the boundary of the sample, the best

FIG. 2. Top: The dimensionless open-circuit ther-

fit D may be reduced by around 30%. 2

mal conductivity κ̃ = (Nf kB T /2~)−1 κ calculated us-

In Fig. 1 we show σ as a function of βµ. We show ing QBE (blue) and two-fluid approximation (yellow).

both the result of QBE calculation using the above Bottom: The dimensionless thermoelectric coefficient

discussed fit value of D as well as the experimental is defined as Θ̃ = (Nf ekB T /2~)−1 Θ calculated us-

data from Ref. [3]. ing QBE (blue) and two-fluid approximation (yellow).

The two curves show near perfect overlap. Both figures

Exactly at CN, our prediction for the magni- use αph = 0.05.

tude of σ matches prior calculations by Ref. [29]

to within about 1.5% between 10K –100K. Com-

parison to experiment is more difficult because dif- tering between electrons and holes is suppressed

ferent samples give different precise values of con- due to both matrix element effects and energy-

ductivity — differing from each other by factors of momentum conservation constraints[25], we be-

up to about 4. Our prediction lies acceptably in lieve treating the electron fluid and the hole fluids

the middle of the experimental range. as weakly interacting with each other will be ac-

Thermal Properties.—Including only Coulomb curate. In this limit, due to the strong scattering

scattering, the thermal conductivity K diverges within each species, each of the two fluids should

since the momentum mode carries thermal cur- have a well defined temperature, chemical poten-

rent and cannot be relaxed by Coulomb interac- tial, and velocity. We thus introduce a two-fluid

tions. Phonons again regulate this divergence. model [21–24], which shows excellent agreement

One might expect that the thermal conductivity with our detailed numerical calculation[48]. The

increases with increasing |βµ| since the total heat evolution of the mean fluid velocities of electrons

transport carrier density ne + nh increases. How- (holes) ue (uh ) can then be derived explicitly from

ever, we note that K actually decreases with in- the QBE (See Supplementary Material[37] for de-

creasing |βµ| which is counter-intuitive. In the tailed derivation) giving[49].

limit of weak phonon scattering we will see below m e m e

that K ∼ 1/(ne + nh ). The open circuit thermal mu̇e = − (u − uh ) − u + eE − Λe kB ∇T

N k2 T

τeh τph

conductivity κij = f2~B κ̃δij , plotted in Fig. 2 m h m h

(top), decreases faster than K away from CN since mu̇h = − (u − ue ) − u − eE − Λh kB ∇T

τhe τph

the momentum mode carries electric current and

hence does not contribute to κ. The thermoelec- Here τeh = τ0 (ne + nh )/nh is the scattering time

N ek T

tric coefficient Θij = f 2~B Θ̃δij plotted in Fig. 2 for electrons to scatter off holes and ne τeh = nh τhe

(bottom) vanishes at CN and increases as we in- guarantees momentum conservation. By evaluat-

crease βµ, as the momentum mode now carries ing the Coulomb collision integral we extract the

both heat and charge. value βτ0−1 = 0.15 (See Supplement[37]). Here,

Two-fluid model.—Since Coulomb scattering is Λe (Λh ) is the entropy per electron (hole) of the

dominant we expect a hydrodynamic description free Fermi gas characterized by βµ. An explicit

will be appropriate. Further, since the scat- expression for these quantities is given in Supple-

3

mentary Material[37]. experiment with us. This work was supported by

We are interested in DC transport so we may set EP/N01930X/1. Statement of compliance with

the left of these two equations to zero, and solve for EPSRC policy framework on research data: This

the velocities ue,h . The electric current is then J = publication is theoretical work that does not re-

e(ne ue − nh uh ) and the thermal current is JE = quire supporting research data.

kB T (Λe ne ue + Λh nh uh ). The advantage of the

two-fluid model is its simplicity which allows us to

obtain analytic expressions (see Supplement[37])

for transport coefficients. In the limit τph τ0 the

[1] K. S. Novoselov, A. Mishchenko, A. Carvalho,

expressions simplify even more giving, for exam-

−1 and A. H. Castro Neto, Science 353 (2016).

ple, K̃ = (2π 2 mkB T /9)αph /(ne + nh ). In Figs. 1 [2] N. Peres, Reviews of Modern Physics 82 (2010).

and 2 we compare the results from the QBE and [3] Y. Nam, D.-K. Ki, D. Soler-Delgado, and A. F.

the two-fluid model. In both cases the agreement Morpurgo, Nature Physics 13, 1207 (2017).

is extremely good. [4] D.-K. Ki, V. I. Fal’ko, D. A. Abanin, and A. F.

Since heat is carried by the momentum mode, Morpurgo, Nano Letters 14, 2135 (2014).

the Coulomb drag between electrons and holes [5] R. T. Weitz, M. T. Allen, B. E. Feldman, J. Mar-

tin, and A. Yacoby, Science 330, 812 (2010).

will not affect it, and the thermal conductivity

[6] B. E. Feldman, J. Martin, and A. Yacoby, Nature

will mainly be limited by the phonon scattering. Physics 5, 889 (2009).

The electrical conductivity on the other hand will [7] M. T. Pettes, I. Jo, Z. Yao, and L. Shi, Nano

be limited by both phonon scattering and the Letters 11, 1195 (2011).

Coulomb drag between electrons and holes. There- [8] D.-K. Ki and A. F. Morpurgo, Nano Letters 13,

fore, the electrical conductivity is suppressed com- 5165 (2013).

pared to the thermal conductivity, leading to a [9] F. Freitag, J. Trbovic, M. Weiss, and

C. Schönenberger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 076602

large Lorenz number L ≡ κ/(σT ). At charge

(2012).

neutrality we find L ≈ 25(kB /e)2 which is much [10] J. Velasco Jr, L. Jing, W. Bao, Y. Lee, P. Kratz,

larger than the value of π 2 /3(kB /e)2 predicted by V. Aji, M. Bockrath, C. N. Lau, C. Varma,

the Wiedemann-Franz law. The violation of the R. Stillwell, D. Smirnov, F. Zhang, J. Jung, and

Wiedemann-Franz law for BLG has been previ- A. H. MacDonald, Nature Nanotechnology 7, 156

ously pointed out by [30] and has been experimen- (2012).

tally observed for monolayer graphene in [50]. [11] Y. Nam, D.-K. Ki, M. Koshino, E. McCann, and

A. F. Morpurgo, 2D Materials 3, 045014 (2016).

Conclusion.— In this paper we have calculated

[12] K. Bolotin, K. Sikes, Z. Jiang, M. Klima, G. Fu-

the transport properties of bilayer graphene. Our denberg, J. Hone, P. Kim, and H. Stormer, Solid

results for the electrical conductivity match the ex- State Communications 146, 351 (2008).

perimental results in [3]. From the experimental [13] S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson,

data we deduce that even at low temperatures, the F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K.

scattering off phonons is crucial. Nonetheless, the Geim, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 016602 (2008).

dominant scattering mechanism is between charge [14] D. Svintsov, V. Vyurkov, S. Yurchenko, T. Otsuji,

and V. Ryzhii, Journal of Applied Physics 111,

carriers of the same species, which justifies a two

083715 (2012).

fluid approach which shows excellent agreement [15] F. M. D. Pellegrino, I. Torre, and M. Polini, Phys.

with the detailed numerical results of the QBE and Rev. B 96, 195401 (2017).

provides a simple way of calculating the transport [16] R. Bistritzer and A. H. MacDonald, Phys. Rev. B

properties analytically. One can adapt our two 80, 085109 (2009).

fluid model to different experimental setups with [17] M. Müller, J. Schmalian, and L. Fritz, Phys. Rev.

slight modifications [25]. Lett. 103, 025301 (2009).

[18] A. V. Andreev, S. A. Kivelson, and B. Spivak,

It would be interesting to test the predictions

Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 256804 (2011).

for the thermopower and thermal conductivity in [19] B. N. Narozhny, I. V. Gornyi, M. Titov,

upcoming experiments. Our formalism can be ex- M. Schütt, and A. D. Mirlin, Phys. Rev. B 91,

panded to address a variety of other quantities 035414 (2015).

of interest, including finite frequency effects, spin [20] M. Müller and S. Sachdev, Phys. Rev. B 78,

transport, and Hall viscosity. 115419 (2008).

Acknowledgements.— We would like to acknowl- [21] V. Gantmakher and I. Levinson, Sov. Phys. JETP

133 (1978).

edge helpful discussions with Philipp Dumitrescu

[22] J. C. W. Song, D. A. Abanin, and L. S. Levitov,

and Lars Fritz. We would also like to thank the au- Nano Letters 13, 3631 (2013).

thors of [3] for kindly providing the data from that [23] D. A. Abanin, R. V. Gorbachev, K. S. Novoselov,

work to us. We are very grateful to David Soler A. K. Geim, and L. S. Levitov, Phys. Rev. Lett.

Delgado and Alberto Morpurgo for discussing their 107, 096601 (2011).

4

[24] M. Titov, R. V. Gorbachev, B. N. Narozhny, [50] J. Crossno, J. K. Shi, K. Wang, X. Liu,

T. Tudorovskiy, M. Schütt, P. M. Ostrovsky, I. V. A. Harzheim, A. Lucas, S. Sachdev, P. Kim,

Gornyi, A. D. Mirlin, M. I. Katsnelson, K. S. T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, T. A. Ohki, and

Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and L. A. Ponomarenko, K. C. Fong, Science 351, 1058 (2016).

Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 166601 (2013).

[25] D. X. Nguyen, G. Wagner, and S. H. Simon, arXiv

e-prints (2019), arXiv:1901.07039.

[26] L. Fritz, J. Schmalian, M. Müller, and S. Sachdev,

Phys. Rev. B 78, 085416 (2008).

[27] M. Müller, L. Fritz, and S. Sachdev, Phys. Rev.

B 78, 115406 (2008).

[28] J. Lux and L. Fritz, Phys. Rev. B 86, 165446

(2012).

[29] J. Lux and L. Fritz, Phys. Rev. B 87, 075423

(2013).

[30] M. Zarenia, G. Vignale, T. B. Smith, and A. Prin-

cipi, arXiv e-prints (2019), arXiv:1901.05077.

[31] E. McCann and M. Koshino, Reports on Progress

in Physics 76, 056503 (2013).

[32] M. Koshino and T. Ando, Phys. Rev. B 73,

245403 (2006).

[33] E. McCann and V. I. Fal’ko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96,

086805 (2006).

[34] Y. Nam, D.-K. Ki, D. Soler-Delgado, and A. F.

Morpurgo, Science 362, 324 (2018).

[35] P. T. Dumitrescu, Phys. Rev. B 92, 121102

(2015).

[36] L. Spitzer and R. Härm, Phys. Rev. 89, 977

(1953).

[37] G. Wagner, D. X. Nguyen, and S. H. Simon, Sup-

plementary Material to this paper.

[38] κ measures the heat current in the absence of elec-

trical current.

[39] We also note that in [3], in three of four samples,

σ(µ = 0) does not vary more than about 10%

over the full range of measured temperatures 10 −

100K.

[40] The dimensionless parameters for impurity scat-

tering, scattering off the boundary and phonons

respectively,

√

are αimp = (8π 2 Z/Nf r )2 βnimp /m

β −1

αL = √mL , αph = βτphonon . Here L is the size of

the sample, Z is the charge of the impurities, r is

the relative permeability and nimp is the impurity

density.

[41] J. K. Viljas and T. T. Heikkilä, Phys. Rev. B 81,

245404 (2010).

[42] H. Ochoa, E. V. Castro, M. I. Katsnelson, and

F. Guinea, Phys. Rev. B 83, 235416 (2011).

[43] S. S. Kubakaddi, Phys. Rev. B 79, 075417 (2009).

[44] R. Bistritzer and A. H. MacDonald, Phys. Rev.

Lett. 102, 206410 (2009).

[45] H. Suzuura and T. Ando, Phys. Rev. B 65, 235412

(2002).

[46] H. Ochoa, E. V. Castro, M. I. Katsnelson, and

F. Guinea, Phys. Rev. B 83, 235416 (2011).

[47] K. M. Borysenko, J. T. Mullen, X. Li, Y. G. Se-

menov, J. M. Zavada, M. B. Nardelli, and K. W.

Kim, Phys. Rev. B 83, 161402 (2011).

[48] We note that the two-fluid model is equivalent to

performing the Spitzer-Harm calculation with two

basis functions.

[49] By considering the Lorenz force we can also in-

clude the magnetic field in this equation.

5

— Supplementary Material —

Transport in bilayer graphene near charge neutrality: Which scattering

mechanisms are important?

Glenn Wagner, Dung X. Nguyen and Steven Simon

In this section, we briefly summarize the formalism [25] used to calculate transport coefficients in

BLG near the neutral point. To calculate the transport coefficients, we solve the QBE equation in the

perturbed background to obtain the perturbation of distribution function fλ (p) and then use the result

to derive the linear response. The Boltzmann equation is

∂ ∂ ∂

+ vλ (k) · + eE(x, t) · fλ (k, x, t) = −Iλ [{fλi }](k, x, t), (S1)

∂t ∂x ∂k

1

fλ0 (p) = , (S4)

1+ eβ(λ (p)−µ)

where λ (p) = λp2 /(2m) is the energy in band λ. The linearized quantum Boltzmann equation can then

be derived to be

λβ 1

− Iλ [{hλi (ki )}](p) = − fλ0 (p)[1 − fλ0 (p)] eE · p − ∇T · p(λ (p) − µ) , (S5)

m T

where E is the electric field and ∇T is the thermal gradient. The collision integral includes contributions

from quasi-particle interactions, scattering on phonons and finite size effect respectively

Iλ [hλi (ki )](p) = Iλ,int [hλi (ki )](p) + Iλ,phonon [hλi (ki )](p) + Iλ,size [hλi (ki )](p). (S6)

The first term in (S6) accounts for the Coulomb scattering of charge carriers (electrons and holes) off

each other. The second term describes the scattering of charge carriers off acoustic phonons. The last

term accounts for scattering of the charge carriers off the boundary of the necessarily finite-size sample.

The linearized collision integral for scattering between charge carriers is derived in [25] as

(1)

X Z d2 k d2 q

Iλ,int [hλi (ki )](p) = −(2π) δ(λ (p) + λ1 (k) − λ2 (p + q) − λ3 (k − q))

(2π)2 (2π)2

λ1 λ2 λ3

∗

× Nf |Tλλ1 λ3 λ2 (p, k, q)|2 − Tλλ1 λ3 λ2 (p, k, q)Tλλ 1 λ2 λ3

(p, k, k − p − q)

× [1 − fλ0 (p)][1 − fλ01 (k)]fλ02 (p + q)fλ03 (k − q)

× − hλ (p) − hλ1 (k) + hλ2 (p + q) + hλ3 (k − q) . (S7)

1

with

1

Mλλ0 (k, k0 ) = 1 + λλ0 ei(2θk0 −2θk ) (S9)

2

where θk is the angle between k and the x-axis. The screened Coulomb potential is given according to

[25] by

2παEM

VC (q) = (S10)

q + qT F (q)

with the Thomas-Fermi screening momentum

βq 2

qT F (q) = αEM mNf (1 + ), (S11)

12m

where αEM = e2 /0 is the electromagnetic fine structure constant. In Eq. S10 we can take the de-

nominator to be only qT F if q αEM mNF . This condition is equivalent to the de Broglie wavelength

being much greater than the Bohr radius (∼ 15 Angstrom), which is true for the entire temperature

βq 2 −1

range we consider. We can thus take the approximation VC (q) = 2π/Nf m(1 + 12m ) . Note that the

electromagnetic fine structure constant has dropped out when calculating the screened potential. The

contribution to collision integral due to scattering off phonons is

−1

Iλ,phonon [hλi (ki )](p) = τphonon fλ0 (p)[1 − fλ0 (p)]hλ (p) (S12)

p 0

Iλ,size [hλi (ki )](p) = f (p)[1 − fλ0 (p)]hλ (p), (S13)

mL λ

where L is a characteristic length scale of the sample. We present more detailed numerical calculations

for each√ transport coefficient in the companion paper [25]. We can define the dimensionless parameters

β −1

αL = √mL and αph = βτphonon to characterize the strength of the two scattering mechanisms. Here,

αx is the ratio of the de Broglie wavelength of a particle travelling at the thermal speed divided by the

mean free path of the scattering mechanism x.

TWO-FLUID MODEL

We introduce the two-fluid model, which reproduces the salient features of our numerical results. We

start with the Boltzmann equation (S5). We multiply the Boltzmann equation by λp/m and integrate

over momentum space in order to derive the evolution of the mean fluid velocities as

m e mue mue

m∂t ue = − (u − uh ) − − + eE − Λe kB ∇T (S14)

τeh τph τLe

m e muh muh

m∂t uh = (u − uh ) − − − eE − Λh kB ∇T, (S15)

τhe τph τLh

where τph is the scattering time due to collisions with phonons. τeh and τLe are the scattering times of

electrons by holes and by the boundary respectively. τhe and τLh are the scattering times of holes by

electrons and by the boundary respectively. We defined the electron and hole velocities as

R d2 p p R d2 p p

e (2π)2 m f+ (p) h (2π)2 m (1 − f− (p))

u = R d2 p , u = − R d2 p . (S16)

0 0

(2π)2 f+ (p) (2π)2 (1 − f− (p))

d2 p 3 0 0

R

−1 β (2π)2 p f+ (p)[1 − f+ (p)]

τLe = R d2 p 0 (S17)

2m2 L

(2π)2 f+ (p)

2

d2 p 3 0 0

R

−1 β (2π)2 p f− (p)[1 − f− (p)]

τLh = R d2 p (S18)

2m2 L 0

(2π)2 (1 − f− (p))

The coefficients Λe,h account for the fact that the average entropy per particle is ΛkB

R d2 p 2 0 0

e (2π)2 p (+ (p) − µ)f+ (p)[1 − f+ (p)]

kB T Λ = R d2 p 0 (S19)

(2π)2 f+ (p)

d2 p 2 0 0

R

h (2π)2 p (−− (p) + µ)f− (p)[1 − f− (p)]

kB T Λ = R d2 p (S20)

0

(2π)2 (1 − f− (p))

One can derive explicitly equations (S19) and (S20) from the ∇T term in Boltzmann’s equation (S5). It

is easy to show that these integrals are in fact the entropy per particle

R d2 p 0

0

0 0

e (2π)2 1 − f+ (p) ln 1 − f+ (p) + f+ (p) ln f+ (p)

Λ =− R d2 p 0 , (S21)

(2π)2 f+ (p)

d2 p

R 0

0

0 0

h (2π)2 1 − f− (p) ln 1 − f− (p) + f− (p) ln f− (p)

Λ =− R d2 p , (S22)

0

(2π)2 [1 − f− (p)]

which were used previously in [22]. The Coulomb drag term can be derived explicitly from the collision

integral

( e

d2 p λp (1) − mn e h

τeh (u − u ) λ = +

e

u − uh

Z

Iλ,int h λi (k i ) = λi βk i · (p) = mn h

e h

(S23)

(2π)2 m 2 τhe (u − u ) λ=−

This allows us to calculate τeh and τhe . We perform the calculation at charge neutrality and then use

(S39) to extrapolate. τph is taken from the fit with the experimental data (the deformation potential D

being fit to experiment, as discussed in the main text). Aside from this, our model has no free parameters.

We consider the steady state ∂t ue = ∂t uh = 0 and solve the fluid equations (S14) and (S15) for ue and

uh . Using these solutions, we calculate the electric current

J = e(ne ue − nh uh ) (S24)

where e < 0 is the electron charge. The number densities calculated from the Fermi distribution are

Nf m Nf m

ne = ln(1 + eβµ ), nh = ln(1 + e−βµ ) (S25)

2πβ 2πβ

The heat current is defined as Q = JE − µe J, where JE is the energy current. Thus, the heat current is

given by

Q = kB T (Λe ne ue + Λh nh uh ) (S26)

We define the electrical conductivity σ, the thermal conductivity K and the thermo-electric coefficient

Θ by

J σ Θ E

= (S27)

Q TΘ K −∇T .

The open circuit thermal conductivity κ measuring the heat current in the absence of electrical current

and which is usually measured in experiments is given by κ = K − T Θσ −1 Θ. With these definitions we

can derive the transport coefficients from the two fluid model:

−1 −1 −1 −1

e2 ne + nh + τph [ne τLh + nh τLe + (τhe − τeh )(ne − nh )]

σ= −1 −1 −1 −1 −1 −1 −1 −1 −1 −1 −1 (S28)

m(τph + τeh + τhe + τLh + τLe + τph (τeh τLh + τhe τLe + τLe τLh ))

3

ekB ne Λ̃e − nh Λ̃h

Θ= −1 −1 −1 −1 −1 −1 −1 −1 −1 −1 −1 (S29)

m(τph + τeh + τhe + τLh + τLe + τph (τeh τLh + τhe τLe + τLe τLh ))

2

kB T Λe ne Λ̃e + Λh nh Λ̃h

K= −1 −1 −1 −1 −1 −1 −1 −1 −1 −1 −1 (S30)

m(τph + τeh + τhe + τLh + τLe + τph (τeh τLh + τhe τLe + τLe τLh ))

where

−1 −1 −1

Λ̃e = Λe (1 + τph (τhe + τLh )) + Λh τph τeh (S31)

−1 −1 −1

Λ̃h = Λh (1 + τph (τeh + τLe )) + Λe τph τhe (S32)

Neglecting the scattering off the boundary we find the simpler expressions

e2

e h −1 −1 e h

σ= −1 −1 −1 n + n + τph (τhe − τeh )(n − n ) (S33)

m(τph + τeh + τhe )

ekB e e h h

Θ= −1 −1 −1 n Λ̃ − n Λ̃ (S34)

m(τph + τeh + τhe )

2

kB T e e e h h h

K= −1 −1 −1 Λ n Λ̃ + Λ n Λ̃ (S35)

m(τph + τeh + τhe )

where

−1 −1

Λ̃e = Λe (1 + τph τhe ) + Λh τph τeh (S36)

−1 −1

Λ̃h = Λh (1 + τph τeh ) + Λe τph τhe (S37)

We verify explicitly that the Onsager relations for the thermoelectric coefficients are satisfied if equation

(S38) is satisfied. Thus we can choose

ne + nh ne + nh

τeh = τ0 , τhe = τ0 (S39)

nh ne

By evaluating the collision integral in (S23) at CN numerically, we find

p data (see main text) we extracted αph = 0.05 and from L ∼ 3µm we have

αL = 0.03/ T [K] < 0.01 for T > 10K. Therefore we find that αph , αL α0 which means that the

scattering rate due to electron-electron collisions dominates over the electron-phonon scattering and the

scattering of electrons off the boundary. This justifies the use of the hydrodynamic theory. In the limit

τph τ0 and again neglecting the scattering off the boundary we find the simpler expressions

e h 2

−1 (n − n )

2~ β −1 e h

σ̃ ≡ σ = α (n + n ) + α (S41)

Nf e 2 2m 0 ph

ne + nh

4

2~ π −1 ne − nh

Θ̃ ≡ Θ = αph (S42)

Nf ekB T 3 ne + nh

2~ 2π 2 −1 m

K̃ ≡ K = α (S43)

2T

Nf kB 9 ph β(ne + nh )

where the tilde quantities are dimensionless as defined in the main text. In deriving the above equation

we have made use of the identity

2π m

ne Λe + nh Λh = , (S44)

3 β

which can be proven from the explicit integral expressions for Λe,h .

SUPPLEMENTARY FIGURES

60

40

K̃

20

0

−1.0 −0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0

βµ

FIG. S1. Thermal conductivity coefficient K̃(βµ) (blue) and two-fluid approximation to K̃(βµ) (yellow) for

N k2 T

αph = 0.05. We have defined Kij = f2~B K̃δij . The prediction from the two-fluid model and the detailed

numerical calculation roughly differ by a constant.

- CHAPTER 3Hochgeladen vonHarish Kumar H G
- Atlas of DiseaseHochgeladen vonapi-11363556
- F reportHochgeladen vonDeeksndeeks Deepak
- Plasma Module Users GuideHochgeladen vonsalehgazy
- PERCDC (COACHING-GEAS) - 1Hochgeladen vonrcmorozco
- FTIR Studies and Dielectric Properties of Cu Substituted Nano Crystalline Nickel-Zinc Ferrites Synthesized By Citrate-Gel Auto Combustion TechniqueHochgeladen vonInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- F5 MID-TERM PHYSICS PAPER 1 (SMKRPK 2007)Hochgeladen vonpeechoong_lau
- Contactless characterization of low conductivity semiconductorsHochgeladen vonchris.p@sensawave.com
- Chapter 2Hochgeladen vonPreeti Gupta
- Nmazing EnergyHochgeladen vonAnonymous QpDf82b
- Earth Electrode Resistance CaluculationsHochgeladen vonrajupenmetsa
- EDM, ECM and GrapheneHochgeladen vonMarwan Shehata
- .....Imp Maitaing Surface Unform TesdfsdfzmpHochgeladen vonMuhammad Awais
- dapusHochgeladen vonBunnaAri
- Copper Smp Prop2Hochgeladen vonsmallik3
- pendon grafeno j.pdfHochgeladen vonJuanez Restrepo Giraldo
- 57090500714Hochgeladen vonEakkarat Patt
- [S__O_Pillai unit 1 rr.pdfHochgeladen vonPreety Sekhon
- 0c9605297137d047ba000000Hochgeladen vonbang8ros
- 13. Vapour TransmissionHochgeladen vonsuirez
- 3A_Cynthia Teniers - Revised CopyHochgeladen vonDam Ha
- 10.1016@j.jmmm.2014.12.087Hochgeladen vonMalik Abdurrahman
- 0609243_EklundHochgeladen vonSanzaChinnu
- Electrical PropertiesHochgeladen vonaljhon
- IJETR042112Hochgeladen vonerpublication
- Liu 2012Hochgeladen vonHoang Anh Nguyen
- 10.1016@j.ssc.2007.03.062Hochgeladen vonÍcaro Samir
- 1-s2.0-S1878535209000021-mainHochgeladen vonIrma Safitri
- Materials 1Hochgeladen vonAndreea Loghin
- CHAPTER-1 (1)Hochgeladen vonJohn Bryan Aldovino

- Answer Trial SBP Physics SPM 2013 Paper 3Hochgeladen vonCikgu Faizal
- HartChapter9solutions.docHochgeladen vonCarolina de Melo
- Computer Program for the Prediction of Aircraft Response to Runway Roughness Volume II User's ManualHochgeladen vonTim Lin
- BrakeResCalc.Hochgeladen vonDwiMaryanto
- Coupling Interface Programming GuideHochgeladen vonSazedaMallick
- Theory of MachinesHochgeladen vonAnil Lodwal
- TransportHochgeladen vonDuaa Raja
- renewable energy hydro generatorHochgeladen vonPalaKhartikeyan
- Velocity TrianglesHochgeladen vonzainriaz
- Fluid Exp. 6 Hydrostatic PressureHochgeladen vonIr Fik T
- Power Semiconductor controlled Drives - Gopal K Dubey..pdfHochgeladen vonLevingstan Yesudhas
- electromagnets and ohms law labHochgeladen vonapi-325864985
- How Stepper Motors Work 2222Hochgeladen vonsahiiii
- PEC DC DC ConvertersHochgeladen vonJoshua Hamilton
- ElectrostaticsHochgeladen vonphultushibls
- LG MS-194HHochgeladen vonGabriela Ferencik Siveri
- app2Hochgeladen vonHamid Bassour
- inquiry assignmentHochgeladen vonapi-393048315
- apphysicssyllabus2016 17Hochgeladen vonapi-292165521
- Mec411 Nl Chapter1.1Hochgeladen vonnoaBawje
- 3D stressHochgeladen vonLisa Carlson
- Eric Dollard - Collected ArticlesHochgeladen vonNich Moss
- Shielding.-.Audio.-.Grounding.And.Shielding.For.Sound.And.Video.pdfHochgeladen vonMoyGar2014
- SmitWijn Ferrites TextHochgeladen vonPatito
- supersymmetry and band inversion (Pankratov)Hochgeladen vonArmapezo
- Rigid Body Equations of Motion for Modeling and Control OfHochgeladen von00000zeros5
- Timers-Time-Switches.pdfHochgeladen vonanandsoggy
- DGS EU 001 R2 Electrical Design GuidelinesHochgeladen voncarlos alderetes
- Unit 1- Magnetism and Electricity - HW PacketHochgeladen vonTrudie Pan
- ground fault protection Expert guide(1).pdfHochgeladen vonClaud