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Workshop Manual C

Engine 2(0)
8.1Gi-B/C/D/E/F
8.1GXi-A/B/C/D/E
General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter . . . . . . . . . . 25

Steering System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

Throttle & Shift Control System . . . . . . . 197

Cooling System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205

Engine Removal and Installation . . . . . . 223

Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S

VPA 7743378 10-2004 i


Model Identification
All stern drive system components must be matched for either single
or dual engine installations. Failure to properly match engine, transom
bracket and sterndrive will result in poor boat performance, and risk
damage to engine and drive because of incorrect drive gear ratio.
Model identification is located on the engine, and MUST correspond
with the transom shield and sterndrive numbers as listed in the Prod-
uct Matrix sheet available separately.

Engine Model Number


All Engine Models

23282

Gi, GXi, and OSi Models

BLY
SEM
AS
OM AR
NS GE
TRA SE IT
VER UN
RE IVE
DR
(A)
X (B)
XXX X (C)
XXX XXX
XXX XXX
XXX XXX
E
GIN

XXX
EN

23546

ii VPA 7743378 10-2004


Emission Control Labels
Gi, GXi and OSi Models

23364

BLY
SEM
AS
OM AR
NS GE
TRA SE IT
VER UN
RE IVE
DR
(A)
X (B)
XXX X (C)
XXX XXX
XXX XXX
XXX XXX
E
GIN

XXX
EN

23365

VPA 7743378 10-2004 iii


Transom Shield Model Number Location

DR2058

Sterndrive Model Number Location


SX and DP-S

DR4957

XDP-B

PROD.
NO.

TYPE NO
SER.

23281

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General Information

Section 1: General Information


Tuning the Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Engine Compression Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Test Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Ignition System Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Fuel System Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Intake Manifold Vacuum Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Gasoline Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Gasoline Containing Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Crankcase Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Draining and Filling the Engine Crankcase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Steering System Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Power Trim/Tilt Fluid Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Off-Season Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Preparation for Boating After Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Engine Break-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Submerged Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
20-Hour Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Belt Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Positive Closed-Type Ventilation System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Troubleshooting - System Isolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Engine Troubleshooting Guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Engine Will Not Crank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Engine Cranks, But Will Not Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Hard Starting - Cold Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Hard Starting - Hot Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Engine Runs Rough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Engine Noises and Vibrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Engine Overheats - Check: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Engine Dies Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Engine Won’t Reach Operating RPM - Check: . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Defective Engine Lubricating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Low Battery Voltage After Short Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

This service manual is divided into sections concerning various sys-


tems and assemblies. Refer to the Contents to locate the section cov-
ering the system or assembly requiring service. Each section title page
has an additional listing that will describe the sections contents in
more detail. Be sure to read the Safety Section at the end of this man-
ual, and pay special attention to all safety warnings as they appear

VPA 7743378 10-2004 1


General Information

throughout the text. Since models are subject to change at any time,
some photos may not depict actual product.

Good Service Practice Service required for stern drives is generally one of three kinds:
• Normal care and maintenance - which includes putting a new
stern drive into operation, storing engines, lubrication, and care
under special operating conditions such as salt water and cold
weather.
• Operating malfunctions - due to improper engine or drive
mounting, propeller condition or size, boat condition, or the mal-
function of some part of the engine. This includes engine ser-
vicing procedures to keep the engine in prime operating
condition.
• Complete disassembly and overhaul - such as major service
or rebuilding a unit.
It is important to determine before disassembly just what the trouble is
and how to correct it quickly, with minimum expense to the owner.
When repairing an assembly, the most reliable way to ensure a good
job is to do a complete overhaul on that assembly, rather than just to
replace the bad part. Wear not readily apparent on other parts could
cause malfunction soon after the repair job. Repair kits and seal kits
contain all the parts needed to ensure a complete repair, to eliminate
guesswork, and to save time.
Repair time can also be minimized by the use of special tools. Volvo
Penta special tools are designed to perform service procedures unique
to the product that cannot be completed using tools from other
sources. They also speed repair work to help achieve service flat rate
times. In some cases, the use of substitute tools can damage the part.

Preparation for Service Proper preparation is extremely helpful for efficient service work. A
clean work area at the start of each job will minimize tools and parts
becoming misplaced. Clean an engine that is excessively dirty before
work starts. Cleaning will occasionally uncover trouble sources. Obtain
tools, instruments and parts needed for the job before work is started.
Interrupting a job to locate special tools or repair kits is a needless
delay.

Caution! Use proper lifting and handling equipment. Work-


ing on stern drives without proper equipment can cause
damage and personal injury.
Always use clean fresh fuel when testing engines. Troubles can often
be traced to the use of old or dirty fuel.

Service Policy It is a Volvo Penta policy to provide dealers with service knowledge so
they can give professional service demanded by today’s consumer.
The Volvo Penta Training Centers, frequent mailing of Service Bulle-
tins, Letters and Promotions, Special Tools and this Service Manual
represent the latest effort to assist dealers in giving consumers the
best and most prompt service possible. If a service question does not
appear to be answered in this manual, you are invited to write to the
Volvo Penta Service Department for additional help. Always be sure to
give complete information, including engine model number and serial
number.

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Replacement Parts When replacement parts are required, always use genuine
Volvo Penta parts, or parts with equivalent characteristics,
including type, strength, and material. Failure to do so
may result in product malfunction and possible injury to
the operator and/or passengers.

Parts Catalogs Parts Catalogs contain exploded views showing the correct assembly
of all parts, as well as a complete listing of the parts for replacement.
These catalogs are helpful as a reference during disassembly and
reassembly, and are available from Volvo Penta Parts.

Special Service Tools Volvo Penta has specially designed tools to simplify some of the disas-
sembly and assembly operations. These tools are illustrated in this
Service Manual, in many cases in actual use. All special tools can be
order from Volvo Penta Parts. Individual purchasers of Service Manu-
als must order Special Tools through an authorized dealer.

Product References, Illustrations & Volvo Penta reserves the right to make changes at anytime, without
Specifications notice, in specifications and models and also to discontinue models.
The right is also reserved to change any specifications or parts at any
time without incurring any obligation to equip same on models manu-
factured prior to date of such change. All information, illustrations and
specifications contained in this manual are based on the latest product
information available at the time of printing. The right is reserved to
make changes at anytime without notice.
All photographs and illustrations used in this manual may not depict
actual models or equipment, but are intended as representative views
for reference only. The continuing accuracy of this manual cannot be
guaranteed.
The purpose of an engine tune-up is to restore power and perfor-
mance that has been lost through wear, corrosion or deterioration of
one or more parts or components. In the normal operation of an
engine, these changes can take place gradually at a number of points,
so that it is seldom advisable to attempt an improvement in perfor-
mance by correction of one or two items only. Time will be saved and
more lasting results will be obtained by following a definite and thor-
ough procedure of analysis and correction of all items affecting power
and performance.
Economical, trouble-free operation can better be ensured if a complete
tune-up is performed once every year, preferably in the spring. Com-
ponents that affect power and performance can be divided into three
groups:
• Components affecting compression
• Components affecting ignition
• Components affecting fuel system

Tuning the Engine


Tune-up procedures should cover these groups in the order given.
While the items affecting compression and ignition may be handled
according to personal preference, correction of items in the fuel sys-
tem group should not be attempted until all items affecting compres-
sion and ignition have been satisfactorily corrected. Most of the

VPA 7743378 10-2004 3


General Information

procedures for performing a complete engine tune-up will be covered


in greater detail in this manual. This section will deal mainly with the
order of procedures involved in tuning the engine.

Engine Compression Testing During all work done around the engine, while the engine is running or
being cranked, use extreme care to avoid getting fingers or clothing
caught in any belts, pulleys, or other moving parts.
2. Visually inspect stern drive unit for leaks, missing parts or other
obvious defects. Replace deteriorated parts.
3. Compression check: Proper compression is essential for good
engine performance. An engine with low or uneven compression
cannot be properly tuned.
• Operate engine to normal operating temperature.

Engine must not be started and run without water for cool-
ing.
• Remove any foreign matter from around spark plugs by blowing
out with compressed air.
• Remove and inspect all spark plugs. Install thread-type com-
pression gauge in spark plug hole.
• Disable Ignition and Fuel System:
— Disconnect the crankshaft position sensor located on the
rear of the engine block.
— Disable fuel injectors by removing the electrical rely (F3) in
the fuse box.
— With throttle plates wide open, crank engine through at least
four compression strokes.

Test Conclusion The indicated compression pressures are considered normal if the
lowest reading cylinder is within 75% of the highest.
Example:
If the highest pressure reading was 140 PSI, 75% of 140 is 105.
Therefore, any cylinder reading less than 105 PSI indicates an improp-
erly seated valve, worn valve guides, piston, cylinder, or worn or bro-
ken piston rings. Any cylinder reading 105 PSI or greater is within
specifications, and compression is considered normal.
If one or more cylinders read low, squirt approximately one tablespoon
of engine oil on top of the pistons in the low reading cylinders. Repeat
compression pressure check on the cylinders.
1. If compression improves considerably, the piston rings are at fault.
2. If compression does not improve, valves are sticking or seating
poorly, or valve guides are worn.
3. If two adjacent cylinders indicate low compression pressures and
squirting oil on the pistons does not increase the compression, the
cause may be a cylinder head gasket leak between the cylinders.
This problem could allow engine oil and/or coolant to enter the cyl-
inders. It is recommended the following quick reference chart be
used when checking cylinder compression pressures. The chart
has been calculated so that the lowest reading number is 75% of
the highest reading.

4 VPA 7743378 10-2004


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Table 1: Compression Pressure Limit

Max. PSI Min. PSI Max. PSI Min. PSI Max. PSI Min. PSI Max. PSI Min. PSI

134 101 154 115 174 131 194 145

136 102 156 117 176 132 196 147

138 104 158 118 178 133 196 148

140 105 160 120 180 135 200 150

142 107 162 121 182 136 202 151

144 108 164 123 184 138 204 153

146 110 166 124 186 140 206 154

148 111 168 126 188 141 208 156

150 113 170 127 190 142 210 157

152 114 172 129 192 144 212 158

After checking cylinder compression, repairs should be made as nec-


essary. Subsequent adjustments to an engine that does not have
proper compression will not measurably improve performance or cor-
rect operational problems. After verifying compression, check ignition
and fuel system components.

Ignition System Components • Spark Plugs


• Spark Plug Leads
• Distributor Cap
• Rotor
• Ignition Coil
• High Tension Lead
• Ignition Switch
• Circuit Wiring and Connectors

Fuel System Components • Fuel Tank Pickup and Screen


• Fuel Tank Vent
• Anti-Siphon Valve (if equipped)
• Fuel Octane and Quality
• Boat Fuel Lines and Valves
• External Engine Fuel Filter
• Fuel Pump(s) and Line
• Carburetor Fuel Filter or Screen
• Carburetor Adjustments
• Engine PCV Valve
• Flame Arrestor
All of the above listed components are not necessarily part of an
engine tune-up, but must be considered when attempting to correct

VPA 7743378 10-2004 5


General Information

engine/boat performance problems. Repair or replace components


only as required.

Do not substitute automotive parts. Volvo Penta marine


components meet U.S. Coast Guard regulations for exter-
nal ignition proof operation and marine use. Volvo Penta
marine components are specially designed not to cause
ignition of fuel vapors in the bilge or engine compartment.
The use of automotive parts can result in fire and explo-
sion.

Intake Manifold Vacuum Testing

Test Procedures 1. Install a vacuum gauge to a good intake manifold source (usually
at the PCV valve port), following the gauge manufacturer’s instruc-
tions. Start and warm up the engine.
2. Observe the vacuum gauge while operating the engine over a
range of engine speeds.

Test Results 1. A steady vacuum reading between 14 and 19in. Hg. (47-64 kPa) at
idle indicates an engine in good mechanical condition.
2. A vacuum reading below 14 in. Hg. (47 kPa) at idle, indicates an
engine that is not developing enough vacuum. Further testing for
base mechanical problems is needed.
3. Possible causes of low intake manifold vacuum are late ignition
timing, low compression, poor engine sealing, leaks at vacuum
lines and connections or bad MAP sensor.
4. If the gauge fluctuates at idle, possible causes are sticking or leak-
ing valves, or an ignition miss.
5. If the gauge fluctuates at idle but smooths out as engine RPM
increases, check for bad valves or camshaft.
6. If the gauge fluctuates more with increases engine RPM, check for
weak or broken valve springs, bad valves, ignition miss, or a leak-
ing head gasket.
7. If the vacuum gauge fluctuates regularly with each engine cycle,
check for a bad valve.
8. If the vacuum reading drops steadily as engine RPM increases,
check the exhaust system between the engine and sterndrive for
restrictions.
9. See table and chart below and on the following page for more
information.

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Table 2: Vacuum Gauge Readings

Pos Condition Reading

A Normal at Idle 14-19 in. Hg. (47-64 kPa)

B Late Ignition Timing 11-17 in. Hg. (37-57 kPa)

C Late Valve Timing 8-15 in. Hg. (27-50 kPa).

D Intake Leak Low but steady reading

E Normal Acceleration Drops to 2 then rises to 25 when throttle is rapidly increased and
decreased.

F Worn Rings Drops to 0, then rises to 22 when throttle is rapidly increased and
decreased

G Sticking Valve(s) Normally steady, intermittently flicks downward approx. 4 in. Hg. (13
kPa) from highest level.

H Leaking Valve Drops 2 in. Hg. (6 kPa) from highest reading.

I Burned or Warped Valve Evenly spaced down-scale flicker approximately 5 in. Hg (17 kPa).

J Worn Valve Oscillates Approximately 4 in. Hg. (13 kPa).

K Weak Valve Springs Violent oscillations as RPM increases.

L Improper Idle Mixture Floats slowly between 13-17 in. Hg. (44-57 kPa)

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Table 2: Vacuum Gauge Readings

Pos Condition Reading

M Restricted Exhaust Normal when first started. Drops to approx. 0 as RPM increases

N Head Gasket Leak Floats between 5-20 in. Hg. (17-68 kPa)

O Defective Ignition Component Slight float between 14-16 in. Hg. (47-54 kPa)

Gasoline Requirements DANGER!

Gasoline is extremely flammable and highly explosive


under certain conditions. Always stop engine and do not
smoke or allow open flames or sparks near the boat when
refuelling gas tanks. When filling the gas tank, ground the
tank to the source of gasoline by holding the hose nozzle
firmly against the side of the deck filler plate, or ground it
in some other manner. This action prevents static electric-
ity buildup which could cause sparks and ignite fuel
vapors.
USE ONLY UNLEADED FUEL. Use lead-free gasoline with the follow-
ing minimum or higher octane specification:
Inside the U.S.: (R+M)/2 (AKI) = 87
Outside the U.S.: (RON) = 90
If fuels with 89 AKI pump posted (93 RON) octane number or higher
are used an increase in power can be expected with EFI models.
Premium fuels contain injector cleaners and other additives that pro-
tect the fuel system and provide optimum performance.

Caution!

Engine damage resulting from the use of gasoline with


octane 86 AKI (89 RON) and lower is considered misuse of
the engine and will void the engine warranty. Volvo Penta
suggests the use of 89 AKI or higher fuels. These fuels
have additives that are beneficial to maximum engine per-
formance and long life of service components.
To prevent gum formation and corrosion in the fuel system, use a
Marine Fuel Stabilizer in the gasoline.

Gasoline Containing Alcohol Many brands of gasoline being sold today contain alcohol. Two com-
monly used alcohol additives are Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) and Methanol
(methyl alcohol).
See the Owner’s Manual for you boat to determine if the boat’s fuel
system is compatible with alcohol blended fuels. if it is compatible,
your engine may be operated using gasoline blended with no more
than 10% Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) meeting the minimum octane specifi-
cations.

Caution!

8 VPA 7743378 10-2004


General Information

Do not use any gasoline which contains Methanol (methyl


alcohol).
See the boat’s Operators Manual to determine if the boats fuel system
is compatible with alcohol blended fuels. If it is, your engine may use
gasoline blended with no more than 10% Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) meet-
ing the minimum octane specification. Do not use any gasoline which
contains METHANOL (methyl alcohol).
Continued use of METHANOL (methyl alcohol) fuel will cause serious
damage to the fuel system.
If you use gasoline containing alcohol, be aware of the following:
• ïThe engine will operate leaner. This may cause engine prob-
lems such as vapor lock, low speed stalling, or hard starting.
• ïAlcohol blended fuels attract and hold moisture. Moisture can
cause fuel tank corrosion. Inspect fuel tanks at least annually.
Replace corroded or leaking fuel tanks.
• ïFrequently inspect non-metallic parts of fuel system and
replace if excessively stiff, deteriorated or leaking.
Fuel leakage can contribute to a fire and/or explosion.

Crankcase Oil
Initial factory fill is a high quality motor oil for API Service SH. During
the break-in period (20 hours), frequently check the oil level. Somewhat
higher oil consumption is normal until piston rings are seated. The oil
level should be maintained in the safe range between the Add and Full
marks on the dipstick. This range represents approximately 1 litre (1
quart). If it is necessary to add or change the motor oil, use a quality oil
with API service category SH.
At the end of the break-in period (20 hours), change the crankcase oil
and replace the oil filter. Refer to Lubrication and Inspection Chart
for recommended oil change intervals.
NOTE! The use of multi-viscosity oils, such as 10W-30 or 10W-40,
is not recommended.

Draining and Filling the Engine If using Volvo Penta Premium Synthetic Engine Oil, drain and refill
Crankcase crankcase every 200 hours of operation or once a year, whichever oc-
curs first.
If using oil other than Volvo Penta Premium Synthetic Engine Oil, drain
and refill crankcase every 100 hours of operation or once a year, which-
ever occurs first.

DANGER!

To prevent fire and explosion, always make sure engine


compartment is free of gasoline fumes before using any
spark-producing tools such as the electric drill motor
used with oil withdrawal pump kit.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 9


General Information

Check the motor oil level frequently with the dipstick. When oil is to be
changed, remove dipstick and withdraw oil from crankcase through
withdrawal/dipstick tube. The oil withdrawal tube is provided so oil does
not have to be drained into the bilge. Withdraw oil with a suction pump.
Fill the crankcase to the specified capacity with a quality motor oil la-
belled for service category SH. When changing motor oil, select from
the following chart the SAE viscosity that matches the temperature
range in which the boat will be operated. If it is necessary to add motor
oil, use motor oil of the same viscosity.

Table 3: Temperature Viscosity Recommendations

If the lowest Anticipated The Following SAE Viscosity


Temperature is: Oils are Recommended

32° F (0° C) and above SAE 30

0° F (-18° C) to 32° F (0° C) SAE 20W-20

Below 0° F (-18° C) SAE 10

NOTE! Disregard any reference to multi-viscosity oil printed on


engine. Such reference is intended for automotive use
only and not marine application.

Caution!

Do not fill above full mark. Overfilling results in high oper-


ating temperatures, foaming (air in oil), loss of power, and
overall reduced engine life.

Table 4: Crankcase Capacities

Model Less Filter With Filter

8.1 8.0 qts. (7.5 liters) 9.0 qts. (8.5 liters)

Oil Filter Replace the oil filter whenever the motor oil is changed. This filter is a
self-contained, screw-on type. To remove, unscrew filter canister coun-
terclockwise and discard. When attaching a new filter, be sure the gas-
ket is lightly lubricated with motor oil. Hand tighten only, run engine
and check for leaks. Do not run engine without supplying cooling
water. See Parts Catalog for model and filter requirements.

Steering System Lubrication


Maintain the level with Volvo Penta Power Trim/Tilt & Steering Fluid.
Approved power steering fluids such as GM power steering fluid or
Dexron II automatic transmission fluid can also be used. Do not overfill
the pump reservoir.
At the beginning of each boating season, grease the steering ram with
Volvo Penta grease.

Power Trim/Tilt Fluid Level


At the beginning of each boating season, check the fluid level in the

10 VPA 7743378 10-2004


General Information

reservoir as follows:
• Level should be between the “MIN” and “MAX” marks on the
reservoir.
• If necessary, add Volvo Penta Power Trim/Tilt & Steering Fluid.
Replace the cap and tighten securely.

Off-Season Storage
There are nine steps that must be completed for Off-Season Storage
Preparation
When gasoline engines are removed from service for long periods (2
months or more), it is important that they are correctly stored or pro-
tected (internally). Today’s gasoline blends are not as stable as in the
past and consideration must be given if the fuel will not be used within
a short time or if the engine is being placed in storage. Failure to prop-
erly stabilize the fuel can damage fuel system components and is not
considered as warrantable.
Boat manufacturers should follow the gasoline storage mixture
section for testing prior to shipment.
Note! Volvo Penta has discontinued fuel stabilizer P/N 3855832,
a suitable replacement can be purchased locally at most
automotive supply stores.

Limited Use If the vessels fuel within the tank(s) will not be consumed within a 30-
day period from the time of filling, a gasoline fuel stabilizer must be
added as per the manufacturers instructions. This will help prevent the
fuel from breaking down and causing reduced engine performance or
damage from uncontrolled combustion.

Storage If the boat is being placed into storage, a gasoline fuel stabilizer must
be added to the tank(s) as per the manufacturers instructions. The
amount of stabilizer required is determined by the quantity of fuel and
the length of time it will be placed in storage. The maximum period that
fuel can be stabilized is six months due to limitations of the stabilizers
and fuels.

DANGER!

Any fuel leakage should be corrected immediately to pre-


vent possible fire and/or explosion.

Caution!

Do not run engine out of fuel or run the electric fuel


pumps dry more than 20 seconds. Running the electric
fuel pumps dry will cause fuel pump damage.

Step 1. Prepare a storage mixture In addition to stabilization of the fuel, it is highly desirable to have the
valves and cylinders coated with a light film of oil previously accom-
plished through fogging. Today’s fuel injection manifolds are designed
with a complex air channel design that will not allow the traditional fog-
ging oils to be injected past the throttle plate while running. The oil will
get stuck in the plenum and never reach the cylinders. Together with
the stabilizer, two-cycle motor oil can be added to a fuel mixture for
stabilization purposes.

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General Information

• Using an outboard motor six-gallon fuel tank, add two-cycle


motor oil at a ratio of 50:1 (one pint to 6 gallons) and stabilizer
at one ounce per gallon (unless stated otherwise on the manu-
facturers label). Mix well.
• Disconnect boat fuel line at engine fuel pump. Attach the stor-
age mixture fuel tank.
• Connect a suitable engine flush device if the boat is not in the
water.
• Run the engine on the storage mixture for approximately 5 min-
utes at 1500 RPM. This will ensure that all fuel system and
internal engine components are thoroughly protected. Do not
operate the engine above 1500 RPM as the water pump
demand may exceed the supply, damaging the pump.
• Reduce the engine speed to idle and stop the engine.
• Reconnect the fuel fitting and check for fuel leaks.

Electric Fuel Pumps and Fuel Cells Regardless of the ratio of fuel stabilizer to fuel we use, the maximum
recommended storage time for gasoline, according to STA-BIL, is six
months. During final assembly testing at our Lexington factory, each
engine is run on a fuel mix that is stabilized. Each engine is shut off
without running the fuel pumps dry and the fuel system is sealed to
prevent damage. With the delay in time between the product getting
installed in a boat, shipped to you, sold and finally delivered; the six-
month time frame can easily be exceeded.

Since delivering a quality, dependable product is one of our highest


goals; we work closely with our suppliers to identify the root cause of
failure on any parts returned for warranty credit. While there are cer-
tainly legitimate failures of fuel pumps, the major portion of them are
returned to us due to varnished fuel from long term storage. We would
like to offer some advice on dealing with these issues.

Stuck Pumps If a fuel pump appears stuck and will not operate, you may try briefly
reversing the polarity to the pump to turn it in the opposite direction.
You should disconnect the electrical plug of one pump at a time on the
fuel cell to determine which pump might have a problem.

Noisy Fuel Pumps Electric pumps will often cavitate and become noisy if they are starving
for fuel. On carbureted engines or low-pressure fuel cell pumps, check
the fuel supply, quality of the fuel hose, anti-siphon valve, and filter
before replacing the fuel pump.
A noisy high-pressure pump on a fuel cell may indicate a low fuel level
in the reservoir. Check the fuel supply and low pressure pump opera-
tion to be sure the reservoir is receiving the correct volume of fuel. The
same information would apply to engines with the earlier vapor sepa-
rator tank design.
This information may help prevent the needless replacement of pumps
in many cases and reduce the repair time for the boat owner.

Step 2. Change Motor Oil and Oil • Engine should first be operated under load until oil is thoroughly
Filter: warmed up. If oil is allowed to warm up before draining, a more
complete draining will be accomplished. In addition, accumu-

12 VPA 7743378 10-2004


General Information

lated impurities will be held in suspension by the oil and be


removed during draining operation.
• Remove motor oil by siphoning it out of oil withdrawal tube. Fol-
low the procedure under Draining and Filling the Engine
Crankcase.
• Install a new oil filter and fill crankcase with recommended oil.

Caution!

Sterndrive must be submerged in water or water must be


supplied to the raw water pump while operating engine. If
using a flushing adaptor, remove propeller before starting
engine to prevent accidental contact with rotating propel-
ler.
• With sterndrive in full down position, run engine at a fast idle for
a few minutes to distribute clean oil through engine.
• Shut off engine and check oil level. Check oil filter gasket for
leaks. Add oil if necessary to bring oil level up to, but not over,
the full mark.

Step 3. Change Sterndrive Lubricant: Drain and refill with fresh Volvo Penta GL-5 Synthetic Gear Lubricant
or Mobilube 1 SHC Fully Synthetic SAE 75W-90 (meeting or exceed-
ing MIL-L-2105C or D, API GL-4 or 5) gear lubricant. Refer to Stern-
drive Service Manual.

Step 4. Fog Engine: Carbureted Models Only:


• Warm up engine to ensure fuel conditioner is throughout fuel
system. Use 1/2 pint (0.24 liter) of Fogging Oil 12 oz. (355 ml)
spray can to fog engine.
• Remove flame arrester from carburettor. Following instructions
on container, bring engine up to a fast idle and slowly pour or
spray 2/3 of fogging oil into carburettor. Keep engine running
while pouring fogging oil into carburettor throat.

Step 5. Drain Cooling System See “Draining Engine Block or Exhaust Manifold” on page 214.
When draining the cooling system, raise or lower the bow of the boat
to position the engine in a level horizontal plane. This will provide com-
plete drainage of the engine block and manifolds. If the bow is higher
or lower that the stern, some water may be trapped in the engine block
or manifolds.
Improper or incomplete draining may result in freeze damage to the
engine, manifolds, sterndrive, or other components. Freeze damage is
not covered under Volvo Penta’s Limited Warranty.

Preparation for Boating After Storage


1. Install all drain plugs. Install cooling hoses and clamps. Check
condition of hoses, manifold end caps and clamps. Connect hoses
to engine and tighten clamps securely. Install boat drain plug, if
removed.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 13


General Information

2. Remove the distributor cap and rotor. Wipe the inside of the dis-
tributor cap dry with a clean cloth and spray with a dielectric corro-
sion inhibitor. Replace the rotor and cap.
3. Clean the battery terminals. With the ignition switch in the "OFF"
position, install the battery and attach the battery cables. Spray
terminals with a dielectric corrosion inhibitor.
4. Open the fuel shut-off valve (if so equipped) and check all fuel
line connections for leaks.
5. Check the flame arrestor and clean if necessary. Reinstall, make
sure all parts are in place and tighten nut securely.
6. Make a thorough check of the boat and engine for loose or missing
nuts and screws. Pump the bilge dry and air out the engine com-
partment.

Danger!

To prevent a possible explosion, operate the blower as


recommended by the boat manufacturer before starting
engine. If the boat is not equipped with a bilge blower,
open engine cover or hatch prior to starting and leave
open until after engine is running.
If operating boat in water, tie boat securely to dock to pre-
vent forward or backward movement.
When using a flushing adaptor, remove the propeller
before starting engine to prevent accidental contact with
rotating propeller.
7. Test run engine: Launch boat or use a flushing adaptor installed
on Sterndrive.

Caution!

Do not start engine out of water unless water is supplied


to the raw water pump. Always turn water on before start-
ing engine. Control water pressure as full water pressure
may cause damage to supply pump and engine.
8. With engine compartment open, start the engine. Monitor the volt-
meter, oil pressure and water temperature gauges frequently to be
sure all systems are operating properly. Check for fuel, oil, and
water leaks.

Engine Break-in
All engines have been run for a short period of time as a final test at
the factory. You must follow the Engine Break-In procedure during the
first 20 hours of operation to ensure maximum performance and long-
est engine life.
NOTE!
To ensure proper lubrication during the break-in period,
do not remove factory break-in oil until after the 20-hour
break-in is completed.

14 VPA 7743378 10-2004


General Information

First Two Hours For the first five to ten minutes of operation, operate engine at a fast
idle (above 1500 RPM). After engine has reached operating tempera-
ture, momentarily reduce engine speed, then increase engine speed,
to assist break-in of rings and bearings.
During the remaining first two hours of operation, accelerate to bring
boat onto plane quickly and bring throttle back to maintain a planing
attitude. During this period, vary the engine speed frequently by accel-
erating to approximately three-fourths throttle for two to three minutes,
then back to minimum planing speed. Maintain planing attitude to
avoid excessive engine load.
DO NOT RUN ENGINE AT A CONSTANT RPM FOR PROLONGED
PERIODS OF TIME DURING THE BREAK-IN PERIOD.

Next Eight Hours During next eight hours, continue to operate at approximately three-
fourths throttle or less (minimum planing speed). Occasionally reduce
throttle to idle speed for a cooling period. During this eight hours of
operation it is permissible to operate at full throttle for periods of less
than two minutes.
DO NOT RUN ENGINE AT A CONSTANT RPM FOR PROLONGED
PERIODS OF TIME DURING THE BREAK-IN PERIOD.

Final Ten Hours During the final ten hours of break-in, after warming engine to operat-
ing temperature, it is permissible to operate at full throttle for five to ten
minutes at a time. Momentarily reduce then increase engine speed to
assist break-in of rings and bearings. Occasionally reduce engine
speed to idle to provide cooling periods.
DO NOT RUN ENGINE AT A CONSTANT RPM FOR PROLONGED
PERIODS OF TIME DURING THE BREAK-IN PERIOD.
During break-in period, be particularly observant during initial running
of engine, as follows:
1. Check crankcase oil level frequently. Maintain oil level in safe
range, between “add” and “full” marks on dipstick.
NOTE! If you have a problem getting a good oil level reading on
dipstick, rotate dipstick 180° in tube.
2. Watch oil pressure gauge. If indicator fluctuates whenever boat
attitude (i.e. turning, climbing on plane, etc.) is changed, it may be
the oil pickup screen is not covered with oil. Check crankcase dip-
stick, and add oil to crankcase if required. DO NOT OVERFILL. If
oil level is correct and condition still exists, check for possible
gauge or oil pump malfunction.
NOTE! Oil pressure will rise as RPM increases, and fall as RPM
decreases. In addition, cold oil will generally show higher
oil pressure for any specific RPM than hot oil. Both of
these conditions reflect normal engine operation.
3. Watch engine temperature indicator to be sure there is proper
water circulation.

Caution

Failure to follow the break-in procedure will void the


engine warranty.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 15


General Information

At end of break-in period (20 hours), remove motor oil and replace oil
filter. Fill crankcase with recommended 4-cycle motor oil.

Operation After Break-in After break-in, the engine can be operated at any RPM from idle to full
throttle. However, cruising at 3600 RPM or less saves fuel, reduces
noise, and prolongs engine life.
When starting a cold engine, always allow engine to warm up gradu-
ally. Never run engine at full throttle until engine is thoroughly warmed
up. Be sure to check oil level frequently during the first 50 hours of
operation, since oil consumption will be high until piston rings are
properly seated.

Submerged Engine
Remove engine from water as quickly as possible.
It is imperative that your dealer remove all water from the engine and
immediately lubricate all internal parts. All electrical devices must also
be dried and inspected for water damage. Delay in completing these
actions may allow extensive engine damage.
Frequently check engine compartment for gasoline fumes and exces-
sive water accumulation; water depth in bilge should be kept well
below flywheel housing.

20-Hour Check
1. Change engine oil and oil filter.
2. Check power trim/tilt reservoir for proper fluid level.
3. Change fuel filter/water separator.
4. Check flame arrestor for proper mounting.
5. Start engine and check complete fuel system for leaks.
6. Lubricate steering cable ram with Volvo Penta grease. Check
power steering pump reservoir for correct fluid level on models
equipped with power steering.

Caution!
Failure to properly lubricate the steering system could
lead to loss of steering control.
7. Check shift system for proper adjustment and operation.
8. Inspect exhaust system. Tighten all hose clamps, and check for
leaks.
9. Check tension on all drive belts.
10. Check all engine mount screws for tightness.
11. GL Models Only: Check and adjust carburetor for correct idle mix-
ture and RPM.
12. Check for any deficiencies, malfunctions, signs of abuse, etc. Cor-
rection of any problems at this time will prevent the worsening of a
minor problem and help ensure a trouble-free boating season.
13. Check oil level in Sterndrive and add as necessary with GL-5 Syn-
thetic Gear Lubricant or Mobilube 1 SHC Fully Synthetic SAE

16 VPA 7743378 10-2004


General Information

75W-90 (meeting or exceeding MIL-L-2105C or D, API GL-4 or 5)


gear lubricant.
14. Make sure engine can achieve maximum rated RPM. See engine
specifications.

Belt Tension
Fuel Injected Models Serpentine belts do not require tensioning. Replace the belt when the
tension indicator lines up with the single line on the housing.

Positive Closed-Type Ventilation System


Servicing PCV Valve The PCV system on the 8.1 liter engine is a fixed orifice built into the
intake manifold and is not serviceable.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 17


General Information

Troubleshooting - System Isolation


The following is to help you isolate a malfunction of one or possibly
several systems. After determining which systems are related to the
malfunction, refer to the individual system troubleshooting charts to
isolate the specific cause.
Table 5: System Isolation
Engine should crank at specified RPM. If not, check for
1. Discharged or dead Battery
Cranking System 2. Loose or corroded connections
3. Cranking System Troubleshooting Chart in the Elec-
trical Ignition/ Fuel Service Manual

Must have good spark at spark plugs. If not, check the:


1. Distributor Cap
2. Coil and spark plug leads
3. Ignition timing
Ignition System
4. Automatic spark advance
5. Appropriate Ignition Troubleshooting Chart in the
Engine Does not Start Electrical/Ignition/Fuel Service Manual.
6. EFI Models: Refer to EFI Diagnostic Manual

EFI Models: Refer to EFI Diagnostic Manual

Carbureted Models: Carburetor accelerator pump


should squirt fuel into the Venturi when throttle is
advanced. If not, check the:
1. Fuel Tank, valves, and lines
Fuel System
2. Fuel pump and filter
3. Carburetor and Filter
4. Boat Fuel System Troubleshooting Chart
5. Carburetor Troubleshooting Chart
6. Engine Fuel System Troubleshooting Chart

Check the following:


1. Compression
2. Ignition system
3. Fuel and carburetor and injection system
Engine Runs Improperly 4. Lubrication system
5. Cooling System
6. Sterndrive and propeller
7. PCV Valve
8. Engine Troubleshooting Guides

Engine Troubleshooting Guides


Fuel Injected Engines Only: Refer to EFI Diagnostic Service Man-
ual.

18 VPA 7743378 10-2004


General Information

These guides were written to help you trace the symptoms of the trou-
ble to the source, without having to read through and prove every pos-
sibility. Much of the information here will be familiar to well informed
mechanics.
Also, many factors will seem insignificant but when you think of it, usu-
ally the toughest problem to troubleshoot is caused by the smallest
error. The greatest aid to solving a service problem is information.
Start gathering information from the boat operator and write it on his
job card or work ticket. Find out pertinent facts, such as:
• When did this trouble start?
• How was the boat loaded?
• Did the trouble occur suddenly, or start gradually?
Analyze this information and try to match it to similar situations you
have experienced in the past. Keep in mind the fundamental rules:
• COMPRESSION - Mixture inducted into cylinder and com-
pressed.
• SPARK - Proper intensity at the proper time.
• FUEL - Proper mixture of air and fuel.
These are very old rules, but necessary for the engine to run. Use
these charts and the service information they refer to. Do not try to
remember tolerances, settings, measurements, etc., as they are writ-
ten in the service manual. Leave your mind free to analyze the prob-
lem.
Following is a list of the troubleshooting guides which may be found on
the pages indicated.
Title . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page

Engine Will Not Crank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 19

Engine Cranks, But Will Not Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 20

Hard Starting - Cold Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 20

Hard Starting - Hot Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 21


Engine Runs Rough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 21

Engine Noises and Vibrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 22

Engine Overheats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 22

Engine Dies Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 23

Engine Won’t Reach Operating RPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 23

Defective Engine Lubricating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 24

Low Battery Voltage After Short Storage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 24

Engine Will Not Crank

Starter Circuit - Check: • Battery condition: weak, dead, sulfated, bad cells
• Battery cables for loose or corroded connections
• Shorted or open ignition switch
• Starter motor and solenoid for shorts, grounds or open circuits
• Starter assist solenoid/starter relay

VPA 7743378 10-2004 19


General Information

• Circuit breakers
• Wiring from battery to ignition switch
• See Electrical/Ignition/Fuel Service Manual

Engine Cranks, But Will Not Start

Ignition Circuit - Check: • Primary circuit wiring from ignition switch to ignition coil/ignition
module
• Secondary circuit wiring from coil to spark plug
• Spark plugs for proper gap, fouling, burned electrodes, cracked
or dirty insulator
• See Electrical/Ignition/Fuel Service Manual
• Low battery voltage

Fuel System - Check: • Quantity and condition of fuel in boat tank


• Operation and flow capacity of boat anti-siphon valve
• Fuel tank vent is unrestricted
• Fuel tank pick-up screen is clean
• Correct diameter/unrestricted boat fuel lines
• Fuel shutoff and multiple tank valves are open and operating
properly
• Fuel pump vent hose for signs of fuel or oil that would indicate a
fuel pump failure.
• Fuel pump/relay/circuit breaker operation
• External fuel filter canister and carburetor filter
• Carburetor accelerator pump
• See Electrical/Ignition/Fuel System Service Manual

Cylinder Compression - Check • Conduct test following procedure in this section, and compare
readings to Compression Limit Chart.

Hard Starting - Cold Engine Ask these questions first:

Has Engine Always Done This? 1. Carburetor choke operation and adjustment
Check: 2. Fuel lines for obstructions
3. For debris inside fuel tank
4. See Electrical/Ignition/Fuel System Service Manual

Was Engine Used For A Long Time? 1. For clean external canister and carburetor fuel filters
Check: 2. Empty carburetor float bowl due to evaporation
3. Water in fuel due to condensation
4. Fuel quality deterioration
5. See Electrical/Ignition/Fuel System Service Manual

Is This A New Condition? Check: 1. Carburetor choke operation and adjustment


2. Carburetor accelerator pump

20 VPA 7743378 10-2004


General Information

3. Fuel system for leaks, dirt, or obstructions


4. Engine timing and ignition system
5. See Electrical/Ignition/Fuel System Service Manual

Hard Starting - Hot Engine Ask these questions first:

Has Engine Always Done This? 1. Carburetor choke operation and adjustment
Check: 2. See Electrical/Ignition/Fuel System Service Manual

Is This A New Condition? Check: 1. Brand, type or octane of fuel


2. Spark plugs
3. Water in fuel
4. Condition of battery and cables
5. Starter motor for overheat damage

Did Engine Refuse To Start After 1. Ignition system primary circuit


Being Run? Check:
2. Ignition coil(s)/ignition module
3. Engine timing
4. Carburetor choke operation and adjustment
5. See Electrical/Ignition/Fuel System Service Manual

Engine Runs Rough If Fuel Injected, see EFI Diagnostic Workshop Manual

If At Slow Speed - Check: 1. Idle speed and idle mixture


2. Engine timing and spark plugs
3. Fuel pump pressure
4. Water or contaminants in fuel
5. Carburetor or manifold vacuum leak
6. Internal carburetor fuel leak
7. See Electrical/Ignition/Fuel System Service Manual

If At High Speed - Check: 1. Air leak on suction side of fuel system


2. Too low octane fuel
3. Ignition system secondary circuit
4. Engine timing
5. Wrong model or size carburetor, improper main jets or power
valve, defective secondary fuel circuit, secondary vacuum dia-
phragm failure
6. External canister and carburetor fuel filters
7. Fuel pump pressure
8. Engine compression
9. Water or contaminants in fuel, water in cylinders
10. See General Information section and Electrical/Ignition/ Fuel Sys-
tem Service Manual

VPA 7743378 10-2004 21


General Information

Engine Noises and Vibrations

Valves - Hydraulic Lifters 1. Rapping only when starting (oil too heavy for prevailing weather,
varnish on lifter, oil needs to be changed)
2. Intermittent rapping (leakage at lifter check ball)
3. Idle noise (excessive leak down rate, faulty check ball seat)
4. Generally noisy (excessive oil in crankcase, stuck lifter plunger)
5. Loud noise at operating temperature (scored lifter plunger, fast
leak down rate, oil viscosity too light for prevailing weather or oper-
ating temperatures)
6. See appropriate Engine section

Ignition System (Ping or Knock) 1. Improper tuning


2. Incorrect spark plug wire routing
3. Use higher octane fuel
4. See Electrical/Ignition/Fuel Service Manual

Cooling System 1. Supply pump


2. Loose belts, pulleys
3. See Cooling System section

Mountings 1. Loose, broken or worn engine mounts


2. Loose lag screws holding mounts to stringer

Crankshaft Balancer or Flywheel 1. Loose bolt(s)

Alternator 1. Loose pulley, worn bearings


2. Loose mounting bolts

Sterndrive 1. Failed Ujoints or gimbal bearing


2. Damaged internal drive components
3. Worn, bent or broken propeller hub or blades
4. Loose, worn or damaged engine coupler

Engine Overheats - Check: 1. Actual engine temperature by verifying with an accurate thermom-
eter
2. Gauge operation and wiring circuit
3. Sending unit operation and wiring circuit
4. Supply pump, circulating pump and belt(s)
5. Water intake screens for blockage
6. Thermostat
7. Water supply hoses
8. Engine timing
9. Water leaks on pressure side of supply pump
10. Air leaks on suction side of supply pump
11. Engine compression

22 VPA 7743378 10-2004


General Information

Engine Dies Out

Loss Of, Or Out Of, Fuel - Check: 1. Fuel gauge operation and wiring
2. Fuel level in tank
3. Water or debris in fuel
4. Fuel pickup tube and screen blockage
5. Fuel tank vent blockage
6. Plugged external canister or carburetor fuel filters
7. Air leak on suction side of fuel system
8. Fuel leak on pressure side of fuel system
9. Inoperative, restricted or incorrectly sized anti-siphon valve
10. Boat fuel lines too small in diameter
11. Fuel pump pressure and suction
12. Carburetor cleanliness and operation
13. See Electrical/Ignition/Fuel System Service Manual

Loss Of Ignition - Check: 1. Primary and secondary ignition circuits


2. Ignition switch
3. Circuit breakers
4. Wiring between engine and dash
5. Main engine harness wiring
6. See Electrical/Ignition/Fuel Service Manual

Engine Stops Or Dies Out Due To 1. Sterndrive for internal damage


Seizure - Check: 2. Oil pressure gauge and crankcase oil level
3. Temperature gauge and cooling system operation
4. Internal engine components as required

Engine Won’t Reach Operating RPM - 1. Fuel type or octane


Check: 2. Propeller pitch or diameter, damaged blades, slipping hub
3. Crankcase oil volume
4. Marine growth on hull and drive
5. Wrong Sterndrive gear ratio
6. Operating at high altitude
7. Restricted carburetor air intake
8. Restricted exhaust outlets in engine, transom bracket or drive
9. Poor cylinder compression
10. Carburetor size and type correct for engine
11. Fuel pump pressure and vacuum
12. Boat overloaded, or load improperly placed
13. Engine overheating
14. Engine timing and ignition system operation

VPA 7743378 10-2004 23


General Information

15. Remote control cables and linkage for proper attachment and
travel

Defective Engine Lubricating System

Engine Components - Check: 1. Clogged or incorrect oil filter


2. Worn oil pump gears, cover or shaft
3. Worn or collapsed oil pump relief valve spring, or foreign material
caught on valve seat
4. Oil pump relief valve plunger loose in cover
5. Damaged filter bypass grommet
6. Clogged oil pickup screen, broken tube or housing
7. Plugged crankshaft or blocked oil galleys
8. Dirty or defective hydraulic lifters, clogged push rod passages
9. Poor quality, incorrect viscosity or quantity of oil
10. Incorrect hose routing on remote filter systems
11. Water in crankcase oil from condensation, defective head gasket,
oil cooler, or cracked manifold/block water passages

Oil Pressure Warning System - 1. Oil gauge/warning horn operation and wiring
Check:
2. Engine temperature
3. Oil pressure gauge and warning horn sender operation and wiring

Low Battery Voltage After Short Stor-


age

Engine/Boat Components - Check: 1. All electrical accessories including ignition circuit off
2. Disconnect main battery negative cable from battery
3. Connect ammeter or voltmeter in series between negative battery
cable and negative battery post
• Meter reading of “0” indicates no draw, test battery and charg-
ing system
• Meter movement no matter how slight indicates draw from bat-
tery
4. Disconnect main engine harness 10-Pin Connector
• Meter drops back to “0”, problem caused by boat system, con-
tinue to isolate each boat electrical accessory until problem is
found
• Meter does not drop back to “0”, problem caused by engine
electrical system, continue to isolate each engine electrical
accessory until problem is found
5. Repair or replace components as necessary

24 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Section 2: Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter


Description and Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Engine Component Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Pistons and Connecting Rods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Lubrication Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Replacing Engine Gaskets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Use of RTV and Anaerobic Sealer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Diagnostic Information & Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Base Engine Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Engine Noise Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Valve Train Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Diagnostic Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Drive Belt Chirping Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Drive Belt Squeal Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Drive Belt Whine Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Drive Belt Rumbling Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Drive Belt Vibration Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Drive Belt Falls Off Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Drive Belt Excessive Wear Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Drive Belt Tensioner Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Specifications 8.1Gi-B/C/D/E, 8.1GXi-A/B/C/D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Specifications 8.1Gi-F, 8.1GXi-E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Repair Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Draining Engine Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Drive Belt Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Crankshaft Balancer Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Engine Flywheel Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Pilot Bearing Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Dipstick Tube Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Exhaust Manifold Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Coolant Crossover Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Circulation Water Pump Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Intake Manifold Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Rocker Arm Cover Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Rocker Arm and Push Rod Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Cylinder Head Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Valve Lifter Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

VPA 7743378 10-2004 25


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Oil Pump Drive Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74


Oil Pan Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Oil Pump, Pump Screen and Deflector Removal . . . . . . . . . . 75
Engine Front Cover Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Timing Chain and Sprockets Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Camshaft Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Piston, Connecting Rod and Bearing Removal . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Crankshaft and Bearings Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Oil Filter Adapter Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Engine Block Plug Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Camshaft Bearing Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Engine Block Clean and Inspect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Cylinder Boring Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Cylinder Honing Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Crankshaft and Bearings Clean and Inspect . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Crankshaft and Connecting Rod Bearing Inspection . . . . . . 94
Measuring Crankshaft End Play . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Measuring Connecting Rod Side Clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Engine Flywheel Clean and Inspect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Piston and Connecting Rod Disassemble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Camshaft and Bearings Clean and Inspect . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Camshaft Bearing Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Timing Chain and Sprockets Clean and Inspect . . . . . . . . . 112
Valve Rocker Arm and Push Rods Clean and Inspect . . . . . 112
Valve Guide Reaming/Valve and Seat Grinding . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Valve Guide Reaming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Valve Reconditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Valve Seat Reconditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Cylinder Head Assemble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Valve Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Water Crossover Clean and Inspect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Engine Block Plug Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Piston, Connecting Rod and Bearing Installation . . . . . . . . 145
Camshaft Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Oil Pan Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Intake Manifold Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Coolant Crossover Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

26 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Exhaust Manifold Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166


Dipstick Tube Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Drive Belt Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Engine Prelube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Special Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174

Description and Operation


Engine Component Description

23134

Cylinder Block The engine block is made of cast iron and it has eight cylinders
arranged in a V shape with four cylinders in each bank. The engine
block is a one piece casting with the cylinders encircled by coolant
jackets.

Cylinder Head The cylinder heads are made of cast iron and have parent metal intake
valve guides and intake valve seats. The cast iron exhaust valve
guides and powdered metal valve seats are pressed into the exhaust
ports. A spark plug is located between the valves in the side of the cyl-
inder head. The water crossover pipe attaches to the front of each cyl-
inder head.

Camshaft A steel camshaft is supported by five bearings pressed into the engine
block. The camshaft sprocket is mounted to the front of the camshaft
and is driven by the crankshaft sprocket through a camshaft timing
chain.
Motion from the camshaft is transmitted to the valves by hydraulic
roller valve lifters, valve pushrods and ball-pivot type rocker arms. A
spiral gear machined into the camshaft near the rear journal drives a
shaft assembly which operates the oil pump driveshaft assembly.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 27


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Crankshaft The crankshaft is made of cast nodular iron. The crankshaft is sup-
ported by five crankshaft bearings. The crankshaft bearings are
retained by the crankshaft bearing caps. The crankshaft bearing caps
are machined with the engine block for proper alignment and clear-
ance. The crankshaft bearing caps are retained by two bolts and two
studs each. The number five crankshaft bearing at the rear of the
engine block is the end thrust bearing. The four connecting rod jour-
nals (two rods per journal) are spaced 90 degrees apart. The crank-
shaft position sensor reluctor ring is pressed onto the rear of the
crankshaft. The crankshaft position sensor reluctor ring is constructed
of powdered metal. The reluctor ring has an interference fit onto the
crankshaft and an internal keyway for correct positioning.

Pistons and Connecting Rods

8.1Gi-B/C/D/E, 8.1GXi-A/B/C/D The pistons are cast aluminium alloy that use two compression rings
and one oil control ring assembly. The piston pins are a floating fit in
the pistons and the piston pins are retained by a press fit in the con-
necting rod assembly. The pistons are coated to create an interference
fit into the cylinder. The connecting rods are forged steel and have pre-
cision insert type crankpin bearings. The piston and connecting rod is
only serviced as an assembly.

8.1Gi-F, 8.1GXi-E The pistons are cast aluminium alloy that use two compression rings
and one oil control ring assembly. The piston pins are a full floating fit
in the pistons and the piston pins are retained by two snap rings in the
piston pin bore. The pistons are coated to create an interference fit into
the cylinder. The connecting rods are forged steel and have precision
insert type crankpin bearings.

Valve Train The valve train is ball pivot type. Motion is transmitted from the cam-
shaft through the hydraulic roller lifters and tubular pushrods to the
rocker arms. The rocker arm pivots on a ball to open the valve. The
hydraulic roller lifters keep all parts of the valve train in constant con-
tact. Each lifter acts as an automatic adjuster and maintains zero lash
in the valve train. This eliminates the need for periodic valve adjust-
ment. The rocker arm stud and nut retains the rocker arm and ball
seat. The rocker arm stud is threaded into the cylinder head.

Intake Manifold The intake manifold is a one-piece design. The intake manifold is
made of cast aluminium. The throttle body is attached to the front of
the intake manifold. The fuel rail assembly with eight separate fuel
injectors is retained to the intake manifold by four bolts. The fuel injec-
tors are seated in their individual manifold bores with O-ring seals to
provide sealing. A Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor is
mounted on the top of the intake manifold and sealed by an O-ring
seal. The MAP sensor is held in place with a retainer bolt. The positive
crankcase ventilation (PCV) system is internally cast into the intake
manifold. There is no PCV valve.

28 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Lubrication Description

1
2
7
3

5 677880

The gear-type oil pump is driven through an extension driveshaft. The


extension driveshaft is driven by the oil pump drive, which is gear
driven by the camshaft. The oil is drawn from the oil pan through a
pickup screen and tube, into the oil pump (7). Pressurized oil flows
through the oil filter, into the oil cooler (5), back into the engine (6), up
to the oil pressure gauge port (2) and rear crankshaft bearing, and is
then distributed to the upper oil galleries. Oil must flow around the oil
pump drive (1) to reach the right side valve lifters properly. The oil is
delivered through internal passages to lubricate camshaft and crank-
shaft bearings and to provide lash control in the hydraulic valve lifters.
Oil is metered from the valve lifters through the valve push rods to
lubricate the valve rocker arms and ball pivots. Oil returning to the oil
pan from the cylinder heads and the front camshaft bearing, lubricates
the camshaft timing chain and the crankshaft and the camshaft
sprockets. There are two bypass valves located in the engine block,
above the oil filter. The oil filter bypass valve (4) and the oil cooler
bypass valve (3).

VPA 7743378 10-2004 29


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

If the oil cooler flow becomes blocked, either from a plugged oil cooler
or blocked or kinked oil cooler line, the oil cooler bypass valve (9) is
9
forced open, allowing oil to flow directly into the engine oil passages.
Oil does not flow into or out of the engine oil fileter or cooler.

677891

2 1

If both the oil filter and the oil cooler are plugged, the pressurized oil is
routed around the top of the oil filter adapter, through the oil filter
adapter bypass (2), through the oil cooler bypass valve (1) and directly
into the engine oil passages. Lubrication still occurs, but the oil is not
filtered or directed through the oil cooler.

Separating Parts NOTE! Many internal engine components will develop specific
wear patterns on their friction surfaces.
When disassembling the engine, internal components MUST be sepa-
rated, marked or organized in a way to ensure reinstallation to the orig-
inal location and position.
Separate, mark or organize the following components:
• Piston to the specific cylinder bore
• Piston rings to the piston
• Connecting rod to crankshaft journal
• Connecting rod to the bearing cap
• Crankshaft and connecting rod bearings

30 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

• Camshaft and valve lifters


• Valve lifters, guides, pushrods pivot supports and rocker arms
• Valve to the valve guide
• Valve spring and shim to the cylinder head location
• Engine block crankshaft bearing cap location and direction
• Oil pump drive and driven gears

Cleanliness and Care • Throughout this section, it should be understood that proper
cleaning and protection of machined surfaces and friction areas
is part of the repair procedure. This is considered standard
shop practice even if not specifically stated.
• When any internal engine parts are serviced, care and cleanli-
ness is important.
• When components are removed for service, they should be
marked, organized or retained in a specific order for reassem-
bly.
• At the time of installation, components should be installed in the
same location and with the same mating surface as when
removed.
• An automobile engine is a combination of many machined,
honed, polished and lapped surfaces with tolerances that are
measured in millimeters or thousandths of an inch. These sur-
faces should be covered or protected to avoid component dam-
age.
• A liberal coating of clean engine oil should be applied to friction
areas during assembly.
• Proper lubrication will protect and lubricate friction surfaces dur-
ing initial operation.

Replacing Engine Gaskets

Gasket Reuse and Applying Sealant • Do not reuse any gasket unless specified.
• Gaskets that can be reused will be identified in the service pro-
cedure.
• Do not apply sealant to any gasket or sealing surface unless
specified in the service procedure.

Separating Components • Use a rubber mallet to separate the components.


• Bump the part sideways to loosen the components.
• Bumping of the component should be done at bends or rein-
forced areas of the component to prevent distortion or the com-
ponents.

Cleaning Gasket Surfaces • Use care to avoid gouging or scraping the sealing surfaces.
• Use a plastic or wood scraper to remove all the sealant from the
components.Do not use abrasive pads, sand paper or power
tools to clean the gasket surfaces.
— These methods of cleaning can cause damage to the com-
ponent sealing surfaces.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 31


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

— Abrasive pads also produce a fine grit that the oil filter can-
not remove from the engine oil.

Caution!
This fine grit is abrasive and can cause internal engine
damage.

Assembling Components • Assemble components using only the sealant (or equivalent)
that is specified in the service procedure.
• Sealing surfaces must be clean and free of debris or oil.
• Specific components such as crankshaft oil seals or valve stem
oil seals may require lubrication during assembly.
• Components requiring lubrication will be identified in the service
procedure.
• Apply only the amount of sealant specified in the service proce-
dure to a component.
• Do not allow the sealant to enter into any blind threaded holes,
as the sealant may prevent the fastener from clamping properly
or cause component damage when tightened.
• Tighten fasteners to the proper specifications. DO NOT over-
tighten the fasteners.

Use of RTV and Anaerobic


Sealer

Sealant Types CAUTION!

The correct sealant and amount of sealant must be used


in the proper location to prevent oil leaks, coolant leaks or
the loosening of the fasteners. DO NOT interchange the
sealants. Use only the sealant (or equivalent) as specified
in the service procedure.
The following 2 major types of sealant are commonly used in engines:
• Aerobic sealant (Room Temperature Vulcanizing (RTV))
• Anaerobic sealant, which include the following:
— Gasket eliminator
— Pipe
— Threadlock

Aerobic Type Room Temperature Aerobic type Room Temperature Vulcanizing (RTV) sealant cures
Vulcanizing (RTV) Sealant when exposed to air. This type of sealant is used where 2 components
(such as the intake manifold and the engine block) are assembled
together.
Use the following information when using RTV sealant:
• Do not use RTV sealant in areas where extreme temperatures
are expected. These areas include:
— The exhaust manifold
— The head gasket

32 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

— Any other surfaces where a different type of sealant is spec-


ified in the service procedure.
• Always follow all the safety recommendations and the directions
that are on the RTV sealant container.
• Use a plastic or wood scraper to remove all the RTV sealant
from the components.

CAUTION!

Do not allow the RTV sealant to enter any blind threaded


holes, as it may prevent the fasteners from clamping prop-
erly or cause damage when the fastener is tightened.
• The surfaces to be sealed must be clean and dry.
• Use a RTV sealant bead size as specified in the service proce-
dure.
• Apply the RTV sealant bead to the inside of any bolt holes
areas.
• Assemble the components while the RTV sealant is still wet to
the touch (within 3 minutes). Do not wait for the RTV sealant to
skin over.
• Tighten the fasteners in sequence (if specified) and the proper
torque specifications. DO NOT overtighten the fasteners.

Anaerobic Type Gasket Eliminator Anaerobic type gasket eliminator sealant cures in the absence of air.
Sealant This type of sealant is used where 2 rigid parts (such as castings) are
assembled together. When 2 rigid parts are disassembled and no
sealant or gasket is readily noticeable, then the 2 parts were probably
assembled using an anaerobic type gasket eliminator sealant.
Use the following information when using gasket eliminator sealant:
• Always follow all the safety recommendations and directions
that are on the gasket eliminator sealant container.
• Apply a continuous bead of gasket eliminator sealant to one
flange.
• The surfaces to be sealed must be clean and dry.

CAUTION!

Do not allow the gasket eliminator sealant to enter any


blind threaded holes, as the gasket eliminator sealant may
prevent the fasteners from clamping properly, seating
properly or cause damage when the fastener is tightened.
• Apply the gasket eliminator sealant evenly to get a uniform
thickness of the gasket eliminator sealant on the sealing sur-
face.

CAUTION!

Gasket eliminator sealed joint fasteners that are partially


torqued and the gasket eliminator sealant allowed to cure
more than five minutes, may result in incorrect shimming
and sealing of the joint.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 33


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

• Tighten the fasteners in sequence (if specified) and to the


proper torque specifications. DO NOT overtighten the fasteners.
• After properly tightening the fasteners, remove the excess gas-
ket eliminator sealant from the outside of the joint.

Anaerobic Type Threadlock Sealant Anaerobic type threadlock sealant cures in the absence of air. This
type of sealant is used for threadlocking and sealing of bolts, fittings,
nuts and studs. This type of sealant cures only when confined between
2 close fitting metal surfaces.
• Always follow all safety recommendations and directions that
are on the threadlock sealant container.
• The threaded surfaces to be sealed must be clean and dry.
• Apply the threadlock sealant as specified on the threadlock
sealant container.

CAUTION!

Fasteners that are partially torqued and then the thread-


lock sealant allowed to cure more than five minutes, may
result in incorrect clamp load of assembled components.
• Tighten fasteners in sequence (if specified) and to the proper
torque specifications. DO NOT overtighten the fasteners.

Anaerobic Type Pipe Sealant Anaerobic type pipe sealant cures in the absence of air and remains
pliable when cured. This type of sealant is used where 2 parts are
assembled together and require a leak proof joint.
Use the following information when using pipe sealant:
• Do not use pipe sealant in areas where extreme temperatures
are expected. These areas include:
— The exhaust manifold
— The head gasket
— Surfaces where a different sealant is specified
• Always follow all the safety recommendations and the directions
that are on the pipe sealant container.
• The surfaces to be sealed must be clean and dry.
• Use a pipe sealant bead of the size or quantity as specified in
the service procedure.

CAUTION!

Do not allow the pipe sealant to enter any blind threaded


holes, as the pipe sealant may prevent the fasteners from
clamping properly, seating properly or cause damage
when the fastener is tightened.
• Apply the pipe sealant bead to the inside of any bolt hole areas.
• Apply a continuous bead of pipe sealant to 1 sealing surface.
Tighten the fasteners in sequence (if specified) and to the proper
torque specifications. DO NOT overtighten the fasteners

34 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Tools and Equipment • Special tools are listed and illustrated throughout this section
with a complete listing at the end of the section. These tools (or
their equivalents) are specially designed to quickly and safely
accomplish the operations for which they are intended. The use
of these special tools will also minimize possible damage to
engine components. Some precision measuring tools are
required for inspection of certain critical components. Torque
wrenches and a torque angle meter are necessary for the
proper tightening of various fasteners.

• To properly service the engine assembly, the following items


should be readily available:
— Approved eye protection and safety gloves
— A clean, well-lit work area
— A suitable parts cleaning tank
— A compressed air supply
— Trays or storage containers to keep parts and fasteners
organized
— An adequate set of hand tools
— Approved engine repair stand
— An approved engine lifting device that will adequately sup-
port the weight of the components

VPA 7743378 10-2004 35


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Diagnostic Information & Procedures


Base Engine Diagnosis

Table 1: Base Engine Diagnosis

Checks Actions

Engine Performance diagnosis procedures are covered in Engine Controls and should be consulted for diagnosis of any
Driveability, Emissions or Malfunctioning Indicator Lamp (MIL) concerns. The following diagnosis covers common concerns
and possible causes. When the proper diagnosis is made, the concern should be corrected by adjustment, repair or
replacement as required. Refer to the appropriate section of the service manual for each specific procedure. This diagnostic
table will assist in engine misfire diagnosis due to a mechanical concern such as a faulty engine camshaft, worn or dam-
aged bearings or bent valve pushrod. This table will not isolate a crossed fuel injector wire, faulty fuel injector or any other
driveability component failure that may cause a misfire. The Powertrain On-Board Diagnostic System checks must be per-
formed first. When using this table to make a Base Engine Misfire diagnosis, begin with the preliminary information below
and then proceed to the specific category.

Perform a visual inspection of the following:


• A loose or improperly installed engine flywheel or crankshaft balancer
• Worn, damaged or misaligned accessory drive system components
Listen to the engine for any abnormal internal engine noises.
Preliminary
Inspect the engine for acceptable oil pressure.
Verify if the engine has excessive oil consumption.
Verify if the engine has excessive coolant consumption.
Perform a compression test on the engine.

An intake manifold that has a vacuum leak may cause a misfire.


Inspect for the following:
• Improperly installed or damaged vacuum hoses
• Faulty or improperly installed lower intake manifold and/or gaskets
• Cracked or damaged lower intake manifold
Intake Manifold Leaks
• Improperly installed MAP sensor
The sealing grommet of the MAP sensor should not be torn or damaged.
• Improperly installed throttle body or damaged gasket
• Warped intake manifold
• Warped or damaged cylinder head sealing surface

Oil consumption may or may not cause the engine to misfire.


Remove the spark plugs and inspect for an oil fouled spark plug.
Perform a cylinder compression test. ‘Engine Compression Testing” on page 4.
If the compression test indicates worn valves or valve guides, inspect the following:
• Worn, brittle or improperly installed valve stem oil seals
• Worn valve guides
• Worn valve stems
Oil Consumption
• Worn or burnt valves or valve seats
If the compression test indicates worn or damaged piston rings, inspect the following:
• Broken or improperly seated piston rings
• Excessive piston ring end gap
• Excessive cylinder bore wear or taper
• Cylinder damage
• Piston damage

36 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Table 1: Base Engine Diagnosis

Checks Actions

1 Start the engine and determine if the noise is timed to the engine camshaft speed or the crank-
shaft speed.
2 Using a timing light, two knocks per flash is the crankshaft speed and one knock per flash is the
engine camshaft speed.
3 If the noise is timed to the engine camshaft speed, inspect the following:
• Missing or loose valve train components.
• Worn or loose valve rocker arms.
• Worn or bent valve pushrods.
• Faulty valve springs.
• Bent or burnt valves.
Abnormal Internal
• Worn engine camshaft lobes.
Engine Noise
• Worn or damaged camshaft timing chain and/or sprockets.
NOTE! A slight COLD knock or piston slapping noise could be considered normal
if not present after the engine has reached normal operating temperatures.
If the knock is timed to the crankshaft speed, inspect the following:
• Worn crankshaft or connecting rod bearings
• Piston or cylinder damage
• Worn piston or piston pin
• Faulty connecting rod
• Excessive carbon build-up on the top of the piston

1 Inspect for a worn or improperly installed camshaft timing chain and/or sprockets.
2 Remove the valve rocker arm cover on the side of the engine with the cylinder that is misfiring.
3 Inspect for the following:
• Loose valve rocker arm studs
No Abnormal Internal
• Bent valve push rods
Engine Noise
• Faulty valve springs
• Faulty valve lifters (bleeding down)
• Worn or improperly seated valves
• Worn engine camshaft lobes

Engine Noise Diagnosis


Table 2: Engine Noise Diagnosis

Symptoms Cause

When diagnosing engine noise complaints, use the following steps to isolate the source of the engine noise:
• Determine the type of noise. For example, is the noise a light rattle/tapping or a low rumble/knocking?
• The exact operating condition under which the noise existsNote factors such as ambient temperature, the amount of
engine warm-up time, the engine temperature, the engine RPM and other specifics.
• At what rate the noise occurs, and at what location on the engine. Engine noises are generally synchronized to either
engine speed (crankshaft, engine flywheel, connecting rods, crankshaft balancer or pistons and related compo-
nents) or one-half engine speed (valve train noise such as valve rocker arms, valve lifters and camshaft timing
chain). Determine the rate at which the noise is occurring.
• Compare the engine sounds to other engines, and make sure you are not trying to correct a normal condition.

• Improper oil viscosity. Install the recommended oil viscosity for the expected temperatures.
Noise on start-up but • Worn or dirty valve lifters.
only lasts a few sec- • Excessive piston-to-cylinder bore clearance.
onds • Excessive piston pin-to-bore clearance.
• Excessive crankshaft bearing clearance.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 37


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Table 2: Engine Noise Diagnosis

Symptoms Cause

• Loose or broken crankshaft balancer or accessories drive components.


Knocks cold and con- • Excessive piston-to-bore clearance.
tinues for 1 to 2 min- • A cold piston knock which appears in 1.5 minutes should be considered acceptable.
utes • A cold engine knock usually disappears when the specific cylinders secondary ignition cir-
cuit is grounded out.

Intermittent noise on • Improper oil viscosity. Install the recommended oil viscosity for the expected temperatures.
idle, disappears when • Lower than specified oil pressure.
the engine speed is • Dirty or worn valve lifters.
increased.

The following conditions may cause valve train noise:


• Lower than specified oil pressure.
• Worn or faulty oil pump.
• Loose oil pump-to-engine block bolt.
• Loose valve rocker arm attachments.
Valve train noise (Rat- • Worn valve rocker arms and/or valve pushrods.
tle/Tapping) • Broken valve springs.
• Sticking valves.
• Worn, dirty, or faulty valve lifters.
• Worn engine camshaft lobes.
• Worn valve guides or valve stems.
• Bent, broken, or damaged timing chain sprocket teeth.

The following conditions may cause a knocking noise:


• Malfunctioning accessory drive system components.
• Loose or broken crankshaft balancer.
• Detonation or spark knock.
• Check for proper operation of the cooling, knock and ignition control components. Refer to
Knocks hot at idle diagnostic information in Engine Controls.
(rumble/knocking) • Excessive connecting rod bearing clearance.
• Excessive piston pin-to-bore clearance. Bent connecting rod.
• Excessive crankshaft bearing clearance.
• Cracked or damaged flywheel.
• Exhaust leak at the exhaust manifold.
• Combustion chamber deposits.

Exhaust system noise may be cause by the following conditions:


• Improperly installed or misaligned exhaust system components.
• Cracked or broken exhaust manifold.
Exhaust system noise
• Damaged or worn exhaust system components.
• Burnt or rusted out exhaust system components.
• Broken or loose exhaust clamps and/or brackets.

Valve Train Diagnosis


Table 3: Valve Train Diagnosis

Symptoms Cause

• A light tapping noise at ½ engine speed, or any varying frequency, may indicate a valve train problem.
• Tapping noises will typically increase with engine speed.
• Before attempting to diagnose a valve train noise, check the proper engine oil level and then allow the engine to
obtain normal operating temperature.
• Sit in the driver’s seat, then operate the engine at various speeds and listen for any abnormal engine noise.

38 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Table 3: Valve Train Diagnosis

Symptoms Cause

• Low engine oil pressure.


• A worn or faulty oil pump.
• A loose or plugged oil pump screen.
• Loose rocker arm attachments (causing excessive valve lash).
• A worn or damaged rocker arm ball.
• A broken valve spring.
• Sticking valves.
Valve train noise
• Valve lifters worn, dirty or faulty.
• A broken valve lifter guide.
• Engine camshaft lobes worn.
• Worn valve guides or valve stems.
• Bent pushrods.
• Excessive free play in the camshaft timing chain.
• Bent, broken or damaged camshaft sprocket teeth.

Diagnostic Table
Table 4: Valve Train Diagnostic Table
Step Action Value(s) Yes No
DEFINITION: A light tapping noise at ½ engine speed, or at any varying frequency
1 Is there valve train noise — Go to Step 2 System OK
Check for a high engine oil level. An engine with the engine oil
level above the FULL mark on the oil level indicator allows the
crankshaft counterweights to churn the engine oil into foam.
2 — Go to Step 3 Go to Step 6
When the foamy engine oil is pumped into the valve lifters, the
valve lifters become noisy. A solid column of engine oil ensures
proper valve lifter operation. Is the engine oil level too high?
Drain the engine oil to the proper level. Is the tapping noise
3 — System OK Go to Step 6
gone?
Check for a low engine oil level. An engine with low oil level
below the ADD mark on the dipstick may allow the oil pump to
4 — Go to Step 5 Go to Step 6
pump air at high engine RPM. Is the engine oil level below the
ADD mark on the dipstick.
Add engine oil as required.
5 — System OK Go to Step 6
Is the tapping noise gone?
Check for the proper engine oil pressure. Refer to Engine
Mechanical Specifications and Oil Pressure Diagnosis and test- 6 psi
6 Go to Step 11 Go to Step 7
ing. (41.4kPa)
Is the engine oil pressure within specifications.
Check the oil pump screen for damage or a loose fit to the oil
pump.
7 — Go to Step 8 Go to Step 9
Is the oil pump screen loose or is the oil pump screen dam-
aged?
Repair as required.
8 — System OK Go to Step 9
Is the tapping noise gone?
Check for a damaged oil pump or loose bolts.
9 Refer to Oil pump Clean and Inspect. — Go to Step 10 Go to Step 11
Is the oil pump damaged or are the bolts loose?
Repair as required.
10 — System OK Go to Step 11
Is the tapping noise gone?
Remove and inspect and the valve lifters, the valve rocker arms
and pushrods. Refer to Rocker Arm and Pushrods Clean and
11 — Go to Step 12 Go to Step 13
Inspect.
Are the components worn or damaged?

VPA 7743378 10-2004 39


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Table 4: Valve Train Diagnostic Table


Step Action Value(s) Yes No
Replace the components as required.
12 — System OK Go to Step 13
Is the tapping noise gone?
Perform and engine camshaft lobe lift test. Refer to Camshaft
Go to Step 14
13 and Bearings Clean and Inspect. — Go to Step 15
Is the engine camshaft lobes within specifications?
Replace the engine camshaft and valve lifters.
14 — System OK Go to Step 13
Is the tapping noise gone
Remove the engine front cover and inspect the camshaft timing
chain and sprockets for excessive wear or damage. Refer to
15 — Go to Step 17 Go to Step 16
Timing Chain and Sprockets Clean and Inspect.
Are the components worn or damaged?
Replace the components as required.
16 — System OK Go to Step 17
Is the tapping noise gone?
Perform a complete disassembly or the engine and inspect all
17 components. — System OK Go to Step 11
Are the components damaged?
Replace the components as required.
18 Did you complete the worn or damaged component replace- — System OK —
ment?
Excessive oil consumption (not due to leaks) is the use of 1.9 liters (2
quarts) of engine oil within the first 20 hours of operation. However,
during initial engine break-in periods of 20 to 50 hours, oil consump-
tion may exceed 1.9 liters (2 quarts) or more. The causes of excessive
oil consumption include the following conditions:
• External oil leaks. Tighten the bolts and/or replace gaskets and
oil seals as necessary.
• Incorrect oil level or improper reading of oil level indicator. With
the vessel level, allow adequate drain down time and check for
the correct oil level.
• Improper oil viscosity. Use a recommended SAE viscosity for
the prevailing temperatures.
• Continuous high speed operation and/or severe usage.
• Crankcase ventilation system restrictions or malfunctioning
components.
• Valve guides and/or valve stem oil seals worn, damaged or the
seal omitted. Ream the valve guides and install oversize ser-
vice valves and/or new valve stem oil seals.
• Piston rings broken, improperly installed, worn or not seated
properly. Allow adequate time for the piston rings to seat.
Replace broken or worn piston rings as necessary.
• Piston improperly installed or mis-fitted.

Oil Pressure Diagnosis and Testing 1. With the vessel level, allow adequate drain down time (2-3 min-
utes) and measure for a low engine oil level.
• Add the recommended grade engine oil, and fill the crankcase
until the oil level measures FULL on the dipstick.
2. Operate the engine and verify low or no oil pressure on the vessel
oil pressure gauge or the oil indicator light.
Listen for a noisy valve train or a knocking noise.
3. Inspect for the following:

40 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

• Engine oil diluted by moisture or unburned fuel mixtures


• Improper engine oil viscosity for the expected temperature
• Incorrect or faulty oil pressure gauge sensor
• Incorrect or faulty oil pressure gauge
• Plugged oil filter
• Malfunctioning oil filter bypass valve
4. Remove the oil pressure gauge sensor or another engine block oil
gallery plug.
5. Install an oil pressure gauge.
6. Start the engine and then allow the engine to reach normal opera-
tion temperature.
7. Measure the engine oil pressure at the following RPM:

Specification 42 kPa (6psig) (minimum) at 1,000 RPM


125 kPa (18 psig) (minimum) at 2,000 RPM
166 kPa (24 psig) (minimum) at 4,000 RPM
8. If the engine oil pressure is below minimum specifications, inspect
the engine for one or more of the following:
• Oil pump worn or dirty
• Malfunctioning oil pump pressure relief valve
• Oil pump screen loose, plugged or damaged
• Excessive bearing clearance
• Cracked, porous or restricted oil galleries
• Engine block oil gallery plugs missing or incorrectly installed
• Broken valve lifters

Table 5: Oil Leak Diagnosis


Step Action Yes No
Note! You can repair most fluid leaks by first visually locating the leak, repairing or replacing the component, or by reseal-
ing the gasket surface. Once the leak is identified, determine the cause or the leak. Repair the cause of the leak as well as
the leak itself.
1 If the bilge contains oil, clean and dispose or the oil residue in accord-
ance with local and/or state regulations.
1 Go to Step 2 System OK
2 Run the engine until it reaches normal operating temperature.
3 Is there any fluids leaking from the engine?
2 Can you identify the type of fluid and the approximate location of the leak? Go to Step 10 Go to Step 3
1 Visually inspect the suspected area. Use a small mirror to assist in look-
ing for hard to see areas.
2 Check for leaks at the following locations:
• Sealing surfaces
3 Go to Step 10 Go to Step 5
• Fittings
• Cracked or damaged components
3 Can you identify the type of fluid and the approximate location of the
leak?

VPA 7743378 10-2004 41


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Table 5: Oil Leak Diagnosis


Step Action Yes No
1 Completely clean the entire engine and bilge area.
2 Run the boat for several minutes at normal operating temperature and at
varying speeds.
4 3 Dock the boat. Go to Step 10 Go to Step 5
4 Wait 15 minutes.
5 Can you identify the type of fluid and the approximate location of the
leak?
1 Visually inspect the suspected area. Use a small mirror to assist in look-
ing for hard to see areas.
2 Check for leaks at the following locations:
• Sealing surfaces
5 Go to Step 10 Go to Step 6
• Fittings
• Cracked or damaged components
3 Can you identify the type of fluid and the approximate location of the
leak?
1 Completely clean the entire engine and bilge area.
2 Apply an aerosol-type powder (e.g. talc powder Mg3Si4O10(OH)2) to the
suspected area.
3 Operate the engine for several minutes at normal operating temperature
6 and at varying speeds. Go to Step 10 Got to Step 4
4 Identify the type of fluid and the approximate location of the leak, from the
discoloration’s in the powder surface.
5 Can you identify the type of fluid and the approximate location of the
leak?
1 Visually inspect the suspected area. Use a small mirror to assist in look-
ing in hard to see areas.
2 Check for leaks at the following locations?
• Sealing surfaces?
7 Go to step 10 Go to Step 8
• Fittings?
• Cracked or damaged components
3 Can you identify the type of fluid and the approximate location of the
leak?
Use J-28428-E, Dye and light kit to identify the type of fluid and the approxi-
mate location of the leak.
8 Go to Step 10 Go to Step 9
Refer to manufacturer’s instructions when using the tool.
Can you identify the type of fluid and the approximate location of the leak?
1 Visually inspect the suspected area. Use a small mirror to assist in look-
ing at hard to see areas.
2 Check for leaks at the following locations:
• Sealing surfaces
9 Go to Step 10 Go to Step 1
• Fittings
• Cracked or damaged components
3 Can you identify the type of fluid and the approximate location of the
leak?
1 Inspect the engine for mechanical damage. Special attention should be
shown to the following areas:
• Higher than recommended fluid levels.
• Higher than recommended fluid pressures.
• Plugged or malfunctioning fluid filters or pressure bypass valves.
• Plugged or malfunctioning engine ventilation system.
• Improperly tightened or damaged fasteners
10 Go to Step 11 System OK
• Cracked or porous components
• Improper sealants or gaskets where required
• Improper sealant of gasket installation
• Damaged or worn gaskets or seals
• Damaged or worn sealing surfaces
2 Inspect the engine for customer modifications. Is there any mechanical
damage, or customer modifications to the engine?

42 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Table 5: Oil Leak Diagnosis


Step Action Yes No
Repair or replace all damaged or modified components.
11 Go to Step 1 System OK
Does the engine still leak?

Drive Belt Chirping Diagnosis

Diagnostic Aids The symptom may be intermittent due to moisture on the drive belt(s)
or the pulleys. It may be necessary to spray a small amount of water
on the drive belt(s) to duplicate the customers concern. If spraying
water on the drive belt(s) duplicates the symptom, cleaning the belt
pulleys may be the probable solution.
A loose or improper installation of a boat component, or other items of
the vessel may cause the chirping noise.

Test Description The number(s) below refer to the step number(s) on the diagnostic
table.
1. The noise may not be engine related. This step is to verify that the
engine is making the noise. If the engine is not making the noise,
do not proceed further with this table.
2. The noise may be an internal engine noise.
3. Removing the drive belt and operating the engine for a brief period
will verify the noise is related to the drive belt. When removing the
drive belt(s), the water pump may not be operating and the engine
may overheat. Also DTCs may set when the engine is operating
with the drive belt removed.
4. Inspect all drive belt pulleys for pilling. Pilling is the small balls or
pills or it can be strings in the drive belt grooves from the accumu-
lation of rubber dust.
5. Misalignment of the pulleys may be caused from improper mount-
ing of the accessory drive component, incorrect installation of the
accessory drive component pulley or the pulley bent inward or out-
ward from a previous repair. Test for a misaligned pulley.using a
straight edge in the pulley grooves across two or three pulleys. If a
misaligned pulley is found, refer to that accessory drive compo-
nent for the proper installation procedure for that pulley.
6. Inspecting of the fasteners can eliminate the possibility that a
wrong bolt, nut, spacer or washer was installed.
7. Inspecting the pulleys for being bent should include inspecting for
a dent or other damage to the pulleys that would prevent the drive
belt from not seating properly in all of the pulley grooves or on the
smooth surface of a pulley when the back side of the belt is used
to drive the pulley.
8. Replacing the drive belt when it is not damaged or there is not
excessive pilling will only be a temporary repair.

Symptoms - Drive Belt NOTE! Review the system operation to familiarize yourself with
the system functions. Refer to Drive Belt System Descrip-
tion.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 43


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Visual/Physical Inspection • Inspect for aftermarket devices which could affect the operation
of the drive belts.
• Inspect the easily accessible or visible system components for
obvious damage or conditions which could cause the symptom.
• Inspect the drive belt for excessive wear, shredding or missing
sections.
• Inspect the drive belt for contamination of excessive dirt, oil,
coolant or other substances that may affect the drive belt opera-
tion.

Intermittent • Drive belt symptoms may be from intermittent failure of an


accessory drive component.
• Drive belt symptoms may occur from changes in load of the
accessory drive components.
• Ambient temperatures, moisture or engine operating tempera-
ture can affect the drive belt operation.

Symptoms List Refer to a symptom diagnostic procedure from the following list to
diagnose the symptom:
Drive Belt Chirping Diagnosis

Drive Belt Squeal Diagnosis

Drive Belt Whine Diagnosis

Drive Belt Rumbling Diagnosis

Drive Belt Vibration Diagnosis

Drive Belt Falls Off Diagnosis

Drive Belt Excessive Wear Diagnosis

Table 6: Drive Belt Chirping Diagnosis

Step Action Yes No

Note! Refer to Belt Dressing Notice in Cautions and Notices.


DEFINITION: The following items are indicators of chirping:
• A high pitched noise that is heard once per revolution of the drive belt or pulley.
• It usually occurs on cold damp mornings.

Did you review the Drive Belt Symptom operation and perform the nec- Go to Symp-
1 Go to Step 2
essary inspections? toms–Drive Belt

Verify that there is a chirping noise.Does the engine make the chirping Go to Diagnos-
2 Go to Step 3
noise? tic Aids

1 Remove the drive belt.


Go to Engine
3 2 Operate the engine for no longer than 30 to 40 seconds. Go to Step 4
Noise Diagnosis
3 Does the chirping noise continue?

Inspect for sever piling exceeding 1/3 of the belt groove depth.
4 Go to Step 5 Go to Step 6
Does the belt grooves have pilling?

Clean the drive belt pulley with a suitable wire brush.


5 Go to Step 15 Go to Step 6
Did you complete the repair?

Inspect for misalignment of the pulleys.


6 Go to Step 7 Go to Step 8
Are the pulleys misaligned?

44 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Table 6: Drive Belt Chirping Diagnosis

Step Action Yes No

Replace or repair any misaligned pulleys.


7 Go to Step 15 Go to Step8
Did you complete the repair?

Inspect for bent or cracked brackets.


8 Go to Step 9 Go to Step 8
Did you find any bent or cracked brackets?

Replace any bent or cracked brackets.


9 Go to Step15 Go to Step 10
Did you complete the repair?

Inspect for improper, loose or missing fasteners.


10 Go to Step 11 Go to Step 12
Did you find the condition?

Tighten any loose fasteners.


Replace any improper or missing fasteners, Refer to Fastener Tighten-
11 Go to Step 15 Go to Step 12
ing Specifications.
Did you complete the repair?

Inspect for a bent pulley.


12 Go to Step 13 Go to Step 14
Did you find the condition?

Replace the bent pulley.


13 Go to Step 15 Go to Step 14
Did you complete the repair?

Replace the drive belt. Refer to Drive Belt Replacement. Go to Diagnos-


14 Go to Step 15
Did you complete the repair? tic Aids

Operate the system to verify the repair.


15 System OK Go to Step 3
Did you correct the condition?

Drive Belt Squeal Diagnosis

Diagnostic Aids A loose or improper installation of a boat component, or other items of


the vessel may cause the chirping noise.
If the noise is intermittent, verify the accessory drive components by
varying their loads making sure they are operated to their maximum
capacity. A raw water supply pump, power steering system with a
pinched hose or wrong fluid or an alternator failing are suggested
items to inspect.

Test Description The number(s) below refer to the step number(s) on the diagnostic
table.
1. The noise may not be engine related. This step is to verify that the
engine is making the noise. If the engine is not making the noise,
do not proceed further with this table.
2. The noise may be an internal engine noise.
Removing the drive belt and operating the engine for a brief period
will verify the noise is related to the drive belt. When removing the
drive belt(s), the circulation pump may not be operating and the en-
gine may overheat. Also DTCs may set when the engine is operat-
ing with the drive belt removed.
3. This test is to verify that an accessory drive component does not
have a seized bearing. With the belt removed, test the bearings in
the accessory drive components for turning smoothly. Also test the
accessory drive components with the engine operating by varying

VPA 7743378 10-2004 45


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

the load on the components to verify that the components operate


properly.
4. This test is to verify that the drive belt tensioner operates properly.
If the drive belt tensioner is not operating properly, proper belt ten-
sion may not be achieved to keep the drive belt from slipping,
which could cause a squeal noise.
5. This test is to verify that the drive belt(s) is not too long, which
would prevent the drive belt tensioner from working properly. Also,
if an incorrect length drive belt was installed, it may not be routed
properly and may be turning an accessory drive component in the
wrong direction.
6. Misalignment of the pulleys may be caused from improper mount-
ing of the accessory drive component, incorrect installation of the
accessory drive component pulley or the pulley bent inward or out-
ward from a previous repair. Test for a misaligned pulley using a
straight edge in the pulley grooves across two or three pulleys. If a
misaligned pulley is found, refer to that accessory drive compo-
nent for the proper installation procedure for that pulley.
7. This test is to verify that the pulleys are the correct diameter or
width. Using a known good engine compare the pulley sizes.

Table 7: Drive Belt Squeal Diagnosis


Step Action Yes No
Note! Refer to Belt Dressing Notice in Cautions and Notices.
DEFINITION: The following are indications of a drive belt squeal:
• A loud screeching noise that is caused by a slipping drive belt; this is unusual for a drive belt with multiple ribs.
• The noise occurs when a heavy load is applied to the drive belt, such as a power steering cylinder pushing against
the steering stop, revving the engine rapidly, or a seized pulley or a faulty accessory drive component.
Did you review the Drive Belt Symptom operation and perform the nec- Go to Symptoms–
1 Go to Step 2
essary inspections? Drive Belt
Verify that there is a squeal noise.Does the engine make the squeal Go to Diagnostic
2 Go to Step 3
noise? Aids
1 Remove the drive belt.
Go to Engine
3 2 Operate the engine no longer than 30 to 40 seconds. Go to Step 4
Noise Diagnosis
3 Does the squealing noise still exist?
Inspect for an accessory drive component seized bearing or faulty
4 Go to Step 9 Go to Step 5
accessory drive component.Did you find and correct the condition?
Test the drive belt tensioner for proper operation. Refer to Drive Belt
5 Go to Step 9 Go to Step 6
Tensioner Diagnosis.Did you find and correct the condition?
Inspect for the correct drive belt length. Refer to Drive Belt Replace-
6 Go to Step 9 Go to Step 7
ment.Did you find and correct the condition?
Inspect for misalignment or a pulley.Did you find and correct the condi-
7 Go to Step 9 Go to Step 8
tion?
Inspect for the correct pulley size.Did you find and correct the condition? Go to Diagnostic
8 Go to Step 9
Aids
9 Operate the system to verify the repair.Did you correct the condition? System OK Go to Step 3

Drive Belt Whine Diagnosis

Diagnostic Aids The drive belt will not cause the whine noise.
If the whine noise is intermittent, verify the accessory drive compo-
nents by varying their loads making sure they are operated to their
maximum capacity. An overcharged A/C system, power steering sys-

46 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

tem with a pinched hose or wrong fluid or a generator failing are sug-
gested items to inspect.

Test Description The number(s) below refer to the step number(s) on the diagnostic
table.
1. This test is to verify that the noise is being caused by the drive
belt(s) or the accessory drive components. When removing the
drive belt(s), the water pump may not be operating and the engine
may overheat. Also DTCs may set when the engine is operating
with the drive belt(s) removed.
2. The inspection should include checking the drive belt tensioner
and the drive belt idler pulley bearings. The drive belt(s) may have
to be installed and the accessory drive components operated sep-
arately by varying their loads. Refer to the suspected accessory
drive component for the proper inspection and replacement proce-
dure.

Table 8: Drive Belt Whine Diagnosis

Step Action Yes No

Note! Refer to Belt Dressing Notice in Cautions and Notices.


DEFINITION: A high pitched continuous noise that may be caused by an accessory drive component failed bearing.

Did you review the Drive Belt Symptom operation and perform the nec- Go to Symp-
1 Go to Step 2
essary inspections? toms–Drive Belt

Verify that there is a whine noise. Go to Step 3 Go to Diagnos-


2
Does the engine make the whine noise? tic Aids

1 Remove the drive belt. Go to Engine


3 2 Operate the engine for no longer than 30 to 40 seconds. Noise Diagnos- Go to Step 4
3 Does the whine noise still exist? tics

Inspect for a failed accessory drive component bearing. Go to Diagnos-


4 Go to Step 5
Did you find and repair the condition? tic Aids

Operate the system to verify the repair.


5 System OK —
Did you correct the condition?

Drive Belt Rumbling Diagnosis

Diagnostic Aids Vibration from the engine operating may cause a boat component or
another part of the vessel to make rumbling noise.
The drive belt(s) may have a condition that can not be seen or felt.
Sometimes replacing the drive belt may be the only repair for the
symptom.
If replacing the drive belt(s), completing the diagnostic table, and the
noise is only heard when the drive component with a failure. Varying
the load on the different accessory drive components may aid in identi-
fying which component is causing the rumbling noise.

Test Description
The following number(s) refer to the step number(s) on the diagnostic
table.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 47


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

1. This test is to verify that the symptom is present during diagnos-


ing. Other vessel components may cause a similar symptom.
2. This test is to verify that the drive belt(s) is causing the rumbling
noise. Rumbling noise may be confused with an internal engine
noise due to the similarity in the description. Remove only one
drive belt at a time if the vessel has multiple drive belts. When
removing the drive belt the water pump may not be operating and
the engine may overheat. Also, DTC’s may set when the engine is
operating with the drive belt removed.
3. Inspecting the drive belt(s) is to ensure that it is not causing the
noise. Small cracks across the ribs of the drive belt will not cause
the noise. Belt separation is identified by the plies of the belt sepa-
rating and may be seen at the edge of the belt, or felt as a lump in
the belt.
4. Small amounts of pilling is a normal condition and acceptable.
When the pilling is severe, the drive belt does not have a smooth
surface for proper operation.

Table 9: Drive Belt Rumbling Diagnosis


Step Action Yes No
Note! Refer to Belt Dressing Notice in Cautions and Notices.
DEFINITION:
• A low pitch tapping, knocking or thumping noise heard at or just above idle.
• It is heard once per revolution of the drive belt or a pulley.
• Rumbling may be caused by:
• Pilling, the accumulation of rubber dust that forms small balls (pills) or strings in the drive belt pulley groves.
• The separation of the drive belt plies.
• A damaged drive belt.
Did you review the Drive Belt Symptom operation and perform the nec- Go to Symptom–
1 Go to Step 2
essary inspection? Drive Belt
Verify that there is a rumbling noise. Go to Diagnostic
2 Go to Step 3
Does the engine make the rumbling noise? Aids
1 Remove the drive belt.
Go to Engine–
3 2 Operate the engine for no longer than 30 to 40 seconds. Go to Step 4
Noise Diagnosis
3 Does the rumbling noise still exist?
Inspect the drive belt for damage, separations or sections of missing
4 ribs. Go to Step 7 Go to Step 5
Did you find and repair the condition?
Inspect for severe pilling or more than 1/3 of the drive belt pulley
5 grooves. Go to Step 6 Go to Step 7
Did you find severe pilling?
1 Clean the drive belt pulleys using a suitable wire brush.
6 2 Reinstall the drive belt. Refer to Drive Belt Replacement. Go to Step 8 Go to Step 7
3 Did you complete the repair?
Install a new drive belt. Refer to Drive Belt Replacement.
7 Go to Step 8 —
Did you complete the replacement?
Operate the engine to verify the repair.
8 System OK —
Did you correct the condition?

Drive Belt Vibration Diagnosis

Diagnostic Aids The accessory drive components can have an affect on engine vibra-
tion. Such as, but not limited to the
A/C system overcharged, the power steering system restricted or the
incorrect fluid or an extra load on the generator. To help identify an

48 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

intermittent or an improper condition, vary the loads on the accessory


drive components.

Test Description The following number(s) refer to the step number(s) on the diagnostic
table.
1. This test is to verify that the symptom is present during diagnos-
ing. Other vessel components may cause a similar symptom such
as the exhaust system or the drivetrain.
2. This test is to verify that the drive belt(s) or accessory drive com-
ponents may be causing the vibration. When removing the drive
belt the water pump may not be operating and the engine may
overheat. Also, DTC’s may set when the engine is operating with
the drive belt removed.
3. The drive belt(s) may cause a vibration. While the drive belt(s) is
removed, inspect the condition of the belt.
1. Inspecting of the fasteners can eliminate the possibility that a
wrong bolt, nut, spacer or washer was installed.
1. This step should only be performed if the fan is driven by the drive
belt. Inspect the engine cooling fan for bent, twisted, loose or
cracked blades. Inspect the fan for smoothness, ease of turning.
Inspect for a bent fan shaft or bent mounting flange.
2. This step should only be performed if the water pump is driven by
the drive belt. Inspect the water pump shaft for being bent. Also
inspect the water pump bearings for smoothness and excessive
play. Compare the water pump with a known good water pump.
3. Accessory drive component brackets that are bent, cracked or
loose may put extra strain on that accessory component causing it
to vibrate.

Table 10: Drive Belt Vibration Diagnosis


Step Action Yes No
Note! Refer to Belt Dressing Notice in Cautions and Notices.
DEFINITION:
• The vibration is engine-speed related.
• The vibration my be sensitive to accessory load.
Did you review the Drive Belt Symptom operation and perform the nec- Go to Symptoms–
1 Go to Step 2
essary inspections? Drive Belt
Verify that the vibration is engine related. Go to Diagnostic
2 Go to Step 3
Does the engine make the vibration? Aids
1 Remove the drive Belt. Go to Engine
3 2 Operate the engine for no longer than 30 to 40 seconds. Related Vibration Go to Step 4
3 Does the rumbling noise still exist? and Diagnosis
Inspect the drive belt for wear, damage, debris build-up and missing
4 drive belt ribs. Go to Step 5 Go to Step 6
Did you find any of these conditions?
install a new drive belt. Refer to Drive Belt Replacement.
5 Go to Step 11 —
Did you complete the replacement?
Inspect for improper, loose or missing fasteners.
6 Go to Step 5 Go to Step 6
Did you find any of these conditions?
Tighten any loose fasteners.
Replace improper or missing fasteners. Refer to Fastener Tightening
7 Go to Step 11 —
Specifications.
Did you complete the repair?

VPA 7743378 10-2004 49


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Table 10: Drive Belt Vibration Diagnosis


Step Action Yes No
Inspect for damaged water circulation pump pulley.
8 Go to Step 11 Go to Step 9
Did you find and correct the condition?
Inspect for bent water circulation pump shaft. Refer to Water Pump
9 Replacement in Engine Cooling. Go to Step 11 Go to Step 10
Did you find and correct the condition?
Inspect for bent or cracked brackets. Go to Diagnostic
10 Go to Step 11
Did you find and correct the condition? Aids
Operate the engine to verify the repair.
11 System OK Go to Step 3
Did you correct the condition?

Drive Belt Falls Off Diagnosis

Diagnostic Aids If the drive belt(s) repeatedly falls off the drive belt pulleys, this is
because of pulley misalignment.
An extra load that is quickly applied and released by an accessory
drive component may cause the drive belt to fall off the pulleys. Verify
the accessory drive components operate properly.
If the drive belt(s) is the incorrect length, the drive belt tensioner may
not keep the proper tension on the drive belt.

Test Description
The number(s) below refer to the step number(s) on the diagnostic
table.
1. This inspection is to verify the condition of the drive belt. Damage
may of occurred to the drive belt when the drive belt fell off. The
drive belt may of been damaged, which caused the drive belt to fall
off. Inspect the belt for cuts, tears, sections of ribs missing or dam-
aged belt plies.
1. Misalignment of the pulleys may be caused from improper mount-
ing of the accessory drive component, incorrect installation of the
accessory drive component pulley or the pulley bent inward or out-
ward from a previous repair. Test for a misaligned pulley using a
straight edge in the pulley grooves across two or three pulleys. If a
misaligned pulley is found, refer to that accessory drive compo-
nent for the proper installation procedure of that pulley.
2. Inspecting the pulleys for being bent should include inspecting for
a dent or other damage to the pulleys that would prevent the drive
belt from not seating properly in all of the pulley grooves or on the
smooth surface of a pulley when the back side of the belt is used
to drive the pulley.
3. Accessory drive component brackets that are bent or cracked will
let the drive belt fall off.
4. Inspecting of the fasteners can eliminate the possibility that a
wrong bolt, nut, spacer or washer was installed. Missing, loose or
the wrong fasteners may cause pulley misalignment from the
bracket moving under load. Over tightening of the fasteners may
cause misalignment of the accessory component bracket.

50 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Table 11: Drive Belt Falls Off Diagnosis


Step Action Yes No
Note! Refer to Belt Dressing Notice in Cautions and Notices.
DEFINITION: The drive belt falls off the pulleys or may not ride correctly on the pulleys.
Did you review the Drive Belt Symptom operation and perform the nec- Go to Symptoms–
1 Go to Step 2
essary inspections? Drive Belt
Inspect for a damaged drive belt.
2 Go to Step 3 Go to Step 4
Did you find the condition?
Install a new drive belt. Refer to Drive Belt Replacement.
3 Go to Step 4 System OK
Does the drive belt continue to fall off?
Inspect for misalignment of the pulleys.
4 Go to Step 12 Go to Step 5
Did you find and repair the condition?
Inspect for a bent or dented pulley.
5 Go to Step 12 Go to Step 6
Did you find and repair the condition?
Inspect for a bent or cracked bracket.
6 Go to Step 12 Go to Step 7
Did you find and repair the condition?
Inspect for improper, loose or missing fasteners.
7 Go to Step 8 Go to Step 9
Did you find loose or missing fasteners?
Tighten any loose fasteners.
Replace improper or missing fasteners. Refer to Fastener Tightening
8 Go to Step 9 System OK
Specifications.
Does the drive belt continue to fall off?
Test the drive belt tensioner for proper operation. Refer to Drive Belt
9 Tensioner Diagnosis. Go to Step 11 Go to Step 10
Does the drive belt tensioner operate correctly?
Replace the drive belt tensioner. Refer to Drive Belt Tensioner Replace-
10 ment. Go to Step 11 System OK
Does the drive belt continue to fall off?
Inspect for failed drive belt idler and drive belt tensioner pulley bearings. Go to Diagnostic
11 Go to Step 12
Did you find and repair the condition? Aids
Operate the system to verify the repair.
12 System OK Go to Step 2
Did you correct the condition?

Drive Belt Excessive Wear


Diagnosis

Diagnostic Aids Excessive wear on a drive belt(s) is usually caused by an incorrect


installation or the wrong drive belt for the application.
Minor misalignment of the drive belt pulleys will not cause excessive
wear, but will probably cause the drive belt(s) to make a noise or to fall
off.
Excessive misalignment of the drive belt pulleys will cause excessive
wear but may also make the drive belt(s) fall off.

Test Description The following number(s) refer to the step number(s) on the diagnostic
table.
1. This inspection is to verify the drive belt(s) is correctly installed on
all of the drive belt pulleys. Wear on the drive belt(s) may be
caused by mis-positioning the drive belt(s) by one groove on a pul-
ley.
2. The installation of a drive belt that is two wide or two narrow will
cause wear on the drive belt. The drive belt ribs should match all
of the grooves on all of the pulleys.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 51


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

3. This inspection is to verify the drive belt(s) is not contacting any


parts of the engine or body while the engine is operating. There
should be sufficient clearance when the drive belt accessory drive
components load varies. The drive belt(s) should not come in con-
tact with an engine or a body component when snapping the throt-
tle.

Table 12: Drive Belt Excessive Wear Diagnosis


Step Action Yes No
Note! Refer to Belt Dressing Notice in Cautions and Notices.
DEFINITION: Wear at the outside ribs of the drive belt due to and incorrectly installed drive belt.
Did you review the Drive Belt Symptom operation and perform the nec- Go to Symptoms-
1 Go to Step 2
essary inspections? Drive Belt
Inspect the drive belt for the proper installation, Refer to Drive Belt
2 Replacement. Go to Step 5 Go to Step 3
Did you find the condition?
Inspect for the proper drive belt.
3 Go to Step 5 Go to Step 4
Is there an improper drive belt installed?
Inspect for the drive belt rubbing against a bracket, hose or wiring har-
Go to Diagnostic
4 ness. Go to Step 6
Aids
Did you find and repair the condition?
Replace the drive belt. Refer to Drive Belt Replacement.
5 — Go to Step 6
Did you complete the replacement?
Operate the engine to verify the repair.
6 Go to Step 2 System OK
Does the drive belt continue to show signs of excessive wear?

Drive Belt Tensioner Diagnosis

Inspection Procedure CAUTION!

When the engine is operating the drive belt tensioner arm


will move. Do not replace the drive belt tensioner because
of movement in the drive belt tensioner arm.

CAUTION!

Allowing the drive belt tensioner to snap into the free


position may result in damage to the tensioner.
1. Remove the drive belt. Refer to Drive Belt Replacement.
374176 2. Position a 3/8 inch drive wrench on the drive belt tensioner arm
and rotate the arm counterclockwise.
3. Move the drive belt tensioner through it’s full travel.
• The movement should feel smooth.
• There should be no binding.
• The tensioner should return freely.
4. If any binding is observed, replace the drive belt tensioner. Refer
to Drive Belt Tensioner Replacement.
5. Install the drive belt. Refer to Drive Belt Replacement.

52 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Specifications 8.1Gi-B/C/D/E, 8.1GXi-A/B/C/D


Table 13: Fastener Tightening Specifications 8.1Gi-B/C/D/E, 8.1GXi-A/B/C/D
Specification
Application
Metric English
Camshaft Position Sensor Bolt 12 Nm 106 in. lb.
Camshaft Retainer Bolt 12 Nm 106 in. lb.
Camshaft Sprocket Bolt 30 Nm 22 ft. lb.
Connecting Rod Nut 30 Nm + 90° 22 ft. lb. + 90°
Coolant Drain Hole Plug
Left Front 60 Nm 44 ft. lb.
Sides 20 Nm 15 ft. lb.
Crankshaft Balancer Bolt 255 Nm 189 ft. lb.
Crankshaft Main Bearing Cap Bolt
First Pass 30 Nm 22 ft. lb.
Final Pass 90°
Crankshaft Main Bearing Cap Stud
First Pass 30 Nm 22 ft. lb.
Final Pass 80°
Crankshaft Oil Deflector Nut 50 Nm 37 ft. lb.
Crankshaft Position Sensor Bolt 12 Nm 106 in. lb.in. lb.
Cylinder Head Bolt (In Sequence)
First Pass 30 Nm 22 ft. lb.
Second Pass 30 Nm + 120° 22 ft. lb. + 120°
Final Pass – Long Bolts # 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 16, 17 60°
Final Pass – Medium Bolts # 15, 18 45°
Final Pass – Short Bolts # 4, 5, 12, 13 30°
Cylinder Head Coolant Hole Plug 23 Nm 17 ft. lb.
Drive Belt Tensioner Bolt 50 Nm 37 ft. lb.
Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) Sensor 20 Nm 15 ft. lb.
Exhaust Manifold
Center Bolt 35 Nm 26 ft. lb.
Nut 16 Nm 12 ft. lb.
Stud 20 Nm 15 ft. lb.
Flywheel Bolt 100Nm 74 ft. lb.
Flywheel Damper (DPX only) 50 Nm 36 ft. lb.
Flywheel Housing Bolt 67 Nm 50 ft. lb.
Front Cover Bolt 12 Nm 106 in. lb.
Fuel Rail Stud 12 Nm 106 in. lb.
Ignition Coil Bolt 12 Nm 106 in. lb.
Ignition Coil Wiring Harness Bolt 12 Nm 106 in. lb.
Intake Manifold Bolt (In Sequence) 12 Nm 106 in. lb.
Knock Sensor 20 Nm 15 ft. lb.
Map Sensor Bolt 12 Nm 106 in. lb.
Oil Cooler Hose Fittings 23 Nm 17 ft. lb.
Oil Filter 38 Nm 12 ft. lb.
Oil Filter Fittings 38 Nm 12 ft. lb.
Oil Gallery Plug
Front 30 Nm 22 ft. lb.
Left 30 Nm 22 ft. lb.
Rear 30 Nm 22 ft. lb.
Top 20 Nm 15 ft. lb.
Dipstick Tube Bracket Bolt 8 Nm 70 in. lb.
Oil Pan Bolt 25 Nm 18 ft. lb.
Dipstick Tube Hollow Bolt 28 Nm 21 ft. lb.
Oil Pressure Gauge Sensor 10 Nm 88 in. lb.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 53


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Table 13: Fastener Tightening Specifications 8.1Gi-B/C/D/E, 8.1GXi-A/B/C/D


Specification
Application
Metric English
Oil Pump Bolt 75 Nm 56 ft. lb.
Oil Pump Cover Bolt 12 Nm 106 in. lb.
Oil Pump Drive Bolt 25 Nm 19 ft. lb.
Spark Plug 20 Nm 15 ft. lb.
Thermostat Housing Bolt 30 Nm 22 ft. lb.
Throttle Body
Nut 10 Nm 88 in. lb.
Stud 12 Nm 106in. lb.
Valve Lifter Guide Retainer Bolt 25 Nm 19 ft. lb.
Valve Rocker Arm Cover Bolt 12 Nm 106 in. lb.
Valve Rocker Arm Nut 25 Nm 19 ft. lb.
Valve Rocker Arm Stud 50 Nm 37 ft. lb.
Water Crossover Pipe Bolt 50 Nm 37 ft. lb.
Water Pump (Circulation) Bolt 50 Nm 37 ft. lb.
Water Pump (Circulation) Pulley Bolt 25 Nm 19 ft. lb.
Water Pump (Feed) Bolt 48 Nm 35 ft. lb.
Water Pump (Raw Water) Mounting Bolts 34-39 Nm 25-29 ft. lb.
Table 14: Engine Specifications 8.1Gi-B/C/D/E, 8.1GXi-A/B/C/D
Specification
Application
Metric English
General Data
Engine Type V8
Displacement 8.1L 496 CID
Bore 107.950 mm 4.250 in.
Stroke 111.00 mm 4.370 in.
Compression Ratio 9.1:1
Firing Order 1-8-7-2-6-5-4-3
Spark Plug Gap 1.52 mm 0.060 in.
Cylinder Head
Surface Flatness 0.254 mm 0.002 in.
Maximum Cylinder head Block Deck Resurfacing 0.3048 mm 0.012 in.
Exhaust Manifold
Surface Flatness 0.254 mm 0.010 in.
Lubrication System
Oil Capacity without Filter Change 7.57 liters 8.0 US quarts
Oil Pressure (minimum) 34 kPa @ 1000 r/m 5 psi @ 1000 r/m
Oil Pressure (maximum) 69 kPa @ 2000 r/m 10 psi @ 2000 r/m
Oil Filter System Full Flow
Oil Pump Type Gear Driven
Cylinder Bore
Diameter–Production 107.950–107.968 mm 4.2500–4.2507 in.
Diameter–Service 107.940–107.990 mm 4.2496–4.2516 in.
Out-of-Round Production (max minus minimum bore diameter) 0.0180 mm (max) 0.0007 in. (max)
Out-of-Round Service (max minus minimum bore diameter) 0.050 (max) 0.002 in. (max)
Taper–Production 0.0180 mm (max) 0.0007 in. (max)
Taper–Service 0.050 mm (max) 0.002 in. (max)
Diameter - 0.030” oversized 108.712-108.7298 mm 4.2800-4.2807 in
Engine Block (Production Specifications)
Main Bearing Bore Diameter 74.6060–74.6220 mm 2.9372–2.9379 in.

54 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Table 14: Engine Specifications 8.1Gi-B/C/D/E, 8.1GXi-A/B/C/D


Specification
Application
Metric English
Lifter Bore Diameter 21.417–21.443 mm 0.843–0.844 in.
Deck Height from Crankshaft Bore 259.875–260.125 mm 10.231–10.241 in.
Head Deck Surface Flatness (entire face) 0.100 mm 0.004 in.
Head Deck Surface Flatness (within 15 cm radius) 0.050 mm 0.002 in.
Piston
Piston Diameter (Coated) Not measurable
Clearance Production Interference Fit (Coated Piston)
Compression Ring Top Groove Clearance 0.031–0.074 mm 0.0012–0.0029 in.
Compression Ring Second Groove Clearance 0.031–0.074 mm 0.0012–0.0029 in.
Top Ring Production Gap 0.300–0.450 mm 0.012–0.018 in.
Top Ring Service Limit Gap 0.450–0.675 mm 0.018–0.027 in.
Second Ring Production Gap 0.450–0.650 mm 0.017–0.025 in.
Second Ring Service Limit Gap 0.675–0.975 mm 0.026–0.039 in.
Oil Control Ring Groove Clearance 0.051–0.203 mm 0.002–0.008 in.
Oil Control Ring Gap 0.249–0.759 mm 0.0098–0.0299 in.
Pin
Piston Pin diameter 26.416–26.419 mm 1.0400–1.0401 in.
0.0049–0.020 mm 0.00019–0.0007 in.
Piston Pin Fit in Connecting Rod
Interference Interference
Crankshaft
Crankshaft Main Journal Runout–Production 0.0380 mm (max) 0.0015 in. (max)
Crankshaft Main Journal Runout–Service 0.0510 mm 0.0020 in. (max)
Crankshaft Journal Diameter #1, 2, 3, 4 68.805–69.822 mm 2.7482–2.7489 in.
Crankshaft Journal Taper–Production 0.0102 mm (max) 0.0004 in. (max)
Crankshaft Journal Out-of-Round–Production 0.0102 mm (max) 0.0004 in. (max)
Crankshaft Bearing Clearance #1, 2, 3, 4 Production 0.022–0.052 mm 0.0008–0.0020 in.
Crankshaft Bearing Clearance #5 Production 0.035–0.067 mm 0.0014–0.0026 in.
Crankshaft Bearing Clearance #1, 2, 3, 4 Service Limit 0.022–0.089 mm 0.0008–0.0035 in.
Crankshaft Bearing Clearance #5 Service Limit 0.035–0.102 mm 0.0014–0.0040 in.
Crankshaft End Play 0.127–0.279 mm 0.0050–0.0110 in.
Crankpin Diameter 55.854–55.870 mm 2.1990–2.1996 in.
Crankpin Taper Production 0.0102 mm (max) 0.0004 in. (max)
Crankpin Out-of-Round Production 0.0102 mm (max) 0.0004 in. (max)
Rod Bearing Clearance Production 0.021–0.064 mm 0.0008–000025 in.
Rod Bearing Clearance Service Limit 0.021–0.081 mm 0.0008–0.0032 in.
Connecting Rod Side Clearance 0.384–0.686 mm 0.0151–0.0270 in.
Camshaft
Camshaft Runout–Production 0.051 mm (max) 0.003 in. (max)
Camshaft Runout–Service 0.076 mm (max) 0.002 in. (max)
Lobe Lift Intake 6.924–7.026 mm 0.2726–0.2766 in.
Lobe Lift Exhaust 6.973–7.075 mm 0.2745–0.2785 in.
Journal Diameter 49.472–49.522 mm 1.9477–1.9479 in.
Camshaft Bearing Inside Diameter 49.5480–49.5730 mm 1.9507–1.9517 in.
Valve System
Lifter Hydraulic Roller
Rocker Arm Ratio 1.70:1
Valve Lash Intake Net Lash
Valve Lash Exhaust Net Lash
Face Angle (intake/exhaust) 45°
Seat Angle (intake/exhaust) 46°
Seat Runout (intake/exhaust) 0.050 mm (max) 0.002 in. (max)

VPA 7743378 10-2004 55


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Table 14: Engine Specifications 8.1Gi-B/C/D/E, 8.1GXi-A/B/C/D


Specification
Application
Metric English
Seat Width intake 0.800–1.200 mm 0.030–0.060 in.
Seat Width exhaust 1.651–2.159 mm 0.060–0.095 in.
Stem Clearance Intake–Production 0.025–0.0740 mm 0.0010–0.0029 in.
Stem Clearance Exhaust–Production 0.030–0.079 mm 0.0012–0.0031 in.
Valve Spring Pressure–Closed 381–419 N @ 45.923 mm 86–94 lb. @1.808 in.
Valve Spring Pressure–Open 962–1058 N @33.958 mm 216–236 lb. @ 1.338 in.
Valve Spring Installed Height 45.923–46.685 mm 1.808–1.838 in.
Valve Spring Free Length 56.35 mm 2.218 in.
Valve Diameter Intake 55.63 mm 2.19 in.
Valve Diameter Exhaust 43.69 mm 1.72 in.
Valve Stem Diameter Intake 9.436–9.454 mm 0.3715–0.3722 in.
Valve Stem Diameter Exhaust 9.431–9.449 mm 0.3713–0.3720 in.
Maximum Valve Spring Installed Height Shim (Service Only) 0.726 mm 0.030 in.
Maximum Valve Spring Tension Shim (Service Only) 0.726 mm 0.030 in.
Maximum Combined Valve Spring Installed Height and Valve
1.524 mm 0.060 in.
Spring Tension Shim

56 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Specifications 8.1Gi-F, 8.1GXi-E


Table 15: Fastener Tightning Specifications 8.1Gi-F, 8.1GXi-E
Specification
Application
Metric English
Camshaft Position Sensor Bolt 12 N·m 106 lb in
Camshaft Retainer Bolt 12 N·m 106 lb in
Camshaft Sprocket Bolt 30 N·m 22 lb ft
Connecting Rod Nut - First Pass 30 N·m 22 lb ft
Connecting Rod Nut - Final Pass 90 degrees
Crankshaft Balancer Bolt 255 N·m 189 lb ft
Crankshaft Bearing Cap Inner Bolts - First Pass 30 N·m 22 lb ft
Crankshaft Bearing Cap Inner Bolts - Final Pass 90 degrees
Crankshaft Bearing Cap Outer Bolts/Studs - First Pass 30 N·m 22 lb ft
Crankshaft Bearing Cap Outer Bolts/Studs - Final Pass 80 degrees
Crankshaft Oil Deflector Nut 50 N·m 37 lb ft
Crankshaft Position Sensor Bolt 12 N·m 106 lb in
Crossbar Bolt 100 N·m 74 lb ft
Cylinder Head Bolts - In Sequence
First Pass 30 N·m 22 lb ft
Second Pass 30 N·m + 120 degrees 22 lb ft + 120 degrees
"Final Pass - Long Bolts #1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 16, 17 "60 degrees
"Final Pass - Medium Bolts#15, 18 "45 degrees
"Final Pass - Short Bolts #4, 5, 12, 13 "30 degrees
Cylinder Head Coolant Hole Plug 50 N·m 37 lb ft
Drive Belt Idler Pulley Bolt 50 N·m 37 lb ft
Drive Belt Tensioner Bolt 50 N·m 37 lb ft
Engine Block Coolant Drain M28 Plug - Left Front 60 N·m 44 lb ft
Engine Block Coolant Drain Plug - Sides 30 N·m 22 lb ft
Engine Block Heater 50 N·m 37 lb ft
Engine Block Oil Gallery Front Plug 20 N·m 15 lb ft
Engine Block Oil Gallery Rear Plug 30 N·m 22 lb ft
Engine Block Oil Gallery Side Plug 30 N·m 22 lb ft
Engine Block Oil Gallery Top Plug 20 N·m 15 lb ft
Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) Sensor 50 N·m 37 lb ft
Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) Sensor Bracket Bolt 50 N·m 37 lb ft
Engine Harness Bolt 5 N·m 44 lb in
Engine Harness Ground Bolt 16 N·m 12 lb ft
Engine Harness Stud 10 N·m 89 lb in
Engine Mount-to-Engine Bolt 50 N·m 37 lb ft
Engine Mount Bracket Thru Bolt 75 N·m 55 lb ft
Engine Mount-to-Engine Mount Bracket Bolt 65 N·m 50 lb ft
Engine Shield Bolt 20 N·m 15 lb ft
Engine Sight Shield Bracket Nut 5 N·m 44 lb in
Engine Wiring Harness Bolt 16 N·m 12 lb ft
Evaporative Emission (EVAP) Purge Valve Bolt 8 N·m 71 lb in
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Cover Nut 22 N·m 16 lb ft
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Cover Stud 7 N·m 62 lb in
Exhaust Manifold Center Bolt 35 N·m 26 lb ft
Exhaust Manifold Nut 16 N·m 12 lb ft
Exhaust Manifold Stud 20 N·m 15 lb ft
Exhaust Manifold Heat Shield Bolt 25 N·m 18 lb ft
Exhaust Manifold Heat Shield Nut 25 N·m 18 lb ft
Flywheel Bolt - First Pass 40 N·m 30 lb ft
Flywheel Bolt - Second Pass 80 N·m 59 lb ft

VPA 7743378 10-2004 57


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Table 15: Fastener Tightning Specifications 8.1Gi-F, 8.1GXi-E


Specification
Application
Metric English
Flywheel Bolt - Final Pass 100 N·m 74 lb ft
Front Cover Bolt - First Pass 6 N·m 53 lb in
Front Cover Bolt - Final Pass 12 N·m 106 lb in
Fuel Rail Bolt/Stud 12 N·m 106 lb in
Heater Hose Bracket Bolt 50 N·m 37 lb ft
Hood Hinge Bolt 25 N·m 18 lb ft
Ignition Coil Bolt 12 N·m 106 lb in
Ignition Coil Wiring Harness Bolt 12 N·m 106 lb in
Intake Manifold Bolts - In Sequence - First Pass 5 N·m 44 lb in
Intake Manifold Bolts - In Sequence - Second Pass 8 N·m 71 lb in
Intake Manifold Bolts - In Sequence - Third Pass 12 N·m 106 lb in
Intake Manifold Bolt - In Sequence - Final Pass 15 N·m 11 lb ft
J 36857 Lift Bracket Bolt 40 N·m 30 lb ft
J 42847 Flywheel Holding Tool Bolt 50 N·m 37 lb ft
Knock Sensor 20 N·m 15 lb ft
Knock Sensor Heat Shield Bolt 12 N·m 106 lb in
Lift Bracket Bolt 40 N·m 30 lb ft
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) Sensor Bolt 12 N·m 106 lb in
Oil Cooler Hose Fittings 23 N·m 17 lb ft
Oil Fill Tube Bolt 12 N·m 106 lb in
Oil Filter 38 N·m 28 lb ft
Oil Filter Fitting 66 N·m 49 lb ft
Oil Level Indicator Tube Bolt 25 N·m 18 lb ft
Oil Level Sensor 20 N·m 15 lb ft
Oil Pan Bolt - First Pass 10 N·m 89 lb in
Oil Pan Bolt - Final Pass 25 N·m 18 lb ft
Oil Pan Drain Plug 28 N·m 21 lb ft
Oil Pan Skid Plate Bolt 20 N·m 15 lb ft
Oil Pressure Sensor 30 N·m 22 lb ft
Oil Pump Bolt 75 N·m 56 lb ft
Oil Pump Cover Bolt 12 N·m 106 lb in
Oil Pump Drive Bolt 25 N·m 18 lb ft
Power Steering Pump Bracket Bolt/Nut 50 N·m 37 lb ft
Power Steering Pump Bracket Stud 20 N·m 15 lb ft
Spark Plug 30 N·m 22 lb ft
Thermostat Housing Bolt/Stud 30 N·m 22 lb ft
Throttle Body Nut 10 N·m 89 lb in
Throttle Body Stud 12 N·m 106 lb in
Valve Lifter Guide Retainer Bolt 25 N·m 18 lb ft
Valve Rocker Arm Cover Bolt - First Pass 6 N·m 53 lb in
Valve Rocker Arm Cover Bolt - Final Pass 12 N·m 106 lb in
Valve Rocker Arm Nut 35 N·m 26 lb ft
Valve Rocker Arm Stud 50 N·m 37 lb ft
Water Crossover Bolt 50 N·m 37 lb ft
Water Pump Bolt - First Pass 25 N·m 18 lb ft
Water Pump Bolt - Final Pass 50 N·m 37 lb ft
Water Pump Pulley Bolt 25 N·m 18 lb ft

58 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Table 16: Engine Specifications 8.1Gi-F, 8.12GXi-E

Specification
Application
Metric English
General
Engine Type V8
Displacement 8.1L 496 CID
RPO L18
VIN G
Bore 107.95 mm 4.25 in
Stroke 111.0 mm 4.37 in
Compression Ratio 9.1:1
Firing Order 1-8-7-2-6-5-4-3
Spark Plug Gap 1.52 mm 0.06 in
Block
Crankshaft Main Bearing Bore Diameter 74.606-74.622 mm 2.9372-2.9379 in
Cylinder Bore Diameter - Production 107.95-107.968 mm 4.25-4.2507 in
Cylinder Bore Diameter - Service 107.94-107.99 mm 4.2496-4.2516 in
Cylinder Bore Out-of-Round - Production, Maximum Minus Mini- 0.018 mm 0.0007 in
mum Bore Diameter
"Cylinder Bore Out-of-Round - Service, Maximum Minus Minimum 0.05 mm 0.002 in
Bore Diameter
Cylinder Bore Taper - Production 0.018 mm 0.0007 in
Cylinder Bore Taper - Service Thrust Axis 0.05 mm 0.002 in
Cylinder Bore Taper - Service Pin Axis 0.05 mm 0.002 in
Cylinder Head Deck Height - from Centerline of Crankshaft 259.875-260.125 mm 10.231-10.241 in
Cylinder Head Deck Surface Flatness - Entire Face 0.1 mm 0.004 in
Cylinder Head Deck Surface Flatness - Within 150 mm (6 in) 0.05 mm 0.002 in
Valve Lifter Bore Diameter 21.417-21.443 mm 0.843-0.844 in
Camshaft
Camshaft Bearing Inside Diameter 49.548-49.573 mm 1.9507-1.9517 in
Camshaft Journal Diameter 49.472-49.522 mm 1.9477-1.9497 in
Camshaft Lobe Lift - Exhaust 6.973-7.075 mm 0.2745-0.2785 in
Camshaft Lobe Lift - Intake 6.924-7.026 mm 0.2726-0.2766 in
Camshaft Runout - Production 0.051 mm 0.002 in
Camshaft Runout - Service 0.076 mm 0.003 in
Connecting Rod
Connecting Rod Bearing Clearance - Production 0.033-0.068 mm 0.0013-0.0027 in
Connecting Rod Bearing Clearance - Service 0.033-0.081 mm 0.0013-0.0032 in
Connecting Rod Side Clearance 0.384-0.686 mm 0.0151-0.027 in
Crankshaft
Connecting Rod Journal Diameter 55.854-55.87 mm 2.199-2.1996 in
Connecting Rod Journal Out-of-Round - Production 0.0102 mm 0.0004 in
Connecting Rod Journal Taper - Production 0.0102 mm 0.0004 in
Crankshaft End Play 0.127-0.35 mm 0.005-0.0138 in
"Crankshaft Main Bearing Clearance - #1, #2, #3, #4 Production "0.022-0.057 mm 0.0008-0.0022 in
Crankshaft Main Bearing Clearance - #5 Production 0.034-0.069 mm 0.0013-0.0027 in
"Crankshaft Main Bearing Clearance - #1, #2, #3, #4 Service "0.022-0.089 mm 0.0008-0.0035 in
Crankshaft Main Bearing Clearance - #5 Service Limit 0.035-0.102 mm 0.0014-0.004 in
Crankshaft Main Journal Diameter 69.805-69.822 mm 2.7482-2.7489 in
Crankshaft Main Journal Out-of-Round - Production 0.0102 mm 0.0004 in
Crankshaft Main Journal Taper - Production 0.0102 mm 0.0004 in
Crankshaft Runout - Production 0.05 mm 0.002 in
Crankshaft Runout - Service 0.065 mm 0.0026 in

VPA 7743378 10-2004 59


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Table 16: Engine Specifications 8.1Gi-F, 8.12GXi-E

Specification
Application
Metric English
Cylinder Head
Cylinder Head Height/Thickness 259.875-260.125 mm 10.231-10.241 in
Surface Flatness - Block Deck 0.05 mm 0.002 in
Surface Flatness - Exhaust Manifold Deck 0.102 mm 0.004 in
Surface Flatness - Intake Manifold Deck 0.08 mm 0.003 in
Exhaust Manifold
Surface Flatness 0.254 mm 0.01 in
Lubrication System
Oil Capacity - Without Filter 5.7L 6.0 Qts
Oil Pressure - Minimum 34 kPa 1,000 RPM 5 psi 1,000 RPM
Oil Pressure - Minimum 69 kPa 2,000 RPM 10 psi 2,000 RPM
Piston Rings
Piston Ring End Gap
First Compression Ring - Production 0.3-0.45 mm 0.012-0.018 in
First Compression Ring - Service 0.45-0.675 mm 0.018-0.027 in
Second Compression Ring - Production 0.45-0.65 mm 0.017-0.025 in
Second Compression Ring - Service 0.675-0.975 mm 0.026-0.039 in
Oil Control Ring - Production 0.249-0.759 mm 0.0098-0.0299 in
Oil Control Ring - Service 0.373-1.138 mm 0.015-0.045 in
Piston Ring-to-Groove Clearance
First Compression Ring 0.031-0.074 mm 0.0012-0.0029 in
Second Compression Ring 0.031-0.074 mm 0.0012-0.0029 in
Oil Control Ring 0.051-0.203 mm 0.002-0.008 in
Piston and Pins
Piston
Piston Diameter Not Measurable Not Measurable
Piston-to-Bore Clearance Interference Fit Interference Fit
Pin
Pin-Piston Pin Fit in Connecting Rod Bore-Production 0.010-0.023 mm 0.0004-0.0009 in
Pin-Piston Pin Fit in Connecting Rod Bore-Service 0.010-0.023 mm 0.0004-0.0009 in
Pin-Piston Pin Clearance-to-Piston Pin Bore-Production 0.003-0.011 mm 0.00019-0.00043 in
Pin-Piston Pin Clearance-to-Piston Pin Bore-Service 0.003-0.011 mm 0.00019-0.00043 in
Pin-Piston Pin Diameter 26.416-26.419 mm 1.039-1.040 in
Valve System
Valves
Valve Face Angle - Exhaust 45 degrees
Valve Face Angle - Intake 45 degrees
Valve Head Diameter - Exhaust 43.69 mm 1.72 in
Valve Head Diameter - Intake 55.63 mm 2.19 in
Valve Lash - Exhaust Net Lash Net Lash
Valve Lash - Intake Net Lash Net Lash
Valve Seat Angle - Exhaust 46 degrees
Valve Seat Angle - Intake 46 degrees
Valve Seat Runout - Exhaust 0.05 mm 0.002 in
Valve Seat Runout - Intake 0.05 mm 0.002 in
Valve Seat Width - Exhaust 1.651-2.159 mm 0.060-0.095 in
Valve Seat Width - Intake 0.8-1.2 mm 0.03-0.06 in

60 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Table 16: Engine Specifications 8.1Gi-F, 8.12GXi-E

Specification
Application
Metric English
Valve Stem Diameter - Exhaust 9.431-9.449 mm 0.3713-0.372 in
Valve Stem Diameter - Intake 9.436-9.454 mm 0.3715-0.3722 in
Valve Stem-to-Guide Clearance - Exhaust - Production 0.03-0.079 mm 0.0012-0.0031 in
Valve Stem-to-Guide Clearance - Intake - Production 0.025-0.074 mm 0.001-0.0029 in
Valve Stem-to-Guide Clearance - Exhaust - Service 0.03-0.104 mm 0.0012-0.0041 in
Valve Stem-to-Guide Clearance - Intake - Service 0.025-0.099 mm 0.001-0.0039 in
Rocker Arms
Valve Rocker Arm Ratio 1.7:1
Valve Springs
Valve Spring Free Length 56.35 mm 2.218 in
Valve Spring Installed Height 45.92-46.69 mm 1.808-1.838 in
Valve Spring Load - Closed 381-419 N at 45.92 mm 86-94 lb at 1.808 in
Valve Spring Load - Open 964-1056 N at 33.99 mm 216-236 lb at 1.338 in

Repair Instructions
Draining Engine Fluids

228483 1. Drain the engine oil. ‘Draining and Filling the Engine Crankcase”
on page 9.
2 2. Drain coolant, See “Draining Engine Block or Exhaust Manifold” on
page 214.

Drive Belt Removal

49465 1. Remove raw water pump holding bracket screws and bracket.
2. Remove raw water pump mounting screws and remove pump.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 61


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

23346 3. Install a breaker bar with hex head socket to the drive belt ten-
sioner bolt.
4. Rotate the drive belt tensioner clockwise to relieve belt tension.
5. Remove the belt from the pulleys and drive belt tensioner.
6. Slowly release the tension on the drive belt tensioner.
7. Remove the breaker bar and socket from the drive belt tensioner.
8. Clean and inspect the belt surfaces of all the pulleys.
9. Remove engine drive belt

Crankshaft Balancer Removal Tools Required


• J 24420-C Harmonic Balancer Puller
• J 42847 Flywheel Holding Tool
NOTE! Refer to Fastener Notice in Cautions and Notices.

CAUTION!

Make sure the teeth of the flywheel holding tool engage


the engine flywheel teeth.
470799 1. Install the J 42847 to the starter bolt holes. Tighten the J 42847
bolts to 50 Nm (37 ft. lb.)
2. Remove the crankshaft balancer bolt and washer.

62 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

677814 3. Install the J 24420-C or equivalent onto the crankshaft balancer.


4. Tighten the center screw of the J 24420-C until the crankshaft bal-
ancer is clear of the crankshaft nose.
5. Remove the crankshaft balancer.
6. Remove the J 42847.

Engine Flywheel Removal

470576 NOTE! The flywheel may need to be tapped with a nonmetallic


mallet from the engine side due to a slight interference fit
to the crankshaft.
1. Remove the engine flywheel bolts.
2. Remove the engine flywheel.

Pilot Bearing Removal

8.1GXi-A
373133 Tools Required
J 43276
• J 43276 Pilot Bearing Remover

WARNING! Wear safety glasses

Caution!
When using the J 43276 Pilot Bearing Remover, always
secure the J 43276-1 Pilot Bearing Remover tool body
using a wrench. Do not allow the J 43276-1 Pilot Bearing
Remover tool body to rotate. Failing to do so will cause
damage to the J 43276-1 Pilot Bearing remover tool body.
1. Remove the pilot bearing using the J 43276.
2. Install the J 43276-1 tool body into the pilot bearing.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 63


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

3. Using a wrench, secure the J 43276-1 tool body.


4. Insert the J 43276-2 forcing screw into the J43276-1 tool body.
5. Rotate the J 43276-2 forcing screw clockwise into the J 43276-1
tool body until the pilot bearing is completely removed from the
crankshaft.
6. Rotate the J 43276-2 forcing screw counter-clockwise to remove
the J 43276-2 forcing screw from the J 43276-1 tool body.
7. Remove the J 43276-1 tool body from the pilot bearing.
8. Discard the pilot bearing.

8.1Gi-B/C/D/E/F, 8.1GXi-B/C/D/E
375105 Tools Required
J 23907 Slide Hammer

WARNING! Wear safety glasses

1. Remove the pilot bearing using the J 23907.


J 23907
2. Discard the pilot bearing.
3. Inspect the engine flywheel pilot bearing bore for serviceability.

Dipstick Tube Removal

470639 1. Remove the dipstick tube bracket nut from the exhaust manifold
stud.
2. Remove the dipstick tube bracket from the exhaust manifold stud.
3. Remove the dipstick tube from the oil pan.
4. Remove the O-ring seal from the dipstick tube.

64 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Exhaust Manifold Removal

470666 CAUTION!

Twist the spark plug boot one-half turn to release the


boot. Pull on the spark plug boot only. Do not pull on the
spark plug wire or the wire could be damaged.
1. Remove the spark plug wires from the spark plugs and ignition
coils.
2. Remove oil filter housing and ECM mounting bracket from port
riser.
3. Remove the fuse box from the starboard riser.

470678 4. Remove the exhaust manifold nuts.


5. Remove the exhaust manifold.
6. Remove the exhaust manifold nuts and center bolt.
7. Remove the exhaust manifold.
8. Remove the exhaust manifold gasket.

470690 9. Remove the spark plugs.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 65


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

470683 10. Remove the exhaust manifold studs, if necessary.

Coolant Crossover Removal

374176 1. Remove the drive belt tensioner bolts.


2. Remove the drive belt tensioner.

23270 3. Remove the bolts which hold the alternator and steering pump
bracket in place. There are six bolts, as depicted in the image at
left.
4. Remove the idler pulley.

66 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

23269 5. Remove the fuel cell and fuel cell bracket.

23271 6. Disconnect and remove all the hoses from the thermostat housing.
7. Remove the bypass hose.

470698 8. Remove the coolant crossover bolts.


9. Remove the coolant crossover.
10. Remove the coolant crossover gaskets.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 67


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

635643 11. Remove the thermostat from the coolant crossover.


12. Remove the water outlet bolts.
13. Remove the water outlet.

Circulation Water Pump


Removal

470792 1. Remove the water pump bolts.


2. Remove the water pump.
3. Remove the water pump gaskets.

Intake Manifold Removal

470770 1. Remove the fuel pressure regulator vacuum hose.

68 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

470774 2. Remove the fuel injection fuel rail bolts and/or studs.
3. Remove the fuel injection fuel rail.

470775 4. Remove the intake manifold bolts.

CAUTION!

Do not attempt to loosen the manifold by prying under the


gasket surface with any tool.
5. Remove the intake manifold.
NOTE! The intake manifold gaskets are not reusable.

470779 6. Remove and discard the intake manifold side gaskets.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 69


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

470783 7. Remove and discard the lower intake manifold end seals.
NOTE! The splash shield is secured using a snap-fit. Do not dis-
tort the splash shield. The splash shield is reusable.

470786 8. Remove the splash shield.

Rocker Arm Cover Removal

470890 1. Remove the valve rocker arm cover bolts.


2. Remove the valve rocker arm cover.
NOTE! The valve rocker arm cover gasket may be reused if not
removed from the valve rocker arm cover.
3. Replace the valve rocker arm cover gasket if it is cut or damaged.

Rocker Arm and Push Rod NOTE! Mark, organize and sort the cylinder head components.
Removal Return the components to their original location during
reassembly. Make an organizer rack from a piece of wood.

70 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

470899 1. Remove the valve rocker arm nuts, the valve rocker arm balls and
the valve rocker arms.

470903 2. Remove the valve push rods.


1 NOTE! The exhaust valve push rods (2) are longer than the intake
valve push rods (1).

470906 3. Remove the valve rocker arm studs and push rod guides.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 71


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Cylinder Head Removal

470914 1. Remove and discard the eighteen cylinder head bolts.

470916 2. Remove the cylinder head.

470974 3. Discard the cylinder head gasket.


4. Repeat Steps 1–4 for right side cylinder head.

Valve Lifter Removal Tools Required


• J 3049-A Valve Lifter Remover

72 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

470994 1. Remove the valve lifter guide retainer bolts and retainer.
NOTE! Mark, organize and sort the cylinder head components for
return to their original location during assembly.

470996 2. Remove the valve lifter guides.


3. Remove the valve lifters.
NOTE! Place the valve lifters in the organizer rack or tag them in a
way to ensure they can be returned to the valve lifter bore
from which they were removed.

719128 4. Some valve lifters may be stuck in their bore due to gum or varnish
deposits. These lifters can be removed using the J 3049-A.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 73


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Oil Pump Drive Removal

470910 1. Remove the oil pump drive bolt.


2. Remove the oil pump drive.

Oil Pan Removal

635651 1. Remove the oil pan bolts.

635654 2. Remove the oil pan and the captured oil pan gasket.
NOTE! The oil pan gasket is reusable only if they are not cut or
damaged.

74 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Oil Pump, Pump Screen and


Deflector Removal

635701 1. Remove the bolt that attaches the oil pump to the rear crankshaft
bearing cap.
2. Remove the oil pump, driveshaft and retainer from the rear crank-
shaft bearing cap.
3. Separate the oil pump, driveshaft and retainer.
4. Discard the driveshaft retainer.

635703 5. Remove the crankshaft oil deflector nuts.


6. Remove the crankshaft oil deflector.

Engine Front Cover Removal CAUTION!

Care should be taken when removing the self-tapping


bolt. Failure to use caution may cause bolt and/or compo-
nent failure.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 75


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

470803 1. Remove the camshaft position sensor bolt.


2. Remove the camshaft position sensor.
3. Inspect the camshaft position sensor O-ring for cuts, cracks, tears
or damage. Replace the O-ring as needed.

470814 4. Remove the engine front cover bolts.


5. Remove the engine front cover.
NOTE! The engine front cover gasket is reusable.
6. Remove the engine front cover gasket.
7. Remove the crankshaft front oil seal from the engine front cover.

Timing Chain and Sprockets Tools Required


Removal • J 42846 Crankshaft Protector Button
470814 1. Measure the camshaft timing chain free play. If the chain can be
moved back and forth in excess of 16 mm (0.625 in), make a note
that the camshaft timing chain and the sprockets must be replaced
during assembly.
2. Remove the camshaft sprocket bolts.
3. Remove the camshaft sprocket and the camshaft timing chain.

76 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

639535 4. Install the J 42846 into the end of the crankshaft.


5. Remove the crankshaft sprocket using a suitable three jaw puller.

Camshaft Removal

470998 1. Remove the camshaft retainer bolts.


2. Remove the camshaft retainer.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 77


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

471002 3. Install three 8-1.25 x 100 mm bolts in the camshaft front bolt holes.

CAUTION!

All camshaft journals are the same diameter, so care must


be used in removing or installing the camshaft to avoid
damage to the camshaft bearings.
4. Using the bolts as a handle, carefully rotate and pull the camshaft
out of the engine block.
5. Remove the bolts from the front of the camshaft.

Piston, Connecting Rod and Tools Required


Bearing Removal • J 24270 Ridge Reamer
• J 42846 Crankshaft Protector Button
11497 1. Remove the cylinder bore ridge as necessary.
NOTE! Do not remove the excessive material from the cylinder
bore. Excessive removal of material may require cylinder
boring to next oversize.
2. Install the J 42846 onto the front of the crankshaft to turn the
crankshaft.
3. Rotate the crankshaft until the piston is at the bottom of the stroke
(BDC).
4. Place a cloth on top of the piston.
5. Perform the cutting operation with a J 24270. Refer to the manu-
facturer’s instructions before using the J 24270.
6. Remove the J 24270.
7. Rotate the crankshaft until the piston is at top dead center (TDC).
8. Remove the cloth and the cuttings.
9. Repeat this procedure for each piston.

78 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

639084 10. Remove the connecting rod nuts.


11. Remove the connecting rod cap and lower connecting rod bearing.
NOTE! Place the matching marks or numbers on the connecting
rods and the connecting rod caps. The connecting rod
caps must be reassembled to their connecting rods.
NOTE! When connecting rod bearings are removed, NEW bear-
ings must be installed.

639533159 12. Install two pieces of rubber fuel line on the connecting rod studs to
prevent damage to the crankshaft.

639536 13. Remove the piston, connecting rod and upper connecting rod
bearing out of the top of the engine block.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 79


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

639532 14. Remove the rubber fuel line from the connecting rod bolts.
15. Remove the remaining piston and the connecting rod.
16. Remove the J 42846 from the front of the crankshaft.

Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal Tools Required


Removal • J 43320 Crankshaft Rear Seal Puller
655276 1. Install the J 43320 guide pins into the crankshaft.

80 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

655278 2. Install the J 43320 over the guide pins.


3. Using a suitable drill, insert eight of the self-drilling sheet metal
screws into the rear crankshaft seal, using a crisscross pattern.
The self-drilling screws are included with the J 43320.

655279 4. Thread the center bolt of J 43320 into the crankshaft to remove the
seal.
5. Remove the J 43320 guide pins from the crankshaft.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 81


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Crankshaft and Bearings


Removal

470801 1. Remove the crankshaft position sensor bolt.


2. Apply penetrating oil to the crankshaft position sensor-to-engine
block mating surface. Allow the penetrating oil to soak for several
minutes, to help loosen the O-ring from the engine block.
3. Remove the crankshaft position sensor.
4. Inspect both crankshaft position sensor O-rings for cuts, cracks,
tears or damage. Replace the O-rings as needed.
NOTE! The crankshaft position sensor is designed to contact the
reluctor wheel of the crankshaft. Wear may be noticeable
on the end of the sensor.

471055 5. Remove the crankshaft bearing cap bolts and studs.


NOTE! Crankshaft bearing caps are machined with the engine
block for the proper clearances. Mark or identify each
crankshaft bearing cap location and direction before
removal. Crankshaft bearing caps must be installed in
their original locations.

471044 6. Remove the crankshaft bearing caps.


7. Remove the crankshaft lower bearings from the crankshaft bear-
ing caps.

CAUTION!

Do not shim, scrape or file bearing inserts. Do not touch


the bearing surface with bare fingers. Skin oil and acids
will etch the bearing surface.

82 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

471047 8. Remove the crankshaft.

CAUTION!

Care should be taken when removing the crankshaft so


that the crankshaft position sensor reluctor ring is not
damaged.

471041 9. Remove the crankshaft upper bearings from the engine block.

CAUTION!

Do not shim, scrape or file bearing inserts. Do not touch


the bearing surface with bare fingers. Skin oil and acids
will etch the bearing surface.

Oil Filter Adapter Removal

471026 1. Loosen the oil filter fitting using a hex wrench.


2. Remove the oil filter fitting and O-ring.
3. Inspect the oil filter fitting and O-ring, replace if necessary.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 83


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

471143 4. Remove the oil bypass valves (if required).


Unstake the tangs on the oil bypass valves and remove with long
nose pliers.
5. Discard the oil bypass valves, if removed.

Engine Block Plug Removal

471089 1. Remove the oil pressure gallery plug.

471118 2. Remove the camshaft rear bearing hole plug.


3. Obtain a suitable self-threading screw.
4. Drill a hole into the plug.
5. Install the self-threading screw.
6. Pull on the plug until it has left the bore.
An alternate method to remove the plug would be to insert a
long shaft or bar through the front of the engine and drive the
plug from the bore.

CAUTION!

Use care not to damage the camshaft bearings.

84 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

471100 7. Remove the left and right side knock sensors.

471126 8. Remove the engine block oil cooler hose fittings.

471134 9. Remove the rear oil gallery plugs.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 85


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

471133 10. Remove the front oil gallery plugs.

471138 11. Remove the left side oil pressure sending unit, oil pressure alarm
switch, and tee assembly.

471137 12. Remove the top oil gallery plugs.

86 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

635657 13. Remove the engine coolant hole plug.

Camshaft Bearing Removal Tools Required


• J 33049 Camshaft Bearing Remover/Installer
719139 1. To remove the rear camshaft plug, insert a long bar through the
front of the engine and drive the plug out of the rear bore.

NOTE! A loose camshaft bearing may be caused by an enlarged,


out-of-round or damaged engine block bearing bore.

6.500 mm
(0.26”)

639523 2. Prior to bearing removal, inspect the camshaft bearings for loose
fit in the engine block bearing bores (positions 1–5).
5

VPA 7743378 10-2004 87


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

66100 3. Select the expanding driver (4-8) and washer (2 or 3) from the J
15 33049.
14 1
4. Assemble the J 33049.
13 2
12
11 3
4

9 7

10 8

64183 5. Insert the J 33049 through the front of the engine block and into
the bearing.
6. Tighten the expander assembly nut (15) until snug.
7. Push the guide cone (1) into the front camshaft bearing (position
1) to align the J 33049.
8. Drive the inner bearings (positions 2,3 and 4) from their block
bores.
NOTE! Remove the inner bearings (positions 2,3 and 4) first. The
outer bearings (positions 1 and 5) serve as a guide for the
J 33049.

63219 9. Assemble the J 33049 handle (10), expanding driver (4-8) and
washer (2 or 3).
10. Insert the J 33049 into the outer camshaft bearings (positions 1 or
5).
11. Drive the outer bearings (positions 1 or 5) from the bore.

J 33049

88 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Engine Block Clean and


Inspect

635662 1. Boil the cylinder block in caustic solution.


2. Flush the cylinder block with clean water or steam.
3. Clean the following areas:
• All gasket surfaces; Refer to Replacing Engine Gaskets
• Cylinder bores; remove excessive cylinder ring ridge as
required
• Main bearing caps
• Oil galleries; remove all sludge or restrictions
• Scale deposits from the coolant passages
• All dirt or debris from the threaded bolt holes

WARNING! Wear safety glasses

4. Dry the block with compressed air.


5. Lubricate the cylinder bores with clean engine oil to prevent rust-
ing.
6. Inspect the engine block for the following conditions:
• Gasket surfaces for deep gouges or other damage
• Crankshaft bearing bores for wear
• The surfaces where the crankshaft bearings contact the
crankshaft bearing bore must be smooth.
• All crankshaft bearing bores must be round and uniform in
inside diameter (ID) at all the bearing supports.
• If a crankshaft bearing cap is damaged and requires replace-
ment, refer to Crankshaft and Bearings Clean and Inspect.
• Camshaft bearing bores for wear or damage
• Valve lifter bores for scuffing or wear
• Engine block for cracks or other damage
• Cylinder walls for scoring or gouges
• Coolant jackets for cracks
• Crankshaft bearing webs for cracks
• Engine mount bosses for damage
• The oil passages for restrictions

VPA 7743378 10-2004 89


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

35209 7. Inspect the engine block cylinder head deck for flatness using a
straight edge and a feeler gauge.
• The surface must be flat within 0.10 mm (0.004 in).

719134 8. Use a bore gauge and measure the cylinder bore for taper, out-of-
round and oversize. Slide the bore gauge up and down throughout
the length of the cylinder bore. Check the bore both parallel and
perpendicular to the centerline of the crankshaft at the top, center
and bottom of the bore. A cylinder bore that measures 107.940-
107.990 mm (4.249-4.251 in) may be honed and serviced with a
standard size piston/connecting rod assembly. A cylinder bore that
exceeds the maximum diameter must be serviced with an over-
sized piston/connecting rod assembly.

Cylinder Boring Procedure

23548 Note! The piston has a coating on the piston skirt (A) which
allows for and interference fit between the piston skirt and
cylinder bore. The piston diameter can not be measured
accurately in the coated area of the piston skirt due to the
inconsistency of the coating thickness. Do not measure
the piston in the coated area.
To select the correct piston for installation, the cylinder
bore must be measured. If the cylinder bore diameter is
A within service specification (See “Specifications 8.1Gi-B/
C/D/E, 8.1GXi-A/B/C/D” on page 53), install orginal piston/
connecting rod assembly. A used piston/connecting rod
may be reinstalled if, after cleaning and inspection, the
piston is not damaged.
If the cylinder bore is NOT within specifications, the cylin-
der must be resized to accept a new oversized piston.
Pistons come in standard and 0.030 in. oversized. If the
cylinder requires resizing to fit the 0.030 piston, the cylin-
der must be bored to the oversized specification (See
“Specifications 8.1Gi-B/C/D/E, 8.1GXi-A/B/C/D” on
page 53).

CAUTION!

90 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

If you do not check the cylinder block, the boring bar may
be tilted. This may result in an incorrectly bored cylinder
wall to crankshaft angle.
9. Before you use any type of boring bar, file the top of the cylinder
block to remove any dirt or burrs.
10. Carefully follow the instructions furnished by the manufacturer
regarding use of the equipment.
11. When you bore cylinders, make sure all crankshaft bearing caps
are in place.
• Tighten the bearing caps to the proper torque to avoid distortion
of the bores in the final assembly.
• The crankshaft must be removed prior to cylinder boring.
12. When you take the final cut with a boring bar, leave 0.03 mm
(0.001 in) on the diameter for finish honing. This gives the required
position to the cylinder clearance specifications. (Carefully perform
the honing and boring operation to maintain the specified clear-
ances between pistons, rings and cylinder bores).

Cylinder Honing Procedure NOTE! Always remove all bearings and components from the
engine block before cleaning, boring or honing the engine
block.
186747 1. When honing the cylinders, follow the manufacturer’s recommen-
dations for equipment use, cleaning and lubrication.
• Use only clean, sharp stones of the proper grade for the
amount of material you remove.
• Dull, dirty stones cut unevenly and generate excessive heat.
• Do not hone to a final grade with a coarse or medium-grade
stone.
• Leave sufficient metal so that all stone marks may be removed
with final grade stones.
• Perform final honing with a fine-grade stone and hone the cylin-
der in a cross hatch pattern at 45 to 65 degrees to obtain the
proper clearance.
2. During the honing operation, thoroughly clean the cylinder bore.
• Repeatedly check the cylinder bore for fit with the selected pis-
ton.
• All measurements of the piston or the cylinder bore should be
made with the components at normal room temperature.
3. When honing to eliminate taper in the cylinder, make full strokes of
the hone in the cylinder. Repeatedly check the measurement at
the top, the middle and the bottom of the bore.
• The finish marks should be clean but not sharp.
• The finish marks should be free from embedded particles and
torn or folded metal.
4. When finished, the reconditioned cylinder bores should have less
than or meet the specified out-of-round or taper requirements.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 91


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

5. After final honing and before the piston is checked for fit, clean the
bores with hot water and detergent.
6. Scrub the bores with a stiff bristle brush and rinse the bores thor-
oughly with hot water. Do not allow any abrasive material to
remain in the cylinder bores.
• Abrasive material may cause premature wear of new piston
rings and cylinder bores.
• Abrasive material will contaminate the engine oil and may
cause premature wear of the bearings.
7. After washing the cylinder bore, dry the bore with a clean shop
towel.
8. Perform final measurements of the piston and cylinder bore.
9. Permanently mark the piston for the specific cylinder to which it
has been fitted.
10. Apply clean engine oil to each cylinder bore to prevent rusting.

Crankshaft and Bearings Clean


and Inspect

Crankshaft Inspection Tools Required


• J 7872 Magnetic Base Dial Indicator
• J 36660-A Electronic Torque Angle Meter

CAUTION!

Use care when handling the crankshaft. Avoid damage to


the bearing surfaces.
639519 1. Clean the crankshaft in solvent. Remove all sludge or restrictions
from the oil passages.

WARNING! Wear safety glasses

2. Dry the crankshaft and bearings with compressed air.

156170 3. Inspect the crankshaft for the following conditions:


1 2 3 4 • Crankshaft journals (1) should be smooth with no evidence
of scoring or damage
• Deep grooves (2)
• Scratches or uneven wear (3)
• Pitted surfaces (4)
• Wear or damage to the thrust journal surfaces
• Scoring or damage to the rear seal surface
• Restrictions to oil passages
• Damage to threaded bolt holes

92 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

NOTE! The crankshaft pin is a pressed in roll pin. The pin only
needs to be removed from the crankshaft if the pin is dam-
aged.
639543 4. Inspect the crankshaft pin for damage:
• Measure for proper installed height.
2.00 - 2.25 mm
(0.078 - 0.088”) • Replace the crankshaft pin if it is damaged.

CAUTION!

DO NOT attempt to remove the crankshaft reluctor wheels.


If the reluctor wheels are damaged and/or removed, the
crankshaft must be replaced.

677772 5. Inspect the reluctor wheels for cracked, bent or broken teeth.

1 2 • Measure between the crankshaft shoulder and the front reluctor


wheel (1).
• Measure between the front and rear reluctor wheels (2).
• The maximum allowable gap is 0.15 mm (0.006 in).

188015 6. Measure the crankshaft main journals and the crankpins for out-of-
round and taper.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 93


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

35210 7. Using a suitable fixture, support the crankshaft.


8. Measure the crankshaft runout using J 7872.
9. Crankshaft runout should not exceed 0.051mm (0.002 in).

639520 10. Inspect the crankshaft thrust wall surface for wear (1) and/or
excessive runout (2). Refer to Engine Mechanical Specifications.
1 2

Crankshaft and Connecting CAUTION!


Rod Bearing Inspection
Do not shim, scrape or file bearing inserts. Do not touch
the bearing surface of the insert with bare fingers. Skin oil
and acids will etch the bearing surface.

94 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

52051 1. Inspect the bearings for craters or pockets.


Flattened sections on the bearing halves also indicate fatigue.
2. Inspect the bearings for excessive scoring or discoloration.
3. Inspect the bearings for dirt or debris embedded into the bearing
material.
4. Inspect the bearings for improper seating indicated by bright, pol-
ished sections of the bearings.

Crankshaft and Connecting Rod


Bearing Clearance Measurement
188015 The crankshaft and connecting rod bearings are of the precision insert
type and do not use shims for adjustment. If the clearances are exces-
sive, the new upper and the lower bearings will be required. The ser-
vice bearings are available in the standard size and an undersize.
The selective fitting of the bearings are necessary in production to
obtain close tolerances. For this reason, in one journal bore you may
use one-half of a standard bearing with one-half of an undersize bear-
ing.
To determine the correct replacement bearing size, the bearing clear-
ance must be measured accurately. Either the micrometer or plastic
gauge method may be used, however, the micrometer method gives
more reliable results and is preferred.

Micrometer Method for Crankshaft Bearings


Tools Required
• J 36660-A Electronic Torque Angle Meter

VPA 7743378 10-2004 95


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

639521 1. Measure the crankshaft main journal diameter with a micrometer


in several places along the length approximately 90 degrees apart,
(minimum of 4 places), and average the measurements.
2. Determine the taper and the out-of-round. Refer to Engine
Mechanical Specifications.

CAUTION!

Do not shim, scrape or file bearing inserts. Do not touch


the bearing surface of the insert with bare fingers. Skin oil
and acids will etch the bearing surface.

3. Install the crankshaft bearings into the crankshaft bearing caps


and the engine block.
NOTE! Refer to Fastener Notice in Cautions and Notices.
NOTE! Tighten the inner crankshaft bearing cap bolts before
tightening the outer crankshaft bearing cap studs.

4. Install the crankshaft bearing caps and the crankshaft bearing cap
bolts and studs.
5. Tighten
• Tighten the crankshaft bearing cap inner bolts to 30 Nm (22 ft.
lb.)
• Tighten the crankshaft bearing cap outer studs to 30 Nm (22 ft.
lb.)
• Using the J 36660-A, tighten the crankshaft bearing cap inner
bolts an additional 90 degrees.
• Using the J 36660-A, tighten the crankshaft bearing cap outer
studs an additional 80 degrees.
6. Measure the crankshaft bearing inside diameter (ID) using an
inside micrometer. Measure at a minimum of four places and aver-
age the measurements.
7. To determine the crankshaft bearing clearance, subtract the crank-
shaft journal diameter from the crankshaft bearing ID.
8. Compare the crankshaft bearing clearance to the specifications.
Refer to Engine Mechanical Specifications.
9. If the crankshaft bearing clearances exceeds specifications, install
the new crankshaft bearings.
10. Measure the new crankshaft bearing inside diameter (ID) using an
inside micrometer.
11. Replace or repair the crankshaft if the proper clearances cannot
be obtained.

Micrometer Method for Connecting Tools Required


Rod Bearings
• J 36660-A Electronic Torque Angle Meter

96 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

188015 1. Measure the crankpin diameter with a micrometer in several


places along the length approximately 90 degrees apart, (mini-
mum of 4 places), and average the measurements.
2. Determine the taper and the out-of-round. Refer to Engine
Mechanical Specifications.

CAUTION!

Do not shim, scrape or file bearing inserts. Do not touch


the bearing surface of the insert with bare fingers. Skin oil
and acids will etch the bearing surface.

3. Install the connecting rod bearings into the connecting rod cap and
the connecting rod.
NOTE! Use the original connecting rod nuts for clearance mea-
surement. During final assembly, new connecting rod nuts
must be used to obtain correct fastener tightening.

4. Install the connecting rod cap and the original (used) nuts.
5. Tighten the connecting rod nuts to 30 Nm (22 ft lb.). Using the J
3660-A, tighten the connecting rod nuts an additional 90 degrees.
6. Measure the connecting rod bearing inside diameter (ID) using an
inside micrometer.
7. Compare the connecting rod bearing clearance specifications.
Refer to Engine Mechanical Specifications.
8. If the connecting rod bearing clearance is within specifications, the
connecting rod bearing is satisfactory.
• If the clearance is not within specifications, replace the con-
necting rod bearing.
• Always replace both the upper and lower connecting rod
bearings as an assembly.
9. A standard or undersize connecting rod bearing combination may
result in the proper clearance. If the proper connecting rod bearing
clearance cannot be achieved using a standard or the undersize
connecting rod bearings, it will be necessary to replace or repair
the crankshaft.

Plastic Gauge Method for Main NOTE! When bearings are removed, NEW bearings must be
Bearings installed during reassembly.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 97


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

639522 1. Install the crankshaft and crankshaft bearings into the engine
block, making sure not to damage the reluctor rings of the crank-
shaft.
2. Install the gauging plastic the full width of the crankshaft journal.

CAUTION!

Tighten the inner crankshaft bearing cap bolts before


tightening the outer crankshaft bearing cap studs. The
crankshaft journal and the crankshaft bearing surface
must be free from oil to obtain a correct measurement. Do
not allow the crankshaft to rotate while performing the
measurement, or an incorrect measurement will be
obtained.
3. Install the crankshaft bearing caps and the crankshaft bearing cap
bolts and studs.
4. Tighten the crankshaft bearing cap inner bolts to 30 Nm (22 ft. lb.)
5. Tighten the crankshaft bearing cap outer studs to 30 Nm (22 ft. lb.)
6. Using the J 36660-A, tighten the crankshaft bearing cap inner
bolts an additional 90 degrees.
7. Using the J 36660-A, tighten the crankshaft bearing cap outer
studs an additional 80 degrees.

4980 8. Remove the crankshaft bearing cap bolts and the crankshaft bear-
ing caps. The gauging plastic may adhere to either the crankshaft
journal or the crankshaft bearing surface.

4981 9. On the edge of the gauging plastic envelope, there is a graduated


scale. Without removing the gauging plastic, measure the com-
pressed width at the widest point.
10. If the flattened gauging plastic tapers toward the middle or the
ends, there may be a difference in clearance indicating taper, low
spot or other irregularity of the crankshaft bearing or the crank-
shaft journal.
• Normally, the crankshaft journals wear evenly and are not
out-of-round. However, if a crankshaft bearing is being fitted
to an out-of-round 0.0254 mm (0.001 in maximum) crank-
shaft journal, be sure to fit to the maximum diameter of the
crankshaft journal.
• If the crankshaft bearing is fitted to the minimum diameter
and the crankshaft journal is excessively out-of-round, the
interference between the crankshaft bearing and the crank-
shaft journal will result in rapid crankshaft bearing failure.

98 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

11. Compare the crankshaft bearing clearance to the specifications.


Refer to Engine Mechanical Specifications.
12. If the crankshaft bearing clearances exceeds specifications, install
undersize crankshaft bearings to achieve the correct clearance.
13. Measure the new crankshaft bearing inside diameter (ID) using
the same method.
14. Replace or repair the crankshaft if the proper clearances cannot
be obtained with available crankshaft bearings.
15. Remove the flattened gauging plastic.
16. Measure the remaining crankshaft journals.

Plastic Gauge Method for Connecting Tools Required


Rod Bearings
• J 36660-A Electronic Torque Angle Meter
NOTE! When bearings are removed, NEW bearings must be
installed during reassembly.
635669 1. Install the connecting rod bearings (4) into the connecting rod (3)
and connecting rod cap (5).
1 2. Using rubber fuel line over the connecting rod bolts, install the pis-
ton and connecting rod assembly onto the crankpin journal.

4980 3. Install the gauging plastic the full width of the crankpin journal.
NOTE! Use the original connecting rod nuts for clearance mea-
surement. During final assembly, new connecting rod nuts
must be used to obtain correct fastener tightening.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 99


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

639084 4. Install the connecting rod cap and the original (used) nuts.
5. Tighten the connecting rod nuts to 30 Nm (22 ft. lb.) Using the J
36660-A, tighten the connecting rod nuts an additional 90
degrees.
6. Remove the connecting rod nuts and cap. The gauging plastic
may adhere to either the crankpin journal or the connecting rod
bearing surface.

4981 7. On the edge of the gauging plastic envelope, there is a graduated


scale. Without removing the gauging plastic, measure the com-
pressed width at the widest point.
If the flattened gauging plastic tapers toward the middle or the ends,
there may be a difference in clearance indicating taper, low spot or
other irregularity of the crankshaft bearing or the crankshaft journal.
8. Normally, the crankshaft journals wear evenly and are not out-of-
round. However, if a connecting rod bearing is being fitted to an
out-of-round 0.0254 mm (0.001 in maximum) crankpin journal, be
sure to fit to the maximum diameter of the crankpin journal. If the
connecting rod bearing is fitted to the minimum diameter and the
crankpin journal is excessively out-of-round, the interference
between the connecting rod bearing and the crankpin journal will
result in rapid connecting rod bearing failure.
9. Compare the connecting rod bearing clearance to the specifica-
tions. Refer to Engine Mechanical Specifications.
10. If the connecting rod bearing clearances exceed specifications,
install undersize connecting rod bearings to achieve the correct
clearance.
11. A standard or undersize connecting rod bearing combination may
result in the proper clearance. If the proper clearance cannot be
achieved using the standard or the undersize connecting rod bear-
ings, it may be necessary to repair or replace the crankshaft or
connecting rod.
12. Remove the flattened gauging plastic.
13. Measure the remaining crankpin journals.

Measuring Crankshaft End Play NOTE! To properly measure the crankshaft end play, the crank-
shaft, bearings, bearing caps and fasteners must be
installed into the engine block and the bolts tightened to
specifications. Refer to Crankshaft and Bearings Installa-
tion.

100 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

677804 1. Install the J 7872 or equivalent to the cylinder block, with the dial
indicator plunger against one of the counterweights of the crank-
shaft.
2. Firmly thrust the end of the crankshaft first rearward then forward.
This will line up the rear crankshaft bearing and the crankshaft
thrust surfaces.
3. With the crankshaft pushed forward, zero the dial indicator. Move
the crankshaft rearward and read the endplay measurement on
the dial indicator. An optional method is to insert a feeler gauge
between the crankshaft and the bearing surface and measure the
clearance. Refer to Engine Mechanical Specifications.
4. If the correct end play cannot be obtained, inspect for the following
conditions:
• Verify that the correct size crankshaft bearing has been installed.
Refer to Engine Mechanical Specifications.
• Inspect the crankshaft thrust wall surface(s) for wear and/or
excessive runout. Refer to J 7872.
5. Inspect the crankshaft for binding. Turn the crankshaft to check for
binding. If the crankshaft does not turn freely, loosen the crank-
shaft bearing bolts, one cap at a time, until the tight bearing is
located. The following condition(s) could cause a lack of clearance
at the bearing:
• Burrs on the crankshaft bearing cap
• Foreign matter between the crankshaft bearing and the block or
the crankshaft bearing cap
• A faulty crankshaft bearing

Measuring Connecting Rod NOTE! To properly measure the connecting rod side clearance,
Side Clearance the piston/connecting rod assembly and bearings must be
installed into the engine block and the connecting rod
nuts tightened to specifications. Refer to Piston, Connect-
ing Rod and Bearing Installation.
677801 1. Install the J 7872 or equivalent to the cylinder block, with the dial
indicator plunger against the side of the pair of connecting rods.
2. With the connecting rods pushed forward, zero the dial indicator.
Firmly move the pair of connecting rods side to side and read the
measurement on the dial indicator. An optional method is to insert
a feeler gauge between the connecting rod caps and measure the
connecting rod side clearance. Refer to Engine Mechanical Speci-
fications.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 101


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Crankshaft Balancer Clean and


Inspect
635666 1. Clean the crankshaft balancer in solvent.
2 WARNING! Wear safety glasses
3
2. Dry the crankshaft balancer with compressed air.
3. Inspect the crankshaft balancer for the following:
• Damaged belt grooves (3)
• Debris in the belt grooves (3)
• Worn, grooved or damaged hub seal surface (1)
1 • Minor imperfections on the hub seal surface may be removed
with a polishing compound of fine grade of emery cloth.
• A crankshaft balancer hub seal surface with excessive scor-
ing, grooves, rust or other damage must be replaced.
• Worn, chunking or deteriorated rubber between the hub and pul-
ley (2)
4. Repair or replace the crankshaft balancer as necessary.

Engine Flywheel Clean and


Inspect

188086 1. Clean the engine flywheel in solvent.

2 WARNING! Wear safety glasses

2. Dry the engine flywheel with compressed air.


3. Inspect the manual transmission engine flywheel for the following:
1 • Cracked mounting holes or pitted surface (1)
• Damaged ring gear teeth (2)
• Loose or improperly positioned ring gear
NOTE! The ring gear has an interference fit onto the engine fly-
wheel and should be positioned completely against the
flange of the engine flywheel.

Piston and Connecting Rod


Disassemble

8.1Gi-B/C/D/E, 8.1GXi-A/B/C/D CAUTION!


The piston and connecting rod are only serviced as an
assembly. If a new piston or connecting rod is required, a
complete piston/connecting rod assembly must be used.

CAUTION!

102 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

If a piston or connecting rod require replacement with a


floating wrist pin piston and connecting rod design, all
eight should be changed as a set. Replacing one piston
and connecting rod with a different design will affect
engine balance and produce a rough running engine.
NOTE! New connecting rod nuts must be used when pistons are
reinstalled in the engine.
635669 1. Remove the piston rings (1) from the piston (2).

8.1Gi-F, 8.1GXi-E The piston and connecting rod have a full floating wrist
pin design and should be disassembled and inspected as
follows.
1366364 1. Rotate the piston pin retaining clips until the ring end gap is posi-
tioned in the cutout area (1) of the piston pin bore.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 103


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

1366368 2. Remove the clips starting in the cutout area of the piston pin bore.

35866 3. Remove the pin from the piston and connecting rod.
4. The piston and pin are matched set and are not to be serviced
separately. Mark the forward direction of the connecting rod and
piston Keep the connecting rod matched to the piston. Mark, sort
or organize the piston and matching piston pin.

Piston, Connecting Rod and Bearings NOTE! The piston diameter can NOT be measured due to the pis-
Clean and Inspect ton coating. Do NOT measure the piston diameter.
NOTE! Measurement of all components must be taken with the
components at room temperature.

CAUTION!

Do not use a wire brush to clean any part of the piston.


1. Clean the piston (2), wrist pin (6), connecting rod (3) and connect-
ing rod cap (5) in solvent.

WARNING! Wear safety glasses

2. Dry the components with compressed air.

104 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

4977 3. Clean the piston ring grooves with a suitable ring groove cleaning
tool.
4. Clean the piston oil lubrication holes and slots.

J 3936-03

156168 5. Inspect the piston for the following:


• Eroded areas (1) on the top of the piston
• Scuffed or damaged skirt (2)
1
• Cracks in the piston ring lands, the piston skirt or the pin
bosses
• Piston ring grooves for nicks, burrs or other warpage which
may cause the piston ring to bind
6. Inspect the piston pin for scoring, wear or other damage.

4969 7. Measure the piston ring-to-piston ring groove side clearance.


Refer to Engine Mechanical Specifications.
8. Insert the edge of the piston ring into the piston ring groove. Roll
the piston ring completely around the piston.
9. If binding is caused by a distorted piston ring groove, MINOR
imperfections may be removed with a fine file.
10. If binding is caused by a distorted piston ring, replace the piston
ring.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 105


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

DRC22934 11. Measure the piston ring side clearance with a feeler gauge.
12. If the side clearance is too small, try another piston ring set. See
“Specifications 8.1Gi-B/C/D/E, 8.1GXi-A/B/C/D” on page 53.
13. If the proper piston ring-to-piston ring groove clearance cannot be
achieved, replace the piston and pin assembly.

CAUTION!
If a piston or connecting rod require replacement with a
floating wrist pin piston and connecting rod design, all
eight should be changed as a set. Replacing one piston
and connecting rod with a different design will affect
engine balance and produce a rough running engine.

156167 14. Inspect the connecting rod for an out-of-round bearing bore.

156169 15. Inspect the connecting rod for twisting.


16. Inspect the connecting rod for damage to the connecting rod bolt
threads.
NOTE! Fit each compression ring to the cylinder in which it will
be used.

106 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

4968 17. Measure the piston compression ring end gap.


• Place the compression ring into the cylinder bore.
• Push the compression ring into the cylinder bore to approxi-
mately 6.5 mm (0.25 in) above the ring travel.
• Use a feeler gauge to measure the end gap.
• Select another size ring set if the end gap exceeds specifica-
tions.

Piston and Connecting Rod Assemble CAUTION!

Use a piston ring expander to install the piston rings. The


rings may be damaged if expanded more than necessary.
1366372 1. Install one retaining clip. The clip should be seated in the groove of
the pin bore.

CAUTION!

Make certain the retaining clip is fully seated in the groove


of the pin bore. If the clip is not seated, it may come loose
after installation and cause severe engine damage.

35866 2. Lubricate the pin bore with clean engine oil.


3. Align the piston with the connecting rod. Make sure the connecting
rod and piston are aligned for the side of the engine that it will be
used in. The arrow stamped in the top of the piston should be
pointing toward the front of the engine.
4. Install the piston pin into the piston and connecting rod.
5. Install the retaining clip. The clip should be seated in the groove of
the pin bore. Ensure the piston pin moves freely within the piston
pin bore.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 107


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

4967 6. Install the lower oil control piston ring spacer onto the piston (1).
7. Install the lower oil control piston ring onto the piston (2).
4
8. Install the upper oil control piston ring onto the piston (2).
9. Space the oil control piston ring end gaps a minimum of 90
degrees apart.

3 10. Install the lower compression piston ring onto the piston. The mark

}
(3) on the side of the piston ring should face the top of the piston.
11. Install the upper compression piston ring onto the piston. The
mark (4) on the side of the piston ring should face the top of the
piston.
1 2

VE074-3L 12. Space the compression piston ring end gaps 180 degrees apart.
FORWARD

C A D

(A) Oil ring spacer gap


(B) Oil ring gap
(C) Lower compression ring gap
(D) Upper compression ring gap

Camshaft and Bearings Clean Tools Required


and Inspect • J 7872 Magnetic Base Dial Indicator
1. Clean the camshaft in solvent.

WARNING! Wear safety glasses

2. Dry the camshaft with compressed air.


3. Inspect the camshaft retainer plate for damage.

108 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

188095 4. Inspect the camshaft for the following:


1 • Camshaft bearing journals (1) that are:
2 • Worn
• Scored
4
• Damaged
• Worn camshaft lobes (2)
• Damaged sprocket bolt threads (3)
• Damaged sprocket pin (4)
3
188014 5. Measure the camshaft journals with a micrometer. Refer to Engine
Mechanical Specifications.
6. Measure for a bent camshaft or excessive camshaft runout using
the J 7872.
• Mount the camshaft in a suitable fixture.
• Use the J 7872 to measure for a bent camshaft. Refer to Engine
Mechanical Specifications.
7. Replace the camshaft if runout exceeds specifications.

639523 8. Inspect the camshaft bearings (1-5) for serviceability.


9. Replace the camshaft bearings if necessary. Refer to Camshaft
5 Bearing Removal and Camshaft Bearing Installation.

Camshaft Bearing Installation Tools Required

VPA 7743378 10-2004 109


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

66100 • J 33049 Camshaft Bearing Remover/Installer


15 NOTE! The outer camshaft bearings (positions 1 and 5) must be
14 1
installed first. These bearings serve as guides for the tool
13 2 and help center the inner bearings during the installation
12 process.
11 3
• Ensure the correct camshaft bearing fits into the proper bore.
4
The camshaft bearing bores may vary in size.
5 • Ensure that the camshaft bearing lubrication hole or holes align
with the oil gallery hole or holes in the block. On some engines,
the oil holes may be difficult to see. Verify that the holes are
6
aligned.
1. Assemble the tool handle (10), expanding driver (4-8) and washer
9 7
(2 or 3).

10 8

4985 2. Insert the J 33049 tool into the engine block end camshaft bear-
ings (positions 1 or 5).
3. Drive the end bearings (positions 1 and 5) into the bore.

CAUTION!

Do not shim, scrape or file bearing inserts. Do not touch


the bearing surface of the insert with bare fingers. Skin oil
and acids will etch the bearing surface.
NOTE! The camshaft bearing oil holes must align with the oil gal-
leries in the engine block.
After installation of the camshaft bearings, inspect the
camshaft bearing oil holes for proper alignment with the
oil galleries.

CAUTION!

An improperly aligned camshaft bearing oil gallery hole


will restrict oil flow to the bearing and the camshaft jour-
nal and cause engine damage.

110 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

66100 4. Select the expanding driver (4-8) and washer (2 or 3) from the
15 J33049.
14 1
5. Assemble the tool.
13 2
12
11 3
4

9 7

10 8

64183 6. Insert the J 33049 tool through the front of the engine block and to
the inner bearing bores (positions 2-4).
7. Install the bearing onto the expanding driver (4-8).
8. Tighten the expander assembly nut (15) until the tool is snug in the
bearing.
9. Align the oil lubrication hole in the bearing with the oil galleries in
the engine block.
10. Push the guide cone (1) into the front camshaft bearing bore to
align the tool.
11. Drive the bearing into the bore.

CAUTION!

Do not shim, scrape or file bearing inserts. Do not touch


the bearing surface of the insert with bare fingers. Skin oil
and acids will etch the bearing surface.
NOTE! The camshaft bearing oil holes must align with the oil gal-
leries in the engine block.
After installation of the camshaft bearings, inspect the
camshaft bearing oil holes for proper alignment with the
oil galleries.

CAUTION!

An improperly aligned camshaft bearing oil gallery hole


will restrict oil flow to the bearing and the camshaft jour-
nal and cause engine damage.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 111


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Timing Chain and Sprockets


Clean and Inspect

677756 1. Clean the camshaft timing components in solvent.

WARNING! Wear safety glasses

2. Dry the components with compressed air.


3. Inspect the camshaft timing chain for binding or wear.
NOTE! If the sprocket(s) must be replaced, replace both sprock-
ets to ensure that timing chain centerline alignment is
maintained.

188097 4. Inspect the camshaft and crankshaft sprockets for the following:
1
• Worn teeth (1)
• Damaged teeth (2)
2 • Chipped teeth (3)
• Uneven wear on one edge of the teeth
3 • Worn valleys between the sprocket teeth
• Crankshaft sprocket keyway for wear

Valve Rocker Arm and Push NOTE! Parts that are to be reused must remain sorted or orga-
Rods Clean and Inspect nized to return to their original locations.
470899 1. Clean the components in solvent.

WARNING! Wear safety glasses

2. Dry the components with compressed air.


3. Inspect the valve rocker arms for wear or scoring in the ball area.
4. Inspect the valve rocker arm push rod sockets and valve stem tip
mating surfaces.
5. Inspect the valve rocker arm ball for wear or scoring.
These surfaces should be smooth with no scoring or exceptional
wear.

112 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

470903 6. Inspect the push rods for worn or scored ends.


1 These surfaces should be smooth with no scoring or exceptional
wear.
7. Inspect the push rods for bends. Roll the push rods on a flat sur-
2 face to determine if the push rod is bent.
8. Inspect the push rod oil passages for restrictions.
• Clean out the push rod tube with compressed air.
• Visually look through the push rod tube for obstructions, a
clear push rod will allow light through.
• Replace push rod(s) that cannot be cleaned out.
NOTE! A light contact mark on the rocker arm stud is normal. A
noticeable groove in the rocker arm stud is excessive
wear and the rocker arm stud should be replaced.
635671 9. Inspect the rocker arm studs for the following:
• Damaged threads (1)
• Wear or damage made from contact between the rocker arm
1 and rocker arm stud (2)
10. Valve rocker arm studs with excessive wear and/or damage must
be replaced.

635675 11. Inspect the push rod guides for the following:
• Wear between the push rod and the push rod guide (1)
• Bent push rod guide (2)
• Cracks
12. Push rod guides with excessive wear and/or damage must be
replaced.
1

2
Valve Lifters and Guides Clean and NOTE! Parts that are to be reused must remain sorted or orga-
Inspect nized to return them to their original locations.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 113


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

CAUTION!

Disassembly of the valve lifter(s) is not recommended.


677752 1. Clean the components in solvent.

WARNING! Wear safety glasses


1
2. Dry the components with compressed air.
6 3. Inspect the valve lifters for the following:
• A damaged, mispositioned or broken clip (1)
• A scored or worn pushrod socket (2)
• A severely scuffed or worn lifter body (3)
3 2 If the valve lifter body shows scuffing or wear, inspect the engine
block valve lifter bores for wear or damage.
5
• Flat spots on the roller (4)
4 • A loose pin (5)
• A plugged oil hole (6)
4. If flat spots are found on the lifter(s), inspect the corresponding
lobe on the camshaft for damage.
470996 5. Inspect the valve lifter guides for the following:
• Excessive guide slot side wear
• Cracks or damage

470994 6. Inspect the valve lifter guide retainer for the following:
• Wear, damage or stress cracking in the leg areas
• Wear or damage around the retainer bolt holes

114 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Cylinder Head Disassemble Tools Required


• J 8062 Valve Spring Compressor

WARNING! Wear safety glasses

Compressed valve springs have high tension against the


valve spring compressor. Valve springs that are not prop-
erly compressed or released from the valve spring com-
pressor can be ejected from the valve spring compressor
with intense force. Use care when compressing or releas-
ing the valve spring compressor and when removing or
installing the valve stem keys. Failing to use care may
cause personal injury.
NOTE! Mark, sort or organize components for return to their orig-
inal locations.
480554 1. Use the J 8062 to compress the valve springs.
J-8062

677748 2. Remove the valve stem keys (1).


1 3. Release and remove the J 8062.
2 4. Remove the cap (2).
3 5. Remove the valve spring (3).
6. Remove the positive valve stem seal (4) from the valve guide and
discard.
7. Remove the valve rotator (5).
4
CAUTION!
5
To prevent damage to the valve guide, small burrs on the
valve tip and at the stem key groove that interfere with the
6
valve removal can be lightly filed with a fine file or stone to
facilitate valve removal.
8. Remove the valve (6).

VPA 7743378 10-2004 115


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

635678 9. Remove the cylinder head coolant plug from the left cylinder head.

Cylinder Head Clean and Inspect Cleaning Procedure


Tools Required
• J 8089 Carbon Removing Brush

WARNING! Wear safety glasses

NOTE! Mark, sort or organize components for return to their orig-


inal locations.
677748 1. Clean the valve stems and heads on a buffing wheel.
2. Clean the following components in solvent:
1
2 • Valve stem keys (1)
• Valve spring cap (2)
3
• Valve spring (3)
• Valve rotators (5)
• Valve (6)
4
• Cylinder head
5
WARNING! Wear safety glasses

6 3. Dry the components with compressed air.

CAUTION!

Be careful not to damage the chamber or the valve seat.

116 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

35201 4. Use the J 8089 to clean the carbon from the combustion cham-
bers.
J-8089

Visual Inspection Procedure Inspect the cylinder head for the following:
• Damaged gasket surfaces
• Damage to threaded bolt holes
• Burnt or eroded areas in the combustion chamber
• Cracks in the exhaust ports and combustion chambers
• External cracks in the water chamber
• Restrictions in the intake or exhaust passages
• Restrictions in the cooling system passages

Flatness Measurement Procedure


64318 1. Measure the cylinder head for warp with a straight edge and feeler
gauge.
• A cylinder head block deck warp in excess of 0.050 mm (0.002
in) within a 150.0 mm (6.0 in) area must be repaired or
replaced.
• A cylinder head exhaust manifold deck with an overall warp in
excess of 0.102 mm (0.004 in) must be repaired or replaced.
• A cylinder head intake manifold deck with warp in excess of
0.080 mm (0.003 in) must be repaired or replaced.
2. A cylinder head block deck can be resurfaced up to 0.305 mm
(0.012 in) maximum removal.

CAUTION!

Excessive cylinder head resurfacing will affect compres-


sion ratio and emission control.
3. A cylinder head that requires excessive resurfacing must be
replaced.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 117


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Valve Inspection Procedure


156174 1. Inspect the valves for the following:
1 2
• Burnt or damaged areas (1)
• Undersized valve margin (2)
• Bent stem (3)
• Scoring or other damage to the stem (4)
• Worn key groove (5)
3
• Worn stem tip (6)

6
156173 2. Inspect the valve contact surface for the following:
• Undersized margin (1)
• Pitted surface (2)
• Burnt or eroded areas (3)

4 1 • Acceptable edge (margin) (4)


3 2 NOTE! Minor imperfections of the valve may be corrected during
reconditioning.
3. Valves with excessive damage must be replaced.

Valve Spring Inspection and Measurement


Tools Required
• J 9666 Valve Spring Tester
1. Inspect the valve springs for broken coils or coil ends.
4960 2. Use the J 9666 to measure the valve spring force. See “Specifica-
tions 8.1Gi-B/C/D/E, 8.1GXi-A/B/C/D” on page 53.
NOTE! Add a maximum of one shim up to 0.726 mm (0.030 in)
thick to increase tension.
3. If the valve spring tension is low, use a shim to increase tension.
4. Re-check the valve spring tension, a valve spring that does not
meet specifications must be replaced.

Valve Guide Measurement Procedure Tools Required


• J 8001 Dial Indicator Set

118 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

CAUTION!

Excessive valve stem-to-guide clearance may cause


excessive oil consumption and may also cause a valve to
break. Insufficient clearance will result in noisy and sticky
valves and will disturb the engine assembly smoothness.
1. Measure the valve stem-to-guide clearance.
677797 2. Clamp the J 8001 on the exhaust port side of the cylinder head.
NOTE! The indicator stem must contact the side of the valve stem
just above the valve guide.
3. Locate the indicator so that the movement of the valve stem from
side to side (crosswise to the cylinder head) will cause a direct
movement of the indicator stem.

156172 4. Drop the valve head about 1.6 mm (0.064 in) off the valve seat.

1 5. Use light pressure when moving the valve stem from side to side
to obtain a clearance reading. Refer to Engine Mechanical Specifi-
cations.
6. Valve guide (2) with excessive clearance must be repaired. Refer
2 to Valve Guide Reaming/Valve and Seat Grinding.
7. Replace the cylinder head if the valve guide cannot be repaired or
reamed to accept an oversize valve stem.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 119


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Valve Guide Reaming/Valve and Seat Grinding


Valve Guide Reaming

480556 1. Ream the valve guide as necessary to achieve proper valve stem-
to-guide clearance with the new, oversized valve stems.
2. Always recondition the valve seat after reaming the valve guide
J-5830-3 bores or installing new valves.
3. Replace the cylinder head if the valve guide cannot be repaired or
reamed to accept an oversize valve stem.

Valve Reconditioning

53234 1. Replace the valve if the valve stem shows excessive wear or is
warped.
NOTE! Several different types of equipment are available for
reconditioning valves. Use the manufacturer’s recommen-
dations of equipment to attain proper results.
2. Reface pitted valves on a valve refacing machine to ensure the
correct relationship between the head and the valve stem.
3. Replace the valve if the edge (4) of the head is less than 0.79 mm
(0.031 in) thick after grinding.

Valve Seat Reconditioning NOTE! Several different types of equipment are available for
reconditioning valve seats. Use the manufacturer’s recom-
mendations of equipment to attain proper results.
NOTE! Always recondition the valve seat after reaming the valve
guide bores or installing new valves.
1. Recondition the valve seats.
2. The valves must seat perfectly for the engine to deliver optimum
power and performance.

120 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

3. Ensure that the valve seat and the valve are not shrouded after the
valve seat reconditioning. Adequate flow past the valve seat and
valve is essential for cooling the valve head and valve seat area.
4. Correct contact (1) between each valve and its seat in the cylinder
head is also essential to ensure that the heat in the valve head is
properly carried away.

CAUTION!

Regardless of what type of equipment is used, it is essen-


tial that the valve guide bores are free from carbon or dirt
to ensure the proper centering of the pilot in the guide.
5. The valve seats should be concentric to within 0.050 mm (0.002
in) total indicator runout.

Cylinder Head Assemble Tools Required


• J 8062 Valve Spring Compressor
• J 43105 Valve Stem Seal Installer

Checking Valve Spring Installed


Height
635681 1. Install the valve rotator (3), the valve (4), the valve spring cap (1)
5 1
and the valve stem keys (5) into the cylinder head.
2. Using a snap gauge or inside micrometer, measure the distance
2 from the top of the valve rotator to the bottom of the valve spring
cap. Refer to Engine Mechanical Specifications for proper valve
spring installed height specifications.

4 CAUTION!

Never shim the spring to obtain an installed height under


the specified amount.
3 Install the valve spring seat shims under the rotator
(between the rotator and the cylinder head spring seat).
Add a maximum of one valve spring seat shim, up to 0.726
mm (0.030 in) thick to achieve the valve spring installed
height specification.
The combination of valve spring seat shims to correct
valve spring installed height and valve spring tension
should not exceed 1.524 mm (0.060 in) thick.
3. Install a valve spring seat shim if the valve spring installed height
measurement is above the specification.
4. Re-check the valve spring installed height, replace the cylinder
head if the valve spring installed height cannot be obtained.

Valve Installation WARNING! Wear safety glasses

VPA 7743378 10-2004 121


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Compressed valve springs have high tension against the


valve spring compressor. Valve springs that are not prop-
erly compressed by or released from the valve spring
compressor can be ejected from the valve spring com-
pressor with intense force. Use care when compressing or
releasing the valve spring with the valve spring compres-
sor and when removing or installing the valve stem keys.
Failing to use care may cause personal injury.
719126 5. Install the valve stem oil seals (8) over the valve tip and onto the
valve guides using J 43105 (7). Tap the valve stem seal onto the
7
valve guide until the J 43105 fully seats the seal.
8

677779 6. Lubricate the valve stems (6) with clean engine oil.
7. Insert the valves into their proper locations.
8. Install the necessary valve spring shims onto the cylinder head.
9. Lubricate the rotators (5) with clean engine oil.
10. Install the rotators over the guide and onto the valve spring shims,
if applicable.

CAUTION!

When installing valve stem oil seals onto the valve guides,
be careful not to tear the seal lip.
When installing valve seals, J 43105 must be used to
achieve correct installation. Failure to use J43105 may
cause excessive oil consumption.
11. Lubricate the valve stem seal and the outside diameter of the
valve guide with clean engine oil.
NOTE! When installing valve springs, the small end of the valve
spring must be installed up.
12. Install the valve springs (3).
13. Install the valve spring caps (2).

122 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

480554 14. Use the J 8062 to compress the valve spring. Compress the spring
enough to clearly see the valve stem key grooves of the valve.
J-8062 15. Install the valve stem keys (1).
• Use grease to hold the keys in place.
• Ensure that the keys seat properly in the upper groove of the
valve stem.
16. Release and remove the J 8062.
17. Lightly tap the end of the valve stem with a plastic-faced hammer
to seat the keys.

635678 18. Install the cylinder head coolant hole plug (1) into the left cylinder
head.
19. Tighten the cylinder head coolant hole plug to 23 Nm (17 ft. lb.)

Oil Pump Disassemble NOTE! The oil pump pipe has a press fit into the oil pump. DO
NOT remove the pipe from the oil pump. The pipe and oil
pump are serviced as a complete assembly.
427935 1. Remove the oil pump driveshaft and retainer.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 123


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

678105 2. Remove the oil pump cover bolts.

678106 3. Remove the oil pump cover.

678107 4. Remove the drive gear and the driven gear. Match mark the gear
teeth for assembly.

124 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

427947 5. Remove the following items:


• The retaining pin
• The pressure relief spring
• The pressure relief valve

Oil Pump Clean and Inspect WARNING! Wear safety glasses.

678109 1. Clean the oil pump components in cleaning solvent.


2. Dry the components with compressed air.
2 3. Inspect the oil pump for the following:
1
• Scoring on the top of the gears (1)
5
• Damaged gears (2) for the following:
—Chipping
4 3
—Galling
—Wear
• Scoring, damage or casting imperfections to the body (3)
• Damaged or scored gear shaft (4)
• Damaged or scored gear shaft (5)
• Damaged bolt hole threads
• Worn oil pump driveshaft bore
• Damaged or sticking oil pump pressure relief valve (minor
imperfections may be removed with a fine oil stone).
• Collapsed or broken oil pump pressure relief valve spring.
4. If the oil pump is to be reused, install a NEW oil pump pressure
relief valve spring.
5. During oil pump installation, install a NEW oil pump driveshaft
retainer.

Oil Pump Assemble Tools Required


• J 21882 Oil Suction Pipe Installer
NOTE! Replace the pressure relief valve spring when reusing the
oil pump.
427947 1. Install the following items:
• The pressure relief valve
• The pressure relief spring
• The retaining pin

VPA 7743378 10-2004 125


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

678107 2. Coat the drive gear, the driven gear and the housing gear surfaces
with clean engine oil.
3. Install the drive gear and the driven gear into the pump body. Align
the matching marks on the gears. Install the smooth side of the
gear toward the pump cover.

678106 4. Install the oil pump cover.

678105 5. Install the oil pump cover bolts. Tighten the oil pump cover bolts to
12 Nm (106 in lb.).
6. Inspect the oil pump for smoothness of operation by turning the oil
pump driveshaft by hand.

CAUTION!

Inspect the oil pump driveshaft. An excessively worn or


damaged oil pump driveshaft may fail, causing severe
engine damage.

126 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

427935 7. Install the oil pump driveshaft and the new retainer.

Oil Pump Drive Clean and Inspect WARNING! Wear safety glasses

635685 1. Clean the oil pump drive in cleaning solvent.


1 2. Dry the oil pump drive with compressed air.
2
3. Inspect the oil pump drive for the following:
• Excessive play in the oil pump drive bearing (1)
• Damage to the oil pump drive clamp bolt hole (2)
• Damaged gear (3) for the following:
4 • Chipping
• Galling
3
• Wear
• Damage to the oil pump drive shaft tang
4. Damage to the oil pump drive body (4).
5. If the oil pump drive is to be reused, lubricate the bearing (1) with
clean engine oil.

Valve Rocker Arm Cover Clean and CAUTION!


Inspect
The ignition wiring harness connectors for cylinders one,
three, six, and eight must be marked when removed to
ensure the connectors are reinstalled to the correct igni-
tion coil. Failure to reinstall the connectors to the correct
ignition coil may result in serious engine damage.
The ignition coil and wiring harness bolts are self-tapping,
and care should be taken when removing the bolts. Fail-
ure to carefully remove the bolts may damage the valve
rocker arm covers, requiring the valve rocker arm covers
to be replaced.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 127


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

470659 1. Mark ignition coil connectors.


2. Remove the white wiring harness clip locks.
3. Disconnect the ignition coil wiring harness from the ignition coils.
4. Remove the ignition coil wiring harness retainer bolts.
5. Open the two wiring harness retainers and remove the ignition coil
wiring harness.

470887 6. Remove the ignition coil bolts.


7. Remove the ignition coils.

WARNING! Wear safety glasses

CAUTION!

Do not clean or submerge the ignition coils in solvent.


Remove the ignition coils before cleaning the cover in sol-
vent. To prevent damage to the gasket, minimize solvent
contact with the gaskets.

470890 8. Clean the valve rocker arm covers in solvent.


9. Dry the covers with compressed air.
10. Inspect the covers for the following:
• Gouges or damage to the sealing surfaces
• Cracking or damage to the valve cover gasket
• Debris or damage to the bolt hole threads

CAUTION!

This bolt is a self-tapping bolt. If installing this bolt into a


new component, installation of the bolt may be difficult.
Ensure that the bolt is not over-torqued during the initial
installation (thread cutting). Failure to limit torque can
lead to bolt failure.

128 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

470887 11. Install the ignition coils.


12. Install the ignition coil bolts.
13. Tighten the ignition coil bolts to 12 Nm (106 in lb.).

470659 14. Install and secure the ignition coil wiring harness into the two wir-
ing harness retainers.
15. Install the ignition coil wiring harness retainer bolts.
16. Tighten the ignition coil wiring harness retainer bolts to 12 Nm
(106 in lb.).
17. Connect the ignition coil wiring harness to the ignition coils, mak-
ing sure the connectors for cylinders one and three, and cylinders
six and eight are connected to the corresponding ignition coils.
18. Install the white wiring harness clip locks.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 129


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Oil Pan Clean and Inspect


635654 1. Remove the oil pan gasket from the groove in the oil pan.
2. Clean the oil pan in solvent.

WARNING! Wear safety glasses

3. Dry the oil pan with compressed air.


4. Inspect the oil pan for the following:
• The drain plug hole for damaged threads.
• Gouges or damage to the oil pan sealing surface.
• Cracks or damage to the exterior of the oil pan.
• Damage to the dipstick tube area.
• Damage to the oil pan gasket.

Intake Manifold Disassemble


17971A 1. Remove the flame arrestor.
2. Disconnect the throttle linkage.

470760A 3. Disconnect the Throttle Position Sensor (TP).


4. Disconnect the Idle Air Controller (IAC).

130 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

470760 5. Remove the throttle body nuts and the throttle body.
6. Remove and discard the throttle body gasket.

471023 7. Disconnect and remove the MAP sensor bolt and MAP sensor.
8. Inspect the Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor seal for
damage.

17970 9. Disconnect the fuel injection wiring harness.


10. Use special tool Volvo Penta P/N 885384 and disconnect fuel lines
from the feed and return lines on the fuel rails.
11. Remove the fuel injectors, fuel rails, and associated wiring from
the intake manifold.
12. Remove intake manifold.

Intake Manifold Clean and Inspect CAUTION!

Do not reuse the intake manifold gaskets or end seals.


635688 1. Clean the lower intake manifold in an approved solvent.
1 2
7 • Clean the intake manifold gasket sealing surfaces.
• Clean all carbon from the passages.
6
• Clean all intake manifold ports.
• Clean debris out of all bolt holes.

3
WARNING! Wear safety glasses
5
4
2. Dry the intake manifold with compressed air.
3. Inspect the following:
• The intake manifold bolt holes (1) for cracks and/or damage.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 131


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

• The Manifold MAP sensor sealing surface (2) for damage.


• The intake manifold-to-cylinder head sealing surfaces (3) for
damage.
• The pulse limiter adapter mounting surface for damage.
• The throttle body studs (5) for damage and replace as neces-
sary.
• The throttle body mounting surface (6) for damage.
• The oil fill tube hole (7) for signs of leakage and reseal as nec-
essary.
• PCV port (8) for debris or varnish buildup.

Intake Manifold Assemble NOTE! Refer to Fastener Notice in Cautions and Notices.

CAUTION!

Lubricate the port of the MAP sensor with clean engine


oil. Avoid dipping the sensor port directly into the lubri-
cant or using a solid type of lubricant, as they may block
the vacuum port signal.
471023 1. Install the MAP sensor.
2. Install the MAP sensor bolt.
3. Tighten the MAP sensor bolt to 12 Nm (106 lb. in).

17970 4. Install the fuel injectors, fuel rails, and associated wiring onto the
intake manifold.
5. Connect the fuel injection wiring harness.
6. Connect the fuel lines.

CAUTION!

Lubricate the port of the MAP sensor with clean engine


oil. Avoid dipping the sensor port directly into the lubri-
cant or using a solid type of lubricant, as they may block
the vacuum port signal.

132 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

471023 7. Install the MAP sensor.


8. Install the MAP sensor bolt.
9. Tighten the MAP sensor bolt to 12 Nm (106 lb. in).

470760 10. Install the throttle body gasket.


11. Install the throttle body.
12. Install the throttle body nuts.
13. Tighten the throttle body nuts to 10 Nm (88 in lb.).

Exhaust Manifold Clean and Inspect


470679 1. Clean the exhaust manifolds in solvent.

WARNING! Wear safety glasses

2. Dry the components with compressed air.


3. Inspect the exhaust manifolds for the following:
• Damage to the gasket sealing surfaces
• Damage to the exhaust manifold studs
• Cracks in the exhaust manifold
• Restrictions with the exhaust passages

66607 4. Measure the alignment or surface flatness of the exhaust manifold


flanges, using a straight edge and a feeler gauge. Exhaust mani-
fold surface flatness must not exceed 0.254 mm (0.01 in).
5. If the surface flatness is not within specifications, the exhaust man-
ifold is warped and must be replaced.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 133


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Water Crossover Clean and Cleaning Procedure


Inspect
635646 1. Clean the water crossover (3) and thermostat housing (1) in sol-
1 vent.

WARNING! Wear safety glasses

2. Dry the water crossover and thermostat housing with compressed


air.
6
Inspection Procedure
1. Inspect the water crossover (3) for the following:
2 • Corrosion or damage to the gasket sealing surfaces (4)

3 • Corrosion or damage to the bypass hose fitting (5)


• Corrosion or damage to the threads for the thermostat hous-
ing (2)
4
5 2. Inspect the thermostat housing (1) for corrosion and/or damage.
3. Repair or replace the water crossover and/or thermostat housing
as necessary.

Water Pump Clean and Inspect Tools Required


• J 41240 Fan Wrench
635640 1. Remove the water pump pulley bolts using the J 41240 to prevent
water pump pulley rotation.
2. Remove the water pump pulley.
3. Inspect the water pump pulley for damage at the belt contact area
and the pulley-to-water pump mounting surface.

CAUTION!

Do not immerse the water pump in solvent. The solvent


may enter the water pump’s permanently lubricated bear-
ings and cause premature bearing failure.
4. Clean all excess dirt and debris from the water pump housing.
635691 5. Inspect the water pump for the following:
1
• Leakage at the hose fitting (1)
6
• Leakage at the water pump weep hole (3)
2 A stain around the weep hole is acceptable. If leakage occurs
(dripping) with the engine running and the cooling system pressu-
rized, replace thewater pump.

5 635640

4 • Gasket sealing surfaces (2) for excessive scratches or gouging


3 • Restrictions within the internal coolant passages (6)
• Excessive side-to-side play in the pulley shaft (5)
If the shaft end play exceeds 0.381 mm (0.015 in), replace the
water pump

134 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

• Rotate the pump shaft by hand and inspect for roughness of oper-
ation
• If the hub wobbles, is noisy or feels rough when rotated,
replace the water pump.
• The shaft and fan hub must turn straight and smoothly.
• Damage to threaded bolt holes (4)
• Damage to the fan mounting threads (5)
6. Install the water pump pulley.
NOTE! Refer to Fastener Notice in Cautions and Notices.
7. Install the water pump pulley bolts using the J 41240 to prevent
water pump pulley rotation.
8. Tighten the water pump pulley bolts to 25 Nm (19 ft. lb.)

Thread Repair Tools Required


• J 39345 Thread Repair Kit
The following procedure is used to accomplish proper and durable
thread repairs in the cylinder head and cylinder block.

CAUTION!

Take appropriate precautions to assure that machining


chips will not remain inside the engine. For example,
block all intake passages, oil drain back holes and
exhaust passages with a towel or tape before performing
thread repairs.
1. Select the proper size drill as indicated in the schematic charts
found in Thread Repair Specifications for the hole being repaired.
2. Drill out the damaged threads to the original depth, or completely
through for through holes.

WARNING! Wear safety glasses

3. Clean out the hole using compressed air with a shop rag wrapped
around the air spout to prevent aluminium chips from leaving the
hole.
4. Select the correct size tap, using the appropriate chart for the hole
being repaired.
5. Coat the tap and the hole with spray machining oil.
6. Tap the hole to the original depth. to clean the threads, reverse the
rotation of the tap periodically.
7. Use aluminium safe solvent to clean out all of the aluminium chips.
8. Apply compressed air, with a shop towel wrapped around the air
spout, to retain the chips forced out of the hole.
9. Tap the hole again to clean the threads. The tap should thread in
with little resistance.

CAUTION! Make sure all of the aluminium chips are


cleared from the hole.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 135


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

10. Use aluminium safe solvent to clean out all of the aluminium chips.
11. Apply compressed air, with a shop towel wrapped around the air
spout, to retain the chips forced out of the hole.
12. Use a flashlight to confirm that all of the chips are removed from
the hole.
13. Continue to clean the hole until all of the aluminium chips are
cleared.
14. Install the Heli-coil insert as follows:
A. To determine the correct size installation tool and length insert,
refer to the appropriate picture and chart.
B. Screw the insert on the mandrel of the installation tool until the
driving tang is fully engaged in the driving contour.
C. Coat the insert with spray machining oil.
D. Install the insert as follows
i. Slide the prewinder over the mandrel and insert.
ii. Rotate the mandrel clockwise until 1 or 2 threads of the in-
sert are threaded into the prewinder.
iii. Place the insert in position on the threaded hole being re-
paired.
iv. Rotate the mandrel clockwise until the insert is flush with
the top surface of the threaded hole.
v. Remove the prewinder except when repairing cylinder head
bolts.
vi. Continue to install the insert until reaching the original
thread depth.
vii. Remove the mandrel.
H. Remove the driving tang from the thread insert as follows. The
tang must be removed to allow passage of the fastener through
the insert.
i. Place the square end of the punch, no chamfer, on the tang
after installation.
ii. Strike the punch sharply with the hammer. The tang will
break off at the notch.
3. Clean the hole using compressed air. Take appropriate steps to
assure that the chips are not blown into the engine.

Service Prior to Assembly • Dirt will cause premature wear of the rebuilt engine. Clean all
the components.
• Use the proper tools to measure the components when check-
ing for excessive wear. Components not within the manufac-
turer’s specification must be repaired or replaced.
• When the components are reinstalled into an engine, return the
components to their original location, position and direction.
• During assembly, lubricate all the moving parts with clean
engine oil (unless otherwise specified). This will provide initial
lubrication when the engine is first started.

136 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Engine Block Plug Installation


Tools Required
• J 41712 Oil Pressure Sending Unit Socket
635657 1. Apply sealant Volvo Penta P/N 1141570 or equivalent to the
threads of the coolant hole plug.

Caution!
Use sealant sparingly. Excess sealant may come loose
and clog water passages and could cause engine damage.
2. Install the engine coolant hole plug into the block and tighten to 60
Nm (40 ft. lb.)

471137 3. Install the engine block top oil gallery plugs.


4. Tighten the top oil gallery plugs to 20 Nm (15 ft. lb.)
5. Apply sealant Volvo Penta P/N 1141570 to the threads of the oil
gallery plugs.

Caution!
Use sealant sparingly. Excess sealant may come loose
and clog oil galleys and could cause engine damage.

471138 6. Apply sealant Volvo Penta P/N 1141570 or equivalent to the


threads of the tee along with oil pressure sending unit and oil pres-
sure alarm switch if removed.

Caution!
Use sealant sparingly. Excess sealant may come loose
and clog oil galleys and could cause engine damage.
7. Tighten the tee to 30 Nm (22 ft. lb.)

VPA 7743378 10-2004 137


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

471133 8. Install the front oil gallery plugs.

Caution!
The front oil gallery plugs have a hex socket and are
drilled with an oil hole to lubricate the timing chain and
sprocket. Do not install in the rear oil gallery holes. An oil
leak will result and may cause engine damage.
9. Tighten the front oil gallery plugs to 30 Nm (22 lb. ft.).

471134 10. Apply sealant Volvo Penta P/N 1141570 or equivalent to the
threads of the oil gallery plugs.
11. Install the rear oil gallery plugs.
12. Tighten the rear oil gallery plugs to 30 Nm (22 lb. ft.).

471126 13. Apply sealant Volvo Penta P/N 1141570 or equivalent to the
threads of the engine block oil cooler hose fittings (with oil cooler).
14. Install the engine block oil cooler hose fittings (with oil cooler).
15. Tighten the engine block oil cooler hose fittings to 23 Nm (17 ft. lb.)

138 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

471081 16. Install the left knock sensor into the engine block.
17. Tighten the left knock sensor to 20 Nm (15 ft. lb.)

CAUTION!

Do not overtighten the knock sensor or engine damage


may occur.

471076 18. Install the right knock sensor into the engine block.
19. Tighten the right knock sensor to 20 Nm (15 lb. ft.).

CAUTION!

Do not overtighten the knock sensor or engine damage


may occur.

470568 20. Apply sealant Volvo Penta P/N 1141570 or equivalent to the
threads of the engine block coolant drain hole plugs.
21. Install the engine block coolant drain hole plugs.
22. Tighten the engine coolant drain hole plugs to 20 Nm (15 ft. lb.)

VPA 7743378 10-2004 139


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

471118 23. Apply sealant GM P/N 12345493 or equivalent to the engine block
camshaft rear bearing hole.

471122 24. Install a NEW camshaft rear bearing hole plug to the proper depth.

471089 25. Apply sealant Volvo Penta P/N 1141570 or equivalent to the
threads of the oil gallery plug.
26. Install the oil gallery plug.
27. Tighten to 30 Nm (22 ft. lb.)

140 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Oil Filter Adapter Installation


471143 1. If removed, install the new oil bypass valves.
2. Stake the tangs on the oil bypass valves.

471026 3. Install the oil filter fitting.


4. Tighten the oil filter fitting to 66 Nm (49 ft. lb.)

Crankshaft and Bearings Installation Tools Required


• J 8001 Dial Indicator Set
• J 36660-A Electronic Torque Angle Meter
NOTE! Lubricate the crankshaft bearings and crankshaft with
clean engine oil.
If undersized bearings are used, ensure that the bearings
are fitted to the proper journals.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 141


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

471041 1. Install the crankshaft upper bearings into the engine block. Apply
clean engine oil to the bearing surfaces.

471044 2. Install the crankshaft lower bearings into the crankshaft bearing
caps. Apply clean engine oil to the bearing surfaces.

CAUTION!

Care should be taken when installing the crankshaft so


the crankshaft position sensor reluctor ring is not dam-
aged. If the reluctor ring becomes damaged, the crank-
shaft must be replaced.

471047 3. Install the crankshaft.

647705 4. Apply a 13 mm (0.500 in) light film of Volvo Penta P/N 1141649 or
equivalent to the rear bearing cap sealing face or to the rear bear-
13.0 mm ing cap channel of the engine block. Apply the sealant from the
(0.500”) center of the rear thrust bearing pocket to the edge of the channel.

CAUTION!

To prevent the possibility of cylinder block or crankshaft


bearing cap damage, the crankshaft bearing caps are
tapped into the cylinder block cavity using a brass, lead or
leather mallet before the attaching bolts are installed. Do
not use attaching bolts to pull the crankshaft bearing caps
into the seats. Failure to use this process may damage a
cylinder block or a bearing cap.

142 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Care should be taken when installing the rear bearing cap


to prevent damage to the crankshaft position sensor
reluctor wheel. If the reluctor wheel is damaged, the
crankshaft must be replaced.
NOTE! Ensure that the triangle symbols on the crankshaft bear-
ing caps are facing the front of the engine.
679831 5. Install the crankshaft bearing caps.
NOTE! Refer to Fastener Notice in Cautions and Notices.
NOTE! Tighten the crankshaft bearing cap inner bolts before
tightening the crankshaft bearing cap outer studs.

471055 6. Install the crankshaft bearing cap bolts and studs.


A. Tighten the crankshaft bearing cap inner bolts to 30 Nm (22 ft
lb.).
B. Tighten the crankshaft bearing cap outer studs to 30 Nm (22 ft
lb.).
C. Using the J 36660-A, tighten the crankshaft bearing cap inner
bolts an additional 90 degrees.
D. Using the J 36660-A, tighten the crankshaft bearing cap outer
studs an additional 80 degrees.

677804 5. Measure the crankshaft end play as follows:


A. Install the J 8001 or equivalent to the cylinder block, with the
dial indicator plunger against one of the counterweights of the
crankshaft.
B. Firmly thrust the crankshaft first rearward, then forward. This
will line up the rear crankshaft bearing and the crankshaft thrust
surfaces
C. With the crankshaft pushed forward, zero the dial indicator.
Move the crankshaft rearward, and read the end play measure-
ment on the dial indicator. An optional method is to insert a feel-
er gauge between the crankshaft and the bearing surface and
measure the clearance. Refer to Engine Mechanical Specifica-
tions.
D. If the correct end play cannot be obtained, inspect for the follow-
ing conditions:
• Verify that the correct size crankshaft bearing has been
installed. Refer to Engine Mechanical Specifications.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 143


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

• Inspect the crankshaft thrust wall surface(s) for wear and/or


excessive runout. Refer to Engine Mechanical Specifica-
tions.
E. Inspect the crankshaft for binding. Turn the crankshaft to check
for binding. If the crankshaft does not turn freely, loosen the
crankshaft bearing bolts and studs, one cap at a time, until the
tight bearing is located. The following condition(s) could cause
a lack of clearance at the bearing:
• Burrs on the bearing cap
• Foreign material between the bearing and the block
• Foreign material between the bearing and the bearing cap
• Damaged bearing
• Improper size bearing

CAUTION!

Ensure that the crankshaft position sensor is fully seated


against the crankshaft reluctor ring. The upper flange on
the sensor MAY NOT seat against the engine block.
NOTE! The crankshaft position sensor bolt has a thread sealant
applied to the threads. The thread sealant may have come
off during the removal of the bolt. Ensure that the bolt
holes is clean of any debris before installing the crank-
shaft sensor bolt.
6. Inspect both crankshaft position sensor O-rings for cuts, cracks,
tears or damage. Replace the O-rings as needed. Lubricate the
crankshaft position sensor O-rings with clean engine oil.
470801 7. Install the crankshaft position sensor into the engine block.
NOTE! There may be a slight resistance as the O-rings seat into
the engine block.
8. Apply thread sealer Volvo Penta P/N 1161056 or equivalent to the
crankshaft position sensor bolt.
9. Install the crankshaft position sensor bolt.
10. Tighten the crankshaft position sensor bolt to 12 Nm (106 in lb.).

Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal Installation Tools Required


• J 42849 Crankshaft Rear Seal Installer
NOTE! Crankshaft rear oil seal and engine flywheel installation
requires adequate space for installation. If the engine
stand does not allow suitable space to use the J 42849,

144 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

install the crankshaft rear oil seal and engine flywheel


with the engine properly supported on the floor.
1. Make sure the crankshaft rear chamfer is free of grit, loose rust
and burrs. Correct as needed.
2. Apply a very light film of oil onto the crankshaft sealing surface.

CAUTION!

DO NOT apply oil to the sealing surface of the engine


block.
3. Install the seal on the J 42849.
640011 4. Position the J 42849 against the crankshaft. Thread the attaching
screws into the tapped holes in the crankshaft.
5. Tighten the screws securely with a screwdriver to ensure that the
seal is installed squarely over the crankshaft.
6. Rotate the center nut until the J 42849 bottoms.
7. Remove the J 42849.

Piston, Connecting Rod and Piston Selection


Bearing Installation Tools Required
• J 8037 Piston Ring Compressor
• J 8087 Cylinder Bore Checking Gauge
NOTE! The coating on the piston allows for an interference fit
between the cylinder and the bore. The piston diameter
can NOT be measured accurately because the piston coat-
ing is not a consistent thickness. Do NOT measure the
piston diameter.
To select the correct piston for installation, the cylinder bore must be
measured. If the cylinder bore diameter is within service specifications,
install the original piston/connecting rod assembly. A used piston/con-
necting rod assembly may be reinstalled if, after cleaning and inspec-
tion, the piston is not damaged. If the cylinder bore is NOT within
specifications, the cylinder must be resized to accept a new, oversized
piston.
For proper piston fit, the engine block cylinder bores should not have
excessive wear or taper.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 145


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

4972 1. Inspect the engine block cylinder bore. Refer to Cylinder Boring
and Honing.
2. Inspect the piston/connecting rod assembly for damage. Refer to
Piston, Connecting Rod and Bearings Clean and Inspect.
J 8087
3. Use the J 8087 to measure the cylinder bore diameter. Refer to
Engine Block Clean and Inspect.
4. Measure the J 8087 with a micrometer and record the reading.

4974 5. Compare the cylinder bore measurement to the specifications.


J 8087 Refer to Engine Mechanical Specifications.
A. If the cylinder bore is within specifications, select the original
piston or a new, original size piston.
B. If the cylinder bore is not within specifications, select the next
oversized piston/connecting rod assembly, then bore and hone
the cylinder bore to fit the oversize piston.

Piston Installation
639532 1. Coat the following components with clean engine oil:
• The piston
• The piston rings
• The cylinder bore
• The bearing surfaces
2. Install rubber fuel line onto the connecting rod bolts.
NOTE! The arrow on the top of the piston must face the front of
the engine block. When assembled, the flanges on the
connecting rod and cap should face to the front of the
block on the left bank and to the rear of the block on the
right bank.

146 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

639536 3. Install the piston, connecting rod and upper connecting rod bear-
ing through the top of the engine block.

5159 4. Install the J 8037 onto the piston and compress the piston rings.
5. Use the J 8037 and lightly tap the top of the piston with a wooden
hammer handle.
6. Hold the J 8037 firmly against the engine block until all of the pis-
ton rings have entered the cylinder bore.

639533 7. Use the rubber fuel line to guide the connecting rod onto the
crankshaft journal.
8. Remove the rubber fuel line.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 147


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

639084 9. Install the connecting rod cap and lower connecting rod bearing.
NOTE! Refer to Fastener Notice in Cautions and Notices.
NOTE! When installing the piston/connecting rod assembly, NEW
connecting rod nuts must be installed.
10. Install the new connecting rod nuts.
11. Tighten the connecting rod nuts to 30 Nm (22 ft. lb.) Using the J
36660-A, tighten the connecting rod nuts an additional 90
degrees.

677801o 12. Once the piston and connecting rod assemblies have been
installed, lightly tap each connecting rod assembly (parallel to the
crankpin) to make sure that they have side clearance.
13. Use a feeler gauge or a dial indicator to measure the side clear-
ance between the connecting rod caps. The connecting rod side
clearance should be 0.384-0.686 mm (0.0151-0.0270 in).

Camshaft Installation
471002 1. Lubricate the following components with clean engine oil, engine
supplement GM P/N 1052367 or equivalent:
• The camshaft lobes
• The camshaft bearing journals
• The camshaft bearings

CAUTION!

All camshaft journals are the same diameter, so care must


be used in removing or installing the camshaft to avoid
damage to the camshaft bearings.
2. Install the three 8-1.25 x 100 mm bolts in the camshaft front bolt
holes.
3. Using the bolts as a handle, install the camshaft.
4. Remove the three bolts from the front of the camshaft.

148 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

470998 5. Install the camshaft retainer.


6. Install the camshaft retainer bolts.
7. Tighten the camshaft retainer bolts to 12 Nm (106 in lb.).

Timing Chain and Sprockets Tools Required


Installation
• J 22102 Crankshaft Sprocket Installer
65850 1. Use the J 22102 to install the crankshaft sprocket.
Align the keyway of the crankshaft sprocket with the crankshaft pin.
J 22102
2. Rotate the crankshaft until the crankshaft sprocket alignment mark
is in the 12 o’clock position.
NOTE! Install the camshaft sprocket with the alignment mark in
the 6 o’clock position.

CAUTION!

The sprocket teeth must mesh with the timing chain to


prevent damage to the camshaft retainer.
Do not use a hammer to install the camshaft sprocket onto
the camshaft. To do so may dislodge the rear camshaft
plug and/or damage the camshaft.
470814 3. Install the camshaft sprocket and timing chain.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 149


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

677756 4. Look to ensure that the crankshaft sprocket is aligned at the 12


o’clock position and the camshaft sprocket is aligned at the 6
o’clock position.
5. Install the camshaft sprocket bolts.
6. Tighten the three camshaft sprocket bolts to 30 Nm (22 ft. lb.)
7. Tighten the three camshaft sprocket bolts in a second pass to 30
Nm (22 ft. lb.)

Engine Front Cover Installation Tools Required


• J 42851 Front Cover Oil Seal Installer
1. Install the NEW crankshaft front oil seal using the J 42851.
2. Lubricate the sealing surface of the crankshaft front oil seal with
clean engine oil.
NOTE! The front cover must be installed and the fasteners tight-
ened while the sealant is still wet to the touch.
470807 3. Apply the sealant Volvo Penta P/N 1161277 RTV sealer or equiva-
lent in two sealant points (1) on the engine block where the front
cover meets the oil pan.
4. Install the engine front cover gasket into the front cover.

CAUTION!

The following method must be used when installing the


engine front cover. Failure to follow the instructions will
push the sealant out, which may cause an oil leak.
719124 5. Install the engine front cover.
1
2 A. Hold the front cover (1) up to the crankshaft (2).
3
B. Lift the front cover (1) while sliding the cover over the crankshaft
(2).
C. Slide the front cover towards the engine block (5) while keeping
the cover raised.
4
D. Lower the cover down over the dowel pin (4), allowing the front
cover to rest on the sealant (3).
5

150 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

677874 5. Install the engine front cover bolts.


3 4 • Tighten the engine front cover bolts in sequence to 6 Nm (54
in lb.) in the first pass.
• Tighten the engine front cover bolts in sequence to 12 Nm
(106 in lb.) in the second pass.

2 1

5 6

470803 6. Inspect the camshaft position sensor O-ring for cuts, cracks, tears
or any other damage. Replace the O-ring as needed.
7. Apply a light film of clean engine oil to the camshaft position sen-
sor O-ring.
8. Install the camshaft position sensor.

CAUTION!

This bolt is a self-tapping bolt. If installing this bolt into a


new component, installation of the bolt may be difficult.
Ensure that the bolt is not over-torqued during the initial
installation (thread cutting). Failure to limit torque can
lead to bolt failure.
9. Install the camshaft position sensor bolt.
10. Tighten the camshaft position sensor bolt to 12 Nm (106 in lb.).

Oil Pump, Pump Screen and Deflector


Installation
635703 1. Install the crankshaft oil deflector.
NOTE! Refer to Fastener Notice in Cautions and Notices.
2. Install the crankshaft oil deflector nuts.
3. Tighten the crankshaft oil deflector nuts to 50 Nm (37 ft. lb.)
NOTE! During assembly, install a NEW oil pump driveshaft
retainer. Slightly heat retainer above room temperature for
ease of installation onto the oil pump driveshaft.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 151


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

471060 4. Assemble the oil pump, driveshaft and a NEW retainer.


5. Install the oil pump assembly.
6. Position the oil pump onto the locating pins.
7. Install the bolt attaching the oil pump to the rear crankshaft bear-
ing cap.
8. Tighten the oil pump bolt to 75 Nm (55 ft. lb.)
9. Pour clean engine oil into the oil pump pickup screen.
10. Rotate crankshaft in direction of engine rotation to prime the oil
pump.

Oil Pan Installation


NOTE! The oil pan must be installed within five minutes of the
sealer being applied or the sealer will begin to cure, caus-
ing an inadequate seal.
677833 1. Apply RTV sealant Volvo Penta P/N 1141649 or equivalent to the
side of the front (1) and rear (2) crankshaft bearing caps, on both
the left and right sides (four locations total).
1

635654 2. Install the new oil pan gasket into the pan groove.
3. Install the oil pan.

152 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

677869 4. Install the oil pan bolts.


11 7 3 2 6 10 5. Tighten the oil pan bolts in sequence.
Tighten
• Tighten the oil pan bolts in sequence to 10 Nm (88 in lb.) in a
first pass.
• Tighten the oil pan bolts in sequence to 25 Nm (18 ft. lb.) in a
12 8 4 1 5 9 second pass.

635648 6. Install the oil dipstick tube fitting.

Caution!
Use new O-rings and gaskets when installing the dipstick
tube and fitting.
7. Tighten the oil pan depict tube fitting to 28 Nm (21 ft. lb.)

Oil Pump Drive Installation


470910 1. Apply grease to the oil pump drive gear for ease of assembly.

CAUTION!

Correct alignment of the oil pump drive and oil pump drive
shaft is critical. Make sure both components mate cor-
rectly, or engine damage may occur.
2. Line up the oil pump drive gear with the oil pump drive shaft.
3. Install the oil pump drive, making sure that the oil pump drive is
fully seated in the engine block.
4. Install the oil pump drive bolt.
5. Tighten the oil pump drive bolt to 25 Nm (18 lb. ft.).

Valve Lifter Installation NOTE! If a new camshaft is installed, replace all the valve lifters.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 153


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

470996 1. Coat the valve lifter rollers with prelube, GM P/N 1052367 or
equivalent.
NOTE! If reusing the valve lifters, install in their original loca-
tions. The valve lifter guide retainer must contact all of the
valve lifter guides. If the valve lifter guide retainer is bent,
the valve lifter guide retainer must be replaced.
2. Install the valve lifters.
3. Install the valve lifter guides over the flats on the valve lifters, mak-
ing sure the rollers of the valve lifters are properly aligned with the
camshaft lobes.

470994 4. Install the valve lifter guide retainer.


5. Install the valve lifter guide retainer bolts.
6. Tighten the valve lifter guide retainer bolts to 25 Nm (18 ft. lb.)

Cylinder Head Installation Tools Required


• J 36660-A Electronic Torque Angle Meter

CAUTION! Make sure the threaded holes in the engine


block are clean and not damaged. Do not use sealer on
any engines that use a composition type gasket. Align the
cylinder head gasket locating mark to face up.
470974 1. Place the cylinder head gasket(s) in position over the cylinder
head locating pins.

154 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

470916 2. Install the cylinder head(s) to the engine block.


NOTE! Guide the cylinder head carefully into place over the locat-
ing pins and the cylinder head gasket.

470914 3. If not pre-applied to the new cylinder head bolts, apply sealer
Volvo Penta P/N 1141570 or equivalent to the cylinder head bolts.
NOTE! The long bolts are used in locations 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 14, 16 and 17. The medium length bolts are used in
locations 15 and 18. The short bolts are used in locations
4, 5, 12 and 13. The sealer must be applied to a minimum
of eight threads starting at the point of the cylinder head
bolt.

CAUTION!

Always use NEW cylinder head bolts when servicing the


cylinder head. Do not reuse the cylinder head bolts. These
bolts are designed to stretch during initial installation.
Because the bolts stretch during installation they will
break if reused causing engine damage.
4. Install the cylinder head bolts.
470987 A. Tighten the bolts a first pass in sequence to 30 Nm (22 ft lb.).
B. Re-tighten the bolts in a second pass in sequence to 30 Nm (22
ft lb.), then an additional 120° using the J 36660-A.
14 6 3 11 C. Using the J 36660-A, tighten the bolts (1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,
18 10 1 7 15 14, 16, 17) an additional 60°, bolts (15 and 18) an additional 45°
17 16 and bolts (4, 5, 12, 13) an additional 30° a final pass in se-
9 2 8
13 5 4 12 quence.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 155


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Valve Rocker Arm and Push Rod NOTE! Be sure to keep parts in order. Parts must be put back
Installation from where they were removed.
470906 1. Apply sealer Volvo Penta P/N 1141570 or equivalent to the valve
rocker arm stud-to-cylinder head threads.
2. Install the push rod guides and valve rocker arm studs onto the
cylinder head.
3. Tighten the valve rocker arm studs to 50 Nm (37 ft. lb.)

470903 4. Install the valve push rods.


1 NOTE! The 8.1L engine uses different length intake and exhaust
valve push rods. The exhaust valve push rods (2) are
longer than the intake valve push rods (1).
2

470899 5. Coat the valve rocker arm and valve rocker arm ball bearing sur-
faces with prelube GM P/N 1052367 or equivalent.
6. Install the valve rocker arms, the valve rocker arm balls and the
valve rocker arm nuts.
7. Tighten the valve rocker arm nuts slowly, to 25 Nm (18 ft. lb.), while
guiding the tips of the rocker arms over the tips of the halves.

156 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Intake Manifold Installation

470786 1. Install the splash shield.

413867 2. Ensure the splash shield (2) snap fits between the cylinder heads
(1).
1

1302492 3. Apply a 5 mm (0.2 in.) bead of Volvo Penta P/N 1141649 RTV
sealing compound (1) to the 4 engine block/cylinder head loca-
tions.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 157


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

470783 4. Install the new intake manifold end seals.

1302481 5. Apply a 5 mm (0.2 in.) bead of Volvo Penta P/N 1141649 RTV
sealer or equivalent (1) onto the end seals at the 4 engine block/
cylinder head locations.

470779 6. Install the new intake manifold side gaskets onto the cylinder
heads.

470778 7. Ensure the intake manifold gasket tabs align with the hole in the
head gasket.
8. Ensure the intake manifold gasket tabs align with the slot in the
lower intake manifold seals.

158 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

470775 9. Install the intake manifold onto the engine block.

640010 CAUTION!

10 6 2 3 7 The entire intake manifold tightening sequence must be


followed exactly, or an oil leak resulting in engine damage
may occur. Ensure the intake manifold is tightened with-
out allowing the intake manifold to shift.
10. Apply thread adhesive Volvo Penta P/N 1141570 sealant or
9 5 1 4 8 equivalent to a minimum of eight threads of the intake manifold
bolts.
11. Install the intake manifold bolts.
12. Tighten the intake manifold bolts in sequence, using four passes.
Tighten
• Tighten the intake manifold bolts in sequence to 2 Nm (18 in lb.)
on the first pass.
• Tighten the intake manifold bolts in sequence to 2 Nm (18 in lb.)
on the second pass. Inspect the intake manifold joints for signs of
intake manifold shifting. Correct as required.
• Tighten the intake manifold bolts in sequence to 10 Nm (88 in lb.)
on the third pass.
• Tighten the intake manifold bolts in sequence to 12 Nm (106 in
lb.) on the final pass.
NOTE! Lubricate the injector O-ring seals with clean engine oil
and install onto the spray tip end of each injector.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 159


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

470774 13. Install the fuel injection fuel rail.


14. Install the fuel injection fuel rail studs and/or bolts.
15. Tighten the fuel injection fuel rail studs and/or bolts to 12 Nm (106
in lb.).

470770 16. Install the fuel pressure regulator vacuum hose.

Valve Rocker Arm Cover Installation NOTE! If the valve rocker arm cover gasket was removed from the
valve rocker arm cover, install a NEW valve rocker arm
cover gasket.
470890 1. Install the valve rocker arm cover with gasket.
2. Install the valve rocker arm cover bolts.

160 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

677858 3. Tighten the valve rocker arm cover bolts in sequence using two
7 1 4 passes.
Tighten
• Tighten the valve rocker arm cover bolts in sequence to 6 Nm
(54 in lb.) on the first pass.
• Tighten the valve rocker arm cover bolts in sequence to 12 Nm
5 3 2 6 (106 in lb.) on the final pass.

Water Pump Installation


470792 1. Place the water pump gaskets and the water pump into position.

800380 2. Install the water pump bolts.


• Tighten the water pump bolts first pass in sequence to 25 Nm
(18 ft. lb.)
• Tighten the water pump bolts second pass in sequence to 50
Nm (37 ft. lb.)

1310030 3. Install the water pump pulley and bolts.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 161


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

635640 4. Use J 41240 to hold the water pump pulley while tightening the
bolts.

Coolant Crossover Installation Tools Required


• J 41240 Fan Wrench
635643 1. Install the thermostat with the seal into the water crossover.
2. Install the water outlet.
3. Install the water outlet bolts.
4. Tighten the water outlet bolts to 30 Nm (22 ft. lb.)

470698 5. Place the water crossover gaskets and the water crossover in
position.
6. Install the water crossover bolts.
7. Tighten the water crossover bolts to 50 Nm (37 ft. lb.)

162 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

470692 8. Install the thermostat bypass hose clamps onto the thermostat
bypass hose.
9. Install the thermostat bypass hose.
NOTE! Properly position the bypass hose clamps to avoid water
pump pulley interference.
10. Position the thermostat bypass hose clamps.

23271 11. Reconnect all the hoses to the thermostat housing.

23270A 12. Install the idler pulley.


13. Install the alternator and steering pump bracket. There are six
bolts.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 163


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

23269 14. Reinstall the fuel cell and fuel cell bracket.

470789 15. Install the drive belt tensioner.


16. Install the drive belt tensioner bolts.
17. Tighten the drive belt tensioner bolts to 50 Nm (37 ft. lb.)

Preparing Gasket Surfaces CAUTION!

Clean threads in the mounting holes are critical for torqu-


ing of the riser bolts and the seal between the riser and
manifold.
• Check all riser mounting holes in manifolds for debris or exces-
sive coating on threads.
• Bolts should screw completely into hole by hand, if not, run tap
in holes to clear debris and coating.
• Use shop vacuum to remove debris from holes.

CAUTION!

The gasket mounting surfaces must be clean and flat to


ensure a correct seal between the riser and manifold.
Carefully follow the steps below to ensure a good seal.
NOTE! Before proceeding, place shop towels in the manifold
openings to prevent debris from entering the engine.
When the cleaning process is done, use a shop vacuum to
remove debris from the manifold, riser, and engine.

164 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

22544 1. Clean the gasket mounting surfaces on both the riser and the
manifold.
2. Use spray on gasket remover to remove ALL traces of riser gas-
ket. Heavy scrapping with tools on gasket surfaces may gouge
surface, preventing proper seal.
3. Follow pre-cautions on can of gasket remover to prevent damage
to paint on manifold, riser or engine.

22545 4. Use 80 grit sandpaper and a sanding block, or equivalent to


smooth the gasket mounting surfaces on the riser and manifold.

Caution!

Do not use rotary power sanding tools, they may leave a


circular gouge in the surface.
5. Remove all paint, coatings, gasket material, rust and anything else
that will create high or low spots on the surface.

22557 6. Each area/section of gasket mounting surface (see example in pic-


ture) should be flat and smooth to a tolerance of 0.1mm.
7. If the surface can not be cleaned or sanded to this tolerance, the
part must be machined flat at the gasket mounting surface.
8. If machined, the following applies;
• The maximum material that can be removed is 0.25mm
(0.0098 in.)
• Machine flatness over the gasket surface is 0.075mm
(0.0029 in.) maximum overall, with not more than 0.02mm
(0.000787 in.) allowable over any 25mm (0.98 in.) span.
• Surface finish should not exceed 0.0032mm (0.0001259 in.)
Roughness Average
9. If the surface can not be machined to these specifications the part
must be replaced.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 165


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Exhaust Manifold Installation

470683A 1. Install the exhaust manifold studs into the cylinder head (if neces-
sary).
2. Tighten the exhaust manifold studs to 20 Nm (15 ft. lb.)
3. Install the NEW exhaust manifold gasket.

470678 4. Install the exhaust manifold.


5. Install the exhaust manifold nuts and center bolt.
• Tighten the exhaust manifold centre bolt to 35 Nm (26 ft lb.).
• Tighten the exhaust manifold nuts to 16 Nm (12 ft lb.).

470690 6. Install the spark plugs.


7. Tighten the spark plugs to 20 Nm (15 ft. lb.)

166 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

470666 8. Install the spark plug wires to the spark plugs and ignition coils.
NOTE! Fully install the spark plug wire by pushing on the
exposed end of the spark plug boot.

470659 9. Install the ignition coil wiring harness.


10. Connect the ignition coil wiring harness to the ignition coils.
11. Install the ignition coil wiring harness retainer bolts.
12. Tighten the ignition coil wiring harness retainer bolts to 12 Nm
(106 in lb.).

VPA 7743378 10-2004 167


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Dipstick Tube Installation

470630 1. Install NEW seals onto the dipstick tube fitting and hollow bolt.

CAUTION!

Be sure there are seals between the oil pan opening, the
dipstick cube and the hollow fitting and the cube.
2. Install the dipstick tube into the cube.
3. Install a NEW O-ring onto the dipstick tube fitting.
4. Install the dipstick tube fitting into the cube.
5. Install the dipstick tube bracket bolt to the engine block.
• Tighten the dipstick tube bracket bolt to 8 Nm (70 in lb.).
• Tighten the dipstick cube hollow bolt to 28 Nm (21 ft lb.).
6. Install the dipstick in the dipstick tube.

Pilot Bearing Installation (DPX-420, WARNING! Wear safety glasses


8.1GXiI and Jackshaft)
470617 1. Install the NEW pilot bearing.
NOTE! Make sure the bearing is installed parallel to the rear of
the crankshaft.

470620 2. Measure to ensure the proper installation depth is obtained.


14.65-15.65 mm
(0.577-0.616”)

168 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Pilot Bearing Installation (DPX-375, WARNING! Wear safety glasses


8.1GiI and Jackshaft)
NOTE! Install the bearing from the crankshaft side of the engine
flywheel.
375107 1. Install the NEW pilot bearing (1) flush with the surface of the
crankshaft flange bore (2).
2. Ensure the proper installation is obtained.

Engine Flywheel Installation


470576 1. Install the engine flywheel.
2. Install the engine flywheel bolts.
• Tighten the engine flywheel bolts to 80 Nm (59 ft lb.) on the first
pass.
• Tighten the engine flywheel bolts to 100 Nm (74 ft lb.) on the
final pass.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 169


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Crankshaft Balancer Installation Tools Required


• J 42845 Crankshaft Balancer Installer
• J 42847 Flywheel Holding Tool
NOTE! Make sure the teeth of the flywheel holding tool engage
the engine flywheel teeth.
NOTE! The balancer should be positioned onto the end of the
crankshaft as straight as possible prior to tool installa-
tion.
1310048 1. Install the J 42847 to the starter bolt holes.
2. Tighten the J 42847 bolts to 50 Nm (37 ft. lb.)
470799

NOTE! Apply grease or clean engine oil to the inside of the crank-
shaft balancer or the end of the crankshaft, to prevent
galling during assembly.

639537 3. Install the balancer onto the end of the crankshaft.

CAUTION!

Apply the lubricant that comes with J 42845 each time the
tool is used. Failure to lubricate J 42845 may prevent the
balancer from installing completely.
4. Use the J 42845 to install the balancer.

CAUTION!

The crankshaft balancer must be completely seated


against the crankshaft sprocket. Failure to correctly install
the crankshaft balancer may allow the crankshaft balancer
bolt to come loose, causing engine damage.

170 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

639542 5. Tighten the J 42845 until the crankshaft balancer is completely


seated against the crankshaft sprocket.
6. Remove the J 42845 from the crankshaft.

470799 7. Install the crankshaft balancer washer and bolt.


8. Tighten the crankshaft balancer bolt to 225 Nm (188 ft. lb.)

1310048 9. Remove the J 42847.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 171


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Drive Belt Installation

Installation
23549 1. Route the drive belt around all the pulleys except the idler pulley.
2. Install the breaker bar with hex head socket to the belt tensioner.
3. Rotate the belt tensioner clockwise to release tension.
4. Install the drive belt under the idler pulley.
5. Slowly release the tension on the breaker bar and allow the belt
tensioner to increase tension on the drive belt.
6. Remove the breaker bar and socket from the belt tensioner bolt.
7. Inspect the drive belt for proper installation and alignment.

23550 8. Reinstall raw water pump.


9. Install raw water pump mounting screws.
• Tighten to 34-39 Nm (25-29 ft. lb.)

33857 10. Connect the raw water inlet and outlet hoses.

Caution!
Ensure the raw water pump hoses are installed in the cor-
rect position. If the hoses are installed incorrectly and the
engine is operatied, the raw water pump impeller will be
damaged, and if left uncorrected, the engine will be dam-
aged.

172 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

49465 11. Install raw water pump holding bracket and screws.

Engine Prelube

471138 1. Remove the engine oil filter, fill with clean engine oil and reinstall.
2. Remove the oil pressuer/switch tee on the port side of the engine
block above the oil filter adapter housing.
3. Install the 1/4-18 NPT adapter GM P/N 509373.

863255 4. Install the flexible hose to the adapter and open the valve.
5. Pump the handle on the J 45299 to flow a minimum of 1-1.9 liters
(1-2 quarts) of engine oil. Observe the flow of oil through the flexi-
ble hose into the engine assembly.
6. Close the falve and remove the flexible hose and adapter from the
engine.
7. Reinstall the oil pressure/switch tee.
• Tighten to 30 Nm (22 ft. lb.)
8. Top off the engine oil to the proper level using the dipstick as a
guide.

Caution!
Do not overfill with engine oil. Overfilling results in high
operating temperatures, foaming (air in oil), loss of power,
and overall reduced engine life.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 173


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Special Tools

Tool Number/ Tool Number/


Tool Illustration Tool Illustration
Description Description
5118

14487

J 33049
J 3049-A
Camshaft Bearing
Hydraulic Lifter Remover
Service Set

3413

35463

J 7872
J 45059
Magnetic Base Dial
Angle Meter
Indicator

2014

48304

J 8001 J 41240
Dial Indicator Set Fan Clutch Wrench

3403

67136

J 41712
J 8037
Oil Pressure Sending
Piston Ring Compressor
Unit Socket

174 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Tool Number/ Tool Number/


Tool Illustration Tool Illustration
Description Description
3414 642100

J 8062 J 42845
Valve Spring Compressor Crankshaft Balancer
(Cylinder Head Off) Installer

5110
642102

J 8087 J 42846
Cylinder Bore Crankshaft Protector
Checking Gauge Button

648906

35464

J 8358 J 42847
Carbon Removal Brush Flywheel Holding Tool

5112 642103

J 42849
J 9666
Crankshaft Rear
Valve Spring Tester
Seal Installer

642106

65325

J 22102
J 42851
Crankshaft Sprocket
Front Cover Oil Seal
Installer

VPA 7743378 10-2004 175


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Tool Number/ Tool Number/


Tool Illustration Tool Illustration
Description Description
642108

3412

J 24270
J 43105
Cylinder Bore Ridge
Valve Stem Seal Installer
Reamer

648912
5116

J 43320
J 24420-C
Crankshaft Rear
Harmonic Balancer Puller
Seal Puller

62295
852797

J 35667-A
J45299
Cylinder Head Leakdown
Engine Pre-Lube
Tester

54577 355040

J 39345 J 43276
Thread Repair Kit Pilot Bearing Remover

176 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

Tool Number/ Tool Number/


Tool Illustration Tool Illustration
Description Description
650651
863073

J 43690 J 43690-100
Rod Bearing Clearence Rod Bearing Clearence
Checking Tool Checking tool - Adapter Kit

26998

J 22794
Spark Plug Port Adapter

Special tools used in this manual that begin with “J” are available on the
internet from Kent-Moore division of SPX Corporation:
Web: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .http://www.spxkentmoore.com.

Mail:

SPX Corporation

Kent-Moore
28635 Mound Road
Warren, MI 48092-3499
Toll Free US Phone Orders: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-345-2233,

International Phone Orders: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 810-574-2332

Toll Free US Fax Orders: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-578-7375

International Fax Orders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 810-578-7375

All other special tools used in this manual are available from your Volvo
Penta dealer/distributor. To locate a dealer visit us on the internet at:
http://www.volvo.com/volvopenta/global/en-gb#.
Mail:
Volvo Penta of the Americas
1300 Volvo Penta Drive
Chesapeake, VA 23320-9810
Phone: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-757-436-2800

Fax: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-757-436-5158

VPA 7743378 10-2004 177


Engine Mechanical - 8.1 Liter

NOTES
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- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

178 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Steering System

Section 3: Steering System


Special Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Power Steering System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Pump Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
System Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Pump Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Pump Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
Hydraulic Fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Checking Fluid Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Purging Air From Steering System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Power Steering Pump Belt Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Steering Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Cylinder Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Cylinder Servicing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Cylinder Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Cable Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Hoses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
System Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
System Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Tie Bar Adjustment - Twin Engine Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Power Steering System Diagnosis Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194

Special Tools
Rod Holder 3854367-4

Pump Pulley Installer 9995444-8

Pump Pulley Remover 9995443-0

Kent-Moore Special Tools Pressure Gauge J-5176-E

Thermometer J-5421

Sealants, Lubricants and Adhesives Cleaning Solvent

Volvo Penta Grease

Volvo Penta Power Trim/Tilt & Steering Fluid

Volvo Penta Thread Sealing Agent

Loctite Primer

Safety Warnings

VPA 7743378 10-2004 179


Steering System

Before working on any part of the steering system, read


the Safety section at the end of this manual.

When replacement parts are required, use genuine Volvo


Penta or parts with equivalent characteristics including
type, strength and material. Failure to do so may result in
product malfunction and possible injury to the operator
and/or passengers.

When working on an engine that is running or being


cranked, use extreme care to avoid getting hands, fingers
or clothing caught in the alternator, power steering supply
pump and circulating pump belts, pulleys and other mov-
ing parts.

Power Steering System


Description The power steering system consists of a mechanical cable from the
helm to the inner transom plate, an engine mounted pump, and a
power cylinder to move the sterndrive steering arm.

The hydraulic pump is mounted on the front of the engine and is belt
driven by the crankshaft pulley. The reservoir fill cap has a dipstick
attached.

• The control valve and cylinder is a single unit mounted to the


inner transom bracket.
• The oil cooler is a heat exchanger that uses engine cooling
water to keep the hydraulic fluid cool.
• A high pressure hydraulic hose carries fluid from the pump to
the control valve, and low pressure hoses and carry the fluid
from the valve to the oil cooler, and back to the reservoir.
• The steering cable casing attaches to the steering cylinder
valve.
• The cable ram passes through the valve and attaches to the
clevis. The drive steering arm is also attached to the clevis.
23206

23206

180 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Steering System

Pump Operation
1 5 4 6 7

2
3

4 DR3007
1
During normal operation, fluid is drawn into dual pump intake ports (1)
from the reservoir (2). The reservoir is supplied by a low pressure
return line (3) from the power steering oil cooler. The pump output is
through ports (4). The vanes (5) are held out against the pump bore by
pressure behind the vanes. The pump has sufficient output (6) to allow
quick boat maneuvers even at engine idle RPM. The pump output at
high RPM is limited to about 2.3 gallons per minute by a flow restric-
tion orifice (7).

The pump output pressure is determined by the resistance to flow of


the system. When no steering changes are being made, the pressure
will be about 50-100 PSI. When there is steering input, the pressure
will be higher and will depend on the steering forces required due to
the boat attitude, drive trim position, throttle position and quickness of
the maneuver.

9
8

DR3008

The pump is protected from the very high pressures by a pressure


relief valve (8) that is located in the pump body. If the steering load
becomes extremely high, the relief valve will open and limit the output
pressure (9) to about 1,000-1,100 PSI.

Internal damage to the pump will occur if the system is operated at


relief valve pressure for more than a few seconds.

The pump has a metric output fitting. Use only a hose with a metric fit-
ting.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 181


Steering System

System Operation
No Steering Input - Steering Wheel
Not Turning
DR3508 When there is no steering input from the helm, the spring (1) keeps the
6 3 1 spool valve (2) centered. Fluid from the pump enters the control valve
through the pressure port (3), flows past both cylinder ports (4 and 5)
with little restriction, then through the return port (6) and back to the
5 2 reservoir in the power steering pump. There is a small amount of equal
4 force at both ends (7) and (8) of the cylinder and the cylinder does not
move.

With no steering input, the sterndrive is held in one position and the
boat moves in a constant turn or in a straight line.
7 8

Steering To Port - Steering Wheel


Turning To Left
DR3506 When the helm is turned to port (either turning boat to left or straight-
6 3 1 ening from a right turn) the steering arm is pulled to starboard. The
steering cable casing pushes the valve spool (2) to port. Fluid from the
pump enters the valve at (3) and is routed to the rod-end outlet (4) and
5 2 to the low volume side end of the cylinder (8). The pump pressure
4 moves the piston and steering arm to starboard. Fluid in the high vol-
ume side of the cylinder (7) is forced out through the valve (5) from to
return port (6) and back to the reservoir. As long as the helm is turning
to port this motion continues, swinging the sterndrive to port.
7 8
When the helm input stops (steering wheel not turning), the steering
cable stops pulling the steering arm to starboard, and the steering cas-
ing stops pushing the valve spool to port. When the spring (1) moves
the valve spool to a “centered” position, hydraulic fluid is again routed
past both cylinder outlets. The steering cylinder has an equal force at
both ends and stops moving. The steering system is then back to the
No Steering Input condition described previously.

Steering To Starboard - Steering


Wheel Turning To Right
DR3507 When the helm is turned to starboard (either turning boat to right or
6 3 1 straightening from a left turn), the steering arm is pushed to port. The
steering cable casing pulls the valve spool (2) to starboard. Fluid from
the pump enters the valve at (3) and is routed to the piston-end outlet
5 2 (5) and to the high volume side of the cylinder (7). The pump pressure
4 moves the piston and steering arm to port. Fluid at the low volume side
of the cylinder (8) is forced out and through the valve from (4) to return
port (6) and back to the reservoir. As long as the helm is turning to
starboard this motion continues, swinging the sterndrive to starboard.
7 8
When the helm input stops (steering wheel not turning), the steering
cable stops pushing the steering arm to port, and the steering casing
stops pulling the valve spool to starboard. When the spring (1) moves
the valve spool valve to a “centered” position, hydraulic fluid is again
routed past both cylinder outlets. The steering cylinder has an equal

182 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Steering System

force at both ends and stops moving. The steering system is then back
at the No Steering Input condition described previously.

Steering Without Power Assist


DR3509 If the steering system is not providing power assist, the operator may
6 3 1 still steer the boat. Turning the steering wheel to port causes the
steering cable to pull the steering arm to starboard. This causes the
cable casing to push the valve spool valve (2) to port against the stop
5 2 about 0.125 in. (3,18 mm). The steering cable then transmits the full
4 manual effort to pull the steering arm.

The fluid (7) ahead of the piston is forced out of the cylinder through
outlet (5) into the valve, and through return port (6) back to the reser-
voir. Additional fluid is drawn out of the reservoir through the pressure
7 8
inlet (3) and (4) to the opposite side of the piston.

More steering effort is required since all of the power required to steer
the boat must be supplied by the operator, and additional force is
required to move the fluid through the system when the pump is not
operating.

Pump Removal
20497 1. Place an oil drain pan under pump. Disconnect high pressure hose
(1) and return hose (2) at pump. Do not lose O-ring on pressure
hose fitting. Secure hose ends in a raised position to prevent fluid
draining from hoses. Cap or tape ends of hoses to keep out dirt.
2 Drain pump completely before removing.

NOTE! Some engine models may have the return line secured with
1
a crimp style clamp. This type clamp is dsposable and
must be replaced with a worm screw type hose clamp dur-
ing reassembly.
20497

Serpentine Belt Models Only


23916 1. On models with serpentine belt, release tension on the belt ten-
sioner and remove the belt.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 183


Steering System

20847 2. Remove pump pulley using special tool Volvo Penta P/N 9995443.

20847

23284 3. Remove three bolts securing pump to mounting bracket and


remove pump.

23284

V-Belt Models Only


20496 4. Loosen pump bracket mounting screws and remove drive belt.

5. Remove pump mounting screws and remove pump from engine.

20496A

184 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Steering System

20847 6. Remove pump pulley using Pulley Remover, Volvo Penta P/N
9995443, then remove bracket from pump.

7. Remove mounting screws that secure the bracket to the pump and
remove bracket.

20847

Pump Installation
1. Attach mounting bracket to pump.

20846 2. Attach pulley using Pulley Installer, Volvo Penta P/N 9995444-8.

3. Mount pump bracket loosely on the engine.

4. Make sure O-ring is in place and in good condition, then connect


high pressure hose fitting. Tighten fitting to 15-26 ft. lb. (20-35
N•m).

5. Connect return hose to reservoir. Tighten hose clamp to 12-17 in.


lb. (1,4-2,0 N•m).

20846

20509 6. Fill pump reservoir with Volvo Penta Power Trim/Tilt & Steering
Fluid. Bleed pump, hoses, and valve by turning pulley clockwise
(as viewed from front of engine) until reservoir no longer shows air
bubbles. Keep reservoir filled while purging air from system.
HOT
COLD

20509

VPA 7743378 10-2004 185


Steering System

Serpentine Belt Models Only


23287 Release belt tensioner and install belt as shown.

1 Alternator
1
2 Power steering pump
5
3 Circulating water pump
6
4 Crankshaft

5 Belt tensioner

6 Idler Pulley
3

2
4

V-Belt Models Only 7. Install drive belt and adjust belt tension See “Power Steering
Pump Belt Adjustment” on page 187. Do not pry against pump res-
ervoir while tightening belt.

8. Bleed entire system as outlined under Purging Air From Steering


System.

Hydraulic Fluid
NOTE!

Only use approved power steering fluid such as Volvo


Penta Power Trim/Tilt & Steering Fluid. If this fluid is not
available, use an automatic transmission fluid labeled
Dexron or Dexron II.

Checking Fluid Level 1. Run engine and rotate steering wheel lock-to-lock for a reasonably
long period of time to warm up steering fluid, then shut engine off.
Remove reservoir filler cap and check if fluid level is at “HOT”
mark on dipstick.

2. If fluid level is low, add recommended hydraulic fluid to bring fluid


up to “HOT” mark on dipstick. Replace filler cap.

Caution!

Do not overfill a cold reservoir. Fluid could overflow when


system reaches operating temperature.

Purging Air From Steering System


When system components have been serviced, pump must be refilled
with fluid before engine is started. Perform the following steps to purge
air from the steering system.

186 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Steering System

Caution!

Do not run pump even momentarily without fluid. Pump


will be ruined or severely damaged.

1. With engine “OFF,” turn helm all the way to port. Add power steer-
ing fluid to bring fluid level to “COLD” mark on dipstick.

2. Start engine, run momentarily and shut off engine. Recheck fluid
level and fill to “COLD” mark. Repeat this step as necessary until
system no longer requires additional fluid.

3. Complete purging of air from system by starting engine and turn-


ing wheel slowly lock-to-lock. Maintain fluid level above pump
body in reservoir.

4. Returning fluid with air in it will often be in the form of foam and
will have a light tan or red appearance. Maintain fluid level high
enough so foam is not drawn into pump inlet. All air must be elimi-
nated from fluid before normal steering action can be obtained. If
excessive foam accumulates in reservoir it must be removed, or
let unit stand for an hour and repeat steps above.

5. After all air has been purged, return wheel to centered position.
Continue to run engine for several minutes and then shut engine
off.

6. With engine “OFF” and with fluid at normal operating temperature,


recheck to make sure fluid level is at “HOT” mark on dipstick.

7. Water test the boat to make sure the steering functions normally
and is free from noise.

Power Steering Pump Belt Adjustment


Serpentine Belt Models The belt tension is maintained by a belt tensioner. No adjustment is
necessary.

V- Belt Models
16067 Caution!

Improper power steering belt adjustment will cause a loss


of power steering assist, resulting in hard steering.

Check power steering belt tension midway between the circulating


pump pulley and the power steering pump pulley.

16067

VPA 7743378 10-2004 187


Steering System

24278 To increase belt tension: Loosen pump mounting bracket screws,


insert a 1/2 in. breaker bar into the square hole in the pump mounting
bracket, and pivot pump away from engine as shown. While maintain-
ing pressure on pump, retighten all mounting screws. Recheck belt
tension. Never pry against the pump reservoir or pull filler neck.

The belts used for the power steering pump are heavy-duty. DO NOT
replace with automotive belts.

24278

Steering Cylinder
23206A The steering cylinder assembly is a combination power cylinder and
1 control valve. A piston rod clevis (1) provides the attachment to the
2
steering arm and steering cable ram. The steering cable casing
attaches to the threaded valve (2).

23206A

Cylinder Removal
20572 1. Turn helm to port full lock position. Remove the cotter pin (1) and
2 the steering cable pin (2).

2. Hold steering tube with wrench. Loosen steering cable anchor nut
and pull steering cable out of valve.
20504 3. Remove cotter pin, then pull pin out of clevis and steering arm.

188 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Steering System

23275 4. Remove both hose fittings from the valve. Raise hoses and cover
the ends to keep out dirt.

Caution!

Do not move cylinder rod in or out until cylinder has been


drained completely. A dangerous spray of fluid can dis-
charge from the cylinder ports if the rod is moved in or
out.

23275

20503 5. Remove cotter pins (1) and loosen both anchor screws (2) until
2 steering cylinder assembly can be removed.

1
20503

Cylinder Servicing
20580 1. Pry out steering pivot bushings if they are to be replaced. If neces-
sary they may be carefully drilled in two places with a 1/16 in. (1,5
mm) drill bit and then removed.

2. New bushings should be lubricated and pushed into place.

20580

20579 3. The cylinder rod should be wrapped with heavy paper or paste-
3854367 board and held in a vise with Rod Holder, Volvo Penta P/N
1 3854367-4. To remove unscrew the clevis (1).

4. To reinstall clevis, coat threads with Volvo Penta locking fluid P/N
1161053 and tighten to 23-28 ft. lb. (31-38 N•m).

20579

VPA 7743378 10-2004 189


Steering System

Cylinder Installation
20576 1. Install anchor screws flush with inside of inner transom bracket.

20576

31842 2. Apply Volvo Penta Grease to both bushings.

Caution!

Filling the bushing pockets full with grease can cause the
screws to hydraulically lock and break the transom plate
when tightened.

31842

20574 3. Position steering cylinder assembly on inner transom bracket.


Align bushings of steering cylinder with screws. Hand start both
anchor screws to ensure alignment and engagement into bush-
ings. Tighten anchor screws to 40-45 ft. lb. (54-61 N•m).

4. Install cotter pins through holes (1) in transom bracket from tran-
som side. Spread ends of cotter pins to secure.

Caution!
1
Do not move cylinder rod if cylinder contains any fluid. A
dangerous spray of fluid may discharge from the ports.
20574

23275 5. Connect hoses to cylinder. Start each fitting by hand. Tighten


pressure fitting to 10-12 ft. lb. (14-16 N•m). Tighten return fitting to
15-17 ft. lb. (20-23 N•m).

23275

190 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Steering System

20504 6. Pull steering arm (3) into hydraulic cylinder clevis. Align holes and
2 install large pin (2) from top of arm. Secure large pin by install-
ing and spreading ends of cotter pin (3).

3 1 20504A

Cable Installation
31837 1. Turn the steering wheel to fully extend the steering cable ram to
its maximum extension. Lubricate the full length of the steering
cable ram with Volvo Penta Grease.

31837

20570 2. Retract steering cable ram and insert ram through valve.

20570

20506 3. Hold steering cable anchor nut back on cable casing to make cer-
tain the steering cable is completely seated in end of valve.

20506

20606 4. While holding steering cable tight against valve, thread steering
cable anchor nut onto valve until snug.

20606

VPA 7743378 10-2004 191


Steering System

20605 5. Hold cable tube with a 22 mm wrench on the flat. Attach a crow-
foot wrench at 90° to a torque wrench and tighten the steering
cable anchor nut to 120 in. lb. (14 N•m).

20605

20507 6. Align cable ram with steering cylinder clevis and install small pin
from top of clevis. Secure small pin by installing and spreading
ends of cotter pin.

7. Fill system with fluid and remove all air. See “Purging Air From
Steering System” on page 186.

20507

Lubrication
31837 Lubricate the steering ram with Volvo Penta Grease every 50 hours or
once a season, which ever comes first.

Due to local conditions, it may be necessary to lubricate your steering


ram at more frequent intervals.

31837

Hoses
Caution!

Do not start engine with any power steering hose discon-


nected.

The pump output fitting has metric threads. Do not attach a hose with
SAE threads to the pump fitting.

After connecting power steering hoses, make sure that there’s ample
clearance between the hoses and drive belts and other components.
Hoses installed out of position may rub during operation and be dam-
aged.

192 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Steering System

If fluid return hose is removed at pump, be sure to use a “worm drive”


clamp when reinstalling it.

System Diagnosis
Complaints of faulty steering are frequently the result of problems
other than the steering cylinder assembly or pump. Conditions such as
hard or loose steering, or vibrations, are often related to such factors
as the drive belt; pump and cylinder mounting; fluid level; or incorrect
installation of the steering cable. These factors should be checked and
corrected before disassembling or replacing parts of the steering sys-
tem.

System Checks Many factors affect power operation of the steering system. Some of
the most common problem areas are:

• Fluid level.
• Loose or worn drive belt, or oily belt.
• Steering cable jammed against something in boat at stern.
• Steering cable too short or steering cable too long.
• Loosely mounted components.
• Loose pump pulley.

Tie Bar Adjustment - Twin Engine Installation


DR3026 On deep Vee shaped boat hulls, a toe-in condition should be created
2 for improved performance and efficiency. A commonly used toe-in con-
dition is one in which dimension (1) will be 1/4 to 3/8 in. (6,35 to 9,53
mm) less than dimension (2).

NOTE! Hold tension on the sterndrives when measuring.

DR3026

21085A Remove the steering tie bar from the port tiller arm. Loosen jam nut
4 3 5 (3). Turn jam nut out 1/16 to 3/32 in. (1,59 to 2,38 mm) as required,
and screw in steering tie bar end. Retighten the jam nut.

Caution!
21085
Threads of the port tie bar must be visible through the
inspection hole (5) to insure adequate thread engagement
between the rod and tube. Failure to ensure proper threads
engagement could result in component failure resulting in
possible loss of steering control.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 193


Steering System

Power Steering System Diagnosis Chart


Table 1:

Condition Possible Cause Correction

SYSTEM NOISE:

Pump noise "chirp.” Loose belt.a Adjust belt tension to specifica-


tion.

Belt squeal. Loose belt.a Adjust belt tension to specifica-


tion.a

"Hissing" sound. Some noise exists in all power "None; a slight ""hiss"" is normal
steering systems. "Hiss" may be and in no way affects steering.
expected when turning the steer-
ing wheel, particularly at low
speed.

Rattle Pressure hose touching other Adjust hose position.


parts of engine.

Rattle or chuckle. Steering system looseness. Check cable nut and cylinder
pivot points for wear or loose-
ness. Replace bushings if neces-
sary.

Groan Low fluid level. Find and repair leak. Fill reservoir
and bleed system.

Air in fluid. Fill reservoir, find and repair leak.


Check connections, bleed sys-
tem.

Growl Excessive back pressure caused Locate restriction and correct.


by hose restriction. Replace part if necessary.

Pump growl Incorrect steering cable adjust- Adjust cable per procedure. Elimi-
ment. Cable to boat interference. nate interference.

Whine in pump. Pump shaft bearing scored. Flush system, replace pump.

SYSTEM OPERATION:

Excessive wheel kickback or Steering cable attachment loose. Replace pin. Tighten steering
loose steering (not boat wander). cable anchor nut.

Air in system. Add fluid to pump reservoir and


bleed system. Check all connec-
tions.

Steering wheel surges or jerks Loose pump belt. Adjust tension to specification.
when turning with engine running,
especially during slow speed Air in fluid. Fill reservoir, find and repair leak.
operation. Bleed system.

Insufficient pump pressure. Replace pump if defective.

194 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Steering System

Table 1:

Condition Possible Cause Correction

Momentary increase in effort Pump belt slipping. Tighten or replace belt. If oily, fix
when turning wheel fast to right or leak.
left.
Low fluid level. Fill reservoir and bleed system.

High internal leakage. Replace pump if defective.

a. Does not apply to serpentine belt systems

VPA 7743378 10-2004 195


Steering System

Notes
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- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

196 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Throttle & Shift Control System

Section 4: Throttle & Shift Control System


Installation of Shift and Throttle Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Check Remote Control Shift Cable Stroke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Installation of SAE Cables to Engine/Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Throttle Cable to Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Neutral Start Switch Tests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Electrical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Mechanical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Removal of SAE Remote Control Cables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Throttle Cable From Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Shift Cable From Sterndrive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

Installation of Shift and Throttle Cables


Shift cable should “PULL” for forward gear on right-hand rotation SX
and DP-S propeller applications. Shift cable should “PUSH” for for-
ward gear on left-hand rotation SX propeller applications. Throttle
cable should “Push” to close for Volvo Penta remote controls. Failure
to do so could result in loss of control of the boat and possible injury to
the boat occupants.

1. If the remote control shift and throttle cables are installed in the
remote controls, proceed to Check Remote Control Shift Cable
Stroke.
2. If the remote control shift and throttle cables have not been
installed, the following procedure will permit you to order the cor-
rect length remote control shift and throttle cables.
3. Measure the proposed route of the remote control shift and throttle
cables. All bends must have a radius greater than 6 inches (15,2
cm).
• Remote control shift cable: Add (A)+(B) plus 20 in. (50.8 cm),
round up to next cable length.
• Remote control throttle cable: Add (A)+(B)+(C) plus 4 in. (10.1
cm), (C is to center of throttle arm pin). Round up to next cable
length.

Caution!
When removing shift and throttle cables from the packing
D
A
box, DO NOT bend the cables tighter than a 6 inch radius.

F
C

E
B DR4939

VPA 7743378 10-2004 197


Throttle & Shift Control System

Check Remote Control Shift


Cable Stroke

1. Move the remote control handle to the wide-open-throttle position


in the direction needed to retract the shift cable. Pull out cable
core wire to remove end play. Mark cable core wire at end of cas-
ing.

36560

2. Return remote control shift handle to the neutral detent position.


Measure and record the distance between the mark and end of
casing.

INCHES 1 2 3

36561

3. Mark cable core wire at end of casing with control in the neutral
detent position.

36562

4. Move the remote control handle to the wide-open-throttle position


in the direction needed to extend the shift cable. Push in on cable
core wire to remove end play. Measure and record the distance
between mark and end of casing.
• The distance between forward and neutral must be no less than
1¼ in. (31.8 mm) and no greater than 13/8 in. (35.0 mm).
• The distance between neutral and reverse must be no less than
36563 1¼ in. (31.8 mm) and no greater than 13/8 in. (35.0 mm).
NOTE! Check your remote control installation instructions, if
your measurements are not within these specifications.
Make sure the cables are attached correctly inside the
control box and move in the proper direction for your
application before continuing. Refer to the remote control
installation instructions for this information. All control
boxes must meet these minimum and maximum specifica-
tions in order for the shift system to function properly.

Installation of SAE Cables to NOTE! If the throttle cable is attached to the throttle arm and
Engine/Drive anchor block, remove it from both. The throttle cable must
be disconnected from the throttle arm prior to shift cable

198 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Throttle & Shift Control System

installation and adjustment to prevent “loading” the con-


trol box and adversely affecting shift adjustments.
Before beginning, shift remote control handle into NEUTRAL detent
position; the propellers should rotate freely.
NOTE! Remote control shift and throttle cables must be SAE type
cables.

Shift Cable to Sterndrive

1. Note position of small seal and large seal on the shift cable,
Remove and retain jam nut, small seal, and large seal from the
shift cable.

34045

2. Apply a light coat of Volvo Penta Grease to the end of the remote
control shift cable casing. Slide shift cable through shift cable tube
until it appears on the outside of the transom.

34044A

3. For ease of installation of shift cable, turn sterndrive to port. Rein-


stall the retained large seal and small seal onto the shift cable in
the same position as noted in step 1.

47553

4. Loosen cable clamp screw and pull clamp out.

47554

VPA 7743378 10-2004 199


Throttle & Shift Control System

5. Slide shift cable through pivot housing and sterndrive. Slide clamp
in fully, engaging the shift cable anchor groove. Tighten clamp
screw securely.

34038

6. Rotate shift lever to extend bell crank.

47131

7. Remove cotter pin, flat washer, and anchor pin.

47132

8. Thread anchor pin halfway onto remote control cable end.

47133

200 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Throttle & Shift Control System

9. Rotate shift lever back to neutral detent position, then move


remote control handle to its neutral detent position. Turn anchor
pin IN or OUT until it aligns with center of bell crank slot.
10. Install anchor pin, flat washer, and cotter pin. Spread prongs of
cotter to secure anchor pin. Install jam nut and tighten securely
against anchor pin.

47134A

11. Reinstall rear cover and secure with three original screws. Tighten
screws to 108-132 in. lb. (12-15 N•m).

47557

Throttle Cable to Engine Determine whether you have a “push-to-close” or “pull-to-close”


remote control system. Cable attachment point at throttle arm is deter-
mined by direction of control cable movement. Incorrect attachment
may cause hazardous boat operation.
NOTE! The remote control shift cable must be installed prior to
throttle cable installation. This will ensure proper throttle
and shift system operation when using single lever con-
trols.
1. Position control handle in NEUTRAL and propeller should rotate
freely. Turn propeller shaft and shift into the FORWARD gear
detent position, then pull handle HALFWAY BACK towards NEU-
TRAL. This positions the control for proper throttle adjustment.
Failure to follow this procedure can result in “hard shifting” out of
NEUTRAL.
2. Make sure throttle lever is against idle stop screw.

3. Align internal bosses of trunnion with throttle cable groove. Press


trunnion on throttle cable until seated.

34751

VPA 7743378 10-2004 201


Throttle & Shift Control System

20593 4. The engine throttle cable anchor block bracket is located star-
board and aft on the intake manifold.
5. Install open end of trunnion in anchor block. Install screw in anchor
block and position throttle cable assembly in selected set of holes.
Locknut must be against the anchor bracket, tighten it securely.
6. Throttle arm connector must have a minimum of 9 full turns or 1/4
in. (6,4 mm) of throttle cable thread engagement. Install throttle
arm connector onto the throttle cable. Pull connector forward to
remove all end play from throttle cable, then turn the connector in
until hole aligns with the “push-to-close” or “pull-to-close” throttle
arm stud.
NOTE! If throttle arm connector hole cannot be adjusted to align
with the throttle arm, check for proper cable installation in
the remote control box.
7. Install connector onto appropriate throttle arm stud. Install washer
and cotter pin, and secure by spreading end of cotter pin. Tighten
locknut against connector.

Neutral Start Switch Tests


Electrical 1. All switches must be in the “OFF” position, then disconnect battery
cables at the battery before servicing electrical systems. Failure to
do so could result in injury from:
• shorted battery positive (B+), causing a burn or an electrical
fire.
• contact with moving parts, if the engine is accidentally cranked
or started.
2. Move the control handle to the NEUTRAL position. Disconnect the
yellow/red lead from the key switch and the yellow/red lead from
the instrument wiring harness.
3. To test the continuity, calibrate an ohmmeter on high ohms scale.
Connect the ohmmeter to the two leads. The meter should read
zero (0).
4. Move the remote control handle to the FORWARD gear position.
The meter should read infinity ( ). Move the remote control han-
dle to the REVERSE gear position. The meter should read infinity
( ).
5. 5. If the meter does not show ( ), check the ohmmeter connec-
tions and test again. Replace the neutral start switch if the meter
still fails to show ( ) when the remote control handle is in the
FORWARD and REVERSE gear position. Refer to the procedures
in Disassembly of Remote Control to replace the neutral safety
switch.

Mechanical 1. With the boat in water and the remote control in NEUTRAL, turn
the ignition key to the start position. The engine should start.

202 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Throttle & Shift Control System

2. Disengage the remote control handle and move it into the FOR-
WARD warm-up position. The engine should start.
3. Disengage the remote control handle and move it into the
REVERSE warm-up position. Again the engine should start. Move
the remote control handle back into NEUTRAL.
4. Move the remote control handle to the FORWARD gear position.
The engine should NOT start. Move the handle to the REVERSE
gear position. Again the engine should NOT start.
5. If the engine starts when the remote control handle is in either the
FORWARD or REVERSE gear position, replace the neutral start
switch. Refer to the procedures in Disassembly of Remote Control
to replace the neutral safety switch.

Removal of SAE Remote Control Cables


NOTE! Should it become necessary to remove or replace the
remote control cables, the attachment at the engine and
sterndrive is very important. Follow these steps for
removal of remote control cables.
Before beginning, shift remote control handle into NEUTRAL detent
position; the propeller should rotate freely.

Throttle Cable From Engine

20593 1. Remove cotter pin and flat washer from throttle arm.
2. Loosen anchor retainer nut and rotate retainer away from cable
trunnion. Remove throttle cable from throttle arm and anchor
bracket.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 203


Throttle & Shift Control System

Shift Cable From Sterndrive

1. Remove drive’s rear cover. Remove cotter pin (1) and flat washer
from anchor pin (3). Remove jam nut (2) from shift cable core wire.

1 3

47127

2. Remove anchor pin from bell crank slot. Unscrew anchor pin from
shift cable core wire.

47133

3. Loosen screw and slide retainer out of shift cable anchor groove.
Pull the shift cable from drive and transom bracket cable tube.

34038

204 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Cooling System

Section 5: Cooling System


Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
Raw Water Cooled Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
Closed Cooling Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Cooling System Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
Isolating Cooling Problem: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
Cooling System Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Hoses, Clamps, and Drain Plugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Thermostat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
Manifolds and Elbows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
Circulating Pump - Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
Supply Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Impeller Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Impeller Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Draining Engine Block or Exhaust Manifold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Draining Supply Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Thermostat Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Sterndrive and Transom Bracket Cooling Schematic . . . . . . . 219
8.1 Gi/GXi Engine Cooling Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
8.1Gi/GXi (F) Engine Cooling Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221

Description
Raw Water Cooled Engines

23569 Raw water is supplied to the engine by means of an impeller type


pump (raw water supply pump). The raw water supply pump is
mounted on the engine crankshaft. Water supplied to the engine is cir-
culated in the engine by means of a centrifugal type pump (circulating
pump).
During low speed operation the impeller functions as a positive dis-
placement pump. At higher speeds it functions as a combination cen-
trifugal and positive displacement pump.
The shape of the housing and/or liner cause an eccentric action of the
impeller blades during engine operation. During periods of high speed
operation, the resistance of the water on its way through the pump is
sufficient to prevent the ends of the impeller blades from making con-
tact and following the inside perimeter of the pump housing. The
blades merely flex in toward the center of the impeller to perform as a
combination centrifugal and positive displacement pump.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 205


Cooling System

635691 The circulating pump is mounted on the front of the cylinder block. It
1 has a pulley bolted to the pump shaft hub at its forward end. This in
6 turn is driven by means of a belt from the crankshaft pulley. The pump
shaft and bearing assembly is pressed in the water pump housing.
2 The bearing is permanently lubricated during manufacture and sealed
to prevent loss of lubricant and entry of dirt. The pump is sealed
against coolant leakage by a non-adjustable seal assembly pressed
into the pump housing.
5
Cooling water for the engine is picked up at the water intakes on both
4 sides of the lower gearcase. Water is pulled upward through the lower
gearcase until it enters a water tube that transfers it to the upper gear
3 housing.
Water is pulled through the upper gear housing water passage where
it meets a nipple and hose attached to the pivot housing. Water is
routed through the transom mount assembly to a tube that’s mounted
on the inside of the gimbal housing. From this tube the water is drawn
through a supply hose that’s connected to the inside nipple of the sup-
ply pump. Water exits the outside nipple of the supply pump under
pressure and carried through a hose to the inlet nipple of the thermo-
stat housing.
The water is now carried downward through the thermostat housing
where it enters the flexible hose which attaches to the inlet pipe of the
circulating pump. This inlet pipe is a part of the pump cover and feeds
the coolant into a low pressure area located at the axis of the impeller.
Vanes on the rotating impeller cause the coolant to be thrown outward
and into the cylinder block.
The cooling water flows rearward through the water jacket which sur-
rounds each cylinder and extends below the lower limit of piston ring
travel. After flowing the full length of the cylinder block, the water is
forced upward through two passages and into the cylinder head(s).
The water now flows forward in the cylinder head(s) to cool the com-
bustion chamber areas.
At the forward end of the cylinder head(s), the water enters the ther-
mostat housing. If the water within the block is sufficiently warmed up,
the thermostat will be open and a portion of the water will be pumped
upward past the thermostat. The remainder will be returned via the
flexible hose to the water pump for recirculation within the engine. The
water which was pumped upward past the thermostat will enter the
hose(s) connected to the thermostat housing outlet(s) and travel to the
exhaust manifolds.
At this point the water flows rearward through the manifold passages
and into the high-rise elbow. All of the water that enters the high-rise
elbow is mixed with the exhaust gases prior to entering the exhaust
pipe(s) and hose(s). This mixture of exhaust gases and water then
enters the exhaust passages of the gimbal housing, pivot housing and
sterndrive where it is discharged under water.
In the event the engine cooling water is cold, as in first starting up, the
thermostat will be closed and will not allow any of the water to pass
through for eventual discharge overboard. Instead, the water will be
carried via the flexible hose back to the circulating pump for recircula-
tion within the block. While the water within the block is recirculating,
the supply pump is pumping water to the block.
Since this water is not able to enter the cylinder block, it is necessary
to provide a method of discharge. This is provided by the bypass pas-

206 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Cooling System

sage within the thermostat housing. If this were not provided, the
resulting water pressure would be enough to force the thermostat off
its seat, resulting in a greatly increased warm-up period.

Closed Cooling Engines The closed cooled engine is split into two halves by a heat exchanger,
a raw water side and a closed cooled side of the heat exchanger. The
heat exchanger transfers heat removed from the closed cooled side of
the system to the raw water side which is pumped overboard through
the exhaust.
Raw Water Side
Raw water is supplied to the heat exchanger by means of an impeller
type pump (raw water supply pump). The raw water supply pump is
mounted on the engine crankshaft. During low speed operation the
impeller functions as a positive displacement pump. At higher speeds
it functions as a combination centrifugal and positive displacement
pump. The shape of the housing and/or liner cause an eccentric action
of the impeller blades during engine operation. During periods of high
speed operation, the resistance of the water on its way through the
pump is sufficient to prevent the ends of the impeller blades from mak-
ing contact and following the inside perimeter of the pump housing.
The blades merely flex in toward the center of the impeller to perform
as a combination centrifugal and positive displacement pump.
Raw water for the heat exchanger is picked up at the water intakes on
both sides of the lower gearcase. Water is pulled upward through the
lower gearcase until it enters a water tube that transfers it to the upper
gear housing.
Water from the raw water pump is supplied to the heat exchanger and
is circulated through several channels inside the heat exchanger at
which point it exits through flexible hoses to the exhaust manifolds.
At this point the water flows rearward through the exhaust manifold
passages and up into the high-rise elbow. All of the water that enters
the high-rise elbow is mixed with the exhaust gases prior to entering
the exhaust pipe(s) and hose(s). This mixture of exhaust gases and
water then enters the exhaust passages of the gimbal housing, pivot
housing and sterndrive where it is discharged under water.
Closed Cooling Side
The closed cooling side of the heat exchanger contains the water and
antifreeze mixture and transfers engine heat from the coolant to the
raw water circulated through the exchanger.
The closed cooling side of the heat exchanger flows through the
engine circulation pump. The engine circulating pump is mounted on
the front of the cylinder block. It has a pulley bolted to the pump shaft
hub at its forward end and is driven by a belt from the crankshaft pul-
ley. The pump shaft and bearing assembly are pressed in the water
pump housing. The bearing is permanently lubricated during manufac-
ture and sealed to prevent loss of lubricant and entry of dirt. A non-
adjustable seal assembly pressed into the pump housing seals the
pump against coolant leakage.
The coolant flows rearward from the circulating pump through the cool-
ing jacket, which surrounds each cylinder and extends below the lower
limit of piston ring travel. After flowing the full length of the cylinder
block, the coolant is forced upward through two passages and into the

VPA 7743378 10-2004 207


Cooling System

cylinder head(s). The water now flows forward in the cylinder head(s)
to cool the combustion chamber areas.
At the forward end of the cylinder head(s), the coolant enters the
intake manifold and the thermostat housing. If the coolant within the
block is sufficiently warmed up, the thermostat will be open and a por-
tion of the coolant will be pumped upward past the thermostat. The
remainder will be returned via the flexible hose to the circulating pump
for re-circulation within the engine. The coolant, which was pumped
upward past the thermostat, will enter the Heat Exchanger to transfer
engine heat to the raw water side of the cooling system. At this point
the process starts over.

Cooling System Troubleshooting


Quiz Customer for the Following a. How old is unit, how many hours of operation? (Wear and cor-
Information: rosion.)
b. How long has problem existed? (Gradual or sudden.)
c. What were the operating conditions prior to problem? (Fresh or
salt water, silty or sandy water.)
d. What previous repairs and service have been made on unit?
(Tune-ups, impeller replacement, etc.)
e. At what RPM does problem occur? (Low, high.)

Possibilities To Consider: a. Temperature Gauge Malfunction.


• Improper or defective sender unit
• Malfunctioning gauge - Check ground wire - substitute good
gauge.
b. Engine Water Circulation Pump Malfunction.
• Loose alternator belt
• Impeller vanes worn - replace pump.
• Impeller shaft seal failure - replace pump.
c. Water Intake Screens Blocked.
d. Ventilation - Marine growth on keel, hull deformities, etc.
e. Ignition Timing
• Running with retarded timing (carbureted engines only) - Check
timing.

Isolating Cooling Problem:

Air or exhaust gas entering cooling a. Procedure - Replace water hose between thermostat housing
water: and the supply pump with clear plastic hose. Operate unit in
test tank or boat in water at RPM at which overheat occurs.
NOTE! If operating unit in test tank, run motor in neutral. Some
test tanks may not have sufficient water volume to allow
running engine in gear without creating turbulence. This
can be picked up by the water intake and misconstrued as
evidence of a cooling problem.

208 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Cooling System

b. Results and Conclusions - No bubbles in hose, air/ exhaust


is not entering cooling water. Bubbles in hose, air/exhaust is
entering cooling water.
c. Check for - Defective lower gearcase water tube guide and
seals; damaged water tube grommet; leaking water passage
cover gasket or adaptor-to-gear housing gasket.

Insufficient water supply: a. Procedure - Disconnect water supply hose from transom
bracket at thermostat housing. Operate engine at specified idle
RPM. Hold end of hose level with the top of the flame arrestor.
b. Results and Conclusions - A 1 inch (2,5 cm) head of water
discharge, water supply is good. If less than 1/2 inch (1.2 cm),
look for source of water loss.
c. Check for - Blocked intake screens; damaged impeller hous-
ing O-ring or impeller plate gasket; broken or worn impeller;
defective pivot housing water passage O-ring or water drain
screw seal; loose pivot housing-to-gimbal housing water hose
clamps.

Thermostat malfunction a. Procedure - Operate engine until indicated temperature


exceeds 160°F (71° C). Touch hoses between thermostat and
exhaust manifolds.
b. Results and Conclusions - Hoses cold, thermostat is stuck
closed. Hoses warm or hot, thermostat is good.
c. Check for - Thermostat stuck open or closed, defective ther-
mostat O-ring, correct thermostat style for engine type, clear
thermostat housing bypass passage.

Engine head gasket leakage a. Procedure - Allow engine to cool. Replace water hose(s)
between thermostat housing and exhaust manifolds) with clear
plastic hose. Operate unit at RPM at which overheat occurs.
b. Results and Conclusions - No bubbles evident, head gas-
kets not leaking. Bubbles evident, head gaskets leaking.
c. Check for - Cylinder compression using appropriate tester,
water in engine oil, water in cylinders, spark plugs wet with
water.

Cooling System Components


Hoses, Clamps, and Drain No special tools required.
Plugs Inspection Procedure: Examine all external cooling system compo-
nents for leaks, wear, deterioration, and damage. Check all connec-
tions for tightness. Inspect hoses for cracks, checking or deterioration.
Repair Procedure: Repair or replace as required.
Water supply hoses used for replacement must conform to S.A.E.
20R3, class D-2.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 209


Cooling System

Thermostat

DR3051 A 140° F (60° C) thermostat is standard.


A Inspection Procedure: Check for proper rating and style, corrosion,
restricted movement, or broken spring.
Test Procedure - Immerse the thermostat and a thermometer in a
container of water. Heat water. Thermostat should start to open
between 138-142° F (70-73° C), and should open to 5/32 in. (3,96
mm) minimum (A) at 162° F (72° C).
Repair Procedure: None, replace unit.

Manifolds and Elbows No special tools required.


Inspection Procedure: Pressure check components for leaks. Disas-
semble and inspect for corrosion or accumulation of foreign material.
Repair Procedure: Rod out any accumulation of foreign matter built
up in water passages. If evidence of porosity between water passages
and exhaust chambers or exterior is found, replace component. Install
new gaskets on reassembly.

Circulating Pump - Engine No special tools required.


Inspection Procedure: Make sure belt tension is correct. With the
engine running, observe the rotation of the circulating pump pulley. If
the pulley does not run true it can cause excessive drive belt wear and
damage to the circulating pump itself.
If the leakage of water occurs at the circulating pump while the engine
is in operation, the pump may be loosely mounted to the engine, the
shaft seal in front of the pump may be bad, the backing plate gasket
may be defective, or the circulating pump mounting gaskets are leak-
ing.
If the above inspections do not detect any defect, the pump must be
removed and inspected for internal corrosion, blockage, or damage.
Inspect impeller for erosion.
Repair Procedure: None, replace the pump.
NOTE! Volvo Penta marine engines have a special circulating
water pump with stainless steel components and a special
marine shaft seal assembly. Do not replace with an auto-
motive water pump.

210 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Cooling System

Supply Pump

33857 Removal
1. Drain engine, refer to Draining Engine Block or Exhaust Manifold
on page 214.
2. Loosen hose clamps and remove hoses from supply pump. Note:
The upper hose is the inlet hose.

33857

49465 3. Loosen bracket mounting screws and remove bracket.

49465

Impeller Removal

49466 1. Remove the four screws securing the housing.

49466

VPA 7743378 10-2004 211


Cooling System

49467 2. Remove pump housing.

49467

49468 3. Remove and discard O-ring.

49468

49469 4. Grasp impeller securely and pull from housing.

Cleaning and Inspection 1. Clean all parts with solvent and blow dry thoroughly.
2. Clean sealing surfaces.
3. Inspect impeller housing wear, and housing for cracks and distor-
tion caused by freezing. Replace if necessary.
4. Inspect impeller; if blades are set in a bent position, cracked or
broken, or show flat instead of rounded edges on the housing con-
tact surfaces, replace the impeller.
5. Check bearings for smooth operation.

Impeller Installation

49470 1. Apply a light coat of glycerine to impeller surfaces. Install impeller


until seated in the housing.

49470

212 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Cooling System

49471 2. Apply a light coat of Volvo Penta Grease to a new O-ring. Install
the O-ring onto the pulley and shaft assembly.

49471

49466 3. Install pump and secure with four screws. Tighten screws to 19-24
in. lb. (2,2-2,8 N•m).

49466

49465 4. Orient pump assembly. Install bracket and secure with screws.
Tighten screws to 20-25 ft. lb. (27-34 N•m).
5. Attach the inlet hose to upper nipple and the outlet hose to the
lower nipple. Tighten hose clamps securely.

49465

VPA 7743378 10-2004 213


Cooling System

Draining Engine Block or Exhaust Manifold


8.1Gi-B, and 8.1GXi-A Draining the
cooling system — raw water
3908357 1. Locate the engine flush connector (1) at the front port side of the
engine. Connect a garden hose to the connector with the supplied
adapter.
NOTE! The hose connection adapter supplied with the engine
may not work in all geographic locations.

1
Caution!
Do not run the engine during the flushing procedure.
Water is not supplied to the raw water pump and the pump
impeller will be damaged.
2. Turn the fresh water supply on and flush the engine with fresh
water for 5 minutes to ensure the drain ports are open.
3. Turn off the fresh water supply and disconnect the garden hose
from the engine flush connector. Lower the engine flush hose
below the engine level and let drain.
4. After all of the water has drained out, reattach the hose cap and
place back in original location.
5. Remove drain plugs from the exhaust manifold(s) and let drain
completely. Reinstall the drain plug(s) and tighten.

Caution!
If a garden hose with fresh water supply is unavailable,
you must remove the hose nipple(s) from the engine to
drain the engine block. To ensure all water is drained,
clear the drain hole with a piece of wire. After the engine is
drained reinstall the hose nipples and flush adapter as
removed. The exhaust manifolds are drained as described
previously

8.1 (F)-series (closed cooling)


23580 To drain the raw water side of the cooling system of your factory
installed closed cooling on your Volvo Penta engine.
Note! The boat should be out of the water and the bow down
K slightly to allow complete drainage.
I
J 1. With the engine turned off locate and loosen the lower end cap
from the heat exchanger (1). After water has completely drained,
retighten the lower end cap of the heat exchanger to 25-41 Nm
(18-30 ft. lb.).
L F G
2. Note the hose orientation on the raw water pump (G). Loosen the
E hose clamps (2) and remove the hoses (E, H, & L) from the raw
1 H water pump and heat exchanger. Crank the engine briefly, (1 or 2
1 2 2 crankshaft revolutions) but do not start the engine, to clear the
water from the pump. Reinstall the hoses and secure the clamps
in the same orientation as removed.

214 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Cooling System

3. Remove drain plugs from exhaust manifolds. Change the level of


the boat to ensure complete drainage. After water is completely
drained, reinstall drain plugs and torque to 29 N•m (22 lb. ft.).

Caution! 8.1Gi-BF/CF/DF/EF, and 8.1 GXi-AF/BF/CF/DF


engines come factory filled with 50/50 coolant mixture of
propylene glycol antifreeze and water. If the engine
requires topping off, use only proylene glycol to refill the
cooling system. Do not use Volvo Penta ethylene glycol in
the cooling system.
If Volvo Penta antifreeze is preferred, you may use it pro-
vided the cooling system is drained and flushed before
filling it wih Volvo Penta antifreeze.
8.1Gi-FF, 8.1GXi-EF, 8.1OSi-AF and later models come fac-
tory filled with Volvo Penta ethylene glycol coolant. Volvo
Penta coolant has special properties sutied for the marine
environment.

Caution
Ensure there is sufficient antifreeze in the closed side of
the cooling system to protect the engine for the antici-
pated temperatures. Follow the antifreeze manufacturers
instructions for proper water/antifreeze ratios.

8.1Gi-C/D/E/F, and 8.1GXi-B/C/D/E


Draining the cooling system — raw
water
23581 1. With the engine turned off, locate and open the engine drain pet-
cocks (B) located on both sides of the engine block.

Caution!
Be sure that all water is drained from the engine. If no
water drains when the petcocks are opened, remove the
petcocks and use a piece of wire to clear any obstructions
from the drain hole. Failure to drain all the water from the
engine may result in engine damage during freezing tem-
peratures.

A B 2. Remove drain plugs from exhaust manifolds (A). Raise or lower


the bow of the boat to ensure complete drainage. After the water
has completely drained, reinstall the drain plugs and torque to 29
N•m (22 lb. ft.).
Note! The exhaust manifold drain plug for the port manifold is
located at the front of the exhaust manifold behind the
power steering pump and on the rear of the starboard
exhaust manifold.
3. Note the hose orientation on the raw water pump. Loosen the
hose clamps and remove the hoses from the raw water pump.
Crank the engine briefly, (1 or 2 crankshaft revolutions) but do not

VPA 7743378 10-2004 215


Cooling System

start the engine, to clear the water from the pump. Reinstall the
hoses and secure the clamps in the same orientation as removed.

Caution!
Failure to connect the raw water pump hoses in the cor-
rect orientation may damage the raw water pump impeller.

Draining Supply Pump

1. Loosen and slide hose clamps back. Remove hoses from the
pump and drain.
2. Crank the engine no more than 2 seconds (DO NOT START) to
expel any water trapped in water pump. Reattach hoses.

33857

Thermostat Replacement

23271 1. Remove all water hoses from the thermostat housing.

216 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Cooling System

20599 2. Remove screws (A) and thermostat housing.


3. The thermostat (D) is held in place by an O-ring (B) . pry the O-
A ring out of its groove, then lift the thermostat out of the housing.
4. Discard the O-ring. Thoroughly clean the housing and manifold
mounting surfaces.
5. Place the thermostat in the housing. Install a new O-ring (C) to
D retain the thermostat. Make sure the O-ring is completely seated
in its groove.
C
B 6. Install the thermostat housing O-ring (B) in the groove on the
crossover housing. Position the thermostat housing on the cross-
over housing. Install two screws (A). Tighten the screws to 27-34
Nm (20-25 ft. lb.)

23271 7. Reconnect the water hoses to the thermostat housing and tighten
the hose clamps securely.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 217


Cooling System

Numbers refer to Cooling System 1. Intake Screen - Blocked with debris.


Flow Diagrams. 2. Water Tube Guide and Seal - Improperly sealed.
3. Water Tube - Plugged with debris.
4. Grommet - Deteriorated, improperly seated.
5. Upper Gear Housing - Debris blocking passage, freeze dam-
aged.
6. Pivot Housing Seal - Damaged, out of position, improperly
sealed.
7. Nipple O-ring - Out of position, improperly sealed, damaged.
8. Nipple - Blocked by debris, freeze cracked, loose in housing.
9. Water Hose and Clamps - Clamps loose, hose collapsed or leak-
ing.
10. Transom Mount Water Tube - Blocked by debris.
11. Supply Pump (Engine Mounted) - Failed seal, corroded or bad
bearings, eroded impeller, leaking mounting gaskets or backing
plate.
12. Thermostat Housing - Corroded, restricted, or leaking gasket.
13. Thermostat - Defective thermostat, or wrong type for engine;
improperly seated or damaged O-ring.
14. Belts - Loose, or worn and slipping.
15. Circulating Pump (Engine) - Failed seal, corroded or bad bear-
ings, eroded impeller, leaking mounting gaskets or backing plate.
16. Cylinder Block Water Passages - Corrosion, slag, blocked pas-
sages, or leaking core plugs.
17. Cylinder Head - Corrosion, slag, blocked passages or leaking
gaskets.
18. Exhaust Manifold, Elbows, Gaskets, and Hoses - Gaskets
improperly installed; corrosion, sand, or slag in manifold and
elbows; hoses collapsed, burned through, or leaking.
19. Exhaust Pipe and Seal - Improperly sealed or installed, leaking.
20. Bellows, Clamp, and Retainer - Loose clamp, detached or torn
bellows.
21. Power Steering Cooler - Restricted, or cracked and leaking.
22. Intake Manifold - Cracked casting, or leaking gasket(s).
23. Engine Oil Cooler - Restricted, or cracked and leaking.
In addition, check:
• Ignition Timing
• Boat Hull - Condition of hull, marine growth, or under- hull
equipment.
Note! Fittings protruding through hull may cause air bubble
streams which can be picked up by the lower gearcase
and mixed with incoming cooling water to cause an over-
heat condition.

218 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Cooling System

Sterndrive and Transom Bracket Cooling Schematic


A)Water In
B)To thermostat housing
C)Return from exhaust pipe
D)Exhaust and water out
10

B
20
5

19
D

6
9
8 4
7
3

1
D

DRC6252

VPA 7743378 10-2004 219


Cooling System

8.1 Gi/GXi Engine Cooling Diagram

19
20

16
18

17
A
22

13
12
11

15
8

220 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Cooling System

8.1Gi/GXi (F) Engine Cooling Diagram

17
A

13

VPA 7743378 10-2004 221


Cooling System

NOTES
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

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222 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Removal and Installation

Section 6: Engine Removal and Installation


Special Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Sealants, Lubricants and Adhesives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Engine Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Exhaust Pipe Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Engine Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Engine Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Connect Exhaust Hose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Connect Throttle Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Connect Fuel Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Rear Engine Mounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Determining Minimum Engine Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237

Safety Warnings
Before working on any part of the engine, read the Safety
section at end of this manual.
Proper installation is important for the safe, reliable oper-
ation of all mechanical products. The procedures we rec-
ommend and describe in these instructions are effective
methods to be followed when removing or installing the
engine. Some of these methods require the use of tools
specially designed for the purpose. The special tools
should be used when and as recommended.

Special Tools Alignment Tool 3851083-0


Universal Handle 3850609-3

Sealants, Lubricants and Adhesives Volvo Penta Gasket Sealing Compound


Volvo Penta Grease
3M Adhesive

Engine Removal
NOTE! Before removing engine, check engine height. See Deter-
mining Minimum Engine Height.
Check engine clearance between front of engine and engine compart-
ment bulkhead prior to starting work. If clearance is less than 6 in.
(15,2 cm), the sterndrive must be removed to disengage U-joint shaft
from engine coupler. See Sterndrive and Transom Bracket Service
Manual.
When engine clearance is more than 6 in. (15.2 cm), the engine can
be pulled forward to disengage the U-joint shaft from the flywheel cou-
pler, and be removed from the engine compartment.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 223


Engine Removal and Installation

NOTE! The Sterndrive can remain installed only if engine removal


does not require re-alignment of the engine. If the engine
mounts, boat stringers, or engine coupler are being
repaired or replaced, remove the sterndrive for engine
alignment.

Warning!
To prevent possible fire and explosion caused by ignition
of fuel vapors which may be present in the engine com-
partment, remove the positive and negative cables from
the battery.

Disconnect Battery Caution!


All switches must be in the “OFF” position prior to dis-
connecting the red (positive) and black (negative) cables
from the battery. This will safeguard against permanent
damage to electrical components.

Disconnect Power Steering Lines

1. Disconnect both power steering lines at the steering cylinder.


2. Cover both steering cylinder openings and line fittings to prevent
fluid loss and entry of contaminants. Tie lines onto engine higher
than power steering pump to prevent damage and loss of oil dur-
ing engine removal.

23339

Disconnect Fuel Supply

Disconnect boat fuel line at the fuel filter inlet. Seal end of fuel line and
inlet opening.

29830B

224 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Removal and Installation

Disconnect Electrical Cables

1. Disconnect the plastic two-wire trim/tilt motor connector.

31461

2. Remove wire retainer and unplug rubber two-wire trim/tilt sender


connector. Cut tie strap securing sender cable, if required.

29790

3. Unscrew worm clamp and disconnect large rubber instrument


cable connector.

23242

VPA 7743378 10-2004 225


Engine Removal and Installation

Disconnect Throttle Cable

1. Remove cotter pin and flat washer (1) from throttle arm.

1 2. Loosen anchor retainer nut and rotate retainer away from cable
trunnion. Remove throttle cable from throttle arm and anchor
2 bracket.

21159

Disconnect Exhaust Hose

1. Loosen four clamps on lower exhaust hose. For ease of moving


lower hose, lubricate exhaust pipe.
2. To free lower hose from intermediate pipe, pry or twist hose. Slide
hose down onto exhaust pipe.

31561

Disconnect Water Hose

Loosen clamp and pull water supply hose off transom bracket water
tube.

31467

226 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Removal and Installation

Separate Engine Mounts

1. Attach a hoist to lifting brackets of engine. Hoist must have a lifting


capacity of at least 1500 lb. (680 kg).

31444

2. Remove and retain both lock nuts (1) and both flat washers (2)
from rear engine mounts.

2
1

2912

3. Remove and retain lag screws from front engine mounts.


If sterndrive was removed, lift engine out of engine compartment. If
sterndrive was not removed, lift engine slightly and pull it forward to
disengage U-joint shaft and flywheel coupler. With U-joint shaft clear
of flywheel coupler, lift engine out of compartment.

29797

Exhaust Pipe Replacement

Removal 1. Remove engine following previous procedure.

VPA 7743378 10-2004 227


Engine Removal and Installation

2. Remove and retain four exhaust pipe screws. Remove exhaust


pipe and discard seal. Clean all material from transom bracket and
exhaust pipe seal surfaces.
Exhaust pipe mounting holes have locking Heli-Coil® inserts. Do not
clean screw holes with a thread tapping tool, otherwise locking feature
will be destroyed and Heli-Coil will have to be replaced.

33962

Installation

1. Coat a new seal with 3M Scotch Grip Rubber Adhesive 1300 and
place in transom bracket groove.
2. Apply Volvo Penta Gasket Sealing Compound to the four exhaust
pipe mounting screws.

33970

3. Secure exhaust pipe to transom bracket with four screws. Tighten


to 20-25 ft. lb. (27-34 N•m). Slide exhaust hoses and clamps onto
exhaust pipes if they were removed.
4. Install engine.

33962

Engine Installation

Attach Engine Mount 1. Lower engine into engine compartment:


• If sterndrive was not removed, and engine crankshaft was not
rotated, engage U-joint shaft with engine coupler and slide
engine back onto rear mounts. If coupler and U-joint shaft will
not align, either the engine or U-joint shaft will have to be
rotated to allow engagement. If engine mount height was dis-
turbed, engine must be realigned as described later.
• If sterndrive has been removed, lower engine onto rear mounts.

228 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Removal and Installation

2. Install flat washers into recesses of engine bracket and secure


engine to mount with lock nuts. Tighten lock nuts to 28-30 ft. lb.
(38-40 N•m).

Caution!
Do not use an impact wrench or power driving tool to
install the lock nuts onto the studs.

2912

3. Install forward engine mount lag screws and tighten them


securely.
If sterndrive was not removed, go on to Exhaust Hose Attachment. If
sterndrive was removed, continue with Engine Alignment section.

29797

Engine Alignment NOTE! Correct engine alignment is essential to long engine


drive-train life. The front engine mounts may need adjust-
ment UP or DOWN to produce correct engine alignment.
Use Alignment Tool, Volvo Penta P/N 3851083-0, with Uni-
versal Handle, Volvo Penta P/N 3850609-31, to check
engine alignment.

1. Slide alignment tool through driveshaft gimbal bearing. The align-


ment tool must slide through the gimbal bearing and into engine
3851083 coupler with ease. If the alignment tool binds going into engine
coupler, make sure the gimbal bearing is properly aligned. If gim-
bal bearing alignment is correct, the front engine mounts must be
adjusted either UP or DOWN, as required, until alignment tool
slides easily in and out of engine coupler.

3850609

47547

VPA 7743378 10-2004 229


Engine Removal and Installation

2. To change engine height, tighten or loosen nuts (1) and (2) as


required. See respective engine section, Front Mount Height
Adjustment.
3. After correct alignment has been made, the front mount(s) must
1 be tightened to maintain alignment.
• While holding one nut with an open-end wrench, tighten the
2 second adjusting nut to 100-120 ft. lb. (136-163 N•m).

18568

Connect Exhaust Hose

Push lower hoses up onto intermediate exhaust pipes.

Position and tighten all hose clamps securely between ribs of exhaust
hose(s) as shown.

Caution!
DO NOT install hose clamps in expanded area of hose(s).
Cooling will be restricted and engine damage will occur.

31561

Connect Throttle Cable NOTE! Position remote control handle in NEUTRAL, propeller
should rotate freely. Turn propeller shaft and shift into the
forward gear detent position, then pull handle HALFWAY
BACK towards NEUTRAL. This positions the control for
proper throttle adjustment. Failure to follow this proce-
dure can result in “hard shifting” into gear.

1. Align internal bosses of trunnion with throttle cable groove. Press


trunnion on throttle cable until seated.

34751

230 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Removal and Installation

2. Install open end of trunnion in anchor block. Install screw in anchor


block and position throttle cable assembly in selected set of holes.
Nut must be against the anchor bracket, tighten it securely.

DR4977

3. Throttle arm connector must have a minimum of 9 full turns or 1/4


in. (6 mm) of throttle cable thread engagement. Install throttle arm
connector onto the throttle cable. Pull connector forward to
remove all end play from throttle cable, then turn the connector in
until hole aligns with the throttle arm stud.
NOTE! If throttle arm connector hole cannot be adjusted to align
DR5059 with the throttle arm, check for proper cable installation in
the remote control box.

4. Install connector onto throttle arm. Install washer and cotter pin,
and spread cotter pin prongs. Tighten jam nut against connector.
For throttle and shift cable adjustment procedures, See “Installation of
Shift and Throttle Cables” on page 197.

21159

Connect Water Hose

1. Slide hose clamp onto water inlet hose. Lightly lubricate inside of
water inlet hose and push hose onto water inlet tube.

31467

VPA 7743378 10-2004 231


Engine Removal and Installation

2. If inlet hose is not installed properly, underside of hose may col-


lapse. Check underside of hose for proper installation and adjust
hose as required. Tighten hose clamp securely.
NOTE! Failure to install water inlet hose correctly can result in
powerhead damage from blockage of water circulation.

24207

Connect Power Steering Lines

1. Remove tape or protective cover from small hydraulic hose fitting


(or unscrew steering line connector) and small steering cylinder
opening.

31472

2. Install small hose fitting into steering cylinder.

23340

3. Install large hose fitting into steering cylinder.

23339

232 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Removal and Installation

4. Tighten small hose fitting to 10-12 ft. lb. (14-16 N•m).

23337

5. Tighten large hose fitting to 15-17 ft.lb. (20-23 N•m).

23338

Connect Electrical Cables

6. Connect plastic two-wire plug of engine harness to two-wire recep-


tacle of trim/tilt motor. Connectors should lock together. Route
trim/tilt cable behind shift bracket.

31461

7. Connect rubber two-wire trim/tilt sender plug to two-wire recepta-


cle of instrument harness. Secure connectors with wire retainer
and cable with a tie strap.

29790

VPA 7743378 10-2004 233


Engine Removal and Installation

8. Route the instrument cable plug to join engine cable receptacle on


engine.

Warning!
Ensure cable is routed to prevent cutting or chafing on
any sharp or hot object. This could result in an electrical
short, and contribute to fire and explosion in the engine
compartment.
9. Apply a light coat of Volvo Penta Grease grease around large
engine plug.
10. Slide hose clamp over large engine receptacle. Align the two large
23242
terminals on plug and receptacle and press together. Slide hose
clamp over receptacle and tighten securely.
11. All switches must be in the “OFF” position prior to connect-
ing battery cables to the battery. Be sure polarity is observed;
positive (+) cable to the positive terminal, and negative (-) cable to
the negative terminal.

Connect Fuel Supply

12. Attach boat’s fuel supply hose to fuel filter canister. On EFI models
connect to the Fuel Cell. Tighten connection securely. Check for
fuel leaks when testing engine, and repair any leaks that might
occur.

29830B

Rear Engine Mounts


Removal 1. Remove engine See “Engine Removal” on page 223.

2. Unscrew two screws and washers, then lift mount assembly off
transom plate.

6678

234 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Removal and Installation

Disassembly

1. Hold square nut and remove screw. Mount assembly will break
down into components shown. Pay particular attention to the two
mount washers; their thickness, shape (concave or flat), and posi-
tion in the assembly (above or below the rubber mount).

16348

Assembly 1. Slide lower washer onto mount bolt; make sure you choose the
correct washer (as determined during the mount disassembly) for
this position. Insert bolt into bottom (flat) side of rubber mount
assembly, and install remaining washer and square nut. Do not
tighten nut at this time.
NOTE!If top and bottom washers are not installed in their origi-
nal positions, mount may transmit excessive engine vibra-
tions into boat and cause undesirable operating
conditions.

2. Turn mount assembly upside down and clamp square nut in vise.
Rotate rubber mount until mounting holes are positioned at 90° to
any side of square nut. Hold mount in this position and tighten
center bolt to 44-52 ft. lb. (60-71 N•m).
NOTE! If 90° relationship between nut and mounting holes is not
maintained, slot of engine mount pad cannot engage rear
mount during installation.

6680

VPA 7743378 10-2004 235


Engine Removal and Installation

Installation

1. Place mount assembly on transom plate. Install two screws and


washers, and tighten them to 20-25 ft. lb. (27-34 N•m).

6677

2. Install engine See “Engine Installation” on page 228. Make sure


mount pad slot engages square nut. Install both flat washers and
locknuts, then tighten locknuts to 28-30 ft. lb. (38-41 N•m).

12212

236 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Engine Removal and Installation

Determining Minimum Engine Height

B A

1. To determine minimum engine height, use a level (A) placed on


top of the transom, measure from bottom of level to top of elbow
(B) and record distance.
2. Measure from bottom of level to static water line (C) and record
distance.
3. Subtract dimension (B) from dimension (C) and record result. See
engine height requirements below:
• Measurement (B) minus (C) should not be less than 14 in. (35.6
cm).
4. When engine installations do not meet these specifications, an
exhaust elbow high-rise kit must be installed.
NOTE! An installation that permits water to enter the engine
through the exhaust manifolds) will not be covered by
warranty, unless damage is due to defective part(s).

VPA 7743378 10-2004 237


Engine Removal and Installation

NOTES
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- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

238 VPA 7743378 10-2004


Safety Section

Part A
Marine Products and Safety of People Who Use Them . . . . . . . . . S-2
Sterndrive Shift System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S-3
Sterndrive Throttle Control System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S-4
Sterndrive Steering System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S-5
Sterndrive Fuel, Electrical System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S-7

Part B
Marine Products and Safety of People Who Fix Them . . . . . . . . . S-11
Handling Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S-11
Handling Lead Acid Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S-12
Gasoline! Handle with Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S-13
Hazardous Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S-14

Safety
S-1
Part A - Marine Products and safety of
People Who Use Them

Enjoyable boating is the goal of people who design and build marine products. To reach this goal, manufacturers are
careful to make sure...

Product User is informed. . .

Products are safe and reliable. . .

It's up to you, the People who. . .

Install accessories. . .

Service and Maintain the boat. . .


Service and maintain the sterndrive. . .

. . . to keep the products safe and reliable.

This section talks about safe boating and how you can help keep it safe. Some things you may know
. . . but others you may not.

First!

A word about fasteners . . . plain . . . special . . . all screws, nuts, washers and bolts.

Do Not Substitute Fasteners

They look the same, but . . . are they?

The Same Size?


The Same Strength?
The Same Material?
The Same Type?
Standard or Metric Thread?

Don't substitute unless you know they are the same in all characteristics.

Second!

Special locking screws and nuts are often used to attach steering, and remote control components to
the sterndrive.

When you remove any part from the sterndrive, keep track of special screws and nuts. Don't mix with
other parts

When reassembling the sterndrive, use only the special screws and nuts intended to hold steering, and
control cables, plus related parts.

Service with parts of known quality that meet Marine Industry (BIA/ABYC) Standard.

S-2 Safety
Sterndrive Shift System

The Shift System starts


here at the remote control lever. . .

. . . and ends here at the propeller.

What's Most Important?

When the control lever is in Forward,


Neutral or Reverse position . .

. . . Shift mechanism must match


control lever position.

What Could Happen?

If . . . Neutral If . . . Forward

Forward
or
Reverse
Reverse

. . . Propeller is still powered (turning) . . . boat will move opposite


unknown to operator, or engine will to direction intended by operator.
start in gear, boat will move unexpectedly.

How Can Loss of Shift Control be Minimized? In pre-delivery inspection and when servicing . . .

Read, understand and follow manufacturers instructions.

Closely follow the warnings marked with ...

Assemble parts and make adjustments carefully . . .

Test your work. Don't guess. Make sure propeller does what the operator wants and
nothing else.
Safety
S-3
Sterndrive Throttle Control System

The throttle Control System starts


here and the remote control lever . . .
. . . and ends
here on the engine.

What's Most Important?

When the control lever is moved from


Forward (or Reverse) to Neutral . . .
. . . engine speed must slow to idle
RPM and allow operator to shift into
Neutral.

Operator must be able to stop propeller.

What Could Happen?

If operator cannot slow the engine to idle RPM and shift into neutral, (stop propeller), operator could panic and lose control
of boat.

How Can Loss of Throttle Control be Minimized? In pre-delivery inspection and when servicing . . .

Read, understand, and follow manufacturers instructions.

Closely follow the warnings marked with ...

Assemble parts and make adjustments carefully . . .

Test your work. Don't guess. Make sure engine throttle response is smooth.

Make sure full throttle operating RPM can be reached so operator won't overload engine

S-4 Safety
Sterndrive Steering System

The Steering System starts


here at the helm . . .

What's Most Important?

The Steering System . . .


. . . and ends here at the propeller
on the sterndrive
must be installed properly

must be adjusted properly

must be lubricated

What Could Happen?

. . . if steering system comes apart, boat would turn suddenly and circle . . . passengers and/or operator
may be thrown into water and could be hit.

. . . if steering jams, operator may not be able to avoid obstacles. Operator could panic.

. . . if steering is loose, operator may not be able to maintain a true course, and could result in loss of
boat control.

Safety
S-5
How Can Loss of Steering Control be Minimized?

In pre-
use steering components which meet marine industry (ABYC) standards . . .
delivery Read, understand, and follow manufacturer's instructions.
inspection Assemble parts and make adjustments carefully . . .
and when Closely follow the warnings marked with ...
servicing Keep parts moving freely . . . lubricate parts as soon as shown in manuals
Use bolts, nuts, and washers supplied with steering attachment kits

When power assisted or mechanical steering systems are used, check to uncover possible trouble!

Cable housing in this area


must not be restricted Steering components must not
bind
Why? Unit may go to full turn without
Why? Possible jamming of steering
turning steering wheel (Power
system.
assist models)

Engine stringer must not interfere


with power steering pump and pul-
ley

Maintain proper belt tension.

Power steering parts and push/pull cable


must be free to move in order to actuate
power steering valve when operator
turns steering wheel

Check for damaged parts . . . impacts to the sterndrive like this

or this . . . or ? ? ?
can put stress on steering components. Look for . . .

Cracked parts
Bent parts
Loose fasteners

Replace damaged parts. If weakened, parts could fail later . . . on the water
. . . when least expected.

S-6 Safety
Sterndrive Fuel and Electrical Systems

The electrical System begins


here at the battery . . .
. . . and ends here
at the carburetor or fuel injectors

The fuel system


starts here at the fuel tank . . . . . . and ends
here on the en-
gine.

What's Important?

Fuel leakage must be prevented.


Electric sparks must not happen.

What Could Happen?

Gasoline can explode and/ or burn easily:

When boating, fuel leaking in the engine compartment could be ignited by a spark from a loose wire
connection, or a damaged or deteriorated electrical component.

How Can Fire and Explosion Be Minimized?

Read, understand and follow manufacturers instructions.

Closely follow the warnings marked with ...

Do not substitute fuel or electrical parts with other parts which may look the same. These parts are
designed and manufactured to meet special U. S. Coast Guard safety regulations to prevent fire and
explosion.

If you work on marine engines, you must understand these U.S. Coast Guard requirements. If you don't have them, write
to . . .

---------
---------
---------
National Technical Information Service
Springfield, Virginia 22161
. . . and ask for copies of:

(1) Electrical System Compliance Guideline (AD/A-049-638)


(2) Fuel System Compliance Guideline (AD/A-047-767)
These are concise guidelines - easy to read and understand. They explain what must be done to prevent fire and explo-
sions.

Safety
S-7
Always use replacement parts specified by the manufacturer. They meet the U.S. Coast Guard require-
ments. Most automotive parts do not, especially electrical components that must meet ignition protec-
tion requirements of the U.S. Coast Guard regulations.

When nonmetallic parts look to be in poor shape . . . replace them!

Torn Boots!
Wires Cracked!

Cracked Fuel Lines!

Using parts which meet U.S. Coast guard requirements is only half the job. The other half is your job . . .

It's time for replacement BEFORE sparks and/or fuel leaks occur.

Replace parts carefully. Make sure nuts and bolts are tight especially when they anchor electrical wires
(to prevent sparking). If lock washers are specified - use them. No short cuts or missing parts with
either of these CRITICAL safety related systems.

When refueling, always ground fuel nozzle to the inlet fitting on the boat to prevent the buildup of
electrostatic sparks. If you use a funnel, make sure it's metal and ground the fuel nozzle to the funnel.

If you smell gasoline in the engine compartment . . .


STOP find its source and stop the leakage.

S-8 Safety
Follow "Starting Procedure" outlined in the operator's manual.

Always make sure there are no gasoline fumes in the engine compartment before starting the
engine. Open the compartment and use your nose. Don't gamble.

Backfire flame arrestor must be in place and securely attached to the air intake.

Do not alter the backfire flame arrestor.

If loose, damaged, or altered, an engine "backfire" may pass through the flame arrestor assembly into the engine compart-
ment. If fumes are present in compartment, fire and explosion could result.

Safety
S-9
Summing Up

Now you know some things that can take the joy out of enjoyable boating.

No doubt about it . . . it takes time!

Reading and understanding instructions.

Reading and understanding warnings marked with ...

Putting parts together correctly . . .

Making correct adjustments . . .

Testing you work.

and making sure

Worn or damaged parts are replaced,

Replaced parts are like originals . . . in every way.

Customer is told of things which need attention . . .

But do you really want the alternative?

S-10 Safety
Part B - Marine Products and Safety of
People* Who Fix Them

Part A talked about safe boating and how you, the mechanic, can help keep it safe for the boater. But what about you?
Mechanics can be hurt while . . .

Servicing boats
Servicing sterndrives
Troubleshooting problems
Testing their work

Some items you'll know . . . others you may not.

When Lifting Engines

If hoist is poor shape . . . or too small for the job

Engine may drop suddenly

DR3471 DR3469

Make sure shop aids have extra capacity — and keep them in good repair!

When Running Engine with Engine Compartment Cover Removed

The engine compartment cover is a guard. When you remove the cover / guard to work on the engine, remember:

Loose clothing (open shirt sleeves, neckties), long hair, jewelry (rings, watches, bracelets), hands,
arms, belts can be caught by moving belts or spinning pulleys
Handle high voltage ignition components carefully. They can shock you and may cause you to recoil
into moving parts.

Two people working together on a running engine must look out for each other. Never, ever, turn the key to start the
engine before signalling to your partner. (He may be leaning over the engine with his hands on a belt, or a "hot" electri-
cal part, near the propeller, etc.) Remove the key(s) while working on the engine to prevent accidental starting.

*Mechanics, technicians, backyard do-it-yourselfers.

Safety
S-11
Exhaust gasses of running engines contain carbon monoxide. . . you can't see it. . . you can't smell it. . .
you can't taste it. . . but it's there whenever an engine runs. . . and it's deadly!
When you smell the other gasses in the exhaust, you are inhaling carbon monoxide. Run engines only in well ventilated
areas.

Eyes Need help

Grinding Sprayed
Cleaners,
Paints

End of Cables Acid

Chiseling
(steel on steel)
(Tip: Use plastic or brass type hammers.
They don't chip off as easily as steel hammers.)

Handling Lead Acid Batteries

If spilled or splashed on
any part of body..

Wash with lots


If solution gets
of water. . .
into eyes. . .
Wash. . . and see a Doctor, fast!

Charging Lead Acid Batteries

Attach and remove these cables


with charger unplugged from 110 volt wall
socket. (Prevents shocks if the charger
is defective.)

Observe correct polarity when con-


necting these charger leads.

Always charge in a well ventilated


area. Charging causes acid solution to
give off hydrogen gas through the vents
in the caps. . . Make sure vents are open.
If clogged, pressure inside may build. . .
battery may explode.

S-12 Safety
Never yank cables off
Battery gas is explosive! battery posts. . . it's a sure
While charging or discharging, way to make lots of
remember. . . sparks. . .surrounded by battery gas

No Smoking
No Flames
No Sparks

Don't check battery condition After Charging. . .


by placing metal objects
across posts. Shut off charger

You're sure to make sparks Remove charger plug from wall socket
Then. . .
and serious burns are
possible. Take charger cable off battery posts

Gasoline! Handle With Care


When you smell any odor of gasoline,
explosion is possible

Gasoline fumes are heavier than air and will sink


to the lowest point in the boat or room,
and will stay there. . . waiting

Gasoline explodes easily and violently when


If the air around you is quiet . . . the pilot light in mixed with air
the heater may
ignite the heavy fumes 5 Parts
before your nose ever Gasoline
smells the fumes . .
100 Parts
Air

What Can you Do?

Store properly . . .
Fill portable tanks outside boat to prevent spillage in
boat
Use fuel for fuel . . . not for a solvent
If fumes are smelled (in shop, basement, garage), immediately:
Store in sturdy, Put out open flames, cigarettes, sparking devices
sealed gas can Wipe up spill or leak; get towels, rags outside fast
. . .and . . . Check lowest area for fumes; open doors or win-
keep outside dows

Safety
S-13
Know items in and around repair area which can ignite gasoline fumes . . . Control them if fumes are smelled.

Matches, cigarettes, torches, welders


Electric motors (with unsealed cases)
Electric generators (with unsealed cases)
Light switches
Appliance pilot lights (furnace, dryer, water heater)
?????????
How many of these are in your area?

Hazardous Products

Read the container label. It tells you . . .

"How, and where, to use,"


"How to give First Aid," and have "recommended" first aid materials on hand- should an
emergency arise
"How to dispose of can,"

Remember: Little children are very curious and will try to taste everything, so . . .

. . . yummmmmmmmmmm Keep containers away


from children

S-14 Safety
10-2004

®
English

Volvo Penta of the Americas, Inc.


1300 Volvo Penta Drive
Chesapeake, Virginia 23320
U.S.A.
7743378