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Title: What impacts swimming pool water chemically?

Influence of drinking water quality


by wastewater
Tamara Grummt
Federal Environment Agency
Unit for Toxicology of Drinking Water and Swimming Pool Water
Bad Elster Branch, D-08645 Bad Elster, Germany

Workshop “Water Quality“


Peru, April 2014
Water Cycle

Everytime you use


water it has to go
somewhere

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Source: http://www.pacificwater.org/index.cfm
Water Management

waste management
and wast water Industry/Chemicals
treatment

social and political


agriculture and interests
food chain

WATER BOX

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Some examples for more sustainability

 improvement in water use

 promotion of waste water treatment


 conversion of waste water streams into useful
input for other processes (waste water reuse)
 management of river basins as integrated systems

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Major drivers

 clear rules, objective criteria


 strong and efficient government institutions
 science based approaches with well trained
personal and effective control and monitoring
systems
 public awareness and stakeholder participation

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Institutional Framework

There are several federal ministries for various specialized fields:


the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear
Safety is responsible for the protection of water bodies;
the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology oversees water supply
systems and the water industry;
the Federal Ministry of Education and Research is in charge of developing new
technologies;
and the Federal Ministry for Health ensures the quality of drinking water.
International cooperation is overseen by the Federal Ministry for Economic
Cooperation and Development.
The ministries have at their disposal advisory authorities, such as the Federal
Environment Agency and the Federal Institute of Hydrology, as well as private,
commissioned agencies, such as the Project Agency for Water Technology or the
Organization for Technical Cooperation.

Source: The German Water Sector. Policies and Experiences, Report

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The state governments of the 16 federal states are responsible for
the regulation of water supply and wastewater disposal in their
territories, within the framework of the federal laws.
The organization and implementation of the water supply and
wastewater disposal belong to the traditional duties of the
municipalities, in accordance with state water laws. In order to cover
incurred expenses, the municipalities charge consumers with tariffs
and fees. The municipalities must also maintain smaller water
bodies in their jurisdiction.

Source: The German Water Sector. Policies and Experiences, Report

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First of all, whoever wishes to utilize natural the water resources or
water bodies must apply for a permit. Applicants are mostly
municipalities, water utilities, or industry that desire to construct a
groundwater abstraction facility or waterworks, for example, making
use of groundwater. Even when a development area or industrial
park is to be built and a regular wastewater disposal system
(WWTP and sewer system discharging into a river) is planned, an
application for authorization is still necessary. With the application
for authorization, not only the technical designs need to be
submitted, but also (depending on the scope and significance of the
project) emission reports, environmental compatibility studies, etc.

Source: The German Water Sector. Policies and Experiences, Report

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The definition of standards takes place at various levels. The overlying
framework is anchored in the European Union legislation, including
especially the following:
- Directive 2000/60/EC Water Framework Directive
- Directive 91/271/EEC, concerning the handling of municipal wastewater
- Directive 96/61/EC, concerning the integrated pollution (IPPC Directive)
- Groundwater Directive (80/86/EEC)
- Drinking Water Directive (98/83/EC)
- Nitrate Directive (Directive 91/676/EEC)
- Pesticide Directive (91/414/EEC)
- Water Protection Directive, concerning the emission of hazardous
substances into water bodies (76/464/EEC)
- Bathing Water Bodies Directive (76/160/EEC).

Source: The German Water Sector. Policies and Experiences, Report

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German federal law has been and continues to be conformed to this European
law and further developed in consideration of the specific, high demands of an
environmentally compatible, organized industrial status. At the federal level, the
most important regulations within this framework are:
- The Water Management Act
- The Drinking Water Ordinance
- The Groundwater Ordinance
- The Wastewater Ordinance
- The Effluent charge Act
- The Act on the Impact Assessment of Washing and Cleaning Agents
- The Fertilizer Agents Ordinance.
These federal regulations are further substantiated at the level of the 16 German
federal states. Corresponding to the individual circumstances and political
objectives of each respective state, a state water law, state effluent charge act,
etc. has been empowered.
Source: The German Water Sector. Policies and Experiences, Report

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The requirements and standards are formulated most concretely
at the lowest level, where framework requirements of the
respective superordinate level must be observed. For example,
the final decision with regard to treatment standards for a WWTP
is made by the municipality. Nevertheless, the municipality must
still heed the conditions set by the district government; the district
government, on the other hand, must observe the minimum
requirements set by the state and federal governments, which
must conform to the EU directive (for municipal wastewater).

Source: The German Water Sector. Policies and Experiences, Report

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Ordinance
on Requirements for the Discharge of Waste Water into Waters
(Waste Water Ordinance - AbwV)

Article 1:
Scope of Application

(1) This Ordinance specifies the minimum requirements to be stipulated when


granting a permit to discharge waste water from the source categories listed in
the Appendices into water bodies.
(2) The requirements pursuant to this Ordinance shall only be included in the
permit for those parameters which are expected to occur in the waste water.
(3) Any farther-reaching requirements pursuant to other legal provisions shall
remain unaffected by this.

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Article 2:
Definition of terms
In the sense of this Ordinance:

1. Production-specific load level shall refer to the load level (e.g. m3/t, g/t, kg/t)
in relation to the production capacity on which the water discharge licence
is based.

2. Parameter shall refer to a chemical, physical or biological measurement


factor as listed in the Annex.

Article 3:
General requirements
Unless otherwise stated in the Appendices, a permit to discharge waste water into
water bodies shall only be granted if the pollutant load, based on an examination
of the conditions in each individual case, is kept as low as the use of water-saving
procedures such as washing and cleaning operations, indirect cooling and the
use of low-pollutant feedstocks and auxiliary materials permit.

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A Scope of application

B General requirements

C Requirements for waste water at the point of discharge

D Requirements for waste water prior to blending

E Requirements for waste water at the site of occurrence

F Requirements for existing discharges

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Annex (to Article 4)
GENERAL PROCEDURES

1. Instructions on sampling techniques DIN EN 25667-2


(July 1993 edition)
2. Sampling of waste water DIN 38402-A 11
(December 1995 edition)
3. Volumetric flow of waste water In line with DIN 19559
(July 1983 edition)
4. Pre-treatment, homogenisation - DIN 38402-A 30
and division of heterogeneous (July 1998 edition)
water samples

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Appendix 2: Appendix 3:
Brown-coal briquette production Milk processing
Appendix 4:
Processing of oilseeds, and refining of cooking fats and oils
Appendix 5:
Production of fruit and vegetable products
Appendix 6:
Production of soft drinks and bottling of drinks
Appendix 7: Appendix 8:
Fish processing Potato processing
Appendix 9:
Manufacture of coating materials and varnish resins
Appendix 10: Appendix 11:
Meat industry Breweries
Appendix 12:
Production of alcohol and alcoholic beverages

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Integrated Water Resources Management

IWRM defines major water resource


protection rules considering particularly
the social and economic aspects.
IWRM is a cross-sectoral policy
approach, designed to replace the
traditional, fragmented sectoral approach
to water resources and management.

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Restructuring the river Emscher as example of IWRM

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Quality of water:
Wholesome and clear

• Regular monitoring
• Source protection • Fulfilled parametric
values
• Water preparation
• Duties/rights for repor-
ting and information
Column I Column II

e.g. German drinking water ordinance


European council directive on the quality of drinking water
European water framework directive
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European Water Framework Directive (WFD) – Fourteen Guidance Documents

European Water Framework Directive (WFD)

supplemented with

Fourteen Guidance Documents

• are informal, non-legally binding documents that have been


produced to assist Member States implement the WFD.
• cover many aspects of implementation, such as establishing
monitoring programmes, undertaking economic analyses,
engaging the public, developing classification systems, how to
identify and designate heavily modified and artificial water
bodies etc.

http://www.waterframeworkdirective.wdd.moa.gov.cy/guidance.html

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European W ater Framework Directive (1)

European Water Framework Directive (1)

 The Water Framework Directive (WFD) is the most


significant piece of European water legislation for over
twenty years.

 The concept is based on a river basin management


approach to environmental planning and regulation.

 This includes the protection of drinking water supplies,


recreational uses, industrial and agricultural abstraction
and discharge.

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European W ater Framework Directive (2)

European Water Framework Directive (2)

 The WFD is aimed at a holistic approach


towards integrated water protection.

 It sets ambitions high-quality goals to achieve a


good status for European lakes and rivers
primarily in ecological terms.

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European W ater Framework Directive (3)

European Water Framework Directive (3)

Chemical Status
- The „Priority list“
Actual list: 33 substances, so-called „old“ industrial chemicals
Up coming list: emerging contaminants, as pharmaceuticals,
infochemicals, perfluorinated tensides
Ecological Status
- Biological parameters (communities of fish, macrophytes
and phytobenthos, macrozoobenthos, phytoplankton)
- Hydromorphological parameters
- Physico-chemical parameters (temperature, oxygenation,
salinity, nutrient status, acidification status)

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Risk Assessment for Water Bodies

Risk Assessment for Water Bodies


(flowing water bodies/lakes)

Ecological status Chemical status


of flowing water bodies/lakes of flowing water bodies/lakes

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Risk Assessment for Water Bodies

Risk Assessment for Water Bodies


(flowing water bodies/lakes)

Ecological status Chemical status


of flowing water
of flowing water bodies/lakes bodies/lakes

Supporting Supporting
Biological
physico- hydromorpho- Specific
quality element
chemical quality logical quality pollutants
element element

Biological evaluation Chemical


in three steps evaluation

Classification of ecological status

At risk Probably at risk Not at risk


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Risk Assessment for Water Bodies

Risk Assessment for Water Bodies


(flowing water bodies/lakes)

Ecological status Chemical status


of flowing water bodies/lakes
of flowing water bodies/lakes
Supporting Supporting
Biological
physico- hydromorpho- Specific
quality element
chemical quality logical quality pollutants
element element

Biological evaluation Chemical


Pollutants listed in
in three steps evaluation

Classification of ecological status


annexes IX and X of the WFD
At risk Probably at risk Not at risk

Classification of chemical status

At risk Probably at risk Not at risk


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Good chemical status

Good chemical status

« …that is the chemical status achieved by a body of


surface water in which concentrations of pollutants do
not exceed the environmental quality standards
established in Annex IX and under Article 16(7), and
under other relevant Community legislation setting
environmental quality standards at Community level.»

Only for EU-wide regulated substances!

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Priority Substances - 33 substances or groups of substances

Priority Substances

33 substances or groups of substances are on the list


of priority substances including selected existing
chemicals, plant protection products, biocides, metals
and other groups like Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons
(PAH) that are mainly incineration by-products and
Polybrominated Biphenylethers (PBDE) that are used
as flame retardants.

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List of priority substances in the field of water policy (1)

List of priority substances in the field of water policy (1)


Number CAS number (i) EU number (ii) Name of priority substance (iii) Identified as priority
hazardous substance
(1) 15972-60-8 240-110-8 Alachlor
(2) 120-12-7 204-371-1 Anthracene X
(3) 1912-24-9 217-617-8 Atrazine
(4) 71-43-2 200-753-7 Benzene
(5) not applicable not applicable Brominated diphenylether (iv) X

32534-81-9 not applicable Pentabromodiphenylether (congener


numbers 28, 47, 99, 100, 153 and 154)
(6) 7440-43-9 231-152-8 Cadmium and its compounds X
(7) 85535-84-8 287-476-5 Chloroalkanes, C10-13 (iv) X
(8) 470-90-6 207-432-0 Chlorfenvinphos
(9) 2921-88-2 220-864-4 Chlorpyrifos
(Chlorpyrifos-ethyl)
(10) 107-06-2 203-458-1 1,2-Dichloroethane
(11) 75-09-2 200-838-9 Dichloromethane
(12) 117-81-7 204-211-0 Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)
(13) 330-54-1 206-354-4 Diuron
(14) 115-29-7 204-079-4 Endosulfan X
(15) 206-44-0 205-912-4 Fluoranthene (vi)
(16) 118-74-1 204-273-9 Hexachlorobenzene X
(17) 87-68-3 201-765-5 Hexachlorobutadiene X
Pharmaceutical

 Control at source
 Providing specific treatment at source
 Education, motivation and training of
producers, distributors and consumers
 Environmental risk assessment and
substitution
 Eco-classification and „green“ ...
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Thank you for your attention !