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CHAPTER

HEAT EXCHANGER

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Heat exchangers are devices that facilitate the exchange of heat between two fluids that are at
very different temperatures while keeping them from mixing with one another. Heat
exchangers are usually employed in practice in a wide range of applications, from heating and
air-conditioning systems in a household, to chemical process and power production in massive
plants. Heat exchangers differ from mixing chambers in that they do not allow the two fluids
concerned to mix.

Heat transfer in a heat exchanger usually involves convection in each fluid and
conduction through the wall separating the two fluids. In the analysis of heat exchangers, it is
convenient to work with an overall heat transfer coefficient, U that accounts for the contribution
of all these effects on heat transfer. The rate of heat transfer between the two fluids at a location
in a heat exchanger depends on the magnitude of the temperature difference at that location,
which varies along the heat exchanger (Yunus A. Çengel, 2015).

1.1 TYPE OF HEAT EXCHANGER

Different heat transfer applications require different types of hardware and different
configurations of heat transfer equipment. The attempt to match the heat transfer hardware to
the heat transfer requirements within the specified constraints has resulted in numerous types
of innovative heat exchanger designs. Double pipe heat exchangers are the industry's simplest
exchangers. On the one hand, for both design and maintenance, these heat exchangers are
cheap, making them a good choice for small industries. On the other hand, their low efficiency
combined with the large-scale high space has led modern industries to use more efficient heat
exchangers such as shell and tube or plate.
Heat exchangers are classified according to:

 Transfer process
 Number of fluids
 Degree of surface compactness
 Construction
 Flow arrangements
 Heat transfer mechanisms

The principal types of heat exchanger used in the chemical process and allied industries
(Sinnott et al., 2005), are listed below:

1) Double-pipe exchanger: the simplest type, used for cooling and heating.
2) Shell and tube exchangers: used for all applications.
3) Plate and frame exchangers (plate heat exchangers): used for heating and cooling.
4) Plate-fin exchangers
5) Spiral heat exchangers
6) Air cooled: coolers and condensers.
7) Direct contact: cooling and quenching.
8) Agitated vessels.
9) Fired heaters.

1.2 SELECTIONS OF HEAT EXCHANGER

Heat exchangers are complicated devices, and the results obtained with the simplified
approaches in designing and selecting the heat exchanger should be used with care. For
instance, we assumed that the overall heat transfer coefficient, U is constant throughout the
heat exchanger and that the convection heat transfer coefficients can be predicted using the
convection correlations. However, it should be kept in mind that the uncertainty in the predicted
value of U can exceed 30%. Thus, it is natural to tend to overdesign the heat exchangers in
order to avoid these uncertainties.

Heat transfer enhancement in heat exchangers is usually accompanied by increased


pressure drop, and thus higher pumping power. Therefore, any gain from the enhancement in
heat transfer should be weighed against the cost of the accompanying pressure drop. Also, some
though should be given to which fluid should pass through the tube side and which through the
shell side. Usually, more viscous fluid is more suitable for the shell side because of larger
passage area and thus lower pressure drop and the fluid with the higher pressure for the tube
side. Engineers in industry often find themselves in a position to select heat exchangers to
accomplish certain heat transfer tasks. Usually the goal is to heat or cool a certain fluid at a
known mass flow rate and temperature to a desired temperature. The proper selection depends
on several factors (Yunus A. Çengel, 2015):

a) Heat transfer rate – Most important quantity, a heat exchanger should be capable of
transferring heat at the specified rate in order to achieve the desired temperature change
of the fluid at the specified mass flow rate.
b) Cost – Budgetary limitations usually play an important role. The operation and
maintenance costs of the heat exchanger are also important considerations in assessing
the overall cost.
c) Pumping power – In a heat exchanger, both fluids are usually forced to flow by pumps
or fans that consume electrical power. The pumping power is thetotal electrical power
consumed by the motors of the pumps and fans.
d) Size and weight – Normally, the smaller and lighter the heat exchanger, the better it is.
Larger heat exchanger normally carries a higher price tag. The space available in some
cases limits the length of the tubes that can be used.
e) Type – The type of heat exchanger to be selected depends primarily on the type of fluids
involved, the size and weight limitations, and the presence of any phase-change
processes.
f) Materials – The thermal and structural stress effects consideration at different specified
pressure and temperature. Thermal expansion and corrosive fluids problems.
g)