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CIRIA C637

Soil nailing -

best practice guidance

London,; 2005

A

Phear

Arup

CDew

Arup

BOzsoy

Arup

N J Wharmby

formerly Bachy Soletanche Ltd

J Judge

Keller Ground Engineering Ltd

A D Barley

consultant to Keller Ground Engineering Ltd

sharing knowledge m building best practice

CIRIA Classic House, 174-18 0 Old Street, London EC1V 9BP, UK

TEL +44 (0)20 7549 3300

EMAIL enquires@ciria.org WEB www.ciria.org

FAX +44 (0)20 7253 0523

Bibliothek Geotechnik

(TU Darmstadt)

32016

Contents

Summary

3

Acknowledgements

4

List of

figures

10

List

of boxes

13

List of tables

14

Glossary

16

Abbreviations

20

Notation

21

1 INTRODUCTION

23

1.1 Background to the book

26

1.2 Objectives of the book

27

1.3 Intende d readership and layout of the book

27

1.4 Applicability of the book

28

2 APPLICATIONS AND FUNDAMENTALS OF SOIL NAILING

29

2.1 of soil nailing

Development

29

2.2 of soil nailing in the UK

Development

31

2.3 Applications of soil nailing

34

2.4 Fundamentals of soil nailing

41

2.5 Health and safety

44

2.6 Contractual requirements

45

2.7 Risk-based approach

to soil nailing .

48

2.8 Design process

52

2.9 Design requirements

and performance criteria

53

2.10 Failures in soil-nailed systems

54

3 UK AND INTERNATIONAL TECHNICAL STANDARDS, CODES OF PRACTICE AND GENERAL PRACTICE

55

3.1 UK practice

generally

55

3.2 UK practice on highways

55

3.3 UK practice

on railways

58

3.4 Eurocodes and European standards

60

3.5 French practice (Project Clouterre)

60

3.6 Scandinavian practice (Nordic handbook)

61

3.7 USA practice (FHWA)

61

3.8 Hong Kong practice

61

4 ASPECTS OF UK GROUND CONDITIONS RELEVANT TO SOIL NAILING

63

4.1 Understanding the geology of the site

64

4.2 General requirements for suitability of natural soils and rocks for soil nailing

64

4.3 Cohesive soils

65

4.4 Granular soils

69

4.5 Weak rocks

70

4.6 Fill

72

4.7 Groundwater

76

4.8 Effect of underlying geological features

77

CIRIA C637

5 SITE INVESTIGATION FOR SOIL NAILING

5.1 Planning a site investigation

5.2 Preliminary site appraisal

5.3 Sub-surface investigation

5.4

Field trials

6 KEY MECHANISMS OF BEHAVIOUR

6.1 The soil-nailing system

6.2 Development of load in soil nails

6.3

6.4 Role of the facing

6.5 Deformation

6.6 Redundancy in soil-nailing systems

6.7 Limit state design

6.8 General requirements and factors of safety

Role of bending and shear resistance

7 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN

7.1 Factors to be considered for soil nailing

7.2 Geometry

7.3 spacing of nails

Layout and

7.4 assessment of soil nail length for conceptual design

7.5

7.6

7.7

Preliminary

Head plates

Facing

Drainage

8 DETAILED DESIGN

8.1 Geometry and design cross-sections (Step 1)

8.2 Surcharges and loads (Step 2)

8.3 Ground model (Step 3)

8.4 Groundwater and design of drainage (Steps 4 and 5)

8.5 Design codes and design methods (Step 6)

8.6 Characteristic soil strengths (Step 7)

8.7 Determination of design soil parameters and design loads (Step

8.8 Nail orientation

8.9 Internal stability and pullout resistance (Step 9)

8.10 Nail tendon design (Step 9 continued)

8.11 Ground aggressivity and corrosion protection (Step 9 continued)

8.12 Internal and external stability checks (Steps 10 and 11)

8.13 Design of facings and head plates (Step 12)

8.14 Prediction of deformations (Step 13)

8.15 Monitoring and instrumentation

9 DURABILITY AND DEGRADATION

9.1 Assessment of degradation risk

9.2 Service environments

9.3 Materials

9.4 Uncoated steel

9.5 Coated steels

9.6 Stainless steel

9.7 Fibre-reinforced plastic soil nails

9.8 Materials directly within the ground

9.9 Materials with cement grout surround

9.10 Steels surrounded by grouted impermeable ducting

9.11 Steels and composites with enhanced corrosion protection

9.12 Cost

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110

Il l

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CIRIA C637

9.13 Observation and exhumation

178

9.14 Nail heads

182

9.15 Facings

184

9.16 Summary and durability requirements related to geotechnical risk categories for nail tendons

184

10 CONSTRUCTION

187

10.1 Planning for health and safety and safe systems of work

189

10.2 Programming and procurement

190

10.3 Safe working on slopes

192

10.4 Soil nail installation techniques

192

10.5 Excavation

198

10.6 Construction tolerances

199

10.7 of drainage for soil nailing

Construction

199

10.8 of facings for soil-nailed systems

Construction

199

11 CONSTRUCTION QUALITY CONTROL, TESTING AND RECORDS

205

11.1 Construction quality control and inspection

205

11.2 Material procurement and storage

205

11.3 Soil nail testing

206

11.4 Non-destructive testing

214

11.5 Installation records

215

12 MAINTENANCE OF SOIL-NAILED STRUCTURES

'.'

217

12.1 Inspections

217

12.2 Typical routine maintenance activities

219

13 FURTHER WORK AND RESEARCH

221

APPENDICES

223

Al

Worked design examples

224

A2

Additional information on detailed design of hard facings

255

A3

Typical details

261

A4

Case study of suitability test method

263

A5

Case study of the design of a widened railway cutting using soil nails with a flexible facing

267

A6

Case study of the use of actively stressed soil nails and multiple anchors to retain a steep slope

273

REFERENCES

275

CIRIA C637