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Direct Power Control of PWM Rectifier under

Unbalanced Network Using Extended Power Theory

Yongchang Zhang Jie Liu, Jihao Gao
Power Electronics and Motor Drives Power Electronics and Motor Drives
Engineering Research Center of Beijing Engineering Research Center of Beijing
North China University of Technology North China University of Technology
Beijing, China Beijing, China
Email: Email:

Abstract—The control of PWM rectifiers under unbalanced

network has become an important issue in recent years, especially
in the applications with weak grid. Conventional methods is ea 5 /
based on voltage oriented control (VOC), which requires sev-
eb a C
eral PI controllers in dual reference frame and the sequence O b RL
extraction of grid/rectifier voltages and currents. To reduce the ec c
control complexity, recently direct power control (DPC) based
solutions were proposed, which only requires to add appropriate
power compensations to the original power reference. However,
the calculation of power compensation is usually complicated.
This paper proposes a space vector modulation (SVM) based
DPC for PWM rectifier under unbalanced network, which uses Fig. 1. Topology of a two-level PWM rectifier
extended power theory rather than conventional instantaneous
power theory to obtain much simpler power compensations.
Furthermore, not only sinusoidal grid current is obtained, but postie sequence and negative sequence grid voyages and/or
also the oscillations in the dc bus voltage is also significantly currents. Furthermore, they only consider the input power
reduced. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed control, but fail to consider the output power control. In fact,
by the presented experimental results.
one of the control aims of PWM rectifier is to achieve constant
I. I NTRODUCTION dc voltage in the output side, which is directly related to the
With the development of renewable energy resources, more output active power.
and more power converters and loads are connected into the This paper proposes a novel DPC-SVM method for PWM
grid. For the applications with weak grids, the grid voltages rectifier under unbalanced network. Different from prior so-
are usually unbalanced with negative sequence voltage com- lutions using conventional power theory and sequence extrac-
ponents. Hence, developing the power control methods under tion, the proposed method uses extended power theory instead,
unbalanced network becomes an important topic in recent which is reported to be more suitable than conventional power
years [1]–[5]. As VOC is a mature and popular method to theory under unbalanced network [11]. The instantaneous
achieve power regulation and current control, many methods power of inductance is analyzed in detail using the extended
are proposed under the frame of VOC, which inherits the use power theory. It is found that to achieve constant dc voltage,
of PI controllers and synchronous transformation. The PI gains the compensation power in the input power has to be the
need fine tuning work and dual synchronous transformation same as the ripple components of inductance power. The
increases the control complexity [6]. compensation power is derived analytically and added to the
Recently DPC is proposed as a powerful method for the original power reference, using only the grid currents and
control of three-phase PWM rectifiers [7], [8]. Compared to their delayed value. The proposed method is compared to
VOC, DPC is much simpler and achieves quick dynamic conventional DPC-SVM and its effectiveness is confirmed by
response due to the elimination of current control loop. How- the presented experimental results.
ever, conventional DPC presents large power ripples and rich II. M ODEL OF PWM R ECTIFIER
current harmonics at steady state. Introducing SVM into DPC
can improve the steady state performance significantly, but The circuit of a three-phase PWM rectifier is shown in Fig.1
it cannot ensure the good quality of power and current under and its mathematical model can be expressed in stationary two-
unbalanced network. Recent study on DPC tries to improve its phase coordinate as [1]:
performance under unbalanced network by adding appropriate
power compensation into the original power references [9], di
e = Ri + L +v (1)
[10]. However, they require the use of sequence extraction of dt

978-1-5090-2998-3/17/$31.00 ©2017 IEEE 4617

where v, e and i are converter voltage vector, grid voltage From (12) and (13), the derivatives of grid current and its
vector and grid current vector, respectively; R and L are the delayed value can be calculated as
equivalent series resistance and inductance of grid filter.
According to the instantaneous power theory [12], the grid- di   

side complex power sin can be expressed as: = jω · i+ ejωt − i− e−jωt = −ωi (14)

sin =
3 ∗
i e = pin + j · qin (2) = ω · i+ ejωt + i− e−jωt = ω · i (15)
2 dt
and the complex power of rectifier side sout can be expressed The derivatives of inductance voltage and its delayed value
as: can be obtained from (14) and (15) as
uL = −ωL · i (16)
sout = i∗ v = pout + j · qout (3) uL = ωL · i (17)
where ∗ indicates the conjugate. Substituting (16) and (17) into (8) and (10), the ripple
For the unbalanced grid voltage conditions, the extended pq components of both active power and extended reactive power
theory proposed in [11] is more suitable than the original pq for the inductance can be obtained as
theory. The extended instantaneous reactive power is expressed
as: 3  

p̃L = i  uL − i  uL = − ωL i  i (18)
4 2  
nov 3
Re (i∗ e ) 3  3   2
qin = (4) nov   2  
2 q̃L = i  uL + i  uL = ωL |i| − i  (19)

4 4
where the variable e lags e by 90 electrical degrees [11].
B. Output Active Power Ripple Elimination
Under unbalanced network, the active power and the ex-
tended reactive power can be expressed as the sum of dc The dc bus voltage is related to the output active power
component and ac component [1], [13], namely ripple. If the output power ripples are zero, i.e. p̃out = q̃out =
0, the input power ripples will be exactly the same as the power
ripples of inductance, as shown in (18) and (19). Hence, in
pin = p̄in + p̃in (5) order to achieve constant dc bus voltage, the corresponding
qin nov
= q̄in nov
+ q̃in (6) compensation term S comp for input power should be:

where      2 
3  3 2  
S comp = p̃L +j·q̃L
= − ωL i  i +j· ωL |i| − i 
2 4

p̄in = ie+i e (7)
4 By adding the compensation power into the original power
reference, the final new power referenceSnew is obtained as:
p̃in = ie−i e (8)
nov 3  
Snew = S ref + S comp (21)
q̄in = ie −i e (9)
nov 3  
 The merit of using the new power reference is that the internal
q̃in = ie +i e (10) power control loop does not need to be modified. Furthermore,
III. P RINCIPLE OF P ROPOSED DPC-SVM compared to the prior power compensation techniques [9],
[10], the power compensation in (20) is not only much simpler
A. Instantaneous Power of Inductance but also more practical by taking the output active power (dc
According to conventional pq theory [12], the instantaneous bus voltage) ripple into account.
power of inductance is expressed as:
C. DPC-SVM under Unbalanced Network
3 ∗ 3 ∗ di Similar to (14) and (15), the differentiation of grid voltage
sL = (i uL ) = i ·L (11)
2 2 dt vector and its delayed value can be obtained as:
One of the control aims is to eliminate the current harmon-
ics, so the grid current and its delayed value can be expressed = jωe+ − jωe− = −ωe (22)
as the sum of positive sequence and negative sequence com- dt

ponents, which are expressed as [1], [13] de
= ωe+ + ωe− = ωe (23)
The differentiation of grid current can be obtained from (1)
i = i+ ejωt + i− e−jωt (12)
i = −j · i+ ejωt − i− e−jωt (13) di 1
= (e − v − Ri) (24)
dt L

TABLE I ea 5 /

System Parameters Symbol Value U dc

Line resistance R 0.3 Ω
U dcref
Line inductance L 10 mH  
Line-line voltage (RMS) UN 150 V 6a 6b 6c
Line voltage frequency f 50 Hz eD eE
iD iE
Load resistance RL 100 Ω
DC-side capacitor C 840 μF 690

DC-side voltage Udc 300 V
Sampling period tsp 50 μs
P ref
Substituting (22) and (24) into (5) and considering (4), the
P FRmp
Q nov comp
differentiation of input active power can be obtained as: iDc 3RZHU
3 2
|e| − Re (v ∗ e) − pin − ωqin nov 3RZHUFRPSHQVDWLRQ
dt 2L L
Similarly, the differentiation of reactive power can be ob-
Fig. 2. Control diagram of the proposed DPC-SVM.
tained from (4), (22), (23) and (24) as:

dqin 3 

= Re (e∗ − v ∗ ) e − qin nov
+ ωpin (26) Pref [400W/div]
dt 2L L
P [400W/div]
Following the principle of deadbeat power control in con-
ventional DPC-SVM [14], the equations in (25) and (26) can Pout [400W/div]

be discretized using first-order Euler method as:

Q [400W/div]

1 pref − pkin R
ω pkin
nov,k − L
R nov,k
Ts q ref − qin −ω L qin

3 ekα ekα + ekβ ekβ 3 ekα ekβ vαk
=   −   (27)
2L ekα eαk + ekβ eβk 2L eαk eβk vβk
Pref [400W/div]
Solving (27), the final converter voltage reference is calcu-
lated as [1]: P [400W/div]

 Pout [400W/div]
vαk 2 Reβk + ωLekβ −Rekβ + ωLeβk
3Δ Reαk + ωLekα −Rekα + ωLeαk Q nov [400Var/div]

pkin 2L eβk −ekβ pref − pkin
× nov,k −  ref nov,k
qin 3Ts Δ −eαk ekα q − qin (b)
Fig. 3. Responses of input active power reference, input active power, output
active power and input reactive power under one-phase grid voltage dip for
ekα (a) conventional DPC-SVM, (b) the proposed DPC-SVM.
+ (28)
where Δ = ek ⊗ e k = ekα eβk − ekβ eαk .
diagram of the proposed method. Both control algorithms
IV. E XPERIMENTAL R ESULTS are implemented on a 32-bit floating DSP TMS320F28335.
To confirm the theoretical study, both the proposed DPC- During the tests, the internal variables, such as active power,
SVM and conventional DPC-SVM [14] are tested on a pro- reactive power, are displayed and recorded using a digital
totype of two-level PWM rectifier under both balanced and oscilloscope, while the grid voltages, grid currents and dc bus
unbalanced grid voltage conditions. The difference between voltages are measured directly by the voltage/current probes
conventional DPC-SVM and the proposed DPC-SVM are connected to a scope coder DL850. The system and control
that the former uses conventional power theory without any parameters are listed in Table I, where the control period tsp
power compensations, while the latter uses extended power is 100 μs.
theory with power compensations. Fig. 2 illustrates the control The results obtained from the conventional DPC-SVM and


Uab /V


0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04
Fundamental ( 50Hz ) = 6.5842, THD = 26.6869%

Hn /H1 (%)
(a) 20


0 50 100 150 200 250
Harmonic order


Uab /V

Fig. 4. Responses of dc bus voltage, three-phase grid voltages and two-phase 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04
grid currents under one-phase grid voltage dip for (a) conventional DPC-SVM, t/s
(b) the proposed DPC-SVM. Fundamental ( 50Hz ) = 8.449, THD = 1.5668%
Hn /H1 (%)

the proposed DPC-SVM under the condition of the one-
phase grid voltage dip are shown in Fig. 3 and 4, with the 0.5
results obtained from conventional DPC-SVM on the left half,
the proposed DPC-SVM on the right half. The active power 0
0 50 100 150 200 250
reference is 1000 W, and the reactive power reference is 0 Var Harmonic order
to achieve unity power factor. From top to bottom, the curves (b)
in Fig. 3 are the input active power reference, input active
Fig. 5. Harmonic spectrum of one-phase grid current at steady state of P=1000
power, output active power and reactive power, respectively. W and Q=0 Var for (a) conventional DPC-SVM, and (b) the proposed DPC-
The dc bus voltage, three-phase grid voltages, two-phase grid SVM.
currents are illustrated in Fig. 4. It is seen that, for the
conventional DPC-SVM, although the input active power and
reactive power have small ripples, there are significant ripples of grid voltage unbalance.
in the output active power, which accounts for high oscillations Figs. 6 and 7 further show the dynamic responses for both
in the dc bus voltage (1.6 V) and distorted grid currents. conventional DPC-SVM and the proposed DPC-SVM when
On the contrary, for the proposed DPC-SVM, the oscillations the active power reference steps from 600 W to 1000 W. The
in the dc bus voltage are significantly reduced to 0.448 V reference of reactive power is set to zero to achieve unity
with small ripples in the output active power ripple. The grid power factor. It is clearly seen that the ripple component
currents are sinusoidal with much reduced harmonics. Due to of the dc voltage in the proposed method is much smaller
the power compensation, the input active power and reactive than that of conventional DPC-SVM, even in the dynamic
power are now oscillating at twice grid-frequency. However, process. Furthermore, the grid current of the proposed method
the dc component still tracks the original reference value, is sinusoidal in shape, exhibiting much lower harmonics than
which means average unity power factor is achieved. that of conventional method. The results clearly confirm that
the proposed method is effective in both steady state response
The harmonic spectrum of one-phase grid current at P =
and dynamic process.
1000 W and Q = 0 Var is shown in Fig. 5, where the current
THD is calculated up to 250th order (12.5 kHz) harmonics. It
is clearly seen that, in spite of the grid voltage unbalance, the
current THD of the proposed DPC-SVM is only 1.57%, which This paper proposes a novel DPC method for PWM rectifier
is much lower than the value of 26.69% in the conventional under unbalanced network. Compared to prior solutions, the
DPC-SVM. This clearly shows that the proposed DPC-SVM merits of the proposed methods are threefold. Firstly, a power
can achieve sinusoidal grid current even under the condition compensation block is added only to the original power

reference without modifying the internal power control loop,
which is easy to implement. Secondly, due to the use of
extended power theory and analysis of the power ripples
in the inductance, a very simple and straightforward power
compensation is obtained. Finally, not only the grid current
harmonics are reduced, but also the output active power ripple
are considered. In the prior solutions, only the input power and
grid currents are considered, which cannot ensure constant dc
voltage in the output side. A comparative study with conven-
(a) tional DPC-SVM using conventional pq theory is carried out
and the experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the
proposed method.


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