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Performance

MATHEMATICS

New Delhi

Year 2018

__________________________________________________________________________________

Published by:

Research Development and Consultancy Division (RDCD)

Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations

Pragati House, 3rd Floor

47-48, Nehru Place

New Delhi-110019

E-mail: council@cisce.org

All rights reserved. The copyright to this publication and any part thereof solely vests in the Council for

the Indian School Certificate Examinations. This publication and no part thereof may be reproduced,

transmitted, distributed or stored in any manner whatsoever, without the prior written approval of the

Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations.

FOREWORD

This document of the Analysis of Pupils’ Performance at the ISC Year 12 and ICSE Year 10

Examination is one of its kind. It has grown and evolved over the years to provide feedback to

schools in terms of the strengths and weaknesses of the candidates in handling the examinations.

We commend the work of Mrs. Shilpi Gupta (Deputy Head) of the Research Development and

Consultancy Division (RDCD) of the Council and her team, who have painstakingly prepared this

analysis. We are grateful to the examiners who have contributed through their comments on the

performance of the candidates under examination as well as for their suggestions to teachers and

students for the effective transaction of the syllabus.

We hope the schools will find this document useful. We invite comments from schools on its

utility and quality.

Gerry Arathoon

October 2018 Chief Executive & Secretary

i

PREFACE

The Council has been involved in the preparation of the ICSE and ISC Analysis of Pupil Performance

documents since the year 1994. Over these years, these documents have facilitated the teaching-learning

process by providing subject/ paper wise feedback to teachers regarding performance of students at the ICSE

and ISC Examinations. With the aim of ensuring wider accessibility to all stakeholders, from the year 2014,

the ICSE and the ISC documents have been made available on the Council’s website www.cisce.org.

The documents include a detailed qualitative analysis of the performance of students in different subjects

which comprises of examiners’ comments on common errors made by candidates, topics found difficult or

confusing, marking scheme for each answer and suggestions for teachers/ candidates.

In addition to a detailed qualitative analysis, the Analysis of Pupil Performance documents for the Examination

Year 2018 have a component of a detailed quantitative analysis. For each subject dealt with in the document,

both at the ICSE and the ISC levels, a detailed statistical analysis has been done, which has been presented in

a simple user-friendly manner.

It is hoped that this document will not only enable teachers to understand how their students have performed

with respect to other students who appeared for the ICSE/ISC Year 2018 Examinations, but also provide

information on how they have performed within the Region or State, their performance as compared to other

Regions or States, etc. It will also help develop a better understanding of the assessment/ evaluation process.

This will help teachers in guiding their students more effectively and comprehensively so that students prepare

for the ICSE/ ISC Examinations, with a better understanding of what is required from them.

The Analysis of Pupil Performance document for ICSE for the Examination Year 2018 covers the following

subjects: English (English Language, Literature in English), Hindi, History, Civics and Geography (History

and Civics, Geography), Mathematics, Science (Physics, Chemistry, Biology), Commercial Studies,

Economics, Computer Applications, Economic Applications, Commercial Applications.

Subjects covered in the ISC Analysis of Pupil Performance document for the Year 2018 include English

(English Language and Literature in English), Hindi, Elective English, Physics (Theory), Chemistry (Theory),

Biology (Theory), Mathematics, Computer Science, History, Political Science, Geography, Sociology,

Psychology, Economics, Commerce, Accounts and Business Studies.

I would like to acknowledge the contribution of all the ICSE and the ISC examiners who have been an integral

part of this exercise, whose valuable inputs have helped put this document together.

I would also like to thank the RDCD team of, Dr. M.K. Gandhi, Dr. Manika Sharma, Mrs. Roshni George and

Mrs. Mansi Guleria who have done a commendable job in preparing this document.

Shilpi Gupta

October 2018 Deputy Head - RDCD

ii

CONTENTS

Page No.

FOREWORD i

PREFACE ii

INTRODUCTION 1

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS 3

QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS 10

INTRODUCTION

This document aims to provide a comprehensive picture of the performance of candidates in the

subject. It comprises of two sections, which provide Quantitative and Qualitative analysis results in

terms of performance of candidates in the subject for the ISC Year 2018 Examination. The details of

the Quantitative and the Qualitative analysis are given below.

Quantitative Analysis

This section provides a detailed statistical analysis of the following:

State wise Performance of Candidates

Gender wise comparison of Overall Performance

Region wise comparison of Performance

Comparison of Region wise performance on the basis of Gender

Comparison of performance in different Mark Ranges and comparison on the basis of Gender for

the top and bottom ranges

Comparison of performance in different Grade categories and comparison on the basis of Gender

for the top and bottom grades

The data has been presented in the form of means, frequencies and bar graphs.

Each of the comparison tables shows N (Number of candidates), Mean Marks obtained, Standard

Errors and t-values with the level of significance. For t-test, mean values compared with their

standard errors indicate whether an observed difference is likely to be a true difference or whether it

has occurred by chance. The t-test has been applied using a confidence level of 95%, which means

that if a difference is marked as ‘statistically significant’ (with * mark, refer to t-value column of the

table), the probability of the difference occurring by chance is less than 5%. In other words, we are

95% confident that the difference between the two values is true.

t-test has been used to observe significant differences in the performance of boys and girls, gender

wise differences within regions (North, East, South and West), gender wise differences within marks

ranges (Top and bottom ranges) and gender wise differences within grades awarded (Grade 1 and

Grade 9) at the ISC Year 2018 Examination.

The analysed data has been depicted in a simple and user-friendly manner.

1

Given below is an example showing the comparison tables used in this section and the manner in

which they should be interpreted.

between the performances of boys

and girls in a particular subject.

Comparison on the basis of Gender

The t-value of 11.91 is significant at

Gender N Mean SE t-value 0.05 level (mentioned below the

Girls 2,538 66.1 0.29 table) with a mean of girls as 66.1

11.91*

Boys 1,051 60.1 0.42 and that of boys as 60.1. It means

*Significant at 0.05 level

that there is significant difference

between the performance of boys

and girls in the subject. The

probability of this difference

occurring by chance is less than 5%.

The mean value of girls is higher

than that of boys. It can be

interpreted that girls are performing

significantly better than boys.

pictographically. In this case, the girls

performed significantly better than the

boys. This is depicted by the girl with a

medal.

Qualitative Analysis

The purpose of the qualitative analysis is to provide insights into how candidates have performed in

individual questions set in the question paper. This section is based on inputs provided by examiners

from examination centres across the country. It comprises of question wise feedback on the

performance of candidates in the form of Comments of Examiners on the common errors made by

candidates along with Suggestions for Teachers to rectify/ reduce these errors. The Marking Scheme

for each question has also been provided to help teachers understand the criteria used for marking.

Topics in the question paper that were generally found to be difficult or confusing by candidates,

have also been listed down, along with general suggestions for candidates on how to prepare for the

examination/ perform better in the examination.

2

STATISTICS AT A GLANCE

Total Number of

Candidates: 48,166

58.5 Lowest Marks: 0

3

PERFORMANCE (STATE-WISE & FOREIGN)

Uttarakhand 62.2

Uttar Pradesh 58.0

Tripura 37.1

Telangana 61.2

Tamil Nadu 69.3

Sikkim 43.5

Rajasthan 52.6

Punjab 56.6

Odisha 48.3

New Delhi 71.2

Meghalaya 51.9

Manipur 15.6

Maharashtra 72.4

Madhya Pradesh 60.8

Kerala 59.6

Karnataka 69.0

Jharkhand 51.1

Himachal Pradesh 65.1

Haryana 74.2

Gujarat 61.9

Goa 64.6

Chhattisgarh 52.9

Chandigarh 65.5

Bihar 60.0

Assam 81.7

Andhra Pradesh 63.0

Foreign 74.2

highest mean marks. Mean marks secured by candidates

studying in schools abroad were 74.2.

4

GENDER-WISE COMPARISON

GIRLS BOYS

Number of Number of

Candidates: 18,926 Candidates: 29,240

Gender N Mean SE t-value

Girls 18,926 61.1 0.17

18.76*

Boys 29,240 56.9 0.15

*Significant at 0.05 level

5

REGION-WISE COMPARISON

East North

Number of Number of

Candidates: 19,778 Candidates: 20,920

Lowest Marks: 0 Lowest Marks: 0

REGION

Mean Marks: 63.5 Mean Marks: 68.1

Number of Number of

Candidates: 4,846 Candidates: 2,413

Lowest Marks: 0 Mean Marks: 74.2 Lowest Marks: 0

Candidates: 209

Lowest Marks: 18

Foreign

6

Mean Marks obtained by Boys and Girls-Region wise

81.0

71.8 70.0

65.2 65.6

62.6 62.0

57.1 57.1

54.1

Region Gender N Mean SE t-value

Girls 7,215 62.6 0.26

North (N) Boys 13,705 57.1 0.21

16.11*

Girls 8,338 57.1 0.26

East (E) Boys 11,440 54.1 0.25

8.40*

Girls 2,326 65.2 0.41

South (S) Boys 2,520 62.0 0.44

5.25*

Girls 968 71.8 0.69

West (W) Boys 1,445 65.6 0.64

6.58*

Girls 79 81.0 1.80

Foreign (F) Boys 130 70.0 1.80

4.31*

*Significant at 0.05 level

significantly better than that of

boys in all the regions.

7

MARK RANGES :

COMPARISON GENDER-WISE

Marks Range Gender N Mean SE t-value

Girls 4,415 89.8 0.08

Top Range (81-100) Boys 6,245 90.0 0.07

-1.63

Girls 1,194 12.0 0.17

Bottom Range (0-20) Boys 3,256 10.5 0.11

7.32*

*Significant at 0.05 level

Marks Range (81-100)

90.0

81 - 100 89.8

89.9

70.4

61 - 80 70.6

70.5

Marks Range (0-20)

49.9

41 - 60 50.3

50.1

33.6

21 - 40 34.1

Marks Range (0-20) 33.8

10.5

0 - 20 12.0

10.9

8

GRADES AWARDED :

COMPARISON GENDER-WISE

Girls 2,142 94.8 0.07

Grade 1 Boys 3,141 94.8 0.05

-0.12

Girls 1,872 16.7 0.18

Grade 9 Boys 4,675 14.9 0.12

8.13*

*Significant at 0.05 level

94.8

Grade 1 1 94.8

94.8

84.6

2 84.6

84.6

74.5

3 74.6

74.6

64.4

4 64.5

Grade 9 64.5

56.9

5 56.9

56.9

52.2

6 52.1

52.2

47.0

7 47.1

Grade 9 47.0

39.6

8 39.8

39.7

14.9

9 16.7

15.4

9

QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS

[10×2]

Question 1

(i) The binary operation ∗ : R × R → R is defined as a ∗ b = 2a + b.

Find (2 ∗ 3) ∗ 4.

5 𝑎𝑎

(ii) If A = � � and A is symmetric matrix, show that 𝑎𝑎 = 𝑏𝑏

𝑏𝑏 0

(iii) Solve: 3tan-1x + cot-1x = 𝜋𝜋

𝑎𝑎 𝑏𝑏 𝑐𝑐

�𝑎𝑎 + 2𝑥𝑥 𝑏𝑏 + 2𝑦𝑦 𝑐𝑐 + 2𝑧𝑧�

𝑥𝑥 𝑦𝑦 𝑧𝑧

(v) Find the value of constant ‘k’ so that the function f(x) defined as:

𝑥𝑥 2 −2𝑥𝑥−3

f(x) = 𝑥𝑥+1

, 𝑥𝑥 ≠ −1

k , x = −1

is continuous at 𝑥𝑥 = −1.

(vi) Find the approximate change in the volume ‘𝑉𝑉’ of a cube of side x metres caused

by decreasing the side by 1%.

𝑥𝑥 3 +5𝑥𝑥 2 +4𝑥𝑥+1

(vii) Evaluate: ∫ 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑.

𝑥𝑥 2

(viii) Find the differential equation of the family of concentric circles x2+ y2 = a2

(ix) 1 1 1

If A and B are events such that P(A) = 2 , P(B) = 3 and P(A∩B) = 4 , then find:

(a) P (𝐴𝐴⁄𝐵𝐵 )

(b) P (𝐵𝐵⁄𝐴𝐴)

1 1

(x) In a race, the probabilities of A and B winning the race are 3 and 6 respectively.

Find the probability of neither of them winning the race.

10

Comments of Examiners

(i) Many candidates used conventional Suggestions for teachers

multiplication operation instead of the operation − Give adequate practice for the

as defined in the question. comprehension of well-defined

(ii) A few candidates could not solve the problem mathematical operations.

based on symmetric matrix. − Explain basic concepts, definitions

(iii) A large number of candidates attempted to solve thoroughly to students and give

by using formula of 3tan-1x but could not ample practice of solving problems

succeed solving further. Most candidates based on fundamental concepts.

attempted this question using long calculations − Clarify the conversion of inverse

instead of using simple fundamental concepts. circular functions (one to another

(iv) Many candidates expanded the determinant to form) to students. Also provide

solve it, though it was clearly mentioned in the sufficient practice for conversion

through diagram and by using

question - find the value of the determinant formulae.

without expansion at any stage. − Train students to solve questions by

(v) Many candidates made errors in calculating using proper logic and reasoning.

LHL and RHL and some of the candidates could − Illustrate properties of determinants

not solve it further. in detail. Give extensive practice in

(vi) Many candidates did not have an idea of different types of questions based on

approximation concept as application of properties of determinants.

differentiation and a few candidates made − Interpret the concept of continuous

mistakes in writing the final answer in the and discontinuous functions giving

correct form. illustrations.

(vii) This question was attempted correctly by most − Explain the concept of

of the candidates. Some of the candidates made approximation as one of the

errors in simplifying the expression before applications of differentiation and

give enough practice to students.

integration.

− Train students to simplify different

(viii) Many candidates did not have an idea of

types of algebraic expressions in the

formation of differential equation and made form of required simplest form for

errors while solving it. integration.

(ix) Most of the candidates attempted this question − Inculcate in students the

correctly but a few got confused while fundamentals on formation of

presenting the solution and result in proper differential equations and concepts

manner. of identifying the order and degree

(x) A large number of candidates could not find the of the equation.

probability of neither of them winning the race − Emphasise the concept of

correctly. conditional probability with

illustrations.

− Discuss the concept of an event,

complement of an event and the idea

of finding the probability of neither

of the events occurring at a time.

11

MARKING SCHEME

Question 1

(i) a∗b = 2a + b

2∗3 = 2.2 + 3 = 7

(2∗3) ∗4 = 7∗4

= 2·7+4 = 18

5 𝑎𝑎

(ii) A=� �

𝑏𝑏 0

A is symmetric matrix → A = A1

5 𝑏𝑏

A1 = � �

𝑎𝑎 0

5 𝑎𝑎 5 𝑏𝑏

∵ A = A1 ⇒� �= � �

𝑏𝑏 0 𝑎𝑎 0

⇒ a = b.

(iii) 3tan-1x + cot-1x = 𝜋𝜋

⇒ 2𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑛𝑛−1 + tan−1 𝑥𝑥 + 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑡𝑡 −1 𝑥𝑥 = 𝜋𝜋

𝜋𝜋

2tan-1x + 2 = 𝜋𝜋

𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋

2tan-1x = 𝜋𝜋 − 2 = 2

𝜋𝜋

tan-1x = 4 ⇒ 𝑥𝑥 = 1

R: R 1 + 2R 3

(iv)

𝑎𝑎 𝑏𝑏 𝑐𝑐 𝑎𝑎 + 2𝑥𝑥 𝑏𝑏 + 2𝑦𝑦 𝑐𝑐 + 2𝑧𝑧

�𝑎𝑎 + 2𝑥𝑥 𝑏𝑏 + 2𝑦𝑦 𝑐𝑐 + 2𝑧𝑧� = �𝑎𝑎 + 2𝑥𝑥 𝑏𝑏 + 2𝑦𝑦 𝑐𝑐 + 2𝑧𝑧� = 0

𝑥𝑥 𝑦𝑦 𝑧𝑧 𝑥𝑥 𝑦𝑦 𝑧𝑧

(v) 2

𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 𝑥𝑥 − 2𝑥𝑥 − 3 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 (𝑥𝑥 + 1)(𝑥𝑥 − 3)

∴ =

𝑥𝑥 → −1 𝑥𝑥 + 1 𝑥𝑥 → −1 𝑥𝑥 + 1

𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 (𝑥𝑥

= − 3) = −4

𝑥𝑥 → −1

𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥)

= 𝑓𝑓(−1)

𝑥𝑥 → −1

∴ 𝑘𝑘 = −4

(vi) v = x3

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 1

= 3𝑥𝑥 2 , 𝛿𝛿𝛿𝛿 = 𝑥𝑥

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 100

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 2

𝑥𝑥 3𝑥𝑥 3

𝛿𝛿𝛿𝛿 = . 𝛿𝛿𝛿𝛿 = 3𝑥𝑥 . = = 0 · 03𝑥𝑥 3 𝑚𝑚3

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 100 100

𝑥𝑥 3 +5𝑥𝑥 2 +4𝑥𝑥+1

(vii) ∫ 𝑥𝑥 2

dx

4 1

= ∫(𝑥𝑥 + 5 + 𝑥𝑥 + ) 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

𝑥𝑥 2

12

𝑥𝑥 2 −1

= + 5𝑥𝑥 + 4𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 + + 𝑐𝑐

2 𝑥𝑥

differentiate with respect to x

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

2x + 2y𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = 0

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

⇒ x + y𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = 0

1

(ix) (a) 𝑃𝑃(𝐴𝐴∩𝑩𝑩) 3

P (𝐴𝐴⁄𝐵𝐵 ) = = 4

1� =

𝑃𝑃(𝐵𝐵) 3 4

1

(b) 𝑃𝑃(𝐴𝐴∩𝑩𝑩) 2 1

P (𝐵𝐵⁄𝐴𝐴) = 4

1� = =

𝑃𝑃(𝐴𝐴) 2 4 2

1 2

(x) P(A) = 3 𝑃𝑃(𝐴𝐴̅) = 3

1 5

P(B) = 6 𝑃𝑃(𝐵𝐵�) = 6

Probability of neither of them winning the race: 𝑃𝑃(𝐴𝐴̅). 𝑃𝑃(𝐵𝐵�)

2 5 5

= 3.6 = 9

Question 2 [4]

If the function f(x) = √2𝑥𝑥 − 3 is invertible then find its inverse. Hence prove that

(𝑓𝑓𝑜𝑜𝑓𝑓 −1 ) (𝑥𝑥) = 𝑥𝑥.

Comments of Examiners

Suggestions for teachers

A number of candidates did not read the question

carefully and made an attempt to prove that the given Instruct students to read the questions

function is invertible instead of proving (fof-1) (x)=x. carefully.

MARKING SCHEME

Question 2

Let y = f(x) = √2𝑥𝑥 − 3

y2 = 2x – 3

𝑦𝑦 2 +3

x= 2

𝑦𝑦 2 +3

⇒ 𝑓𝑓 −1 (y) = 2

𝑥𝑥 2 +3

𝑓𝑓 −1 (x) = 2

(𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 −1 )(x) = 𝑓𝑓[𝑓𝑓 −1 (𝑥𝑥)]

𝑥𝑥 2 +3 𝑥𝑥 2 +3

=f( ) =�2. −3 =x

2 2

13

[4]

Question 3

If tan−1 𝑎𝑎 + tan−1 𝑏𝑏 + tan−1 𝑐𝑐 = 𝜋𝜋, prove that 𝑎𝑎 + 𝑏𝑏 + 𝑐𝑐 = 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎.

Comments of Examiners

Suggestions for teachers

Many candidates applied the correct formula but

Give adequate practice in solving

made errors while solving further hence, couldn’t get

problems on different types of inverse

the required result. trigonometric functions.

MARKING SCHEME

Question 3

tan-1a + tan-1b + tan-1c =𝜋𝜋

𝑎𝑎+𝑏𝑏

tan-1�1−𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎� + tan−1 𝑐𝑐=𝜋𝜋

𝑎𝑎+𝑏𝑏

+𝑐𝑐

tan �

-1 1−𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎

𝑎𝑎+𝑏𝑏 �=𝜋𝜋

1− 𝑐𝑐

1−𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎

𝑎𝑎+𝑏𝑏+𝑐𝑐−𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎

tan-11−𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎−𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎−𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏 = 𝜋𝜋

𝑎𝑎+𝑏𝑏+𝑐𝑐−𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎

⇒1−𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎−𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎−𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏 = tan 𝜋𝜋 = 0

⇒ a+b+c = abc

𝑎𝑎+𝑏𝑏

Alternate: tan-1�1−𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎� = 𝜋𝜋−tan-1c

𝑎𝑎+𝑏𝑏

1−𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎

= tan (𝜋𝜋 − 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑛𝑛−1c)

𝑎𝑎+𝑏𝑏

=−c

1−𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎

a+b+c = abc

[4]

Question 4

Use properties of determinants to solve for x:

𝑥𝑥 + 𝑎𝑎 𝑏𝑏 𝑐𝑐

� 𝑐𝑐 𝑥𝑥 + 𝑏𝑏 𝑎𝑎 � = 0 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑥𝑥 ≠ 0.

𝑎𝑎 𝑏𝑏 𝑥𝑥 + 𝑐𝑐

Comments of Examiners

Most of the candidates made errors while applying

Suggestions for teachers

the properties of determinants in the correct order. Elucidate all properties of

Hence, they failed to take common factor determinants and their application.

(x+ a+ b+ c) and could not simplify the

determinant.

14

MARKING SCHEME

Question 4

C1 + C2 + C3

𝑥𝑥 + 𝑎𝑎 + 𝑏𝑏 + 𝑐𝑐 𝑏𝑏 𝑐𝑐 1 𝑏𝑏 𝑐𝑐

�𝑥𝑥 + 𝑎𝑎 + 𝑏𝑏 + 𝑐𝑐 𝑥𝑥 + 𝑏𝑏 𝑎𝑎 � = (x + a + b + c) �1 𝑥𝑥 + 𝑏𝑏 𝑎𝑎 �

𝑥𝑥 + 𝑎𝑎 + 𝑏𝑏 + 𝑐𝑐 𝑏𝑏 𝑥𝑥 + 𝑐𝑐 1 𝑏𝑏 𝑥𝑥 + 𝑐𝑐

R 1 −R 3

0 0 −𝑥𝑥

(x+a+b+c). �1 𝑥𝑥 + 𝑏𝑏 𝑎𝑎 �

1 𝑏𝑏 𝑥𝑥 + 𝑐𝑐

(x + a+ b + c). [-𝑥𝑥 (b – x – b)]

x2 (x + a + b + c) = 0

⇒x = - (a + b + c)

[4]

Question 5

𝑥𝑥 2 , 𝑥𝑥 ≤ 1

(a) Show that the function f(x) = 1 is continuous at x = 1 but not

, 𝑥𝑥 > 1

𝑥𝑥

differentiable.

OR

(b) Verify Rolle’s theorem for the following function: 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = 𝑒𝑒 −𝑥𝑥 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑥𝑥 on [0, 𝜋𝜋]

Comments of Examiners

(a) Many candidates successfully attempted Suggestions for teachers

continuity of the function correctly but failed to − Explain the concept of continuity and

calculate LH derivative and RH derivative. differentiability of a function with

(b) While this question was attempted correctly by ample examples.

majority of the candidates, a few candidates could − Explain the Mean value theorem in

not write the correct intervals. detail including difference between the

closed and open intervals with their

significance by sketching the graph of

the same.

MARKING SCHEME

Question 5

(a) 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 𝑥𝑥 2

LHL: =1

𝑥𝑥 → 1− 𝑥𝑥 → 1−

1

𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙

RHL 𝑥𝑥 =1

𝑥𝑥 → 1+ 𝑥𝑥 → 1+

∴ 𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿 = 𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅

The f(x) is continuous at x = 1

𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 𝑓𝑓(1 + ℎ) − 𝑓𝑓(1) 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 (1 + ℎ)2 − 1

𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿 = = =2

ℎ → 0− ℎ ℎ → 0− ℎ

15

1

𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 𝑓𝑓(1+ℎ)−𝑓𝑓(1) 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 −1 −ℎ

RHD = + = 1+ℎ

=

ℎ→0 ℎ ℎ → 0+ ℎ ℎ(1+ℎ)

LHD ≠ RHD

⇒f is not derivable at x = 1.

OR

(b) f(x) = e-x sin x is continuous in [0, 𝜋𝜋]

f1(x) = e-x (cos x − sin x) exists in (0, 𝜋𝜋)

f (0) = f (𝜋𝜋) = 0

Rolle’s theorem conditions are satisfied.

∴ there exists at least one value of x = c

such that f1(c) = 0

∴ f 1 (c) = e−𝑐𝑐 (cos c – sinc) = 0

⇒𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 − 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 = 0

⇒𝑐𝑐 = 𝜋𝜋�4 𝜖𝜖 (0, 𝜋𝜋)

[4]

Question 6

1 𝑑𝑑2 𝑦𝑦 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

If 𝑥𝑥 = 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡 �𝑎𝑎 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 𝑦𝑦� , 𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 𝑡𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 (1 + 𝑥𝑥 2 ) 𝑑𝑑𝑥𝑥 2 + (2𝑥𝑥 − 𝑎𝑎) 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = 0

Comments of Examiners

Most of the candidates successfully attempted the

Suggestions for teachers

first derivative part but made errors in differentiating Train students to solve different types of

second time by applying chain rule. Some candidates questions and proving the result in the

could not simplify to get the required result. process of differentiating and

simplifying the equation.

MARKING SCHEME

Question 6

1

x = tan �𝑎𝑎 log 𝑦𝑦�

1

log 𝑦𝑦 = 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑛𝑛−1 𝑥𝑥

𝑎𝑎

1 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 1

. = 𝑎𝑎.

𝑦𝑦 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 1 + 𝑥𝑥 2

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

(1 + 𝑥𝑥 2 ) = 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

𝑑𝑑2 𝑦𝑦 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

(1 + 𝑥𝑥 2 ) 2 + 2𝑥𝑥. = 𝑎𝑎

𝑑𝑑𝑥𝑥 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

2

𝑑𝑑 𝑦𝑦 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

(1 + 𝑥𝑥 2 ) 2 + (2𝑥𝑥 − 𝑎𝑎) =0

𝑑𝑑𝑥𝑥 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

16

[4]

Question 7

Evaluate: ∫ 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡−1 √𝑥𝑥 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

Comments of Examiners

Most of the candidates made errors in Suggestions for teachers

substitution and simplification or applying

integration by parts concept for further Give adequate practice in solving

problems based on integration by parts.

simplification.

MARKING SCHEME

Question 7

∫ 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡−1 √𝑥𝑥dx let √𝑥𝑥 = 𝑡𝑡

x = t2

dx = 2tdt

2 � 𝑡𝑡 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑛𝑛−1 (𝑡𝑡)𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

𝑡𝑡 2 1 𝑡𝑡 2

2 �𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑛𝑛−1 (𝑡𝑡). − ∫ 1+𝑡𝑡 2 . 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑�

2

2 −1 (𝑡𝑡)

𝑡𝑡 2

= 𝑡𝑡 . 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡 −� 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

1 + 𝑡𝑡 2

1

= 𝑡𝑡 2 . 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡−1 (𝑡𝑡) − ∫ 1𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 + ∫ 1+𝑡𝑡 2 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

= 𝑡𝑡 2 . 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡−1 (𝑡𝑡) − 𝑡𝑡 + 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡−1 (𝑡𝑡) + 𝑐𝑐

= 𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑛𝑛−1 √𝑥𝑥 − √𝑥𝑥 + 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑛𝑛−1 √𝑥𝑥 + 𝑐𝑐

Question 8 [4]

(a) Find the points on the curve 𝑦𝑦 = 4𝑥𝑥 3 – 3𝑥𝑥 + 5 at which the equation of the

tangent is parallel to the x-axis.

OR

𝜋𝜋

(b) Water is dripping out from a conical funnel of semi-vertical angle 4 at the uniform

rate of 2 cm2/sec in the surface, through a tiny hole at the vertex of the bottom. When

the slant height of the water level is 4 cm, find the rate of decrease of the slant height

of the water.

(a) This question was solved correctly by most of − Explain geometrical interpretation of

the candidates. A few candidates made differentiation with ample examples.

mistakes while finding the point of contact at − Interpret all concepts of application of

which the equation of tangent to the curve derivatives and allow students to

where tangent is parallel to the x-axis. practice a number of problems based

(b) Many candidates considered volume as on derivatives.

function instead of surface area. Majority of − Emphasise the difference between rate

candidates did not apply proper sign though it of increase and rate of decrease.

17

was specified in the question that find the rate of decrease of the slant height of the water.

MARKING SCHEME

Question 8

(a) y = 4x3 – 3x + 5

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

= 12𝑥𝑥 3 − 3

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

∵tangent is parallel to x – axis 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = 0

1

∴ 12𝑥𝑥 2 − 3 = 0 ⇒ 𝑥𝑥 = ± 2

1 3 1 3 1−3+10

when x = 1�2 , y = 4·8 − 2 + 5 = 2

−2+5= 2

=4

1

(2 , 4)

1 −1 3 −1 3

𝑥𝑥 = − 2 , 𝑦𝑦 = 4 · 8

+2+5= 2

+2+5

−1 + 3 + 10

=6

2

1

(− 2 , 6)

OR

(b) Let 𝑟𝑟 be the radius and 𝑙𝑙 be the slant height of water surface.

sin 𝜋𝜋�4 = 𝑙𝑙

𝑟𝑟

1

S = 𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑟𝑟 = 𝑙𝑙 · r

√2

…

………..

… ……

…………

… …

𝑙𝑙 1 …….

… … l

= 𝜋𝜋. 𝑙𝑙. = 𝜋𝜋 𝑙𝑙 2 …….

… …

….

√2 √2 …

…

… 𝜋𝜋�

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 1 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 4

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

= 𝜋𝜋. 2𝑙𝑙. 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

√2

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

given that𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = −2 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐2 /𝑠𝑠

𝜋𝜋 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

−2 = .2 𝑙𝑙. 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

√2

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 −√2

𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑙𝑙 = 4 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 , = 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐/𝑠𝑠

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 4𝜋𝜋

[4]

Question 9

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑥𝑥

(a) Solve: 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 − 𝑦𝑦 = 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠. tan 2

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

OR

(b) The population of a town grows at the rate of 10% per year. Using differential

equation, find how long will it take for the population to grow 4 times.

18

Comments of Examiners

(a) Most candidates made errors while

transforming into linear differential equation Suggestions for teachers

and in finding the integrating factor. Many

- Illustrate all types of differential

candidates did not express the answer in terms equations with their applications and

of constant ‘C’. give adequate practice on various

(b) Not many candidates attempted this question types of problems.

correctly. Some candidates did not have any - Explain the significance of constant

basic knowledge of applications of differential in the solution of differential

equations while a few candidates did not use equation.

the initial value correctly.

MARKING SCHEME

Question 9

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑥𝑥

Sin x 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 − 𝑦𝑦 = 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠. 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡 2

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑥𝑥

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

− 𝑦𝑦. 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 𝑥𝑥 = tan 2

𝑥𝑥

1

I.F = 𝑒𝑒 ∫ 𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃 = 𝑒𝑒 − log tan2 = 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑥𝑥

�2

= ∫ 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡 𝑥𝑥�2 . 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑥𝑥 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 + 𝑐𝑐

1 1

Sol. 𝑦𝑦. 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑥𝑥

�2 �2

1

𝑦𝑦. 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑥𝑥 = 𝑥𝑥 + 𝑐𝑐

�2

𝑦𝑦. cot 𝑥𝑥�2 = 𝑥𝑥 + 𝑐𝑐

(b) Let initial population be: 𝑃𝑃0 and population after 𝑡𝑡 years be 𝑃𝑃.

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 1

= 10% 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑃𝑃 ⟹ = 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑃𝑃 10

1 1

� 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = � 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

𝑃𝑃 10

1

log 𝑃𝑃 = . 𝑡𝑡 + 𝑐𝑐

10

When 𝑡𝑡 = 0, 𝑃𝑃 = 𝑃𝑃0 ⟹ log 𝑃𝑃0 = 𝑐𝑐

1

log 𝑃𝑃 = . 𝑡𝑡 + log 𝑃𝑃0

10

𝑃𝑃 1

log = . 𝑡𝑡

𝑃𝑃0 10

Since population grows 4 times, 𝑃𝑃 = 4𝑃𝑃0

1

∴ log 4 = 10 . 𝑡𝑡 ⟹ 𝑡𝑡 = 10 log 4 = 20 log 2years

19

[6]

Question 10

(a) Using matrices, solve the following system of equations:

2𝑥𝑥 – 3𝑦𝑦 + 5𝑧𝑧 = 11

3𝑥𝑥 + 2𝑦𝑦 – 4𝑧𝑧 = −5

𝑥𝑥 + 𝑦𝑦 – 2𝑧𝑧 = – 3

OR

(b) Using elementary transformation, find the inverse of the matrix:

0 1 2

�1 2 3�

3 1 1

Comments of Examiners

(a) Most of the candidates attempted the question Suggestions for teachers

correctly. A few candidates made errors while − Explain every property of matrices

calculating cofactors which resulted in incorrect with a number of examples.

adjoint matrix. − Stress upon developing logical and

(b) A few candidates applied both row and column reasoning skills to apply the correct

operations in the same matrix. In a number of property of matrix.

cases, errors were committed by at the third − Ensure that basic concepts of inverse of

stage of simplification and further. a matrix and its properties are clear to

students. Adequate practice should be

given to students for solving equations

by inverse matrix method.

MARKING SCHEME

Question 10

(a) Solve the following system of equations:

2𝑥𝑥 − 3𝑦𝑦 + 5𝑧𝑧 = 11

3𝑥𝑥 + 2𝑦𝑦 − 4𝑧𝑧 = −5

𝑥𝑥 + 𝑦𝑦 − 2𝑧𝑧 = −3

2 −3 5 𝑥𝑥 11

�3 2 −4� �𝑦𝑦� = �−5� det A = −1

1 1 −2 𝑧𝑧 −3

𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 = 𝐵𝐵

𝑋𝑋 = 𝐴𝐴−1 𝐵𝐵

0 −1 2

Adj A= �2 −9 23�

1 −5 13

20

𝑥𝑥 1

𝑦𝑦

𝑋𝑋 = � � = . 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎. 𝐵𝐵

𝑧𝑧 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

0 −1 2 11

1

= −1 �2 −9 23� �−5�

1 −5 13 −3

1

= �2�

3

∴ 𝑥𝑥 = 1, 𝑦𝑦 = 2. 𝑧𝑧 = 3

OR

(b) Using

0 1 2 1 0 0

�1 2 3� = �0 1 0� 𝐴𝐴

3 1 1 0 0 1

R 3 :R 3−3𝑅𝑅2

0 1 2 1 0 0

�1 2 3 � = �0 1 0� 𝐴𝐴

0 −5 −8 0 −3 1

R 1↔ R 2

1 2 3 0 1 0

�0 1 2 � = �1 0 0� 𝐴𝐴

0 −5 −8 0 −3 1

R 3 : R 3 + 5R 2

1 2 3 0 1 0

�0 1 2� = �1 0 0� 𝐴𝐴

0 0 2 5 −3 1

R 1 : R 1 −2R 2

1 0 −1 −2 1 0

�0 1 2 �=� 1 0 0� 𝐴𝐴

0 0 2 5 −3 1

R2: R2 – R3

1 0 −1 −2 1 0

�0 1 0 � = �−4 3 −1� 𝐴𝐴

0 0 2 5 −3 1

1

R 1 : R 1 + 2 R3

1 1 1

1 0 0 −

∴ �0 1 0� = � 2 2 2 � 𝐴𝐴

−4 3 −1

0 0 2

5 −3 1

1

R 3 : 2 R3

21

1 1 1

1 0 0 −2 2

2

�0 1 0� = �−4 3 −1� 𝐴𝐴

5 3 1

0 0 1 −

2 2 2

1 1 1

⎡ − ⎤

⎢2 2 2⎥

∴ 𝐴𝐴−1 = ⎢−4 3 −1⎥

⎢5 3 1⎥

⎣2 −

2 2⎦

[4]

Question 11

A speaks truth in 60% of the cases, while B in 40% of the cases. In what percent of cases

are they likely to contradict each other in stating the same fact?

Comments of Examiners

Most of the candidates attempted this question Suggestions for teachers

correctly but left the result as a fraction/decimal − Advise students to read the question

fraction. A few candidates made errors while applying paper and each question carefully and

the concept of p. q 1 +q. p 1 . note what is to be answered.

− Ensure exhaustive understanding on the

concepts of probability.

MARKING SCHEME

Question 11

Let A speaks truth is event A and B speaks truth is event B.

60 40

P(A) = 60% = 100 �) =

P(A 100

40

P(B) = 40% = 100 �) = 60

P(B 100

�). P(B)

�) + P(A

Required probability = P(A). P(B

60 60 40 40

= 100 × 100 + 100 × 100

5200 52

=10000 = 100 × 100 = 52%

[6]

Question 12

A cone is inscribed in a sphere of radius 12 cm. If the volume of the cone is maximum, find

its height.

22

Comments of Examiners

Most of the candidates attempted this question Suggestions for teachers

incorrectly. Some candidates could not express

volume of the cone as a function in mathematical - Explain exhaustively the concept of

form. A number of calculation mistakes were also maxima, minima and its application.

made while differentiating. Give practice in problems based on

maxima and minima.

− Give adequate practice on mensuration

related concepts and problems.

MARKING SCHEME

Question 12

Let 𝑟𝑟 be the radius of cone and

Radius of sphere = 12cm and 12

Height of the cone = ℎ 12

∴ ℎ = 12 + 𝑥𝑥 x

1 r

Volume of cone = 3 𝜋𝜋𝑟𝑟 2 ℎ

1

= 3 𝜋𝜋(122 − 𝑥𝑥 2 )(12 + 𝑥𝑥)

1

= 3 𝜋𝜋(144 − 𝑥𝑥 2 )(12 + 𝑥𝑥)

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 1

= 𝜋𝜋[(144 − 𝑥𝑥 2 ) 1 + (12 + 𝑥𝑥)(−2𝑥𝑥)]

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 3

1

= 3 𝜋𝜋[144 − 𝑥𝑥 2 − 24𝑥𝑥 − 2𝑥𝑥 2 ]

1

= 3 𝜋𝜋[144 − 24𝑥𝑥 − 3𝑥𝑥 2 ]

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

= 0 ⇒ 144 − 24𝑥𝑥 − 3𝑥𝑥 2 = 0A 1

𝑥𝑥 2 + 8𝑥𝑥 − 48 = 0

(𝑥𝑥 + 12)(𝑥𝑥 − 4) = 0

𝑥𝑥 = −12 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑥𝑥 = 4

𝑑𝑑2 𝑣𝑣 1

at x = 4 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑2 = 3 𝜋𝜋[−24 − 𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏] < 0

at 𝑥𝑥 = 4 𝑣𝑣. of cone is maximum

∴ height of cone = h = 12 + x

= 16 cm

[6]

Question 13

𝑥𝑥−1

(a) Evaluate: ∫ √𝑥𝑥 2 dx

−𝑥𝑥

OR

𝜋𝜋⁄2 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐2 𝑥𝑥

(b) Evaluate: ∫0 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

1+𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐

23

Comments of Examiners

(a) Many candidates applied incorrect techniques for

solution of different types of integrals.

Suggestions for teachers

(b) A number of candidates could not attempt the − Teach comprehensively all standard

question correctly due to incorrect use of properties methods of integrals, problems based on

of definite integrals and using incorrect methods them, definite integrals, their basic

to evaluate integrals. properties and the problems based on

them.

− Ample practice of solving different

types of problems should be given to

students.

MARKING SCHEME

Question 13

(a) 𝑥𝑥 − 1

= � 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑, 𝑥𝑥 − 1 = 𝜆𝜆(2𝑥𝑥 − 1) + 𝜇𝜇

√𝑥𝑥 2 − 𝑥𝑥

1 1

⇒𝜆𝜆 = 2 , 𝜇𝜇 = 2

1 (2𝑥𝑥−1) 1 1

= 2 ∫ √𝑥𝑥 2 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 − 2 √𝑥𝑥 2 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

−𝑥𝑥 −𝑥𝑥

1 1 1

= 2 . 2 √𝑥𝑥 2 − 𝑥𝑥 − 2 2 2

��𝑥𝑥−1� −�1�

2 2

1 1

= √𝑥𝑥 2 − 𝑥𝑥 − 2

. log[(𝑥𝑥 − 2) + √𝑥𝑥 2 − 𝑥𝑥]

1 1

= √𝑥𝑥 2 − 𝑥𝑥 − 2 log[(𝑥𝑥 − 2 ) + √𝑥𝑥 2 − 𝑥𝑥] + 𝐶𝐶

OR

(b) 𝜋𝜋⁄2 𝑐𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜2 𝑥𝑥

∫0 1+𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 cos 𝑥𝑥dx

𝜋𝜋⁄2 𝑐𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜2 (𝜋𝜋⁄2− 𝑥𝑥)

I = ∫0 1+sin(𝜋𝜋⁄𝑥𝑥−𝑥𝑥) cos(𝜋𝜋⁄2−𝑥𝑥)

dx

𝜋𝜋⁄2 2

𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 𝑥𝑥

I= ∫0 1+𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐.𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

𝜋𝜋⁄2 1

2I = ∫0 1+sin𝑥𝑥 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐dx

=∫0 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 2 𝑥𝑥+𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

Let tan x = t sec2 xdx = dt and 𝑥𝑥 = 0 t = 0: x = 𝜋𝜋⁄2 t = ∞

∞ 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

= ∫0 𝑡𝑡 2 +𝑡𝑡+1

24

MARKING SCHEME

Question 14

Random variable X: 0 , 1, 2, values (defective items)

4𝐶𝐶 1 2𝐶𝐶 ×4𝐶𝐶 8

P(X=0) = 6𝐶𝐶4 = 15 , 𝑃𝑃(𝑋𝑋 = 1) = 16𝐶𝐶 3 = 15

4 4

2𝐶𝐶2 ×4𝐶𝐶2 6

P(X=2) = = 15

6𝐶𝐶4

Probability Distribution

Defective items (x i ) 0 1 2

1 8 6

Probability, 𝑃𝑃𝑖𝑖 15 15 15

8 24

𝑃𝑃𝑖𝑖 𝑥𝑥𝑖𝑖 2 0 15 15

1 8 6

Mean = ∑ 𝑝𝑝𝑖𝑖 𝑥𝑥𝑖𝑖 = 15

. 0 +15 . 1 + 15

.2

8 12 20 4

= 15

+ 15 = 15

= 3

2

∑ 𝑝𝑝𝑖𝑖 𝑥𝑥𝑖𝑖 − (∑ 𝑝𝑝𝑖𝑖 𝑥𝑥𝑖𝑖 ) 2

Variance:

32 20 2

= 15

− �15�

32 400 480−400 80 16

= − = = 225 = 45

15 225 225

∞

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

=� 2

1 2 √3

0�𝑡𝑡 + 2� + � 2 �

−1

2𝑡𝑡 + 1 ∞

= �tan � ��

√3 0

2𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋

2I = 3√3 ⟹ I = 3√3

[6]

Question 14

From a lot of 6 items containing 2 defective items, a sample of 4 items are drawn at random.

Let the random variable 𝑋𝑋 denote the number of defective items in the sample. If the sample

is drawn without replacement, find:

(a) The probability distribution of 𝑋𝑋

(b) Mean of 𝑋𝑋

(c) Variance of 𝑋𝑋

Comments of Examiners

Most of the candidates used the concept of Binomial

Suggestions for teachers

probability distribution to solve this problem. - Ensure that students understand the

concepts of probability distribution,

Binomial probability distribution and

their conditions.

− Sufficient practise on different types

of probability distribution problems

should be given.

25

SECTION B (20 Marks)

[3×2]

Question 15

(a) Find 𝜆𝜆 if the scalar projection of 𝑎𝑎⃗ = 𝜆𝜆𝚤𝚤̂ + 𝚥𝚥̂ + 4𝑘𝑘� on 𝑏𝑏�⃗ = 2𝚤𝚤̂ + 6𝚥𝚥̂ + 3𝑘𝑘� is 4 units.

(b) The Cartesian equation of a line is: 2𝑥𝑥 – 3 = 3𝑦𝑦 + 1 = 5 – 6𝑧𝑧. Find the vector

equation of a line passing through (7, −5, 0) and parallel to the given line.

(c) Find the equation of the plane through the intersection of the planes

𝑟𝑟⃗. (𝚤𝚤̂ + 3𝚥𝚥̂ – 𝑘𝑘�) = 9 and 𝑟𝑟⃗.(2𝚤𝚤̂ –𝚥𝚥̂ + 𝑘𝑘�) = 3 and passing through the origin.

Comments of Examiners

Suggestions for teachers

(a) Most of the candidates calculated dot product

instead of applying projection formula. − Clarify the concept of scalar projection

(b) Most candidates made errors while writing the of vector thoroughly.

equation of a line in the symmetric form and − Explain the concept of transforming

finding direction ratios of the line. Some cartesian form to vector form and vice-

candidates transformed cartesian form of line into versa in detail.

vector equation incorrectly. − Revise frequently the concepts on

(c) A few candidates wrote incorrect equation of equation of plane through the

family of plane and applied incorrect condition to intersection of the planes.

find the constant. - Adequate practise of problems based on

three-dimensional geometry must be

given.

MARKING SCHEME

Question 15

(a) 𝑎𝑎.𝑏𝑏

Scalar projection of a on b = |𝑏𝑏|

2𝜆𝜆+6+12 2𝜆𝜆+18

= = =4

√4+36+9 7

𝜆𝜆 = 5

(b) 2x – 3 = 3y + 1 = 5− 6z

𝑥𝑥−3�2 𝑦𝑦+ 1�3 𝑧𝑧− 5�6

1� = 1� =

2 3 −1�6

1 1 1

⇒ Direction ratios:2 , 3 , − 6 ⇒ 3, 2, −1

Equation of line passing through (7, −5, 0) and parallel to the above line

𝑟𝑟⃗ = (7𝚤𝚤̂ − 5𝚥𝚥̂ + 0𝑘𝑘� ) + λ (3𝚤𝚤̂ + 2𝚥𝚥̂ − 𝑘𝑘�)

� = 3 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖

𝑟𝑟⃗. �𝚤𝚤̂ + 3𝚥𝚥̂ − 𝑘𝑘�� = 9 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑟𝑟⃗. (2𝚤𝚤̂ − 𝚥𝚥̂ + 𝑘𝑘)

� − 9] + 𝜆𝜆 �𝑟𝑟⃗. �2𝚤𝚤̂ − 𝚥𝚥̂ + 𝑘𝑘�� − 3� = 0

[𝑟𝑟⃗. (𝚤𝚤̂ + 3𝚥𝚥̂ − 𝑘𝑘)

𝑟𝑟⃗�𝚤𝚤̂ + 3𝚥𝚥̂ − 𝑘𝑘� � + 𝜆𝜆[𝑟𝑟⃗. (2𝚤𝚤̂ − 𝚥𝚥̂ + 𝑘𝑘� )]= 3λ+9

26

𝑟𝑟⃗[�𝚤𝚤̂ + 3𝚥𝚥̂ − 𝑘𝑘� � + 𝜆𝜆�2𝚤𝚤̂ − 𝚥𝚥̂ + 𝑘𝑘��] = 3λ+9

∵ passing through origin.

3λ+9 = 0 ⇒ λ = −3

��⃗ [−5𝚤𝚤̂ + 6𝚥𝚥̂ − 4𝑘𝑘�] = 0

Required equation 𝑟𝑟.

Alternate: 𝑥𝑥 + 3𝑦𝑦 − 𝑧𝑧 − 9 = 0 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 2 𝑥𝑥 − 𝑦𝑦 + 𝑧𝑧 − 3 = 0

𝑥𝑥 + 3𝑦𝑦 − 𝑧𝑧 − 9 + 𝜆𝜆 (2𝑥𝑥 − 𝑦𝑦 + 𝑧𝑧 − 3) = 0

−9 − 3 𝜆𝜆 = 0 ⇒ 𝜆𝜆 = −3

−5𝑥𝑥 + 6𝑦𝑦 − 4𝑧𝑧 = 0

5𝑥𝑥 − 6𝑦𝑦 + 4𝑧𝑧 = 0

Question 16 [4]

(a) �⃗, 𝑐𝑐⃗, respectively,

If 𝐴𝐴, 𝐵𝐵, 𝐶𝐶 are three non-collinear points with position vectors 𝑎𝑎⃗, 𝑏𝑏

then show that the length of the perpendicular from C on AB is

�⃗�+ �𝑏𝑏

��𝑎𝑎�⃗×𝑏𝑏 �⃗×𝑐𝑐⃗�+ �𝑏𝑏

�⃗×𝑎𝑎�⃗��

�⃗− 𝑎𝑎�⃗�

�𝑏𝑏

.

OR

(b) Show that the four points 𝐴𝐴, 𝐵𝐵, 𝐶𝐶 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝐷𝐷 with position vectors

4𝚤𝚤̂ + 5𝚥𝚥̂ + 𝑘𝑘�, − 𝚥𝚥̂ − 𝑘𝑘� , 3𝚤𝚤̂ + 9𝚥𝚥̂ + 4𝑘𝑘� and 4(−𝚤𝚤̂ + 𝚥𝚥̂ + 𝑘𝑘�) respectively, are coplanar.

(a) Very few candidates attempted this question. - Explain exhaustively about the area of

(b) Majority of the candidates solved the question triangle by using position vectors and

correctly. A few candidates made calculation applications based on the concept.

errors in the process of simplification of scalar - Advise students to concentrate on solving

triple product. a sum stepwise to avoid calculation

mistakes.

MARKING SCHEME

Question 16

(a) ∆ 𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 = C

�����⃗ � . (length of⊥from 𝐶𝐶 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡 𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴).

= ½ �𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴

And ∆ 𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 = ½ |𝑎𝑎 × 𝑏𝑏 + 𝑏𝑏 × 𝑐𝑐 + 𝑐𝑐 × 𝑎𝑎)|

1

∴ 2 �𝑏𝑏�⃗ − 𝑎𝑎⃗� (length of ⊥from C to AB) = ½ |𝑎𝑎 × 𝑏𝑏 + 𝑏𝑏 × 𝑐𝑐 + 𝑐𝑐 × 𝑎𝑎)|

|𝑎𝑎×𝑏𝑏+ 𝑏𝑏×𝑐𝑐+𝑐𝑐×𝑎𝑎)|

length of ⊥ from C to AB == �⃗−𝑎𝑎�⃗�

�𝑏𝑏

OR

(b) 𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 = �−𝚥𝚥̂ − 𝑘𝑘�� − �4𝚤𝚤̂ + 5𝚥𝚥̂ + 𝑘𝑘�� = −4𝚤𝚤� − 6𝚥𝚥̂ − 2𝑘𝑘�

�����⃗

27

𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 = �3𝚤𝚤̂ + 9𝚥𝚥̂ + 4𝑘𝑘�� − �4𝚤𝚤̂ + 5𝚥𝚥̂ + 𝑘𝑘�� = −𝚤𝚤̂ + 4𝚥𝚥̂ + 3𝑘𝑘�

�����⃗

�����⃗

�����⃗ , �����⃗

�𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 , �����⃗

𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴� = 0

−4 −6 −2

�−1 4 3 � = −4 (15) + 6 (21) − 2 (33)

−8 −1 3

= −60 + 126 − 66 = 0

[4]

Question 17

(a) Draw a rough sketch of the curve and find the area of the region bounded by curve

𝑦𝑦 2 = 8𝑥𝑥 and the line 𝑥𝑥 = 2.

OR

(b) Sketch the graph of 𝑦𝑦 = |𝑥𝑥 + 4|. Using integration, find the area of the region

bounded by the curve 𝑦𝑦 = |𝑥𝑥 + 4| and 𝑥𝑥 = −6 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑥𝑥 = 0.

(a) Many candidates identified the symmetry of the - Interpret the graphs of the standard

curve about X-axis incorrectly and either did not functions in detail.

apply correct limits or considered area twice the − Give sufficient practice in solving

result. In most of the cases, rough sketch of the problems based on area under a given

curve was not drawn correctly. curve and straight line, etc.

(b) Quite a few candidates attempted this question. - Explain well about the absolute value

Many candidates did not understand the concept functions and train students to draw the

of absolute value function and could not identify rough sketch of the same by applying the

the limits of it by using the given conditions. given conditions.

MARKING SCHEME

Question 17

𝑦𝑦 2 = 4 · 2 · 𝑥𝑥

𝑦𝑦 = √8 . √𝑥𝑥 is 1st quadrant

2

Area = 2 ∫0 𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦

3 2 (0, 0) S(2,• 0)

2 2

= 2√8 ∫0 √𝑥𝑥 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = 4√2 3 �𝑥𝑥 � 2

0

32

= square units.

3

OR

𝑦𝑦 = |𝑥𝑥 + 4|

x+4>0⇒x>−4

x + 4 < 0 ⇒ x <− 4

28

(𝑥𝑥 + 4) ∀ 𝑥𝑥 > −4

y=�

(−4 − 𝑥𝑥) ∀ 𝑥𝑥 < −4

−4 0

∫−6 −(𝑥𝑥 + 4)𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 + ∫−4(𝑥𝑥 + 4)𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

−4 0

𝑥𝑥 2 𝑥𝑥 2

�− � 2 + 4𝑥𝑥�� + � 2 + 4𝑥𝑥� = 10 square units

−6 −4

•(0, 4)

[6]

Question 18

Find the image of a point having position vector: 3𝚤𝚤̂ − 2𝚥𝚥̂ + 𝑘𝑘� in the Plane

𝑟𝑟⃗. �3𝚤𝚤̂ − 𝚥𝚥̂ + 4𝑘𝑘�� = 2.

Most of the candidates applied the condition for Ensure that the students do enough practise

perpendicularity incorrectly and used incorrect of problems based on applications of

direction ratios. It led to calculate incorrect foot of the distance of a point etc. with reference to a

perpendicular and incorrect image of the given point. line or a plane.

MARKING SCHEME

Question 18

P.V. of a point : 3i − 2 j + k (3,-2,1)

: ( 3, −2,1)

Eq. of plane : r ( 3i − j + 4k ) =2

⇒ 3x − y + 4 z =2

D.R. of normal to the plane:

3, −1, 4

∴ Eq. of straight line passing through ( 3, −2,1) in

x − 3 y + 2 z −1

= = = say ( λ )

3 −1 4

Some value of λ the foot of the perpendicular is

29

( 3λ + 3, −λ − 2, 4λ + 1)

3 ( 3λ + 3) − 1( −λ − 2 ) + 4 ( 4λ + 1) =2

26λ + 15 =2

26λ = −13

−13 −1

λ =

=

26 2

Let (x 1, y 1, z 1 ) be the image of the point with reference to the given plane

x + 3 y1 − 2 z1 + 1 3 −3

∴ foot of the perpendicular 1 , , = , , −1

2 2 2 2 2

⇒ x1 = 0 y1 =−1 z1 = −3

( 0, −1, −3)

[3×2]

Question 19

(a) Given the total cost function for x units of a commodity as:

1

𝐶𝐶(𝑥𝑥) = 3 𝑥𝑥 3 + 3𝑥𝑥 2 − 16𝑥𝑥 + 2.

Find:

(i) Marginal cost function

(ii) Average cost function

𝑥𝑥 – 2𝑦𝑦 + 3 = 0 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 4𝑥𝑥 – 5𝑦𝑦 + 1 = 0.

(c) The average cost function associated with producing and marketing x units of an

50

item is given by 𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 = 2𝑥𝑥 – 11 + 𝑥𝑥 . Find the range of values of the output x,

for which AC is increasing.

Comments of Examiners

Suggestions for teachers

(a) Most of the candidates attempted this part correctly

except for a few who made mistakes in - Explain the method of identifying correct

simplification. regression coefficients of given lines and

(b) Many candidates made errors while applying provide enough practice in solving

condition to identify correct regression problems.

coefficients of the given lines - thereby, calculated - Analyse in detail about conditions of

incorrect correlation coefficient. increasing and decreasing functions and

(c) Most of the candidates attempted the first part simplification of problems based on these

correctly but while calculating the value of x when concepts.

AC was increasing, some candidates included the

negative value of x.

30

MARKING SCHEME

Question 19

(a) 1 3

C ( x) = x + 3 x 2 − 16 x + 2

3

d

M .C = c ( x ) = x 2 + 6 x − 16

dx

c ( x) 1 2 2

A.C= = x + 3 x − 16 +

x 3 x

(b) Let

x − 2y + 3 =0 y on x

⇒ 2 y =x + 3

1 3 1

y= x + ⇒ byx =

2 2 2

4x − 5 y +1 =0 x on y

4=

x 5y +1

5 1 5

x= y + ⇒ bxy =

4 4 4

1 5 5

byx ⋅ bxy = ⋅ = < 1∴ Assumption of regression equation is correct

2 4 8

5

r= + = +0.79

8

(c) 50

AC = 2 x − 11 +

x

d 50

( AC )= 2 − 2

dx x

d

AC increases ( AC ) > 0

dx

50

⇒ 2− 2 > 0

x

x − 25 > 0

2

( x + 5)( x − 5) > 0

x < −5orx > 5

x is positive A.C. increases when x > 5

[4]

Question 20

(a) Find the line of regression of y on x from the following table.

x 1 2 3 4 5

y 7 6 5 4 3

Hence, estimate the value of y when x = 6.

31

OR

(b) From the given data:

Variable x y

Mean 6 8

Standard Deviation 4 6

2

and correlation coefficient: 3 . Find:

(ii) Regression line x on y

(iii) Most likely value of x when y = 14

(a) Some candidates used incorrect formula to - Ensure that students learn formulae for

calculate regression coefficients like b yx which calculating regression coefficients byx

resulted in incorrect regression equation. and bxy correctly.

(b) Many candidates applied incorrect formulae in the − Advise students to practice a number of

process of calculating b yx and b xy . Thereby made problems based on regression.

errors in calculating other two values also.

MARKING SCHEME

Question 20

(a) x y xy x2

1 7 7 1

2 6 12 4

15.25

∑ 𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥−∑ 𝑥𝑥.∑ 𝑦𝑦 65−

3 5 15 9 𝑏𝑏𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 = (∑ 𝑥𝑥)2

= 5

225 = −1

∑ 𝑥𝑥 2 − 55−

𝑛𝑛 5

4 4 16 16

5 3 15 25

∑ x 15=

= ∑ y 25=

∑ xy 65=

∑ x 2 55

=

x 3,=

y 5

y byx ( x − x )

y −=

y − 5 =−1( x − 3)

y −5 = x −3

x + y= 8 when x= 6, y= 2

OR

(b) 2

𝑥𝑥 = 6, 𝑦𝑦 = 8, 𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 = 4 , 𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦 = 6 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑟𝑟 =

3

32

𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦 2 6

𝑏𝑏𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 = 𝑟𝑟. 𝜎𝜎 = 3 . 4 = 1

𝑥𝑥

𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 2 4 4

𝑏𝑏𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 = 𝑟𝑟. = . =

𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦 3 6 9

9x – 4 y = 22

When y = 14, 9 x – 4 x 14 = 22

9 x = 78

x = 78/9 = 8.67

[4]

Question 21

𝑥𝑥 2

(a) A product can be manufactured at a total cost 𝐶𝐶(𝑥𝑥) = 100 + 100𝑥𝑥 + 40, where x

is the number of units produced. The price at which each unit can be sold is given

𝑥𝑥

by P = �200 − 400�. Determine the production level x at which the profit is

maximum. What is the price per unit and total profit at the level of production?

OR

(b) A manufacturer’s marginal cost function is 500 . Find the cost involved to

√2𝑥𝑥+25

increase production from 100 units to 300 units.

Comments of Examiners

(a) Many candidates considered Price function as Suggestions for teachers

Revenue function which led to entire solution - Explain thoroughly with illustrations the

being incorrect. basic difference among Price function,

(b) A few candidates made mistakes in integration Cost function and Revenue function, etc.

part and substituted incorrect limits. - Interpret all Marginal functions and

concepts of application of calculus in

Commerce and Economics with

examples.

33

MARKING SCHEME

Question 21

(a) x x2

R ( x ) = P ⋅ x = 200 − ⋅ x = 200 x −

400 400

P=(1) R ( x ) − C ( x )

x2 x2

= 200 x − − + 100 x + 40

400 100

2

x

= 100 x − − 40

80

d 2x x

P ( x ) = 100 − = 100 −

dx 80 40

2

d

P ( x ) = 0

dx 2

⇒x= 4000

d2 −1

2 ( )

P x=

<0

dx 40

∴ P(x) is maximum at x = 4000

x 4000

x = 4000 P = 200 − = 200 − = Rs.190

400 400

x2

Maximum profit = 100 x − − 40

80

( 4000 )

2

= 100.4000 − − 40 =

Rs.1,99,960

80

OR

(b) 500

Given: MC =

2 x + 25

Total increased cost when x increases from 100 to 300 units

300 300

500

c ( 200 ) − c (100

= ) ∫ MC ( )

x=dx ∫ dx

100 100 2 x + 25

= 500 625 − 225 = 500 ( 25 − 15 )

300

500 2 x + 25

100

= 5000

Required cost increase = Rs.5000

Question 22 [6]

A manufacturing company makes two types of teaching aids A and B of Mathematics for

Class X. Each type of A requires 9 labour hours for fabricating and 1 labour hour for finishing.

Each type of B requires 12 labour hours for fabricating and 3 labour hours for finishing. For

fabricating and finishing, the maximum labour hours available per week are 180 and 30

respectively. The company makes a profit of ₹ 80 on each piece of type A and ₹ 120 on each

piece of type B. How many pieces of type A and type B should be manufactured per week

34

to get a maximum profit? Formulate this as Linear Programming Problem and solve it.

Identify the feasible region from the rough sketch.

Comments of Examiners

Suggestions for teachers

A number of candidates could not form the correct

inequalities subject to given constraints. Some noted − Explain how to frame inequalities

incorrect corner points to find optimum value. A few using given constraints and finding

candidates did not draw rough sketch of the feasible corner points by solving inequalities.

region. − Adequate practice in different types of

problems based on inequality must be

provided on a regular basis.

MARKING SCHEME

Question 22

Let x and y be the number of teaching aids of type A and type B respectively

=z 80 x + 120 y

9 x + 12 y ≤ 180

x + 3 y ≤ 30

x ≥ 0 and y ≥ 0

(0,10)

(12, 6)

9 x + 12 y ≤ 180

Solving Constants:

x + 3 y ≤ 30

( 0, 0 ) , ( 20, 0 ) , ( 0,10 ) and (12, 6 )

At ( 0, 0 ) z =80.0 + 120.0 =0

( 20, 0 ) z = 80.20 + 120.0 = 1600

( 0,10 ) z=

80.0 + 120.10 =

1200

(12, 6 )z = 80.12 + 120.6 = 1680

Hence z is maximum at (12,6)

∴x = 12 and y = 6

Maximum z = Rs.1680.

Note: For questions having more than one correct answer/solution, alternate correct

answers/solutions, apart from those given in the marking scheme, have also been accepted.

35

GENERAL COMMENTS

• Application of derivatives including Maxima and Minima.

Topics • Integrals, and curve sketching.

found • Vectors, interchange of vector equation to Cartesian equation and

difficult by vice-versa.

candidates • Probability and Probability distribution.

• Inverse circular functions.

which • Product and sum rule of probability and dependent and independent

candidates events.

• Dot and Cross product of vectors, Projection of a vector.

got confused

• Properties of definite integrals.

Suggestions • Avoid selective study. Study the entire syllabus thoroughly and

for revise from time to time.

candidates • Revise the concepts of Class XI and integrate them with the Class

XII syllabus.

• Clarify the concepts of each chapter/topic with the help of your

teacher.

• Learn the Formulae related to every topic after acquiring thorough

understanding of each symbol used.

• Revise all topics and formulae involved and make a chapter wise or

topic-wise list of these.

• Time management is important while attempting the paper. Practise

solving papers within a stipulated time.

• Practise mock papers by following the time management with the

guidance of the teacher.

36

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