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Analysis of Pupil

Performance

MATHEMATICS

Research Development and Consultancy Division

Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations


New Delhi
Year 2018
__________________________________________________________________________________

Published by:
Research Development and Consultancy Division (RDCD)
Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations
Pragati House, 3rd Floor
47-48, Nehru Place
New Delhi-110019

Tel: (011) 26413820/26411706


E-mail: council@cisce.org

© Copyright, Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations


All rights reserved. The copyright to this publication and any part thereof solely vests in the Council for
the Indian School Certificate Examinations. This publication and no part thereof may be reproduced,
transmitted, distributed or stored in any manner whatsoever, without the prior written approval of the
Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations.
FOREWORD

This document of the Analysis of Pupils’ Performance at the ISC Year 12 and ICSE Year 10
Examination is one of its kind. It has grown and evolved over the years to provide feedback to
schools in terms of the strengths and weaknesses of the candidates in handling the examinations.

We commend the work of Mrs. Shilpi Gupta (Deputy Head) of the Research Development and
Consultancy Division (RDCD) of the Council and her team, who have painstakingly prepared this
analysis. We are grateful to the examiners who have contributed through their comments on the
performance of the candidates under examination as well as for their suggestions to teachers and
students for the effective transaction of the syllabus.

We hope the schools will find this document useful. We invite comments from schools on its
utility and quality.

Gerry Arathoon
October 2018 Chief Executive & Secretary

i
PREFACE

The Council has been involved in the preparation of the ICSE and ISC Analysis of Pupil Performance
documents since the year 1994. Over these years, these documents have facilitated the teaching-learning
process by providing subject/ paper wise feedback to teachers regarding performance of students at the ICSE
and ISC Examinations. With the aim of ensuring wider accessibility to all stakeholders, from the year 2014,
the ICSE and the ISC documents have been made available on the Council’s website www.cisce.org.

The documents include a detailed qualitative analysis of the performance of students in different subjects
which comprises of examiners’ comments on common errors made by candidates, topics found difficult or
confusing, marking scheme for each answer and suggestions for teachers/ candidates.

In addition to a detailed qualitative analysis, the Analysis of Pupil Performance documents for the Examination
Year 2018 have a component of a detailed quantitative analysis. For each subject dealt with in the document,
both at the ICSE and the ISC levels, a detailed statistical analysis has been done, which has been presented in
a simple user-friendly manner.

It is hoped that this document will not only enable teachers to understand how their students have performed
with respect to other students who appeared for the ICSE/ISC Year 2018 Examinations, but also provide
information on how they have performed within the Region or State, their performance as compared to other
Regions or States, etc. It will also help develop a better understanding of the assessment/ evaluation process.
This will help teachers in guiding their students more effectively and comprehensively so that students prepare
for the ICSE/ ISC Examinations, with a better understanding of what is required from them.

The Analysis of Pupil Performance document for ICSE for the Examination Year 2018 covers the following
subjects: English (English Language, Literature in English), Hindi, History, Civics and Geography (History
and Civics, Geography), Mathematics, Science (Physics, Chemistry, Biology), Commercial Studies,
Economics, Computer Applications, Economic Applications, Commercial Applications.
Subjects covered in the ISC Analysis of Pupil Performance document for the Year 2018 include English
(English Language and Literature in English), Hindi, Elective English, Physics (Theory), Chemistry (Theory),
Biology (Theory), Mathematics, Computer Science, History, Political Science, Geography, Sociology,
Psychology, Economics, Commerce, Accounts and Business Studies.

I would like to acknowledge the contribution of all the ICSE and the ISC examiners who have been an integral
part of this exercise, whose valuable inputs have helped put this document together.

I would also like to thank the RDCD team of, Dr. M.K. Gandhi, Dr. Manika Sharma, Mrs. Roshni George and
Mrs. Mansi Guleria who have done a commendable job in preparing this document.

Shilpi Gupta
October 2018 Deputy Head - RDCD

ii
CONTENTS

Page No.

FOREWORD i

PREFACE ii

INTRODUCTION 1

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS 3

QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS 10
INTRODUCTION

This document aims to provide a comprehensive picture of the performance of candidates in the
subject. It comprises of two sections, which provide Quantitative and Qualitative analysis results in
terms of performance of candidates in the subject for the ISC Year 2018 Examination. The details of
the Quantitative and the Qualitative analysis are given below.

Quantitative Analysis
This section provides a detailed statistical analysis of the following:

 Overall Performance of candidates in the subject (Statistics at a Glance)


 State wise Performance of Candidates
 Gender wise comparison of Overall Performance
 Region wise comparison of Performance
 Comparison of Region wise performance on the basis of Gender
 Comparison of performance in different Mark Ranges and comparison on the basis of Gender for
the top and bottom ranges
 Comparison of performance in different Grade categories and comparison on the basis of Gender
for the top and bottom grades

The data has been presented in the form of means, frequencies and bar graphs.

Understanding the tables

Each of the comparison tables shows N (Number of candidates), Mean Marks obtained, Standard
Errors and t-values with the level of significance. For t-test, mean values compared with their
standard errors indicate whether an observed difference is likely to be a true difference or whether it
has occurred by chance. The t-test has been applied using a confidence level of 95%, which means
that if a difference is marked as ‘statistically significant’ (with * mark, refer to t-value column of the
table), the probability of the difference occurring by chance is less than 5%. In other words, we are
95% confident that the difference between the two values is true.

t-test has been used to observe significant differences in the performance of boys and girls, gender
wise differences within regions (North, East, South and West), gender wise differences within marks
ranges (Top and bottom ranges) and gender wise differences within grades awarded (Grade 1 and
Grade 9) at the ISC Year 2018 Examination.

The analysed data has been depicted in a simple and user-friendly manner.

1
Given below is an example showing the comparison tables used in this section and the manner in
which they should be interpreted.

The table shows comparison


between the performances of boys
and girls in a particular subject.
Comparison on the basis of Gender
The t-value of 11.91 is significant at
Gender N Mean SE t-value 0.05 level (mentioned below the
Girls 2,538 66.1 0.29 table) with a mean of girls as 66.1
11.91*
Boys 1,051 60.1 0.42 and that of boys as 60.1. It means
*Significant at 0.05 level
that there is significant difference
between the performance of boys
and girls in the subject. The
probability of this difference
occurring by chance is less than 5%.
The mean value of girls is higher
than that of boys. It can be
interpreted that girls are performing
significantly better than boys.

The results have also been depicted


pictographically. In this case, the girls
performed significantly better than the
boys. This is depicted by the girl with a
medal.

Qualitative Analysis
The purpose of the qualitative analysis is to provide insights into how candidates have performed in
individual questions set in the question paper. This section is based on inputs provided by examiners
from examination centres across the country. It comprises of question wise feedback on the
performance of candidates in the form of Comments of Examiners on the common errors made by
candidates along with Suggestions for Teachers to rectify/ reduce these errors. The Marking Scheme
for each question has also been provided to help teachers understand the criteria used for marking.
Topics in the question paper that were generally found to be difficult or confusing by candidates,
have also been listed down, along with general suggestions for candidates on how to prepare for the
examination/ perform better in the examination.

2
STATISTICS AT A GLANCE

Total Number of
Candidates: 48,166

Mean Marks: Highest Marks: 100


58.5 Lowest Marks: 0

3
PERFORMANCE (STATE-WISE & FOREIGN)

West Bengal 56.9


Uttarakhand 62.2
Uttar Pradesh 58.0
Tripura 37.1
Telangana 61.2
Tamil Nadu 69.3
Sikkim 43.5
Rajasthan 52.6
Punjab 56.6
Odisha 48.3
New Delhi 71.2
Meghalaya 51.9
Manipur 15.6
Maharashtra 72.4
Madhya Pradesh 60.8
Kerala 59.6
Karnataka 69.0
Jharkhand 51.1
Himachal Pradesh 65.1
Haryana 74.2
Gujarat 61.9
Goa 64.6
Chhattisgarh 52.9
Chandigarh 65.5
Bihar 60.0
Assam 81.7
Andhra Pradesh 63.0
Foreign 74.2

The States of Assam, Haryana and Maharashtra secured


highest mean marks. Mean marks secured by candidates
studying in schools abroad were 74.2.

4
GENDER-WISE COMPARISON

GIRLS BOYS

Mean Marks: 61.1 Mean Marks: 56.9

Number of Number of
Candidates: 18,926 Candidates: 29,240

Comparison on the basis of Gender


Gender N Mean SE t-value
Girls 18,926 61.1 0.17
18.76*
Boys 29,240 56.9 0.15
*Significant at 0.05 level

5
REGION-WISE COMPARISON

East North

Mean Marks: 55.4 Mean Marks: 59.0

Number of Number of
Candidates: 19,778 Candidates: 20,920

Highest Marks: 100 Highest Marks: 100


Lowest Marks: 0 Lowest Marks: 0

REGION
Mean Marks: 63.5 Mean Marks: 68.1

Number of Number of
Candidates: 4,846 Candidates: 2,413

Highest Marks: 100 Highest Marks: 100


Lowest Marks: 0 Mean Marks: 74.2 Lowest Marks: 0

South Number of West


Candidates: 209

Highest Marks: 100


Lowest Marks: 18

Foreign

6
Mean Marks obtained by Boys and Girls-Region wise

81.0
71.8 70.0
65.2 65.6
62.6 62.0
57.1 57.1
54.1

North East South West Foreign

Comparison on the basis of Gender within Region


Region Gender N Mean SE t-value
Girls 7,215 62.6 0.26
North (N) Boys 13,705 57.1 0.21
16.11*
Girls 8,338 57.1 0.26
East (E) Boys 11,440 54.1 0.25
8.40*
Girls 2,326 65.2 0.41
South (S) Boys 2,520 62.0 0.44
5.25*
Girls 968 71.8 0.69
West (W) Boys 1,445 65.6 0.64
6.58*
Girls 79 81.0 1.80
Foreign (F) Boys 130 70.0 1.80
4.31*
*Significant at 0.05 level

The performance of girls was


significantly better than that of
boys in all the regions.

7
MARK RANGES :
COMPARISON GENDER-WISE

Comparison on the basis of gender in top and bottom mark ranges


Marks Range Gender N Mean SE t-value
Girls 4,415 89.8 0.08
Top Range (81-100) Boys 6,245 90.0 0.07
-1.63
Girls 1,194 12.0 0.17
Bottom Range (0-20) Boys 3,256 10.5 0.11
7.32*
*Significant at 0.05 level

Boys Girls All Candidates


Marks Range (81-100)
90.0
81 - 100 89.8
89.9

70.4
61 - 80 70.6
70.5
Marks Range (0-20)
49.9
41 - 60 50.3
50.1

33.6
21 - 40 34.1
Marks Range (0-20) 33.8

10.5
0 - 20 12.0
10.9

8
GRADES AWARDED :
COMPARISON GENDER-WISE

Comparison on the basis of gender in Grade 1 and Grade 9

Grades Gender N Mean SE t-value


Girls 2,142 94.8 0.07
Grade 1 Boys 3,141 94.8 0.05
-0.12
Girls 1,872 16.7 0.18
Grade 9 Boys 4,675 14.9 0.12
8.13*
*Significant at 0.05 level

Boys Girls All Candidates


94.8
Grade 1 1 94.8
94.8
84.6
2 84.6
84.6
74.5
3 74.6
74.6
64.4
4 64.5
Grade 9 64.5
56.9
5 56.9
56.9
52.2
6 52.1
52.2
47.0
7 47.1
Grade 9 47.0
39.6
8 39.8
39.7
14.9
9 16.7
15.4

9
QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS

SECTION A (80 Marks)

[10×2]
Question 1
(i) The binary operation ∗ : R × R → R is defined as a ∗ b = 2a + b.
Find (2 ∗ 3) ∗ 4.
5 𝑎𝑎
(ii) If A = � � and A is symmetric matrix, show that 𝑎𝑎 = 𝑏𝑏
𝑏𝑏 0
(iii) Solve: 3tan-1x + cot-1x = 𝜋𝜋

(iv) Without expanding at any stage, find the value of:


𝑎𝑎 𝑏𝑏 𝑐𝑐
�𝑎𝑎 + 2𝑥𝑥 𝑏𝑏 + 2𝑦𝑦 𝑐𝑐 + 2𝑧𝑧�
𝑥𝑥 𝑦𝑦 𝑧𝑧
(v) Find the value of constant ‘k’ so that the function f(x) defined as:
𝑥𝑥 2 −2𝑥𝑥−3
f(x) = 𝑥𝑥+1
, 𝑥𝑥 ≠ −1
k , x = −1
is continuous at 𝑥𝑥 = −1.
(vi) Find the approximate change in the volume ‘𝑉𝑉’ of a cube of side x metres caused
by decreasing the side by 1%.
𝑥𝑥 3 +5𝑥𝑥 2 +4𝑥𝑥+1
(vii) Evaluate: ∫ 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑.
𝑥𝑥 2

(viii) Find the differential equation of the family of concentric circles x2+ y2 = a2
(ix) 1 1 1
If A and B are events such that P(A) = 2 , P(B) = 3 and P(A∩B) = 4 , then find:
(a) P (𝐴𝐴⁄𝐵𝐵 )
(b) P (𝐵𝐵⁄𝐴𝐴)
1 1
(x) In a race, the probabilities of A and B winning the race are 3 and 6 respectively.
Find the probability of neither of them winning the race.

10
Comments of Examiners
(i) Many candidates used conventional Suggestions for teachers
multiplication operation instead of the operation − Give adequate practice for the
as defined in the question. comprehension of well-defined
(ii) A few candidates could not solve the problem mathematical operations.
based on symmetric matrix. − Explain basic concepts, definitions
(iii) A large number of candidates attempted to solve thoroughly to students and give
by using formula of 3tan-1x but could not ample practice of solving problems
succeed solving further. Most candidates based on fundamental concepts.
attempted this question using long calculations − Clarify the conversion of inverse
instead of using simple fundamental concepts. circular functions (one to another
(iv) Many candidates expanded the determinant to form) to students. Also provide
solve it, though it was clearly mentioned in the sufficient practice for conversion
through diagram and by using
question - find the value of the determinant formulae.
without expansion at any stage. − Train students to solve questions by
(v) Many candidates made errors in calculating using proper logic and reasoning.
LHL and RHL and some of the candidates could − Illustrate properties of determinants
not solve it further. in detail. Give extensive practice in
(vi) Many candidates did not have an idea of different types of questions based on
approximation concept as application of properties of determinants.
differentiation and a few candidates made − Interpret the concept of continuous
mistakes in writing the final answer in the and discontinuous functions giving
correct form. illustrations.
(vii) This question was attempted correctly by most − Explain the concept of
of the candidates. Some of the candidates made approximation as one of the
errors in simplifying the expression before applications of differentiation and
give enough practice to students.
integration.
− Train students to simplify different
(viii) Many candidates did not have an idea of
types of algebraic expressions in the
formation of differential equation and made form of required simplest form for
errors while solving it. integration.
(ix) Most of the candidates attempted this question − Inculcate in students the
correctly but a few got confused while fundamentals on formation of
presenting the solution and result in proper differential equations and concepts
manner. of identifying the order and degree
(x) A large number of candidates could not find the of the equation.
probability of neither of them winning the race − Emphasise the concept of
correctly. conditional probability with
illustrations.
− Discuss the concept of an event,
complement of an event and the idea
of finding the probability of neither
of the events occurring at a time.

11
MARKING SCHEME
Question 1
(i) a∗b = 2a + b
2∗3 = 2.2 + 3 = 7
(2∗3) ∗4 = 7∗4
= 2·7+4 = 18
5 𝑎𝑎
(ii) A=� �
𝑏𝑏 0
A is symmetric matrix → A = A1
5 𝑏𝑏
A1 = � �
𝑎𝑎 0
5 𝑎𝑎 5 𝑏𝑏
∵ A = A1 ⇒� �= � �
𝑏𝑏 0 𝑎𝑎 0
⇒ a = b.
(iii) 3tan-1x + cot-1x = 𝜋𝜋
⇒ 2𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑛𝑛−1 + tan−1 𝑥𝑥 + 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑡𝑡 −1 𝑥𝑥 = 𝜋𝜋
𝜋𝜋
2tan-1x + 2 = 𝜋𝜋
𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
2tan-1x = 𝜋𝜋 − 2 = 2
𝜋𝜋
tan-1x = 4 ⇒ 𝑥𝑥 = 1
R: R 1 + 2R 3
(iv)
𝑎𝑎 𝑏𝑏 𝑐𝑐 𝑎𝑎 + 2𝑥𝑥 𝑏𝑏 + 2𝑦𝑦 𝑐𝑐 + 2𝑧𝑧
�𝑎𝑎 + 2𝑥𝑥 𝑏𝑏 + 2𝑦𝑦 𝑐𝑐 + 2𝑧𝑧� = �𝑎𝑎 + 2𝑥𝑥 𝑏𝑏 + 2𝑦𝑦 𝑐𝑐 + 2𝑧𝑧� = 0
𝑥𝑥 𝑦𝑦 𝑧𝑧 𝑥𝑥 𝑦𝑦 𝑧𝑧

The function f(x) is continuous


(v) 2
𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 𝑥𝑥 − 2𝑥𝑥 − 3 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 (𝑥𝑥 + 1)(𝑥𝑥 − 3)
∴ =
𝑥𝑥 → −1 𝑥𝑥 + 1 𝑥𝑥 → −1 𝑥𝑥 + 1
𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 (𝑥𝑥
= − 3) = −4
𝑥𝑥 → −1
𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥)
= 𝑓𝑓(−1)
𝑥𝑥 → −1
∴ 𝑘𝑘 = −4
(vi) v = x3
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 1
= 3𝑥𝑥 2 , 𝛿𝛿𝛿𝛿 = 𝑥𝑥
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 100
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 2
𝑥𝑥 3𝑥𝑥 3
𝛿𝛿𝛿𝛿 = . 𝛿𝛿𝛿𝛿 = 3𝑥𝑥 . = = 0 · 03𝑥𝑥 3 𝑚𝑚3
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 100 100

𝑥𝑥 3 +5𝑥𝑥 2 +4𝑥𝑥+1
(vii) ∫ 𝑥𝑥 2
dx
4 1
= ∫(𝑥𝑥 + 5 + 𝑥𝑥 + ) 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
𝑥𝑥 2

12
𝑥𝑥 2 −1
= + 5𝑥𝑥 + 4𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 + + 𝑐𝑐
2 𝑥𝑥

(viii) x2+ y2=a2


differentiate with respect to x
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
2x + 2y𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = 0
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
⇒ x + y𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = 0
1
(ix) (a) 𝑃𝑃(𝐴𝐴∩𝑩𝑩) 3
P (𝐴𝐴⁄𝐵𝐵 ) = = 4
1� =
𝑃𝑃(𝐵𝐵) 3 4
1
(b) 𝑃𝑃(𝐴𝐴∩𝑩𝑩) 2 1
P (𝐵𝐵⁄𝐴𝐴) = 4
1� = =
𝑃𝑃(𝐴𝐴) 2 4 2
1 2
(x) P(A) = 3 𝑃𝑃(𝐴𝐴̅) = 3
1 5
P(B) = 6 𝑃𝑃(𝐵𝐵�) = 6
Probability of neither of them winning the race: 𝑃𝑃(𝐴𝐴̅). 𝑃𝑃(𝐵𝐵�)
2 5 5
= 3.6 = 9

Question 2 [4]
If the function f(x) = √2𝑥𝑥 − 3 is invertible then find its inverse. Hence prove that
(𝑓𝑓𝑜𝑜𝑓𝑓 −1 ) (𝑥𝑥) = 𝑥𝑥.

Comments of Examiners
Suggestions for teachers
A number of candidates did not read the question
carefully and made an attempt to prove that the given Instruct students to read the questions
function is invertible instead of proving (fof-1) (x)=x. carefully.

MARKING SCHEME
Question 2
Let y = f(x) = √2𝑥𝑥 − 3
y2 = 2x – 3
𝑦𝑦 2 +3
x= 2
𝑦𝑦 2 +3
⇒ 𝑓𝑓 −1 (y) = 2
𝑥𝑥 2 +3
𝑓𝑓 −1 (x) = 2
(𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 −1 )(x) = 𝑓𝑓[𝑓𝑓 −1 (𝑥𝑥)]
𝑥𝑥 2 +3 𝑥𝑥 2 +3
=f( ) =�2. −3 =x
2 2

13
[4]
Question 3
If tan−1 𝑎𝑎 + tan−1 𝑏𝑏 + tan−1 𝑐𝑐 = 𝜋𝜋, prove that 𝑎𝑎 + 𝑏𝑏 + 𝑐𝑐 = 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎.

Comments of Examiners
Suggestions for teachers
Many candidates applied the correct formula but
Give adequate practice in solving
made errors while solving further hence, couldn’t get
problems on different types of inverse
the required result. trigonometric functions.

MARKING SCHEME
Question 3
tan-1a + tan-1b + tan-1c =𝜋𝜋
𝑎𝑎+𝑏𝑏
tan-1�1−𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎� + tan−1 𝑐𝑐=𝜋𝜋
𝑎𝑎+𝑏𝑏
+𝑐𝑐
tan �
-1 1−𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎
𝑎𝑎+𝑏𝑏 �=𝜋𝜋
1− 𝑐𝑐
1−𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎
𝑎𝑎+𝑏𝑏+𝑐𝑐−𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎
tan-11−𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎−𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎−𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏 = 𝜋𝜋

𝑎𝑎+𝑏𝑏+𝑐𝑐−𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎
⇒1−𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎−𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎−𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏 = tan 𝜋𝜋 = 0
⇒ a+b+c = abc

𝑎𝑎+𝑏𝑏
Alternate: tan-1�1−𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎� = 𝜋𝜋−tan-1c
𝑎𝑎+𝑏𝑏
1−𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎
= tan (𝜋𝜋 − 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑛𝑛−1c)
𝑎𝑎+𝑏𝑏
=−c
1−𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎
a+b+c = abc

[4]
Question 4
Use properties of determinants to solve for x:
𝑥𝑥 + 𝑎𝑎 𝑏𝑏 𝑐𝑐
� 𝑐𝑐 𝑥𝑥 + 𝑏𝑏 𝑎𝑎 � = 0 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑥𝑥 ≠ 0.
𝑎𝑎 𝑏𝑏 𝑥𝑥 + 𝑐𝑐

Comments of Examiners
Most of the candidates made errors while applying
Suggestions for teachers
the properties of determinants in the correct order. Elucidate all properties of
Hence, they failed to take common factor determinants and their application.
(x+ a+ b+ c) and could not simplify the
determinant.

14
MARKING SCHEME
Question 4
C1 + C2 + C3
𝑥𝑥 + 𝑎𝑎 + 𝑏𝑏 + 𝑐𝑐 𝑏𝑏 𝑐𝑐 1 𝑏𝑏 𝑐𝑐
�𝑥𝑥 + 𝑎𝑎 + 𝑏𝑏 + 𝑐𝑐 𝑥𝑥 + 𝑏𝑏 𝑎𝑎 � = (x + a + b + c) �1 𝑥𝑥 + 𝑏𝑏 𝑎𝑎 �
𝑥𝑥 + 𝑎𝑎 + 𝑏𝑏 + 𝑐𝑐 𝑏𝑏 𝑥𝑥 + 𝑐𝑐 1 𝑏𝑏 𝑥𝑥 + 𝑐𝑐
R 1 −R 3
0 0 −𝑥𝑥
(x+a+b+c). �1 𝑥𝑥 + 𝑏𝑏 𝑎𝑎 �
1 𝑏𝑏 𝑥𝑥 + 𝑐𝑐
(x + a+ b + c). [-𝑥𝑥 (b – x – b)]
x2 (x + a + b + c) = 0
⇒x = - (a + b + c)

[4]
Question 5
𝑥𝑥 2 , 𝑥𝑥 ≤ 1
(a) Show that the function f(x) = 1 is continuous at x = 1 but not
, 𝑥𝑥 > 1
𝑥𝑥
differentiable.
OR
(b) Verify Rolle’s theorem for the following function: 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = 𝑒𝑒 −𝑥𝑥 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑥𝑥 on [0, 𝜋𝜋]

Comments of Examiners
(a) Many candidates successfully attempted Suggestions for teachers
continuity of the function correctly but failed to − Explain the concept of continuity and
calculate LH derivative and RH derivative. differentiability of a function with
(b) While this question was attempted correctly by ample examples.
majority of the candidates, a few candidates could − Explain the Mean value theorem in
not write the correct intervals. detail including difference between the
closed and open intervals with their
significance by sketching the graph of
the same.

MARKING SCHEME
Question 5
(a) 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 𝑥𝑥 2
LHL: =1
𝑥𝑥 → 1− 𝑥𝑥 → 1−
1
𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙
RHL 𝑥𝑥 =1
𝑥𝑥 → 1+ 𝑥𝑥 → 1+
∴ 𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿 = 𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅
The f(x) is continuous at x = 1
𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 𝑓𝑓(1 + ℎ) − 𝑓𝑓(1) 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 (1 + ℎ)2 − 1
𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿 = = =2
ℎ → 0− ℎ ℎ → 0− ℎ

15
1
𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 𝑓𝑓(1+ℎ)−𝑓𝑓(1) 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 −1 −ℎ
RHD = + = 1+ℎ
=
ℎ→0 ℎ ℎ → 0+ ℎ ℎ(1+ℎ)

LHD ≠ RHD
⇒f is not derivable at x = 1.
OR
(b) f(x) = e-x sin x is continuous in [0, 𝜋𝜋]
f1(x) = e-x (cos x − sin x) exists in (0, 𝜋𝜋)
f (0) = f (𝜋𝜋) = 0
Rolle’s theorem conditions are satisfied.
∴ there exists at least one value of x = c
such that f1(c) = 0
∴ f 1 (c) = e−𝑐𝑐 (cos c – sinc) = 0
⇒𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 − 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 = 0
⇒𝑐𝑐 = 𝜋𝜋�4 𝜖𝜖 (0, 𝜋𝜋)
[4]
Question 6
1 𝑑𝑑2 𝑦𝑦 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
If 𝑥𝑥 = 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡 �𝑎𝑎 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 𝑦𝑦� , 𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 𝑡𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 (1 + 𝑥𝑥 2 ) 𝑑𝑑𝑥𝑥 2 + (2𝑥𝑥 − 𝑎𝑎) 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = 0

Comments of Examiners
Most of the candidates successfully attempted the
Suggestions for teachers
first derivative part but made errors in differentiating Train students to solve different types of
second time by applying chain rule. Some candidates questions and proving the result in the
could not simplify to get the required result. process of differentiating and
simplifying the equation.

MARKING SCHEME
Question 6
1
x = tan �𝑎𝑎 log 𝑦𝑦�
1
log 𝑦𝑦 = 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑛𝑛−1 𝑥𝑥
𝑎𝑎
1 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 1
. = 𝑎𝑎.
𝑦𝑦 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 1 + 𝑥𝑥 2
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
(1 + 𝑥𝑥 2 ) = 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
𝑑𝑑2 𝑦𝑦 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
(1 + 𝑥𝑥 2 ) 2 + 2𝑥𝑥. = 𝑎𝑎
𝑑𝑑𝑥𝑥 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
2
𝑑𝑑 𝑦𝑦 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
(1 + 𝑥𝑥 2 ) 2 + (2𝑥𝑥 − 𝑎𝑎) =0
𝑑𝑑𝑥𝑥 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

16
[4]
Question 7
Evaluate: ∫ 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡−1 √𝑥𝑥 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

Comments of Examiners
Most of the candidates made errors in Suggestions for teachers
substitution and simplification or applying
integration by parts concept for further Give adequate practice in solving
problems based on integration by parts.
simplification.

MARKING SCHEME
Question 7
∫ 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡−1 √𝑥𝑥dx let √𝑥𝑥 = 𝑡𝑡
x = t2
dx = 2tdt
2 � 𝑡𝑡 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑛𝑛−1 (𝑡𝑡)𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
𝑡𝑡 2 1 𝑡𝑡 2
2 �𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑛𝑛−1 (𝑡𝑡). − ∫ 1+𝑡𝑡 2 . 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑�
2
2 −1 (𝑡𝑡)
𝑡𝑡 2
= 𝑡𝑡 . 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡 −� 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
1 + 𝑡𝑡 2
1
= 𝑡𝑡 2 . 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡−1 (𝑡𝑡) − ∫ 1𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 + ∫ 1+𝑡𝑡 2 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
= 𝑡𝑡 2 . 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡−1 (𝑡𝑡) − 𝑡𝑡 + 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡−1 (𝑡𝑡) + 𝑐𝑐
= 𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑛𝑛−1 √𝑥𝑥 − √𝑥𝑥 + 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑛𝑛−1 √𝑥𝑥 + 𝑐𝑐

Question 8 [4]
(a) Find the points on the curve 𝑦𝑦 = 4𝑥𝑥 3 – 3𝑥𝑥 + 5 at which the equation of the
tangent is parallel to the x-axis.

OR
𝜋𝜋
(b) Water is dripping out from a conical funnel of semi-vertical angle 4 at the uniform
rate of 2 cm2/sec in the surface, through a tiny hole at the vertex of the bottom. When
the slant height of the water level is 4 cm, find the rate of decrease of the slant height
of the water.

Comments of Examiners Suggestions for teachers


(a) This question was solved correctly by most of − Explain geometrical interpretation of
the candidates. A few candidates made differentiation with ample examples.
mistakes while finding the point of contact at − Interpret all concepts of application of
which the equation of tangent to the curve derivatives and allow students to
where tangent is parallel to the x-axis. practice a number of problems based
(b) Many candidates considered volume as on derivatives.
function instead of surface area. Majority of − Emphasise the difference between rate
candidates did not apply proper sign though it of increase and rate of decrease.

17
was specified in the question that find the rate of decrease of the slant height of the water.

MARKING SCHEME
Question 8
(a) y = 4x3 – 3x + 5
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
= 12𝑥𝑥 3 − 3
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
∵tangent is parallel to x – axis 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = 0
1
∴ 12𝑥𝑥 2 − 3 = 0 ⇒ 𝑥𝑥 = ± 2
1 3 1 3 1−3+10
when x = 1�2 , y = 4·8 − 2 + 5 = 2
−2+5= 2
=4
1
(2 , 4)
1 −1 3 −1 3
𝑥𝑥 = − 2 , 𝑦𝑦 = 4 · 8
+2+5= 2
+2+5
−1 + 3 + 10
=6
2
1
(− 2 , 6)

OR
(b) Let 𝑟𝑟 be the radius and 𝑙𝑙 be the slant height of water surface.
sin 𝜋𝜋�4 = 𝑙𝑙
𝑟𝑟

1
S = 𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑟𝑟 = 𝑙𝑙 · r
√2

………..
… ……
…………
… …
𝑙𝑙 1 …….
… … l
= 𝜋𝜋. 𝑙𝑙. = 𝜋𝜋 𝑙𝑙 2 …….
… …
….
√2 √2 …

… 𝜋𝜋�
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 1 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 4
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
= 𝜋𝜋. 2𝑙𝑙. 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
√2
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
given that𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = −2 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐2 /𝑠𝑠

𝜋𝜋 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
−2 = .2 𝑙𝑙. 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
√2
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 −√2
𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑙𝑙 = 4 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 , = 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐/𝑠𝑠
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 4𝜋𝜋

[4]
Question 9
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑥𝑥
(a) Solve: 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 − 𝑦𝑦 = 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠. tan 2
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

OR
(b) The population of a town grows at the rate of 10% per year. Using differential
equation, find how long will it take for the population to grow 4 times.

18
Comments of Examiners
(a) Most candidates made errors while
transforming into linear differential equation Suggestions for teachers
and in finding the integrating factor. Many
- Illustrate all types of differential
candidates did not express the answer in terms equations with their applications and
of constant ‘C’. give adequate practice on various
(b) Not many candidates attempted this question types of problems.
correctly. Some candidates did not have any - Explain the significance of constant
basic knowledge of applications of differential in the solution of differential
equations while a few candidates did not use equation.
the initial value correctly.

MARKING SCHEME
Question 9
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑥𝑥
Sin x 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 − 𝑦𝑦 = 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠. 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡 2
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑥𝑥
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
− 𝑦𝑦. 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 𝑥𝑥 = tan 2

� 𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃 = − � 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = − log 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡�𝑥𝑥�2�


𝑥𝑥
1
I.F = 𝑒𝑒 ∫ 𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃 = 𝑒𝑒 − log tan2 = 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑥𝑥
�2
= ∫ 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡 𝑥𝑥�2 . 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑥𝑥 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 + 𝑐𝑐
1 1
Sol. 𝑦𝑦. 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑥𝑥
�2 �2
1
𝑦𝑦. 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑥𝑥 = 𝑥𝑥 + 𝑐𝑐
�2
𝑦𝑦. cot 𝑥𝑥�2 = 𝑥𝑥 + 𝑐𝑐

(b) Let initial population be: 𝑃𝑃0 and population after 𝑡𝑡 years be 𝑃𝑃.
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 1
= 10% 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑃𝑃 ⟹ = 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑃𝑃 10
1 1
� 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = � 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
𝑃𝑃 10
1
log 𝑃𝑃 = . 𝑡𝑡 + 𝑐𝑐
10
When 𝑡𝑡 = 0, 𝑃𝑃 = 𝑃𝑃0 ⟹ log 𝑃𝑃0 = 𝑐𝑐
1
log 𝑃𝑃 = . 𝑡𝑡 + log 𝑃𝑃0
10
𝑃𝑃 1
log = . 𝑡𝑡
𝑃𝑃0 10
Since population grows 4 times, 𝑃𝑃 = 4𝑃𝑃0
1
∴ log 4 = 10 . 𝑡𝑡 ⟹ 𝑡𝑡 = 10 log 4 = 20 log 2years

19
[6]
Question 10
(a) Using matrices, solve the following system of equations:
2𝑥𝑥 – 3𝑦𝑦 + 5𝑧𝑧 = 11
3𝑥𝑥 + 2𝑦𝑦 – 4𝑧𝑧 = −5
𝑥𝑥 + 𝑦𝑦 – 2𝑧𝑧 = – 3
OR
(b) Using elementary transformation, find the inverse of the matrix:
0 1 2
�1 2 3�
3 1 1

Comments of Examiners
(a) Most of the candidates attempted the question Suggestions for teachers
correctly. A few candidates made errors while − Explain every property of matrices
calculating cofactors which resulted in incorrect with a number of examples.
adjoint matrix. − Stress upon developing logical and
(b) A few candidates applied both row and column reasoning skills to apply the correct
operations in the same matrix. In a number of property of matrix.
cases, errors were committed by at the third − Ensure that basic concepts of inverse of
stage of simplification and further. a matrix and its properties are clear to
students. Adequate practice should be
given to students for solving equations
by inverse matrix method.

MARKING SCHEME
Question 10
(a) Solve the following system of equations:
2𝑥𝑥 − 3𝑦𝑦 + 5𝑧𝑧 = 11
3𝑥𝑥 + 2𝑦𝑦 − 4𝑧𝑧 = −5
𝑥𝑥 + 𝑦𝑦 − 2𝑧𝑧 = −3
2 −3 5 𝑥𝑥 11
�3 2 −4� �𝑦𝑦� = �−5� det A = −1
1 1 −2 𝑧𝑧 −3
𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 = 𝐵𝐵
𝑋𝑋 = 𝐴𝐴−1 𝐵𝐵

0 −1 2
Adj A= �2 −9 23�
1 −5 13

20
𝑥𝑥 1
𝑦𝑦
𝑋𝑋 = � � = . 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎. 𝐵𝐵
𝑧𝑧 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
0 −1 2 11
1
= −1 �2 −9 23� �−5�
1 −5 13 −3
1
= �2�
3
∴ 𝑥𝑥 = 1, 𝑦𝑦 = 2. 𝑧𝑧 = 3

OR
(b) Using
0 1 2 1 0 0
�1 2 3� = �0 1 0� 𝐴𝐴
3 1 1 0 0 1
R 3 :R 3−3𝑅𝑅2
0 1 2 1 0 0
�1 2 3 � = �0 1 0� 𝐴𝐴
0 −5 −8 0 −3 1
R 1↔ R 2
1 2 3 0 1 0
�0 1 2 � = �1 0 0� 𝐴𝐴
0 −5 −8 0 −3 1
R 3 : R 3 + 5R 2
1 2 3 0 1 0
�0 1 2� = �1 0 0� 𝐴𝐴
0 0 2 5 −3 1
R 1 : R 1 −2R 2
1 0 −1 −2 1 0
�0 1 2 �=� 1 0 0� 𝐴𝐴
0 0 2 5 −3 1
R2: R2 – R3
1 0 −1 −2 1 0
�0 1 0 � = �−4 3 −1� 𝐴𝐴
0 0 2 5 −3 1
1
R 1 : R 1 + 2 R3
1 1 1
1 0 0 −
∴ �0 1 0� = � 2 2 2 � 𝐴𝐴
−4 3 −1
0 0 2
5 −3 1
1
R 3 : 2 R3

21
1 1 1
1 0 0 −2 2
2
�0 1 0� = �−4 3 −1� 𝐴𝐴
5 3 1
0 0 1 −
2 2 2

1 1 1
⎡ − ⎤
⎢2 2 2⎥
∴ 𝐴𝐴−1 = ⎢−4 3 −1⎥
⎢5 3 1⎥
⎣2 −
2 2⎦

[4]
Question 11
A speaks truth in 60% of the cases, while B in 40% of the cases. In what percent of cases
are they likely to contradict each other in stating the same fact?

Comments of Examiners
Most of the candidates attempted this question Suggestions for teachers
correctly but left the result as a fraction/decimal − Advise students to read the question
fraction. A few candidates made errors while applying paper and each question carefully and
the concept of p. q 1 +q. p 1 . note what is to be answered.
− Ensure exhaustive understanding on the
concepts of probability.

MARKING SCHEME
Question 11
Let A speaks truth is event A and B speaks truth is event B.
60 40
P(A) = 60% = 100 �) =
P(A 100
40
P(B) = 40% = 100 �) = 60
P(B 100
�). P(B)
�) + P(A
Required probability = P(A). P(B
60 60 40 40
= 100 × 100 + 100 × 100
5200 52
=10000 = 100 × 100 = 52%

[6]
Question 12
A cone is inscribed in a sphere of radius 12 cm. If the volume of the cone is maximum, find
its height.

22
Comments of Examiners
Most of the candidates attempted this question Suggestions for teachers
incorrectly. Some candidates could not express
volume of the cone as a function in mathematical - Explain exhaustively the concept of
form. A number of calculation mistakes were also maxima, minima and its application.
made while differentiating. Give practice in problems based on
maxima and minima.
− Give adequate practice on mensuration
related concepts and problems.

MARKING SCHEME
Question 12
Let 𝑟𝑟 be the radius of cone and
Radius of sphere = 12cm and 12
Height of the cone = ℎ 12
∴ ℎ = 12 + 𝑥𝑥 x
1 r
Volume of cone = 3 𝜋𝜋𝑟𝑟 2 ℎ
1
= 3 𝜋𝜋(122 − 𝑥𝑥 2 )(12 + 𝑥𝑥)
1
= 3 𝜋𝜋(144 − 𝑥𝑥 2 )(12 + 𝑥𝑥)
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 1
= 𝜋𝜋[(144 − 𝑥𝑥 2 ) 1 + (12 + 𝑥𝑥)(−2𝑥𝑥)]
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 3
1
= 3 𝜋𝜋[144 − 𝑥𝑥 2 − 24𝑥𝑥 − 2𝑥𝑥 2 ]
1
= 3 𝜋𝜋[144 − 24𝑥𝑥 − 3𝑥𝑥 2 ]
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
= 0 ⇒ 144 − 24𝑥𝑥 − 3𝑥𝑥 2 = 0A 1
𝑥𝑥 2 + 8𝑥𝑥 − 48 = 0
(𝑥𝑥 + 12)(𝑥𝑥 − 4) = 0
𝑥𝑥 = −12 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑥𝑥 = 4
𝑑𝑑2 𝑣𝑣 1
at x = 4 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑2 = 3 𝜋𝜋[−24 − 𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏] < 0
at 𝑥𝑥 = 4 𝑣𝑣. of cone is maximum
∴ height of cone = h = 12 + x
= 16 cm

[6]
Question 13
𝑥𝑥−1
(a) Evaluate: ∫ √𝑥𝑥 2 dx
−𝑥𝑥

OR
𝜋𝜋⁄2 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐2 𝑥𝑥
(b) Evaluate: ∫0 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
1+𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐

23
Comments of Examiners
(a) Many candidates applied incorrect techniques for
solution of different types of integrals.
Suggestions for teachers
(b) A number of candidates could not attempt the − Teach comprehensively all standard
question correctly due to incorrect use of properties methods of integrals, problems based on
of definite integrals and using incorrect methods them, definite integrals, their basic
to evaluate integrals. properties and the problems based on
them.
− Ample practice of solving different
types of problems should be given to
students.

MARKING SCHEME
Question 13
(a) 𝑥𝑥 − 1
= � 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑, 𝑥𝑥 − 1 = 𝜆𝜆(2𝑥𝑥 − 1) + 𝜇𝜇
√𝑥𝑥 2 − 𝑥𝑥
1 1
⇒𝜆𝜆 = 2 , 𝜇𝜇 = 2
1 (2𝑥𝑥−1) 1 1
= 2 ∫ √𝑥𝑥 2 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 − 2 √𝑥𝑥 2 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
−𝑥𝑥 −𝑥𝑥

1 1 1
= 2 . 2 √𝑥𝑥 2 − 𝑥𝑥 − 2 2 2
��𝑥𝑥−1� −�1�
2 2
1 1
= √𝑥𝑥 2 − 𝑥𝑥 − 2
. log[(𝑥𝑥 − 2) + √𝑥𝑥 2 − 𝑥𝑥]

1 1
= √𝑥𝑥 2 − 𝑥𝑥 − 2 log[(𝑥𝑥 − 2 ) + √𝑥𝑥 2 − 𝑥𝑥] + 𝐶𝐶

OR
(b) 𝜋𝜋⁄2 𝑐𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜2 𝑥𝑥
∫0 1+𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 cos 𝑥𝑥dx
𝜋𝜋⁄2 𝑐𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜2 (𝜋𝜋⁄2− 𝑥𝑥)
I = ∫0 1+sin(𝜋𝜋⁄𝑥𝑥−𝑥𝑥) cos(𝜋𝜋⁄2−𝑥𝑥)
dx
𝜋𝜋⁄2 2
𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 𝑥𝑥
I= ∫0 1+𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐.𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

Adding (1) and (2)


𝜋𝜋⁄2 1
2I = ∫0 1+sin𝑥𝑥 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐dx

Dividing N & D by cos2x

𝜋𝜋⁄2 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 2 𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥


=∫0 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 2 𝑥𝑥+𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
Let tan x = t  sec2 xdx = dt and 𝑥𝑥 = 0 t = 0: x = 𝜋𝜋⁄2 t = ∞
∞ 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
= ∫0 𝑡𝑡 2 +𝑡𝑡+1

24
MARKING SCHEME
Question 14
Random variable X: 0 , 1, 2, values (defective items)
4𝐶𝐶 1 2𝐶𝐶 ×4𝐶𝐶 8
P(X=0) = 6𝐶𝐶4 = 15 , 𝑃𝑃(𝑋𝑋 = 1) = 16𝐶𝐶 3 = 15
4 4
2𝐶𝐶2 ×4𝐶𝐶2 6
P(X=2) = = 15
6𝐶𝐶4
Probability Distribution
Defective items (x i ) 0 1 2
1 8 6
Probability, 𝑃𝑃𝑖𝑖 15 15 15
8 24
𝑃𝑃𝑖𝑖 𝑥𝑥𝑖𝑖 2 0 15 15
1 8 6
Mean = ∑ 𝑝𝑝𝑖𝑖 𝑥𝑥𝑖𝑖 = 15
. 0 +15 . 1 + 15
.2
8 12 20 4
= 15
+ 15 = 15
= 3
2
∑ 𝑝𝑝𝑖𝑖 𝑥𝑥𝑖𝑖 − (∑ 𝑝𝑝𝑖𝑖 𝑥𝑥𝑖𝑖 ) 2
Variance:
32 20 2
= 15
− �15�

32 400 480−400 80 16
= − = = 225 = 45
15 225 225

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
=� 2
1 2 √3
0�𝑡𝑡 + 2� + � 2 �

−1
2𝑡𝑡 + 1 ∞
= �tan � ��
√3 0
2𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋
2I = 3√3 ⟹ I = 3√3

[6]
Question 14
From a lot of 6 items containing 2 defective items, a sample of 4 items are drawn at random.
Let the random variable 𝑋𝑋 denote the number of defective items in the sample. If the sample
is drawn without replacement, find:
(a) The probability distribution of 𝑋𝑋
(b) Mean of 𝑋𝑋
(c) Variance of 𝑋𝑋

Comments of Examiners
Most of the candidates used the concept of Binomial
Suggestions for teachers
probability distribution to solve this problem. - Ensure that students understand the
concepts of probability distribution,
Binomial probability distribution and
their conditions.
− Sufficient practise on different types
of probability distribution problems
should be given.

25
SECTION B (20 Marks)
[3×2]
Question 15
(a) Find 𝜆𝜆 if the scalar projection of 𝑎𝑎⃗ = 𝜆𝜆𝚤𝚤̂ + 𝚥𝚥̂ + 4𝑘𝑘� on 𝑏𝑏�⃗ = 2𝚤𝚤̂ + 6𝚥𝚥̂ + 3𝑘𝑘� is 4 units.

(b) The Cartesian equation of a line is: 2𝑥𝑥 – 3 = 3𝑦𝑦 + 1 = 5 – 6𝑧𝑧. Find the vector
equation of a line passing through (7, −5, 0) and parallel to the given line.
(c) Find the equation of the plane through the intersection of the planes
𝑟𝑟⃗. (𝚤𝚤̂ + 3𝚥𝚥̂ – 𝑘𝑘�) = 9 and 𝑟𝑟⃗.(2𝚤𝚤̂ –𝚥𝚥̂ + 𝑘𝑘�) = 3 and passing through the origin.

Comments of Examiners
Suggestions for teachers
(a) Most of the candidates calculated dot product
instead of applying projection formula. − Clarify the concept of scalar projection
(b) Most candidates made errors while writing the of vector thoroughly.
equation of a line in the symmetric form and − Explain the concept of transforming
finding direction ratios of the line. Some cartesian form to vector form and vice-
candidates transformed cartesian form of line into versa in detail.
vector equation incorrectly. − Revise frequently the concepts on
(c) A few candidates wrote incorrect equation of equation of plane through the
family of plane and applied incorrect condition to intersection of the planes.
find the constant. - Adequate practise of problems based on
three-dimensional geometry must be
given.

MARKING SCHEME
Question 15
(a) 𝑎𝑎.𝑏𝑏
Scalar projection of a on b = |𝑏𝑏|
2𝜆𝜆+6+12 2𝜆𝜆+18
= = =4
√4+36+9 7
𝜆𝜆 = 5
(b) 2x – 3 = 3y + 1 = 5− 6z
𝑥𝑥−3�2 𝑦𝑦+ 1�3 𝑧𝑧− 5�6
1� = 1� =
2 3 −1�6
1 1 1
⇒ Direction ratios:2 , 3 , − 6 ⇒ 3, 2, −1
Equation of line passing through (7, −5, 0) and parallel to the above line
𝑟𝑟⃗ = (7𝚤𝚤̂ − 5𝚥𝚥̂ + 0𝑘𝑘� ) + λ (3𝚤𝚤̂ + 2𝚥𝚥̂ − 𝑘𝑘�)

(c) The equation of a plane through the intersection of:


� = 3 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖
𝑟𝑟⃗. �𝚤𝚤̂ + 3𝚥𝚥̂ − 𝑘𝑘�� = 9 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑟𝑟⃗. (2𝚤𝚤̂ − 𝚥𝚥̂ + 𝑘𝑘)
� − 9] + 𝜆𝜆 �𝑟𝑟⃗. �2𝚤𝚤̂ − 𝚥𝚥̂ + 𝑘𝑘�� − 3� = 0
[𝑟𝑟⃗. (𝚤𝚤̂ + 3𝚥𝚥̂ − 𝑘𝑘)
𝑟𝑟⃗�𝚤𝚤̂ + 3𝚥𝚥̂ − 𝑘𝑘� � + 𝜆𝜆[𝑟𝑟⃗. (2𝚤𝚤̂ − 𝚥𝚥̂ + 𝑘𝑘� )]= 3λ+9

26
𝑟𝑟⃗[�𝚤𝚤̂ + 3𝚥𝚥̂ − 𝑘𝑘� � + 𝜆𝜆�2𝚤𝚤̂ − 𝚥𝚥̂ + 𝑘𝑘��] = 3λ+9
∵ passing through origin.
3λ+9 = 0 ⇒ λ = −3
��⃗ [−5𝚤𝚤̂ + 6𝚥𝚥̂ − 4𝑘𝑘�] = 0
Required equation 𝑟𝑟.
Alternate: 𝑥𝑥 + 3𝑦𝑦 − 𝑧𝑧 − 9 = 0 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 2 𝑥𝑥 − 𝑦𝑦 + 𝑧𝑧 − 3 = 0
𝑥𝑥 + 3𝑦𝑦 − 𝑧𝑧 − 9 + 𝜆𝜆 (2𝑥𝑥 − 𝑦𝑦 + 𝑧𝑧 − 3) = 0
−9 − 3 𝜆𝜆 = 0 ⇒ 𝜆𝜆 = −3
−5𝑥𝑥 + 6𝑦𝑦 − 4𝑧𝑧 = 0
5𝑥𝑥 − 6𝑦𝑦 + 4𝑧𝑧 = 0

Question 16 [4]
(a) �⃗, 𝑐𝑐⃗, respectively,
If 𝐴𝐴, 𝐵𝐵, 𝐶𝐶 are three non-collinear points with position vectors 𝑎𝑎⃗, 𝑏𝑏
then show that the length of the perpendicular from C on AB is
�⃗�+ �𝑏𝑏
��𝑎𝑎�⃗×𝑏𝑏 �⃗×𝑐𝑐⃗�+ �𝑏𝑏
�⃗×𝑎𝑎�⃗��
�⃗− 𝑎𝑎�⃗�
�𝑏𝑏
.
OR
(b) Show that the four points 𝐴𝐴, 𝐵𝐵, 𝐶𝐶 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝐷𝐷 with position vectors
4𝚤𝚤̂ + 5𝚥𝚥̂ + 𝑘𝑘�, − 𝚥𝚥̂ − 𝑘𝑘� , 3𝚤𝚤̂ + 9𝚥𝚥̂ + 4𝑘𝑘� and 4(−𝚤𝚤̂ + 𝚥𝚥̂ + 𝑘𝑘�) respectively, are coplanar.

Comments of Examiners Suggestions for teachers


(a) Very few candidates attempted this question. - Explain exhaustively about the area of
(b) Majority of the candidates solved the question triangle by using position vectors and
correctly. A few candidates made calculation applications based on the concept.
errors in the process of simplification of scalar - Advise students to concentrate on solving
triple product. a sum stepwise to avoid calculation
mistakes.

MARKING SCHEME
Question 16
(a) ∆ 𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 = C
�����⃗ � . (length of⊥from 𝐶𝐶 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡 𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴).
= ½ �𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴

= ½ �𝑏𝑏�⃗ − 𝑎𝑎⃗�( length of ⊥ from C to AB) A D B


And ∆ 𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 = ½ |𝑎𝑎 × 𝑏𝑏 + 𝑏𝑏 × 𝑐𝑐 + 𝑐𝑐 × 𝑎𝑎)|
1
∴ 2 �𝑏𝑏�⃗ − 𝑎𝑎⃗� (length of ⊥from C to AB) = ½ |𝑎𝑎 × 𝑏𝑏 + 𝑏𝑏 × 𝑐𝑐 + 𝑐𝑐 × 𝑎𝑎)|
|𝑎𝑎×𝑏𝑏+ 𝑏𝑏×𝑐𝑐+𝑐𝑐×𝑎𝑎)|
length of ⊥ from C to AB == �⃗−𝑎𝑎�⃗�
�𝑏𝑏
OR
(b) 𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 = �−𝚥𝚥̂ − 𝑘𝑘�� − �4𝚤𝚤̂ + 5𝚥𝚥̂ + 𝑘𝑘�� = −4𝚤𝚤� − 6𝚥𝚥̂ − 2𝑘𝑘�
�����⃗

27
𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 = �3𝚤𝚤̂ + 9𝚥𝚥̂ + 4𝑘𝑘�� − �4𝚤𝚤̂ + 5𝚥𝚥̂ + 𝑘𝑘�� = −𝚤𝚤̂ + 4𝚥𝚥̂ + 3𝑘𝑘�
�����⃗

𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴=4�−𝚤𝚤̂ + 𝚥𝚥̂ + 𝑘𝑘�� − �4𝚤𝚤̂ + 5𝚥𝚥̂ + 𝑘𝑘�� = −8𝚤𝚤̂ − 𝚥𝚥̂ + 3𝑘𝑘�


�����⃗
�����⃗ , �����⃗
�𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 , �����⃗
𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴� = 0
−4 −6 −2
�−1 4 3 � = −4 (15) + 6 (21) − 2 (33)
−8 −1 3
= −60 + 126 − 66 = 0

[4]
Question 17
(a) Draw a rough sketch of the curve and find the area of the region bounded by curve
𝑦𝑦 2 = 8𝑥𝑥 and the line 𝑥𝑥 = 2.
OR
(b) Sketch the graph of 𝑦𝑦 = |𝑥𝑥 + 4|. Using integration, find the area of the region
bounded by the curve 𝑦𝑦 = |𝑥𝑥 + 4| and 𝑥𝑥 = −6 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑥𝑥 = 0.

Comments of Examiners Suggestions for teachers


(a) Many candidates identified the symmetry of the - Interpret the graphs of the standard
curve about X-axis incorrectly and either did not functions in detail.
apply correct limits or considered area twice the − Give sufficient practice in solving
result. In most of the cases, rough sketch of the problems based on area under a given
curve was not drawn correctly. curve and straight line, etc.
(b) Quite a few candidates attempted this question. - Explain well about the absolute value
Many candidates did not understand the concept functions and train students to draw the
of absolute value function and could not identify rough sketch of the same by applying the
the limits of it by using the given conditions. given conditions.

MARKING SCHEME
Question 17
𝑦𝑦 2 = 4 · 2 · 𝑥𝑥
𝑦𝑦 = √8 . √𝑥𝑥 is 1st quadrant
2
Area = 2 ∫0 𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦
3 2 (0, 0) S(2,• 0)
2 2
= 2√8 ∫0 √𝑥𝑥 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = 4√2 3 �𝑥𝑥 � 2
0
32
= square units.
3

OR
𝑦𝑦 = |𝑥𝑥 + 4|
x+4>0⇒x>−4
x + 4 < 0 ⇒ x <− 4

28
(𝑥𝑥 + 4) ∀ 𝑥𝑥 > −4
y=�
(−4 − 𝑥𝑥) ∀ 𝑥𝑥 < −4
−4 0
∫−6 −(𝑥𝑥 + 4)𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 + ∫−4(𝑥𝑥 + 4)𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
−4 0
𝑥𝑥 2 𝑥𝑥 2
�− � 2 + 4𝑥𝑥�� + � 2 + 4𝑥𝑥� = 10 square units
−6 −4

•(0, 4)

(−6, 0) (−4, 0) (0, 0)

[6]
Question 18
Find the image of a point having position vector: 3𝚤𝚤̂ − 2𝚥𝚥̂ + 𝑘𝑘� in the Plane
𝑟𝑟⃗. �3𝚤𝚤̂ − 𝚥𝚥̂ + 4𝑘𝑘�� = 2.

Comments of Examiners Suggestions for teachers


Most of the candidates applied the condition for Ensure that the students do enough practise
perpendicularity incorrectly and used incorrect of problems based on applications of
direction ratios. It led to calculate incorrect foot of the distance of a point etc. with reference to a
perpendicular and incorrect image of the given point. line or a plane.

MARKING SCHEME
Question 18
P.V. of a point : 3i − 2 j + k (3,-2,1)
: ( 3, −2,1)

Eq. of plane : r ( 3i − j + 4k ) =2
⇒ 3x − y + 4 z =2
D.R. of normal to the plane:
3, −1, 4
∴ Eq. of straight line passing through ( 3, −2,1) in
x − 3 y + 2 z −1
= = = say ( λ )
3 −1 4
Some value of λ the foot of the perpendicular is

29
( 3λ + 3, −λ − 2, 4λ + 1)
3 ( 3λ + 3) − 1( −λ − 2 ) + 4 ( 4λ + 1) =2
26λ + 15 =2
26λ = −13
−13 −1
λ =
=
26 2

Let (x 1, y 1, z 1 ) be the image of the point with reference to the given plane
 x + 3 y1 − 2 z1 + 1   3 −3 
∴ foot of the perpendicular  1 , , = , , −1
 2 2 2  2 2 
⇒ x1 = 0 y1 =−1 z1 = −3
( 0, −1, −3)

SECTION C (20 Marks)


[3×2]
Question 19
(a) Given the total cost function for x units of a commodity as:
1
𝐶𝐶(𝑥𝑥) = 3 𝑥𝑥 3 + 3𝑥𝑥 2 − 16𝑥𝑥 + 2.
Find:
(i) Marginal cost function
(ii) Average cost function

(b) Find the coefficient of correlation from the regression lines:


𝑥𝑥 – 2𝑦𝑦 + 3 = 0 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 4𝑥𝑥 – 5𝑦𝑦 + 1 = 0.
(c) The average cost function associated with producing and marketing x units of an
50
item is given by 𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 = 2𝑥𝑥 – 11 + 𝑥𝑥 . Find the range of values of the output x,
for which AC is increasing.

Comments of Examiners
Suggestions for teachers
(a) Most of the candidates attempted this part correctly
except for a few who made mistakes in - Explain the method of identifying correct
simplification. regression coefficients of given lines and
(b) Many candidates made errors while applying provide enough practice in solving
condition to identify correct regression problems.
coefficients of the given lines - thereby, calculated - Analyse in detail about conditions of
incorrect correlation coefficient. increasing and decreasing functions and
(c) Most of the candidates attempted the first part simplification of problems based on these
correctly but while calculating the value of x when concepts.
AC was increasing, some candidates included the
negative value of x.

30
MARKING SCHEME
Question 19
(a) 1 3
C ( x) = x + 3 x 2 − 16 x + 2
3
d
M .C = c ( x )  = x 2 + 6 x − 16
dx
c ( x) 1 2 2
A.C= = x + 3 x − 16 +
x 3 x

(b) Let
x − 2y + 3 =0 y on x
⇒ 2 y =x + 3
1 3 1
y= x + ⇒ byx =
2 2 2
4x − 5 y +1 =0 x on y
4=
x 5y +1
5 1 5
x= y + ⇒ bxy =
4 4 4
1 5 5
byx ⋅ bxy = ⋅ = < 1∴ Assumption of regression equation is correct
2 4 8
5
r= + = +0.79
8
(c) 50
AC = 2 x − 11 +
x
d 50
( AC )= 2 − 2
dx x
d
AC increases ( AC ) > 0
dx
50
⇒ 2− 2 > 0
x
x − 25 > 0
2

( x + 5)( x − 5) > 0
x < −5orx > 5
 x is positive A.C. increases when x > 5

[4]
Question 20
(a) Find the line of regression of y on x from the following table.
x 1 2 3 4 5
y 7 6 5 4 3
Hence, estimate the value of y when x = 6.

31
OR
(b) From the given data:
Variable x y
Mean 6 8
Standard Deviation 4 6
2
and correlation coefficient: 3 . Find:

(i) Regression coefficients 𝑏𝑏𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑏𝑏𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥


(ii) Regression line x on y
(iii) Most likely value of x when y = 14

Comments of Examiners Suggestions for teachers


(a) Some candidates used incorrect formula to - Ensure that students learn formulae for
calculate regression coefficients like b yx which calculating regression coefficients byx
resulted in incorrect regression equation. and bxy correctly.
(b) Many candidates applied incorrect formulae in the − Advise students to practice a number of
process of calculating b yx and b xy . Thereby made problems based on regression.
errors in calculating other two values also.

MARKING SCHEME
Question 20
(a) x y xy x2
1 7 7 1
2 6 12 4
15.25
∑ 𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥−∑ 𝑥𝑥.∑ 𝑦𝑦 65−
3 5 15 9 𝑏𝑏𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 = (∑ 𝑥𝑥)2
= 5
225 = −1
∑ 𝑥𝑥 2 − 55−
𝑛𝑛 5
4 4 16 16
5 3 15 25

∑ x 15=
= ∑ y 25=
∑ xy 65=
∑ x 2 55
=
x 3,=
y 5
y byx ( x − x )
y −=
y − 5 =−1( x − 3)
y −5 = x −3
x + y= 8 when x= 6, y= 2
OR
(b) 2
𝑥𝑥 = 6, 𝑦𝑦 = 8, 𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 = 4 , 𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦 = 6 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑟𝑟 =
3

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𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦 2 6
𝑏𝑏𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 = 𝑟𝑟. 𝜎𝜎 = 3 . 4 = 1
𝑥𝑥
𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 2 4 4
𝑏𝑏𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 = 𝑟𝑟. = . =
𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦 3 6 9

9x – 4 y = 22
When y = 14, 9 x – 4 x 14 = 22
9 x = 78
x = 78/9 = 8.67

[4]
Question 21
𝑥𝑥 2
(a) A product can be manufactured at a total cost 𝐶𝐶(𝑥𝑥) = 100 + 100𝑥𝑥 + 40, where x
is the number of units produced. The price at which each unit can be sold is given
𝑥𝑥
by P = �200 − 400�. Determine the production level x at which the profit is
maximum. What is the price per unit and total profit at the level of production?
OR
(b) A manufacturer’s marginal cost function is 500 . Find the cost involved to
√2𝑥𝑥+25
increase production from 100 units to 300 units.

Comments of Examiners
(a) Many candidates considered Price function as Suggestions for teachers
Revenue function which led to entire solution - Explain thoroughly with illustrations the
being incorrect. basic difference among Price function,
(b) A few candidates made mistakes in integration Cost function and Revenue function, etc.
part and substituted incorrect limits. - Interpret all Marginal functions and
concepts of application of calculus in
Commerce and Economics with
examples.

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MARKING SCHEME
Question 21
(a)  x  x2
R ( x ) = P ⋅ x =  200 −  ⋅ x = 200 x −
 400  400
P=(1) R ( x ) − C ( x )
 x2   x2 
=  200 x − − + 100 x + 40 
 400   100 
2
x
= 100 x − − 40
80
d 2x x
 P ( x )  = 100 − = 100 −
dx 80 40
2
d
 P ( x )  = 0
dx 2 
⇒x= 4000
d2 −1
2  ( )
 P x=
 <0
dx 40
∴ P(x) is maximum at x = 4000
 x   4000 
x = 4000 P =  200 −  =  200 −  = Rs.190
 400   400 

x2
Maximum profit = 100 x − − 40
80

( 4000 )
2

= 100.4000 − − 40 =
Rs.1,99,960
80
OR
(b) 500
Given: MC =
2 x + 25
Total increased cost when x increases from 100 to 300 units
300 300
500
c ( 200 ) − c (100
= ) ∫ MC ( )
x=dx ∫ dx
100 100 2 x + 25
= 500  625 − 225  = 500 ( 25 − 15 )
300
500  2 x + 25 
100

= 5000
Required cost increase = Rs.5000

Question 22 [6]
A manufacturing company makes two types of teaching aids A and B of Mathematics for
Class X. Each type of A requires 9 labour hours for fabricating and 1 labour hour for finishing.
Each type of B requires 12 labour hours for fabricating and 3 labour hours for finishing. For
fabricating and finishing, the maximum labour hours available per week are 180 and 30
respectively. The company makes a profit of ₹ 80 on each piece of type A and ₹ 120 on each
piece of type B. How many pieces of type A and type B should be manufactured per week

34
to get a maximum profit? Formulate this as Linear Programming Problem and solve it.
Identify the feasible region from the rough sketch.

Comments of Examiners
Suggestions for teachers
A number of candidates could not form the correct
inequalities subject to given constraints. Some noted − Explain how to frame inequalities
incorrect corner points to find optimum value. A few using given constraints and finding
candidates did not draw rough sketch of the feasible corner points by solving inequalities.
region. − Adequate practice in different types of
problems based on inequality must be
provided on a regular basis.

MARKING SCHEME
Question 22
Let x and y be the number of teaching aids of type A and type B respectively
=z 80 x + 120 y
9 x + 12 y ≤ 180
x + 3 y ≤ 30
x ≥ 0 and y ≥ 0

(0,10)
(12, 6)

9 x + 12 y ≤ 180
Solving Constants:
x + 3 y ≤ 30
( 0, 0 ) , ( 20, 0 ) , ( 0,10 ) and (12, 6 )
At ( 0, 0 ) z =80.0 + 120.0 =0
( 20, 0 ) z = 80.20 + 120.0 = 1600
( 0,10 ) z=
80.0 + 120.10 =
1200
(12, 6 )z = 80.12 + 120.6 = 1680
Hence z is maximum at (12,6)
∴x = 12 and y = 6
Maximum z = Rs.1680.

Note: For questions having more than one correct answer/solution, alternate correct
answers/solutions, apart from those given in the marking scheme, have also been accepted.

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GENERAL COMMENTS
• Application of derivatives including Maxima and Minima.
Topics • Integrals, and curve sketching.
found • Vectors, interchange of vector equation to Cartesian equation and
difficult by vice-versa.
candidates • Probability and Probability distribution.
• Inverse circular functions.

Concepts in • Open and closed interval of mean value theorems.


which • Product and sum rule of probability and dependent and independent
candidates events.
• Dot and Cross product of vectors, Projection of a vector.
got confused
• Properties of definite integrals.

Suggestions • Avoid selective study. Study the entire syllabus thoroughly and
for revise from time to time.
candidates • Revise the concepts of Class XI and integrate them with the Class
XII syllabus.
• Clarify the concepts of each chapter/topic with the help of your
teacher.
• Learn the Formulae related to every topic after acquiring thorough
understanding of each symbol used.
• Revise all topics and formulae involved and make a chapter wise or
topic-wise list of these.
• Time management is important while attempting the paper. Practise
solving papers within a stipulated time.
• Practise mock papers by following the time management with the
guidance of the teacher.

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