Sie sind auf Seite 1von 15

c

Assignment No. 02

Course:
Psycholinguistics and Language Teaching Methodology (5655)

The Project Report

Supervisor:
Mr. TahseenAfreen
MA (English); MA (TEFL); B.Ed.

1| cc 
c  
c .cc c :
c
c

The Project Question

͞
c c
c  c 
c  
c   c  
c c  c
  c   c  c
 c  c c  !c  c c
 c "  c
  c  c  c c #c c 
c  c c ! c  !c c  
c

$c
%c  c
!cc  c c   c
%c 
c  
cc
c c 
c c 
c  cc  c c
 c  c
%c 
cc
c
c cc c c
c!c c
 c  c c
 c  -c

c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
O  


   

 cc



c
 c

O  
!" c
c
c

2| cc 
c  
c .cc c :
c
c

Introduction of the Topic


c
c
 c c c&cc  c
c#ccc cc !c 

 c c c
%c &c '# 
(c
c !
c c   c   c c 
c !c 

 c c
  
%c&c'# 
(cc cc
c 
c!c c c
!  c
c
 c cc  %c  cc!(cc'# 
 c (c c)
c
cc

c   c  


 !c 
c !c !c 
 c c  c  c *c
c 
c

 (c
c 
c   c + ,-c c
c "  c   % c (c
c
  c  c c cc'# 
 c# c c !c 
#  % c
c

c
c !c  
c 
 (c c  c  c 
c
 %c &c  c  c
  (c
cc
!c
c#c
 c c
#c c,c  %c  (c cc
c  (c ,c
cc
 c
c
 %c  (c  
!(c
c
c

 c  c '# 
 c c
c  c c  c   c c 
c ,%c '. (c
'
(c/  # (c/  (c0  (c1.
c
%cc c c
c c  c


cc  ccc
c
 c c'# 
%c (cc'# 
 c c 
c

 c
c#c c c

c c #c c c c cc 2c 2c



c  %c &c c  (c
c c c
cc
c cc
,c  cc
!c  
c
c
c
c  c c
 c%c
/ c !c 

 c
cccc c
c 
c cc cc
c
 c
c 

c c 
c   c c  )
c c 
c
c  c
 c +!c
'. -cc,c  % c
c
")$c
3%c (c
#
! c
c
%c 
 !  c
% c
4%c '(c  c!c.!c5

6c % c
7%c 0cc! c5 6cc !
% c
%c 8# (c c5
6c.c5

6c!c  %cccc


%c
% c
c
c    c)c!c c

c
ccc   cc
c!c
 c  c
 c !  c c  c c
!  c
c  c
 c  
c   % c
&
c c  

 c
(c
c c c #  c
 c
#c  c c  c
  
c c !
 %c &c    c
c
 c 

(c
c    c c c
  c  c +
c
c
c
 c c,-c cc
c c cc# %c  c

A| cc 
c  
c .cc c :
c
c

 )
c c   c  c c  c
c  
c  c c  c   c
 
#cc c c   c c cc 
c  %c c
c

c  c c
c
c
 (cc'# 
 c c  c
c c
  c,cc"  c  % c
c c c

c
c c (c
c c c c
c c
 c   9c ,c c "  %c c  (c
c  c
c  c   c c ,c c "  c 
c  (c
c   c  c c


  c

c c
c  c 
 !%c  c
c c
 c  c ::  c c c #c c  c
c 
c

c
c 

c c c

c  c cc


%c (ccc
c c !c   c c
c
!c c


c  
c  c 
c
c
c   %c   (c
c c c 

c c


c

cc'# 
 c (c!c
c c c c  
!(c c !c
 !c   c ,c c "  c   c
c  c )

%c c   c c
"  c   c 
c  c  c c c  ; c  %c c  c c  c
) c c '. c c ,c   c  c   c "  c
  % (c
c 
c c
c
c
 c c
cc c
 c c '# 
 c  c c   c "  c   %c c c !c !c

c  c
'# 
 c<3c c
c c c c  c<%c
c

c  c  c c '# 
c c

c . 
!c c
c 

c
 #c

c
  c "  c   c c !c   
%c  c
 #  c c  
c c c
/  
!c c %c&c c 
cc

c 
c c
c  c cc c
c
"  c   (c 
c c    c
c 

c
c (c
!c c c

c    c
c

%c  c
  c!c
c
c

c c
c#c
%c c  c
!c
c 
c
c 
!c c
c 

c c
!c
c
  cc   c
c !  c c
c c   c   %c c
 c #c
  c  c  c !  c c  c c !c  c c
  cc  c  % c
c
&c 
c c c
c  c c !c '# 
 c (c
!c  #c !c c
c c c
c )c
 c c "  c c  c 
 c c
 c

c %c  c c !(c
c '# 
 c 
c c
c '# 
 c
 
!c c
!  c
 c  c 
c
c  c
c  c

c 
c c
 c  c   c c c "  c  %c= c
 (c
c 

c 
 c
c
  cc  cc  c c c %c

ü| cc 
c  
c .cc c :
c
c

&c(cccc c"  c  (c


c c

cc ccc
c 
c

c c
c!c!  cc
 cc
 %c/ c

 c
 c c  
c

c  c
c
c  c 
c   c  

c
 c"  c  c  % c
c
Literature Reviewc
c
   c
c    
c
c c c  

c  

c 
c   c
 
cc  c  %c ccc

c c c
 c
c

 c
  c 

c 
c
 c 
c c
c   
c

c
 c
%c  c c
c   
c  c
c !c  c   c
 
c
c
#c %c c )
c  
(c
c c c 
c 
!c c
 !cc  c
c c  %c>!c
c
cc c c c!c (cc
c )c c !c c  
c 
!c  c
c  
c c c c
  cc %c 
  (c
c  c
c
c c
c) c
c

c
c #  c c
c  (c
 c

c ccc c


c 
 
c c c 

c

c  c  c c 
c :!c c c
 c
c
  :c
c c c
c 
!%c  c  
c

c
c c
  c
) c
c
c  cc  c  
c

cc 
c  c
c (c
 
c
cc c!

c
 c c!c# % c
c
c    c c
c  
c   c c c   c  %c c c !c 

c
 
c c
 c

%c?
cc 
ccc c

c#  c
c

c3c
c3@c 
(c c c
 c!cc!c
c
 c 
(c
!c
c c
 c  c c 
(c    c
c  c   c


(c  !cc c c
 c
c
 %c<  c c
c

c
 c c 
 !c c 
c  (c   !c  
 %c &c
c

c c  cc
c c *  (c
c !cc
cc (c

c
c c  c  c c 
c 
c  
c
c 
 c  
c

(c
c 
c c c   !%c 
c  c c  c c
c
c c  c c   c  
c 
 c  
c c  c c

%c cc
cc c 
c  cc c  %c c
c
<  c c
c
 c c
c
c ;c c  (c
c cc c
c
c
c cc !(c
c c!c c c  %c/  !(c cc
c c

5| cc 
c  
c .cc c :
c
c

c c c   c   (c


c c !c  c  c   c c !c c
c

c c  c c c 

%c c c
 c c  c c
c  c
 c ;
cc!cc
ccc  c  ccc
 c c c

c .
c
 c 
c
 %c &
c c  c

c   c c !c 
c !c
   
!c   c   
%c = c )(c
c  c  c c
  
c c c  c
c
c  c  c c c   
c
  c

!c

c
c#c c %c
 c c
c    c ) 
c
c c
c 
c c   c   c
c  %c c  c c 
c c
 ) 
(c
c
c c c 
c c )% c
c
!  cccccc> 
c
c
  ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc# c
c
>  cccccccccccccccccccccccccccc 
 c
c
&

c'

cccccccccccc@c 
 c
c
* c

cccccccccc3c!c
c
 * c

cccccccccccccc3@c 
 c
c
 c 
ccccccccccccccccccccc! c
c
A
(c 
ccccccccccccccc%c! c
c
c c )c

ccccccc!c
c

ccccccccccccccccccccccccc3c! c
c
c
c
c
c

6| cc 
c  
c .cc c :
c
c

The major differences between first language acquisition and second


language learning
c
3-c  c !c  c
c<3c
!(cc
c<cc
c #!c
c  c
c<c
!% c
c
-c &c<3(cc c 
(c
c c<c  c 
c c c !c
%c
c
4-c c c 

c  
c c  c c c c  
c c <3c   (c
c<cc !c c ccc 
% c
c
7-c c c c<3cc<cc c 
!%c&c<3(c
 
c  c
 
c c 
(c 
c <c c !c c  

c 
c c

c
 
c   c  
c c
!c !c c  c  c

c!c
c!%c
c
-c  c  cc 

c 
c 
c c<3(c
c<cc
c 
cc
c cc 
c. 
% c
c
-c  
c c 
c  cc 
c!c c<3c(c c c <c
(c 
c c !ccc!% c
c
B-c &c<3(c!c 

c c
c(c
c c<c  c
c c!% c
c
/ (c c c !c

c
c c c 
c  c 
c  
c   c
 
c c  c   c   %c c c  c   c   c

c c c c
c 
c c  
!%c = 
c   c  
c c
 
c c !
!c c  c  
!c c 
c  c   c c
 
 
cc
(cc c  c  cc
c!c
 c c  
c  c c c
c  c c  c    c
  c 

 c
c  c 
c
c 
 %c &
c c 
 
c !  c

c
 c 
!c  c
 c  
c   (c 
c 
c  c 
c 
!c
 c
 c c  (cccc c
c cc
c
 c
c
c  %cc

| cc 
c  
c .cc c :
c
c

Ñ ervation (My Diary)c


c
/ c &c c  #  c c c c 
c c ' c  (c c  

!(c
  c
"  c  c
c !cc

%c&c c
 c  c
 
c c
!c  
c 
%c &c  c 
c 
c !c !c  
c c
 c
 c
 !(c !c c /  c c !!  c +c C
c >(c 1
%c  c
/ (c0(c/ #
-(c
c  c!c c) c c
  cc
  c"  c
c !cc
 
%cc

ow are the students learning second languagec


c
c 
c !
c c
c

c  c c
c 
c c
  c  cc !c 
 
cc  )c   %c  c
  c
c  c c  c c c  
c 


%c " c c ,(c
c


ccc 
 c
  c!c  %c &c  c/  cc !!c
  c,cc"  c.
%c (c c
(c  cc
c
 c
c
c  c  c c
cc
  %c !cc
c  c  c
c
!c
!c c 
c  %cc
c
c

c 
 c c
  c
  c 1 c 
 c c
c c c
'# 
 c  %c c 
 c 

c   c c
c  
!%c    !(c
c' c 


(c
c
cD
cc#  c<3c c
  c<c
c

c%c c

c
!  c c' c c !c c
c
c
  
c c "  %c &c
c
c c "  c c c  c c


c c
c c c
  c<c
c
c(c
c

c c
c
cc
c #c!
  %c/ cc !!cc c c)
% c
c
/  cc !!c#c'. c
c cc
c
!c c
cc"  c
  c cc
cc

!c 
c  c

cc c
c<3c


%c>
c
c

c
!cc
c cc c (c c

 c c !c cc  %c c


c
(c c c !c !c

c c 

c
!c
c c <c
  c <3%c
/ 
(c<3cc
c

c c  c<c
c 
c c
c
c
 c<3c
) c c
c
c 
c %c
c
>
c
c 

(c /  c c !!c c
 
c c 
!c c

c  c %c !c c c


c c
c c !c 
c c
c
!  c
c (c
!c c #c
c c )%c , 

!(c
!c
 c
 c 
 c c  c
%c (c 
c 
 c  c
c  c

| cc 
c  
c .cc c :
c
c


c #%c&cc c
!  c
c
c
c
  c 
c
 (cc&c c

c  c  #c  c
%c c c
c !c c  c c 

c c   c
 c  c c'# 
% c
c
Similarities in acquisition of first language and learning of second language..c
c
&c
c  c c   c c  c   (c
c c c c  c 
c

 c ) c c c c c   :  c


c  c   c 
%c &c
c
!
c c
c<3cc

c c
c<(cc#c c 

%c&c
 c(c

c<3cc
cc c  c c  % c
c
c c c c c c  c c ,c +c '. -c  c c 
!c
#c
 c"  c  c #c(c  (c 
(c (c E(c
c 
 (c
 !(c (c(c#(c  (c (c (cE(c8(c 
(c (c
(c
#
(c   
(c  #
(c  #!(c !(c 
(c (c
#(c   (c

 (c 


c
%c c'# 
 cc!c c
c

c c
c
 c c"  cc!c
#ccc c
c !c
c
c  c c
c
 %c c
c c c<3cc  c
cc c  c<c+"  -%c
c
&c '# 
(c c  !c c 

(c  !c 
!  c c
c ' c

(c  c c  c  c   c #  Fc
 (c
!c #c
 cc c
 c 
c  c#  %c cc!c!c c c c
c c c G
c
Gc 

c  c
c 
 
c c c 
c
 
%%%% %c
c
G&cc  c
c< c
  %Gc
c
&c c c c G'# 
 Gc 

c  c 
c
 c c ,c  c  c


c c c
c
c 
cc!%c %% c
c
G#< c. G%c
c
/  !(c cc
c c<3c+,-c c cG
c
Gcc
c
c c c
G
G(ccc !c

c
c 
c<c+"  -ccG
c
G%c% %c
c
G< c!c! Gcc
c
G&c c c c< Gc
c
G.< c!c! Gc

'| cc 
c  
c .cc c :
c
c

c
G&c c c c< c
!Gc
c
>
c c
c c 
c c   c !c c G
c
Gc c <3(c
c c c


c c  #c c G


c 
Gc c <3(c 
c c c c <c c  (c
c
 cc c
cG
c  
G%c&
c cc

c
c<cc c c
c#c
c  %c (c   c
c
c 
c c <3(c
c <c c  
c c
 %c% %c
c
G#< cc! Gc
c
c<cc

c
c c
c  !c c
c 
c c c
) c c<3%%%%%%%c
c
G&c c c c< c!
!G c
c
The factors which are hindrance in the way of learning second language...

&c!cc   (c
cccc c
c c!c c
c
!c cc<3+,-cc c  c<%c c
cc  c c
c!c $c
c
The Social background
c
>
c
c

(c/  cc !!c  c
cc%c  c  cc
 c c   %c  c c c  c c  
%c !c !c
c

c c 
%c c 
c c 

%c !c  c 
c !c 


c
c
c

!c c
 c  %c 
;c #c c 

c c
 c 
c c c c

c c
%c !(c  (cc c:cc
 (cc
c
c
 c c  !c %c &c
!c c  c c  c 
c  !(c
 c

cc
c cc %c (c
c c  c#  c cc
 c c  9%c
c
c c3
c cc  c  %c
c
L1 as a hindrance in learning L 2
c
= c c '# 
 c (c <3+,-c 
c c
c  c  c c   c <c
+"  -%c (c
c  c c  !c c
c
c 
c c
c 
c

 %c /c  c c c &


  c  %c / 
(c <3c 
c
ccc   c<c
c 
c c
c
c<3c
ccc c c
c
!c c  c<%c  
cc
c c
c

c c 

c c  c

10 | cc 
c  
c .cc c :
c
c

<c!cc'# 
 ccc
c
c c
c 
c  c 
% c
c
1)/  cc !!c c
c c
c'# 
 c !cc

c c
(
!c
c

c
c,c  c c
c c c
c
 
c  c
c
cc
c
c 
c %c  c
 c
c c,%%c
c
G < c.
! Gc
c
&c (c c c c c  c c .
%c c c '# 
 c 

c


c c 
c 
c "  (c c #c
c     c c c ,c c  c
 cc

c
 c
c
 c!%%%%%%c
c
G !c c
c< Gc
c
!c
 #c

c c
c .
c c (c
 c c GGc c c 
c  c
#  c
c cG Gc%c !c c
 cc
!cc!  c<3cc c
  cc

 c<%cc
c
&c
c c !(c c '# 
 c c  
c

c
c 
c Gc
   Gcccc c
c    c!%%%%c
c
Gc c #  G%c
c
 c c cc c 
c  c 
%c  (c cc
!c
c8 
c

 c c c"  c (c
c 
c  c
c

% c
c
2)cc c c c
c c,c  %c/  cc !!c
 c
 c
c

 
c!c
9c
c
5  
 

6 c
c
&
c c

 c
c9%c
G c ccc#  c !G%c c
c
!c

c
c #9c
c
Gccc#  c !G +  c 
c
c
c9c   c
c<3c 
- c
c
A) ,c  c cG
Gc cGGcc ccc
c) ccGc
G%c&cc
#  c
c"  ccc&cc
c    c
c!cc

c c

11 | cc 
c  
c .cc c :
c
c

 9%c
c
G c cc
  c c
cair standGc
c
ü) c "    c c !c %c c

c c
c , cG#Gc
c  :c!c/  cc !!%c !cc
c"  c c56c cc

c ) c 


c
c c 5c E #6c c 5# # #6c c
5# # 6c c5c# # c!c.#6 %c !c
cc
c
5
cc E6cccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc cccccccccc5 Ec#6c
c
5
ccc6c ccccccccccccccccccc5# # #6 c
c
5 ccc6cccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccc5# # 6 c
c
5 cc 
c cc  6ccccccccc cccccccccc5# # c!c.#6 c
c
5)&c  c
c
 c c
c   c
c   c c
c  c  %c

;c!c
!cc 
#%c&c#c
c
cc
c  c cc
 c

c
!cc
!cc c
c c c

c %c  c cc
c c
  c
c c c 
)
%cc
c
6)>
c /  c c !!c !c  c  c
c  
c  c


 c ,c   c 
c "  %c = c )(c 
c c
c



c
9c
c
5 .#c !c#c
 6c
c
 #9%c
c
5 .c c
c !6+ !cc
c c5
6c c5
6cc
c 
-c
c
9c
c
5& c!c# 
cc# ! 6c
c
5& c 

#c 2c c '# 


6%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%c 
 
c #   c

c  c
 
c cc c" c
c

#%c /  
c5 6cc !!c
c
5 6c c56cc
c 
%c
c

12 | cc 
c  
c .cc c :
c
c

c(c<3cc  c c c


c!c c  c<c  c c
'# 
 c%c
c
Deductive Method as a hindrance in L2 learning
c
c
c c!cc 

(c &cc 
c
 c c
c %c/  cc
!!c c
 
c
  c 
c 
 c 
c
!c  c
c   c
 c

 %c&c
(c
 cc
cc c c  :
%c c

c
  
c
c c c (c
 (c c
c c c )%c (c

c
 cccccc c c
c!c c<c%cc /cc



(c 
c
 cccc c c
c 
c
c
%c c
c
More emphasis on correction and tenses rather than communication
c
(c
c '# 
 c
(c 
c c  c c  
c c
c

c
c   c
c

c
c  
c c "  %c **!(c



c ccc!c
c 
c c'# 
c
ccc
  c
c 
c c
c  
c c  
c
 c
c
  %c c 

c  c c   c
c )c
 c c

#c c"  %c  c 


#c cc  c    c
cc5  c
 

6c c
c%c !c cc  c!c
c
 c
c
  
c c"  %c  c
 c c
  (c
c  
c
 (c
c   c c **!c c'# 
%c (c c c 
cc

cccccc c c  cc  c  % c


c
Negative feedback from the teacher s
c
&c
c
c c  
c #c
c
 c 

(c
c 

c c c
c
c  #c %c c  c c
c 

c 
c  c c c c c
 
c #c  c  c
%c  
c #c  c
c
 c
 c
c c
 c c
  c  c  %c c 

c  c
 c
!c
c!c!
  c cc  c  %c  c

c 
c
c
  c 
c  c
c 

%c  (c  
c #c  c
c

ccc
#ccc c c!c c  c<%c
c
c
c
c
c
c

1A | cc 
c  
c .cc c :
c
c

Suggestions for improving the L2 learning process in Pakistan


c
3-c c   
c 
 c  c c c  c c  c c
c
"  c  c %c
-c c c c 1 c 
 c  c c    :c c
c "  c   c
 %c
4-c &

c   c c
c  c  #c  c c 
 :c c
c
"  c  c %c
7-c &
c 
 c  c c c c %c &c c c c
c c
 c

 c  
!c c
c"  c  c (cc c
#cc

c 
c c
 c
 %c
-c c c c  * c  c 
c c c c c
c #c
c
  c  c c 

 c c
c

% c
-c c 
c c
 c
c  c 
 c c
c' c
 %c
B-c c
c  c
!c
c   c
c 

c
c #c "  %c
!c 
c 
c  
c 
c
c  c c  
#c c
c 

%c
' 
c#c c
c
c!c!c

c
c

c
c
 #c c%c
c
Conclusion
c
   c
 c  c  
(c
 c c c  c

c    c
c  
c   c
c  cc c  cc
c
c 
c
  %c ccc
c
 
c  c!
 !cc
!c
  c 

%cc c
c  c

c

c!cc c c
c 
c
!c c<3%c<  c<ccc
 #(c  cc
cc c

c
 %c <  c c<cc!ccc
 c cc
c  
c c cc
c'# 
 c  
!c c
%c
&c'# 
(c
c 
c c<3c c !cc :c c  c<c+"  -%c
>
c,cc"  c  c  cc
c c 

%c c
c c c
 c c
c
c  %c c"  c  c cc !c c  c c
   c
c,c  %c c,c  c (c c
(cc )
c c!c
  c c c
c c
!c
 c  %c c   c c
 c
 
c  c

c c c
c  #c !c c c c c
c  c
c


c c  c 
 c c
  c "  c c c   c   c
c
'# 
 c 

%c c
c  c
!c
c #c
c <c +"  -c   c
 c !c c  c  c
c '# 
 c 

%c = 

!(c c

c + !c
c'.c 
-c c c #  c  c 
c
c c
c  c
c c<c  c c c'# 
%c !c cc
c   c
c<c  c c Hc %c

1ü | cc 
c  
c .cc c :
c
c

Bibliography
c

 c
c
c
 
   

 c



c
c



   c


  c

c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c

15 | cc 
c  
c .cc c :
c