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World Tipiṭaka
1 -1 in Tai Scripts
15 Script Set

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Pāḷitepiṭaka

World Edition
Tai Lü Script-Pāḷi

Pāḷi Tipiṭaka rthography based on


The Chulachomklao of Syām BE 24 6 Edition

40 Vols.
(i)

BENEDICTION
by
His Holiness Somdet Phra Ñāṇasaṁvara
The Supreme Patriarch of Thailand

Patron of
The World Tipiṭaka Project
The M.L. Maniratana Bunnag Dhamma Society Fund

Major Suradhaj Bunnag, my ordainee saddhivihārika, who was ordained as a


Buddhist monk under royal patronage, and who is the Chancellor of the M.L. Maniratana
Bunnag Dhamma Society Fund under the Patronage of His Holiness the Supreme Patriarch
of Thailand, has informed me that he will publish the complete Pāḷi-language Tipiṭaka of
the Great International Council Buddhist Era 2500 (1956) in Roman script, for the first
time in Thailand. This Pāḷi Tipiṭaka has been meticulously edited by 2,500 Buddhist
monks of the highest scholastic repute in the Theravāda tradition from around the world.
The Romanised script edition of the Pāḷi Tipiṭaka, comprising 1,000 complete sets each
containing 40 volumes, will be presented as gifts of Dhamma to major international
institutions all over the world.
(ii)

I thereby designate this commemorative Pāḷi Tipiṭaka edition


in Pāḷi :
Mahāsaṅgīti Tipiṭaka Buddhavasse 2500

and in English :
The Buddhist Era 2500 Great International Council Pāḷi Tipiṭaka

The Pāḷi Tipiṭaka is the Holy Teachings of the Buddha, the Teacher of man and
divine beings. The Pāḷi Tipiṭaka falls into three divisions1, namely, Vinayapiṭaka, the Book
on the Disciplines; Suttantapiṭaka, the Book on the Discourses; and Abhidhammapiṭaka,
the Book on the Ultimate Realities. It comprises 84,000 Dhammakhandhas, or Dhamma
sections.

As He approached Parinibbāna, the Buddha uttered:

216 484...yo vo, ānanda, mayā dhammo ca vinayo ca desito


paññatto, so vo mamaccayena satthā...

Mahāsaṅgīti Tipiṭaka Buddhavasse 25002

7D2:484 BY - NC - ND

Ānanda, the Dhamma (Doctrine) which I have expounded and the


Vinaya (Discipline) which I have established for you all, the Dhamma
and the Vinaya will be your Teacher after I am gone...

Translation from The World Tipiṭaka Edition M2500: 7D2:4843

1
In the World Tipiṭaka Edition, the entire Pāḷi Tipiṭaka is divided into 86 Pāḷi sections according to 86
Pāḷi Titles of the Buddhist Era 2500 (1957) Great International Council Pāḷi Tipiṭaka. See Quick Guide.
2
See Dīghanikāya, Vol. 7, Book Division No. 216 of the Mahāsaṅgīti Tipiṭaka Edition of the Buddhist
Era 2500 Great International Council Pāḷi Tipiṭaka, published by the Dhamma Society in Roman script
in B.E. 2545, and is referred in the new system of Tipiṭaka Studies Reference in this edition as M2500:
7D2.216, the Paragraph Number 484 is used instead of the Book Division Number 216.
3
See footnote 2
(iii)

Consequently, five hundred Arahanta Elders, who were all led by Venerable
Mahākassapa Arahanta held the First Great Council for compilation of the Buddha’s
words in the Tipiṭaka at the city of Rājagaha in ancient India. The gathering of the
arahantas at the First Great Council is called in Pāḷi as Paṭhamamahāsaṅgīti. Thereafter
there were Great Councils with a view to perpetuate the Teachings of the Buddha.
Buddhists all over the world regard the Pāḷi Tipiṭaka as the Buddha Himself. Hence,
the compilation of the Buddha’s words and the propagation of the Pāḷi Tipiṭaka are
profound meritorious acts.

Thailand’s friendly Buddhist countries including Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Cambodia,


and Laos which profess Theravāda Buddhasāsana held, during Buddhist Era 2497-2499
(1953-1955), in Yangon, the Great Council of the Buddha’s Teaching. The Buddhist
monks who were well-versed in the Pāḷi Tipiṭaka were invited from all over the world
to edit and verify the Pāḷi Tipiṭaka.

With the approval of the Ecclesiastical Council under the auspices of the Royal
Thai Government, a group of Buddhist monks from Thailand including myself took part
in this Great Council. Their Majesties the King and Queen of Thailand made a State
Visit to Yangon, Myanmar, in Buddhist Era 2503 (1960), and offered their royal support
to the Great International Council along with the Heads of State of other countries. In
Their Majesties’ offcial suite, was included Thanphuying M.L. Maniratana Bunnag,
Her Majesty the Queen’s Lady-in-Waiting.

With the completion of the Romanization of the Buddhist Era 2500 Great
International Council Pāḷi Tipiṭaka Edition, Thanphuying M.L. Maniratana Bunnag
expressed her deepest appreciation and acted as leader in organizing the Romanised
edition to be published and propagated all over the world in commemoration on the
auspicious 72nd Royal Anniversary Birth of His Majesty the King, the Buddhist Sovereign
Monarch of the Thai Nation, in Buddhist Era 2542 (1999).
(iv)

I would, therefore, like to offer commendation for this profound meritorious act.
May happiness and peace pervade the whole universe through the omnipotent power
of the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Saṁgha, through the omnipotent power of the
Pāḷi Tipiṭaka with 84,000 Dhammakhandhas, through the omnipotent power of Phra
Syāmadevādhirāja, the Guardian Deity of Siam, and through the omnipotent power of
the highest god brahma and deities of the whole universe. May Their Majesties, King
Bhumibol Adulyadej the Great Dhamma Protector and Queen Sirikit of Thailand, who
are both endowed with benevolent and excellent qualities and ever-firmly devoted to
Buddhasāsana, and all the members of royal lineage, be blessed with longevity, happiness
and peace.

May the highest brahma gods and deities, as well as human and all beings,
joyously celebrate and bless those who have piously donated money and kind toward this
profound meritorious act of preparation the complete Pāḷi Tipiṭaka Edition in Roman
Script4 published in the Kingdom of Thailand, the first of its kind in the world, for their
happiness and prosperity, now and always.

His Holiness Somdet Phra Ñāṇasaṁvara


The Supreme Patriarch of Thailand

20 October Buddhist Era 2542 (1999),


amended, 25 January Buddhist Era 2545 (2002)
Bovornives Vihāra, Bangkok.

4
The first three inaugural sets were graciously presented as gifts of Dhamma in 2005 by Her Royal Highness
Princess Galyani Vadhana Krom Luang Naradhiwas Rajanagarindra, the Royal Matriarch of Thailand,
to the President of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka in Colombo, Vice Chancellor of
Uppsala University in Uppsala, Kingdom of Sweden, and President of the Constitutional Court of the
Kingdom of Thailand in Bangkok.

See Royal Message of the Tipiṭaka Presentation in Tipiṭaka Studies Reference 2007.
(vii)

DHAMMA SOCIETY
The M.L. Maniratana Bunnag Dhamma Society Fund
Under the Patronage of His Holiness Somdet Phra Ñāṇasaṁvara
The Supreme Patriarch of Thailand

INTRODUCTION

The Importance of the Tipiṭaka in Buddhasāsana


by
Venerable Phra Dhammapiṭaka
(P. A. Payutto)

The term Buddhasāsana or Buddhism is generally used to convey a wide variety


of meanings ranging from the Dhamma, the Saṁgha, their organizations and activities, to
all religious sites and objects. However, if we examine the term to penetrate to its core,
the meaning of Buddhasāsana is straightforward —its literal reading, “the Teachings of
the Buddha,” which is the essence of Buddhasāsana; everything else is an extension or
out growth of His Teachings1.

1
In the World Tipiṭaka Edition, the entire Pāḷi Tipiṭaka is devided into 86 sections of Pāḷi according to
the Pāḷi Titles of the Buddhist Era Great International Council Pāḷi Tipiṭaka. See Quick Guide
(viii)

Once we have grasped the true meaning of the term, we will realize that the
continuation of Buddhasāsana means the existence of the Buddha’s Teachings. Were
they to become vague or disappear, no matter how numerous are devotees and activities
or how imposing religious institutions and objects are, it could not be said that
Buddhasāsana exists. On the contrary, should those extraneous tangibles disintegrate
while the Teachings of the Buddha remain, people can still have an opportunity to
know Buddhasāsana. Consequently, Buddhasāsana can truly be upheld through the
preservation of the Buddha’s Teachings.

Dhamma and Vinaya : Embodiment and Abode of the Buddha

Buddhasāsana or the Teachings of the Buddha refer to the words of the Buddha, or
His speech. Therefore, the preservation of Buddhasāsana is essentially the preservation of
the words that the Buddha uttered in His sermons and the Discipline He laid down.

All Buddhists are well aware that the Dhamma and the Vinaya represent the
Buddha, for the Buddha Himself said:

216 484...Yo vo, ānanda, mayā dhammo ca vinayo ca desito


paññatto, so vo mamaccayena satthā...

Mahāsaṅgīti Tipiṭaka Buddhavasse 25002

7D2:484 BY - NC - ND

Ānanda, the Dhamma (Doctrine) which I have expounded and the


Vinaya (Discipline) which I have established for you all, the Dhamma
and the Vinaya will be your Teacher after I am gone...

Translation from The World Tipiṭaka Edition M2500: 7D2:484

2
See Dīghanikāya, Vol. 7, Book Division No. 216 of the Mahāsaṅgīti Tipiṭaka Edition of the Buddhist
Era 2500 Great International Council Pāḷi Tipiṭaka, published by the Dhamma Society in Roman script
since B.E. 2545, and is referred in the new system of Tipiṭaka Reference in this edition as M2500:
7D2.216, the Paragraph Number 484 is used instead of the Book Division Number 216.
(ix)

Buddha’s words are, therefore, both the embodiment and abode of the Teacher
as they uphold and proclaim the Dhamma and the Vinaya for Him.

Thus, it is most vital to preserve the Buddha’s words, the key to the continuation
of Buddhasāsana. Attempts to preserve them have been made since the Buddha’s lifetime,
while the Teacher was still alive.

Saṅgīti : Preservation of the Buddha’s Words

The procedure is to collect all the words that the Buddha had uttered in the
course of His teaching and divide them into sections for easy recollection. Those who
took part would go over them thoroughly with questions and answers for the purpose of
clarification until they reached full agreement. Participants would then chant the words
together to vouchsafe their acknowledgement and establish the words thus gathered
as the standard of reference to be committed to memory and handed down to future
generations. This method is called Saṅgīti, which literally means “chanting together”.

This manner of Saṅgīti, or chanting together, was set as a precedent in the


Buddha’s lifetime by Venerable Sāriputta, the chief disciple of the Buddha. Before
the Buddha and the gathering of monks, Venerable Sāriputta collected the words of
the Teacher together and arranged them on the basis of the number of items in their
composition into groups of one to groups of ten as they now appear in the Saṅgītisutta.
When the disciple finished his recitation, the Buddha gave an exclamation of approval.

The First Great Tipiṭaka Council of the Buddhist Era, B.E. 1

Later, almost immediately after the Buddha passed into Parinibbāna3, the greatest
and most important Saṅgīti took place4. Seven days after the death of the Teacher,
the Venerable Mahākassapa asked the monks to assemble for a Saṅgīti. When they all
agreed, preparations were made and the First Saṅgīti was held at Rājagaha only three
months after the Passing Away of the Teacher.

3
The Passing Away of the Buddha the year of which the Buddhist Era was first established.
4
Cūḷavagga Vinayapiṭaka, Mahāsaṅgīti Tipiṭaka Buddhavasse 2500 Vol. 4, No. 437, M2500: 4V4.437
(x)

The gathering of the Buddha’s words at this great assembly was done in this
manner. The five hundred Arahants who had come in time to attend the last sermon
of the Buddha met together and chose those who could recall accurately the Buddha’s
words in each area. The Venerable Upāli5 was chosen for the Discipline; the Venerable
Ānanda6, for the Teachings. Then those who were well versed in the area would recite the
words of the Teacher to the assembly. The Venerable Mahākassapa, who presided over
the meeting, laid down the rules for presentation by grouping and sequencing questions
to be asked; that is, it was done systematically.

Had the recitation of the Buddha’s words, together with their context, taken
place in the Buddha’s lifetime, He would have endorsed them Himself. However, since
the First Saṅgīti took place after the Teacher had passed away, the burden fell on the
Arahants who had arrived in time to see the Teacher and listen to His final sermon to
ensure their accuracy by means of catechism. When consensus was reached, the assembly
chanted the words together and committed them to memory to be passed on. Thus the
tradition was established.

The First Saṅgīti is the most important as the Teacher’s words that were compiled
and memorized then were to be the standard. What remains to be done is to keep the
collection of the Buddha’s words, the results of the First Saṅgīti, intact in its entirety.
Consequently, since then emphasis has been put on recitation as a means of preserving
the Buddha’s words and the monks who were entrusted with their preservation were
allotted sections to memorize.

This implies that the First Saṅgīti is the only one true to the meaning of Saṅgīti
-- the sense of compiling and chanting together the words of the Buddha. Subsequent
Saṅgītis were only meetings where monks who had committed the Buddha’s words to
memory convened to cross-examine one another to ensure that the collection of the
Teacher’s words from the First Saṅgīti was still intact and free from any interpolation.

5
Cūḷavagga Vinayapiṭaka, Mahāsaṅgīti Tipiṭaka Buddhavasse 2500 Vol. 4, No. 439, M2500: 4V4.439
6
Cūḷavagga Vinayapiṭaka, Mahāsaṅgīti Tipiṭaka Buddhavasse 2500 Vol. 4, No. 440, M2500: 4V4.440
(xi)

Saṅgīti and Tipiṭaka : Principles of Theravāda Buddhasāsana

The words of the Buddha and their context preserved through memorization were
arranged and classified into what is called the Tipiṭaka, comprising the Vinayapiṭaka7
(Book of Discipline), the Suttantapiṭaka8 (Book of Sermons), and the Abhidhammapiṭaka9
(Book of the Higher Teaching).

Later on, the preservation of the Buddha’s words meant taking on the burden
of excluding interpolations of extraneous teachings and practices. It, therefore, had
the additional task of maintaining the Buddha’s words as the standard against which
instructions and practices were examined. The term Saṅgīti has thus extended its meaning
to cover the purging of extraneous instructions and practices.

Moreover, after some time, certain people took the extended meaning as central
to the Saṅgīti to the extent that its true meaning fell into oblivion. At present, some
people have gone so far as to mistakenly believe that participants of the Saṅgīti have
assembled to examine the Teachings in the Tipiṭaka regarding right and wrong views or
concepts. This amounts to ruling that the teachings of the Buddha here and there are
right or wrong and to setting about to rectify them, while the real import of Saṅgīti is
to verify that the words of the Teacher have been preserved intact in their entirety. It
is, therefore, imperative in this present age to place emphasis on the true meaning of
the term Saṅgīti so that it can be distinguished from other meanings that have accrued.

The history of Saṅgīti in its true though extended meaning of an assembly to go


over the words of the Buddha and cross-examine them to ensure that they have remained
pure, unaltered and intact can be divided into two periods. In the first, the work was
done orally, known as “mukhapāṭha”; in the second, it was put down in writing, known
as “potthakāropana”.

7
See in this 40-Volume Mahāsaṅgīti Tipiṭaka Buddhavasse 2500 “The World Tipiṭaka Edition” or The
World Tipiṭaka, Volume 1-5 or M2500 Vol. 1-5
8
M2500 Vol. 6-28
9
M2500 Vol. 29-40
(xii)

Mukhapāṭha : First Period of Tipiṭaka Transmission, before B.E. 460

This period lasted for about 460 years from the Buddha’s lifetime. The monks
memorized the Teacher’s words through recitation called mukhapāṭha, which simply
means “by word of mouth,” that is, study-memorize-impart orally. This method meant
that preservation was entrusted to individuals. What is good about this is that the
Saṁgha realized how vital it was to preserve the Buddha’s words. They, therefore,
could not afford to be remiss and thus carefully committed the words to memory in
their entirety. To them, preservation of the Buddha’s words was of utmost importance
in upholding Buddhasāsana.

Preservation by mukhapāṭha was carried out through recitation, which could


be classified into four levels:

1. The responsibility fell on the majority of monks who followed along the lines
of teachers of old, called Ācariyaparamparā or Theravaṁsa10, established by
senior monks who were present at the First Saṅgīti. For instance, the Venerable
Upāli, who excelled in the Discipline, had undertaken the task of preserving and
explaining the words of the Buddha in that section and of handing them down.

2. The study of the Buddha’s words was the main activity in the life of a monk,
for it served as a basis for right practices, which led to insight. Specialization,
however, depended on individual dispositions. Therefore, there were groups of
monks who were experts in different sections of the Pāḷi Tipiṭaka. For example,
some specialized in Dīghanikāya11, the Collection of Long Discourses, as well as
its commentary or Aṭṭhakathā, and were called Dīghabhāṇaka12 or chanters of
Long Discourses. Likewise, there were Majjhimabhāṇaka, chanters of Middle-
length Discourses; Saṁyuttabhāṇaka, chanters of Connected Discourses;
Aṅguttarabhāṇaka, chanters of the Collection of Numerical Sayings; and
Khuddakabhāṇaka, chanters of the Various Collections.

10
Ācariyavaṁsa, Ācariyavāda M2500: 28Mi.132/7
Ācariyaparamparā, Theraparamparā, Vaṁsaparamparā M2500: 1V.A.45
11
See for example Dīghanikāya Suttantapiṭaka, Mahāsaṅgīti Tipiṭaka, Vol. 6-8, M2500: 6D1, 7D2, 8D3
12
See also the commentary
(xiii)

3. It was a routine in a temple for each group to meet and recite the Buddha’s
words in unison. (This practice may have given rise to the routine of morning-
evening chanting of today.)

4. It was the practice of a monk as stated in an Aṭṭhakathā or Commentary that


whoever was free from other activities should sit reciting the Buddha’s words.
This meant that reciting the words of the Teacher was part of his religious
practice.

Saṁgha and Tisikkhā : Buddhist Monks and Tipiṭaka Studies

As Buddhist monks lived in a community called Saṁgha, regulated by the


Discipline to proceed along the course of Tisikkhā or threefold learning and practice13,
every one of them fully realized that the Buddha’s words in the Tipiṭaka were the
essence of Buddhasāsana and had to be kept whole and pure. The recitation to preserve
them, the studious atmosphere in imparting and seeking knowledge, and the question
and answer sessions for clarification that would lead to proper practice all ensured that
revision and verification were carried out normally, continuously.

That this method has preserved the Buddha’s words intact in their entirety has
been fully attested. Words on the same topic repeated four or five times under different
headings or sections that were entrusted to different groups of experts are generally
identical in expression. This also proves how accurately monks in the past memorized
the Buddha’s words. Moreover, the number of words each committed to memory was
astronomical. Instances of this can still be found at present. In Myanmar several monks
who have been appointed Tipiṭakadhara, or bearer of the Tipiṭaka, are able to recite
the entire Pāḷi Tipiṭaka (This totaled to 2,708,706 words in Pāḷi or 20,606,104 letters
in Roman script).

13
Tisso sikkhā— abhisīlasikkhā, adhicittasikkhā, adhipaññāsikkhā M2500: 1V1.45 – Three fold learning
and practice namely, learning and practice in higher morality, learning and practice in higher mentality,
learning and practice in higher wisdom.
(xiv)

Potthakāropana : Second Period of Tipiṭaka Transmission, after B.E. 460

This refers to the period when all of the Buddha’s words and their context in
the Pāḷi Tipiṭaka were put down in writing; in other words, they were preserved with
external objects. It began about 460 B.E. (83 B.C.), when the Fourth Saṅgīti was held
at Aluvihare in old Sri Lanka.14

The Fourth Saṅgīti took place because of concern over political and environmental
changes at that time. There were misgivings, that they would affect the task of committing
the Buddha’s words to memory and handing them down. It was also foreseen that future
generations would regress in terms of concentration and intelligence. For instance, their
will and faith would be so weakened that they would be unable to preserve the Buddha’s
words by word of mouth. It was, therefore, decided to inscribe the Pāḷi Tipiṭaka on ola
leaves.

In one way, preservation in writing seems to assure stability and permanency;


that is to say, the text would remain as it is until the material used rots away or is
destroyed. However, this method has a weakness. It makes people overconfident, resting
assured that the Pāḷi Tipiṭaka is in ola leaves or books. They then become slack in their
attention to the recitation, revision, and study of the text, and perhaps reaching the
point of negligence.

Furthermore, the writing of texts in the old days depended on scribes. Whenever
texts were copied, errors and omissions were bound to occur. Thus, not only letters
may have been omitted from words but whole words or lines may have disappeared.
Sometimes those who were to preserve the text themselves were not skillful in inscription
and so had to have the work done by other scribes. Some of these men might have been
inept in Pāḷi and the Buddha’s words or ignorant of both. If that was the case, chances
of their making mistakes were even greater. Slips of this type were common knowledge
in Thai society in the old days regarding the copying of medicinal formulas. Thus, we
have a common saying: “taking medicine from the third copy means death.”

14
The Mahāvaṁsa, section 33.99
(xv)

Consequently, when preservation of the Pāḷi Tipiṭaka relies on outside materials,


not individuals, it is crucial to have a common authoritative volume that has been
carefully written and edited. This volume should be kept at a center somewhere to serve
as the pillar for the Saṁgha and for the country.

It so happens that in an age when the Buddha’s words have been preserved in
writing, Buddhasāsana has flourished and become a national faith of several countries.
Each has established its own copy of the Pāḷi Tipiṭaka that is the pillar of the country.
Measures have been taken to assure that the text remains intact and free from impurities.
For example, in this region a Saṅgīti was convened by King Tilakarāja of Lanna15 and
another one was held in the reign of King Buddha Yod Fah the Great16 of the Ratanakosin
period.

Though more than a thousand years have elapsed, comparison of the Pāḷi
Tipiṭaka of Buddhist countries has revealed that they agree on the whole with some
differences in script. Considering the length of the text, the discrepancies are negligible.
This shows that the text has been accurately maintained with full understanding of its
great import.

Chaṭṭhasaṅgīti : The Buddhist Era 2500 Great International Council

When Buddhasāsana reached the twenty-fifth century of the Buddhist Era,


Theravāda Buddhist countries all prepared grand celebrations. The First International
Saṅgīti was convened in Myanmar from B.E. 2496 to 2500 (C.E. 1952 - 1956). Buddhist
monks and scholars from every country that embraces the Theravāda tradition of
Buddhasāsana and countries where Buddhasāsana is taught assembled in Myanmar to
go over the text of the Pāḷi Tipiṭaka prepared by the Burmese together with versions in
different scripts from other countries. This convocation is referred to as Chaṭṭhasaṅgīti,
the Sixth Saṅgīti, and recognized by all Buddhist countries.

15
B.E. 2020 (1477) Present-day Lanna is in Northern Thailand.
16
B.E. 2331 (1788) Founder of Bangkok and the Present Royal House of Chakri.
(xvi)

However, soon after the Chaṭṭhasaṅgīti was over, there occurred turmoil and
political changes in Myanmar. This may have been the reason why the preservation
and printing of the Pāḷi Tipiṭaka of the Chaṭṭhasaṅgīti had not proceeded smoothly,
causing confusion between the Burmese version that had been used as a draft and the
resolution version that was the outcome of the Saṅgīti.

Mahāsaṅgīti Tipiṭaka :The World Edition in Roman Script, B.E. 2545

Now, the M.L. Maniratana Bunnag Dhamma Society Fund under the patronage
of His Holiness Somdet Phra Ñāṇasaṁvara the Supreme Patriarch of Thailand17 is about
to publish in Roman script the Chaṭṭhasaṅgīti Pāḷi Tipiṭaka, the version that has been
revised and edited by international monks of the Theravāda Buddhist tradition. The
Pāḷi Tipiṭaka is thus made accessible to the international community.

With patience, determination and carefully laid-out procedures, there is a report


that the working committee has discovered the Chaṭṭhasaṅgīti Pāḷi Tipiṭaka that was
printed at different times and has distinguished between the first edition and an edited
version that was printed. Moreover, portions of later printed versions have been noted
for what they truly are. The committee has worked hard to get the version that is most
accurate. This has then been rechecked against the Pāḷi Tipiṭaka written in various
scripts from several countries. It seems that the goal of the Chaṭṭhasaṅgīti has finally
been realized.

Furthermore, the committee has made full use of the latest technological advances.
It is able to set out an effcient system of reference, and has a database that can be
used for further studies and research on the Tipiṭaka, such as electronic data storing in
CD-ROM with an easy search program.18

17
See the 20 October B.E. 2542 Benediction by His Holiness the Supreme Patriarch of Thailand for the
Mahāsaṅgīti Tipiṭaka Buddhavasse 2500 (The Buddhist Era 2500 Great International Council Pāḷi
Tipiṭaka Edition) published by the Dhamma Society in Roman Script in B.E. 2545 (1st edition), B.E.
2548 (2nd edition)
18
See Preface to the Publication of the Mahāsaṅgīti Tipiṭaka 2500 Edition.
(xvii)

Nevertheless, the ultimate goal of the task is to keep the Buddha’s words that
have come to us in the form of the Pāḷi Tipiṭaka intact, free from interpolations. It
must be true to the collection that came out of the First Saṅgīti. This will enable the
reader to have access to the original words of the Buddha with no interference from the
views of others. Even opinions of Dhammasaṁgāhakācariya, or the compiling teachers
of the Dhamma, if they occurred, are to be marked and distinguished. They are open
for intellectual study to the full.

As it has been pointed out earlier, as long as the Pāḷi Tipiṭaka exists, Buddhasāsana
will remain in its true and original form. Therefore, as long as the Pāḷi Tipiṭaka exists,
people still have an opportunity to learn and benefit from Buddhasāsana.

Tipiṭaka in the Modern World

Although man has made great progress in the past thousands of years in terms
of civilization and reached what is now known as the Age of Globalization, he has not
been able to free himself or overcome suffering, oppression, and even war. Man expects
that ethics arising from various religious beliefs will help solve these problems. However,
most beliefs provide only commandments or orders that man has to observe with faith.
By embracing such a belief man rises above problems within himself and those with
his fellow men and put his faith in the rewards and punishments meted out by a power
believed to be supernatural.

In this respect, Buddhasāsana as embodied in the words of the Pāḷi Tipiṭaka is


distinctively different. It teaches the morality and ethics of self-development that will
release man of all problems. He will thus attain full freedom, extricating himself from
dictates of external forces.
(xviii)

Man at present has advanced to a stage that can be considered the peak of
civilization. At this point, progress entails problems that bring about suffering on all
sides, ranging from lifestyles to social and environmental issues.

It is evident that civilization at this height has brought man the whole range of
suffering but is unable to lead him out of it.

More and more people are beginning to realize that Buddhasāsana as expressed
in the Pāḷi Tipiṭaka is the answer that can rid mankind of all suffering.

At the core of this is the problem of life, which is the most deeply felt. The
suffering in man’s mind, even the most rudimentary such as stress, has become a weighty
problem of mankind today. Buddhasāsana incorporates the teaching that is deemed most
proficient in ridding the ultimate problem of life — mental suffering. It penetrates natural
truth by means of intelligence and eradicates the seed of suffering from the mind. Thus,
the mind is free, clear and untarnished, and suffering will never recur.

Tipiṭaka as Important Source for Wisdom and World Peace

Out of the self and into a wider circle man is faced with social problems. Suffering
comes from erroneous relations, which turn into violence and exploitation of fellow men.
At this level, Buddhasāsana is prominent as a religion that spreads without the use of
swords. Religious wars have never been fought in its name and none of its precepts can
ever be used to justify invasions or wars. Throughout its history Buddhasāsana has
truly advocated peace and loving-kindness to all. Thus sages have acknowledged that it
is the first and truly pacifistic movement of the world. The Pāḷi Tipiṭaka is, therefore,
the most important source from which peace-loving people can study principles and
procedures that could secure peace for mankind.
(xix)

The outermost circle surrounding man and his society is the environment,
especially the ecological system, which is in serious trouble, threatening the survival of
mankind.

Now it is generally accepted that these environmental problems stem from an


erroneous concept, which is at the base of present-day civilization — the belief that
man is separate from nature. Because of this man has a negative attitude towards his
environment. He is intent on gaining power to overcome nature so that he can manipulate
it to his advantage. To solve this problem man needs a new concept to form a new
base.

The Middle Way

On this matter Buddhasāsana teaches the Middle Way19 — to know things as


they really are. Nature is a system of relations between all things including man, which
are components that are interdependent.

Man is a special component in this system as he can be trained and developed.


When man improves himself and acquires admirable qualities, he will be refined physically
and mentally, inclined to render assistance to others and think creatively. Furthermore,
training will develop his intellect, enabling him to gain insight into the system of relations,
which are interdependent, and realize that it must proceed smoothly. When man has
developed these fine attributes, he will know how to live his life and see to it that all
things in nature that are systematically interrelated, proceed in harmony. This is the
way that will lead man to a happy world free from exploitation.

19
Majjhimā paṭipadā
(xx)

In short, Buddhasāsana offers a base for new concepts that will shift the trend
in human development from man as an opponent attempting to overcome nature to a
component assisting in coexistence of all in nature.

When Buddhasāsana is seen as useful in solving this crucial problem, the Tipiṭaka
will be a rich source for research and study to such end.

Tipiṭaka as Dāna : a Gift of Dhamma from Thailand

It is hoped that the World Tipiṭaka Edition, the Buddhist Era 2500 Great
International Council Pāḷi Tipiṭaka, published by the M.L. Maniratana Bunnag Dhamma
Society Fund under the patronage of His Holiness Somdet Phra Ñāṇasaṁvara the Supreme
Patriarch, in honour of Their Majesties the King and Queen of Thailand, to be presented
as a Gift of Dhamma worldwide, will serve as a bearer of the Buddha’s teachings that
travels great distances. This messenger has the mission to deliver the Teacher’s words,
which are beautiful at the beginning, beautiful in the middle and beautiful at the end20,
as uttered by the Buddha when He directed the first group of disciples to proclaim His
message for the benefit of all mankind.

Venerable Phra Dhammapiṭaka21


(P. A. Payutto)

October 9, B.E. 2545 (2002)

20
Desetha, bhikkhave, dhammaṁ ādikalyāṇaṁ majjhekalyāṇaṁ pariyosānakalyāṇaṁ … M2500: 3V3.32
21
Phra Bhrama Khunabarana
(xxiii)

C World Tipiṭaka Sajjhāya Phonetic Edition in Various Tai Scripts


with Lahu Garu Roman Phonetic Alphabet-Pāḷi

1 kalyāṇadhamma
ka lyā ṇa dham ma
ชRoman Script-Pāḷi ช40 Vols./Digital

กัล๎ยาณธัม์มํ ชTai Syām Script-Pāḷi ช40 Vols./Digital


2 ka lyā ṇa d am ma
h

กลยาณธมมํฺ
3 ka lyā ˇṇa dham ma
ชTai Thai Script-Pāḷi ช40 Vols./Digital

กล ฯาณธมฯํฯ ชTai Yuan Script-Pāḷi ช40 Vols./Digital


4 ka lyā ṇa d am ma h

ชTai Lōng Script-Pāḷi ช40 Vols./Digital


5 uvfbKEXrfr>
ka lyā ṇa d am ma
h

dy]pkItTy,,Y ชTai Lao Script-Pāḷi ช40 Vols./Digital


6 ka lyā ṇa d am ma h

d]CkIT,?Y ชTai Kün Script-Pāḷi ช40 Vols./Digital


7 ka lyā ṇa dham ma

ᦂᩃᩣᨱᨵᨾᩴ ชTai Lü Script-Pāḷi ช40 Vols./Digital


8 ka lyā ṇa d am ma h

ชTai Khamti Script-Pāḷi ช40 Vols./Digital


9 uvf,gEXrfrH
ka lyā ṇa d am ma
h

klqÂaöDmqmÈ ชTai Āhom Script-Pāḷi ช40 Vols./Digital


10 ละหุka
คะรุlyā ṇa d am ma
h

ชTai Phāke Script-Pāḷi ช40 Vols./Digital


11 uvf,gEXrfrH
ka lyā ṇa d am ma h

12 ka lyā ṇa d am mah
ชThai Phonetic Alphabet-Pāḷi ช40 Vols./Digital

13 ka lyā ṇa d am ma h
ดฮม ชTai Phonetic Alphabet-Pāḷi ช40 Vols./Digital

ชPāḷi Alphabet ช40 Vols./Digital


14 ka lyā ṇa d am ma h

2 3 2
15 ka lyā ṇa dham ma
ชPāḷi Notation ช250 Vols./Digital

16 ชDigital Tai Pāḷi Sound ชDigital Only


(xxiv)

Example of Lahu and Garu Sound

An excerpt from the Dhammacakkappavattanasutta, the World Tipiṭaka Phonetic Edition 2018,
illustrating the Lahu and Garu Orthographic writing symbols in Thai and Roman
Scripts in accordance with the Tipiṭaka Kaccāyana Pāḷi Grammar and its Commentaries. The
Lahu sound printed in light lettering is a quick-syllable pronunciation. The Garu sound, printed
in bold lettering, is a prolonged-syllable pronunciation.

�!�(
�!�(�� �� �*�%�*�%
��*�-
��*�-
�� ����� �23� C!#;D C!!D C!"#$D C!%D CC!"!0#*D$ C!&D C!"!$#*D$ C-!"$D CB!"$D $
�!�(
�!�(������ �*�%�*�%
���#��&
���#��&
/� /� ��#�� ���� C!E;D C!9D C!&D C!+D C!/D C!@D C!FD C-!D CB!D C!E0DG

� �� ��� �� � � � � �
� � �� � � � ��� �� �� � � � � �
� � � � � � � � � � �
� � � � Lahu
Lahu

na mō tas sa bha ga va tō 11  ะ
 aa
5 6 1 1
2 3
1 1 22  ิ

� � � � � � �� �
�� �� �� �� � �� �� � � � � ��
� �� �� � �
� ��
 ii

� � � � � � � � � � �
� � 33  ุ
 uu
��� � ���h� �� ��� ���� ��� � � � ��
bud d a sa ra ṇa gac chā mi 44  า็ -
ā-
 ā-
3 4
55  เ ็-

% �� & %� &+�� &� %


ē-
) �� $� &

 ē-
� #� � $�
" " � " " " " "

25

� � � � � � �

66  โ ็-
ō-
 ō-
ta ṇhā pō nōb bha vi kā
2 6 2
1
1 1

�&
"#
, -# � )$
'
.(
'( &� % &� &� &� � 4( ! "#, 5$'($
67(
& & � ,� &�
�&
�� &� �
"% " " " " " % %
" " " "
!
12

� � � � � � �
!
�#� � �� � �� �$� *0 #ว็1 า] ก h ต
duk kha sa mu da ya svāk k ā tō
3 4

) &'(
$ 1
0 $,
$2 , -# $3 , ) 4( , 5 67( $&'( ) +
* -# ) .(
1

!, "# / ! "# /
% % % % %! % % % !
8 , ,

*&+% +, -. /) *0#1 ]
[ "#$  ()
sab ba lō ka smi mēt tañ ca
7 5
4 1
2 1
(xxv)

The Garu [ garu] is a prolonged-syllable pronunciation. The Tipiṭaka Kaccāyana Grammar states that
a long-vowel syllable i.e. a i u should be a prolonged pronunciation see No. 1 - 2
The Commentaries will elaborate further, see No. 3 - 7 . Note Garu from Lahu 1 1 2
and Lahu from Garu. 1 1 5 6 7
5 6
5 6
lahu 1 1 Dīghagaru see Kaccāyanapāḷi Rule No.5 aññe dīghā , No. 603 : dīgho ca
garu Thai Phonetic Alphabet Pāḷi [เ ] [ ]
Roman Phonetic Alphabet Pāḷi ē []
tō [ ]
Long-vowels syllable - Garu sound

garu 2 Du-mhigaru see Kaccāyanapāḷi Rule No. 602 : dumhi garu


1 Thai Phonetic Alphabet Pāḷi [ ตt • ฻ ]
Roman Phonetic Alphabet Pāḷi [
ta • tra ]
Short-vowel syllable becomes Garu when followed by cluster sound
Note cluster-sound sign or linkage mark (  ) under cluster syllables

garu 3 Saṁyogagaru see Kaccāyanapāḷi Rule No. 28 : paradvebhāvo ṭhāne


Kaccāyanapāḷi Rule No. 29 : vagge ghosāghosānaṁ tatiyapaṭhamā
Tipiṭaka Commentary (Saddanītisuttamālā) Rule No. 10 : saṁyogaparo ca (garu)
Thai Phonetic Alphabet Pāḷi [ บ๟ด • งํ]
Roman Phonetic Alphabet Pāḷi [ bud • dhaŋ ]
Final consonant - Garu sound

garu 4 Niggahītagaru see Kaccāyanapāḷi Rule No. 37 : niggahītañca


Tipiṭaka Commentary (Vuttodaya) Rule No. 7 : niggahītapara ... garu
Thai Phonetic Alphabet Pāḷi [ บ๟ด • งํ]
Roman Phonetic Alphabet Pāḷi [ bud • dhaŋ ]
Niggahīta sound (only at nasal cavity) - Garu sound

garu 2 5 Padādigaru see Kaccāyanapāḷi Rule No. 602 : dumhi garu


lahu 1 (Bayatirekanaya/Padantayatigaru)
Tipiṭaka Commentary (Vuttodaya) Rule No. 10, (Saddanīti Padamalā)
Thai Phonetic Alphabet Pāḷi [น t • โม]
Roman Phonetic Alphabet Pāḷi [
na • mō ]
Short-vowel syllable becomes Garu at the beginning syllable

garu 3 6 Padantagaru see Kaccāyanapāḷi Rule No. 602 : dumhi garu


lahu 1 Tipiṭaka Commentary (Vuttodaya) Rule No. 10, (Saddanīti Padamalā)
Thai Phonetic Alphabet Pāḷi [ ต๡ • t ]
Roman Phonetic Alphabet Pāḷi [
tas • sa ]
Short-vowel syllable becomes Garu at the end of the word

garu 4 7 Pādantagaru Kaccāyanapāḷi Rule No. 602 : dumhi garu


lahu 2 Tipiṭaka Commentary (Vuttodaya) Rule No. 7 : pādantaparagaru
Thai Phonetic Alphabet Pāḷi [ ๡บ • บะ • โล • ก t • ม b ]
Roman Phonetic Alphabet Pāḷi [
sab • ba • lō • ga • s mi ]
Short-vowel syllable becomes Garu at the end of the sentence (verse)
(xxvi)

, ถอดเสี ย งเป็ น “สั ท ทะอั ก ขะระไทย-ปาฬิ ” โดย วิ จิ น ตน์ ภาณุ พ งศ์ , ตรวจทานใหม่ โ ดย สมหมาย เปรมจิ ต ต์ พ.ศ. ๒๕๖๐
Pāḷi Sound ith Lahu Garu Phonetic Printing
syām lphabet/Thai Phonetic lphabet and Thai Phonetic lphabet/Roman Phonetic lphabet

syām lphabet Thai Phonetic lphabet


accāyana Pāḷi Grammar
Thai Phonetic lphabet Roman Phonetic lphabet

1
[ ะระหะ] Kaccāyanapāḷi No. 4
[ ะระหะ] [araha] lahumattā tayo rassā

sound
vo el
a
2
มั ล [มง ะละ] • Kaccāyanapāḷi No. 31
[มง ะละ]
• [maŋ gala] • vaggantaṁ vā vagge

3
ั์ [ตส สะ] Kaccāyanapāḷi No. 28
[ตส สะ] • [tas sa] • paradvebhāvo ṭhāne

4
า์ [ ว็ า ส สะ ] nal-consonant sound Kaccāyanapāḷi No. 5
[ ว็ า ส สะ ] [ vās sa] • aññe dīghā

5
ย์ย [เส็ ย ยะ]
[เส็ ย ยะ] [ sēy ya] •
Kaccāyanapāḷi No. 5
aññe dīghā
6
ก์ [ โป็ ก ขะระ ] •

[ โป็ ก ขะระ ] [ pōk khara] •

7
์ าม [ป จ า มิ] • •
Kaccāyanapāḷi No. 29 :
[ป จ า มิ]
• [puc c ā mi] • h • vagge ghosāghosānaṁ tatiyapaṭhamā

8
๎ ม๎ [ บ ระ หมะ] Kaccāyanapāḷi No. 4
[ บ ระ หมะ [ b ra h ma] • lahumattā tayo rassā

9
๎ยั ์ [สะ บ ย ะนะ]
[สะ บ ย ะนะ [sa b yañ jana]
• •
see Chulachomklao of Siam Tipiṭaka 1893

10
ัก๎ย ์ [ สt กยะ ปต ต Kaccāyanapāḷi No. 602
[ สt กยะ ปต ต [ sa k ya put tō]
• • • dumhi garu
cluster sound

สุ ร ธั ช บุ น นาค และคณะโครงการพระไตรปิ ฎ กสากล พ.ศ.

11
ก ๎ [กb หิ] •

[กb หิ] [ ki ñ hi] •

12
๎ [ร ฻ ห ิ ]

[ร ฻ ห ิ ] [ ru ḷ฻hi] •
see Chulachomklao of Siam Tipiṭaka 1893

13
ม๎ [ ต ม ห] Kaccāyanapāḷi No. 602
[ต ม ห] [tu m hē] • dumhi garu

14
า ๎ ากา [ปา ตวา กา สิ ] Kaccāyanapāḷi No. 5
[ปา ตวา กา สิ ] [ pā t vā kā si]
• • • aññe dīghā

ํ, ก,ํ ํ [สง [ กbง [ตง]


sound

Kaccāyanapāḷi No. 30
nasal
pure

15
[สง] [ กbง [ตง] [saŋ [ kiŋ [tuŋ] aṁ b฻yañjane niggahītaṁ
(xxvii)

, ถอดเสี ย งเป็ น “สั ท ทะอั ก ขะระไทย-ปาฬิ ” โดย วิ จิ น ตน์ ภาณุ พ งศ์ , ตรวจทานใหม่ โ ดย สมหมาย เปรมจิ ต ต์ พ.ศ. ๒๕๖๐
1
กัณ์ ๎ ามั ์ 1
์ กัณ์ าล กัณ์ ์
า 1

1 อ,อ a
3 3 เพดานอ่อน ท่ามกลางลิน ริม ปาก เพดานอ่อนเพดานแข็ง เพดานอ่อนริม ปาก
2 อา ์ 1
อุ
3 อิ i ริม ปาก อ
4 อี โอ4

5 อุ u กัณ์ 1 อะ อั5

6 อู เพดานอ่อน อา
7 เอ e เอ 4

8 โอ o ตา 1 อิ
9 ก์ k
เพดานแข็ง อี
10 ข์ kh

[ -ะ] [ -ั ] [ -็า] [ - ิ ] [ -ุ ] [ g -็] [ F -็]


1
11 ค์ g
12 ฆ์ gh ออกเสียงเร็ว
13 ง
[- t ] [ -y ] [ -า ] [ - b ] [ - u ] [ -6 ] [ -^]
1

14 จ์ c ออกเสียงนานขน
[ g- ] [ F-]
15 ฉ์ ch
16 ช์ j ั ์ า ั ์ ั ์ มั ์ า1 า ั ์ า ๎ยั ์ า าม1
17 ฌ์ jh า เสียงปาฬิ-พยั ชนะวัคค์ มี 5 วัคค์ วัคค์ละ 5 ตัว เสียงปาฬิ-ชอพยั ชนะอวัคค์
18 ์ ñ 1 1 1 1

า า
19 ฏ์ ไม่กอง2 กอง2 ม์1 กอง2 ไม่กอง2
20 ์ 1
ต1 1
ต1 า กั ์ า 1 1 1
21 ฑ์
22 ฒ์ า ไม่พน่ ลม2 พ่นลม2 ไม่พน่ ลม2 พ่นลม2 ช่องจมก ไม่พน่ ลม2 เสียดแทรก2
23 ณ์ ṇ
กัณ์ 1
h
24 ต์ t ทีเสนเสียง2 ๎
25 ถ์ th กัณ์ 1
k kh g gh
26 ท์ d
ธ์ ์
27

28 น์
dh
n
ทีเพดานอ่อน2
ตา 1
ᦂc ก์
ch

j jh

ñ y
29 ป์ p ทีเพดานแข็ง2 ์ ์ ์ ์ ์ ย๎
30 ผ์ ph ม ์ ธ 1 ṭ ṭh h ṇ r ḷ
31 พ์ b
32

33
ภ์
ม์
bh ทีหลังปุมเหงอก2
m ั ์ 1
์ ์ ์ ์ ᨱ ณ์ ๎ ๎
สุ ร ธั ช บุ น นาค และคณะโครงการพระไตรปิ ฎ กสากล พ.ศ.

t th d dh n l s
ย๎
34

35 ร๎
y
r
ที นบน
ั ์ ์
2

1
์ ์ ์ ᨵ ธ์ ์ ᩃ ล๎ v

36 ล๎ l
37 ว๎ v ทีริม ปากกับ น2 ๎
38 ส๎ s
์ 1 p ph b bh m
39 ห๎ h
ฬ๎ ์ ์
ทีริม ปาก2 ์ ์ ᨾ ม์
40

41 อํ a
42
อิํ i า กั ์ า 1
ระ ร ช ุ Tai Tipiṭaka
อุํ u ล

43
ทีช่องจมก / Tai Lü Script-Pāḷi

1
คาศัพท์ปาฬิภาสาทีปราก ในคัมภีร์กัจจายะนะ-ปาฬิ, มุขมัตตทีปนี, ปทรปสิทธิ, และสัททนีติ 2 คาศัพท์ทางวิชาการภา าศาสตร์ปจจุบัน 3 การถอดอักขะระจาก
“อักขะระสยาม-ปาฬิ” เป็น “อักขะระโรมัน -ปาฬิ” ในพระไตรปิฎก จ.ป.ร. อักขะระสยาม พ.ศ. ๒ ๖ 4 ตามคัมภีร์ไวยากรณ์ เอ, โอ เป็นสระประเภทอสวัณณะ แต่เสียง
ทีออกจริง เอ อาปาก ไม่ตองกวางมาก เหยียดปากเล็กนอย โอ ห่อปาก เป็น สระแท (pure vowel) 5 กัจจายนัตถทีปนี พ.ศ.๒ ๐ อธิบายกฎไวยากรณ์
กัจจายะนะ-ปาฬิ ขอ ๒ ว่า ม ํ ํ ๎ า ์ า กา ํ าม. ปิดปาก แลวเปล่งเสียง อ อักขะระ ชอว่า สังวุ ะ
Sa
Sajjhāy
jjhāyaa T
Tepiṭak
( 1 -1.0
1.0))
epiṭakaa : The World
( 1 -1.0
1.0))
# Tipiṭaka Edition in Tai Lü Script-Pāḷi and
# Roman Phonetic Alphabet-Pāḷi
ᩮᩅᩁᨬᦂᨱ ᨳ[]
[ • • • • ] ปาฬิ 1
ᨴ[]

1 -ᨾᩉᨲᩣ
2 ᨽᦂ
ᩥᦂᩩᩩᩈᩮᩴᩮᨥᨶ
ᨥᨶ ᩈᨴ ᨷᨬᨾᩮᨲᩉ
1 -2

ᨷᨬᨾᩮᨲᩉᩥᩥ ᩮᨲᨶ ᩈᨾᩮᨿᨶ


ᨽᩥᦂ
ᩥᨶᨿᨷᩥ
สัชฌายเตปฏก : พระไตรปฎกสัชฌายะ พิมพดวยᩅᨶ
ᦂᩩอัᨿᨷ
ᩩᩈᩮᨲᩉ
ᩮᨲᩉᩥ
ᩮᨲᨶ ᩈᨾᩮᨿᨶ
[

ᩥ ᦂ้อᩥ -ปาฬิᦀᩮᩔᩣᩈ
ᨭᨭᦂ ᦀᩮᩔᩣᩈᩥ

ᩥ ᩮᦃᩣ ᩮᩅᩁᩮᨬᩣ ᨻᩣᩉᩮᨱᩣ


] [ • •
] [
ᨻᩮᨴᩤ ᨽᦅᩅᩤ •
] [ •
] [
ᩮᩅᩁᨬᩣᨿ
ᩮᩅᩁᨬᩣᨿᩴᩴ • • •
] [
ᩅᩉ
ᩥᩉᩁᨲᩥ
ᩁᨲᩥ ᨶᩮᩊᩁᨷᨧ
ᨶᩮᩊᩁᨷᨧᩥᨾᨾᨶᨾᩮᩃ
ᩥ ᨶᨾᩮᩃ
] [ •

ᨻᩮᨴᩤ ᨽᦅᩅ • • • • •
] ᨵ [ [k]

]

ᨶ ᦃ[ [kʰ]
]

ᦃᩃ [ᩮᨽᩣ ᩮᦅᩤᨲᩮᨾᩣ ] ᩈᦂᨷᩮᨲᩣ


[ ] [ ] [
[ ] [ กขะระไตลื คูขนานกับ [สัททะอักขะระไทย-ปาฬิ]
] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
• • • • •


• • • • • • •


• •


• • •


• •

ปาฬิ[ 1
[ ᨷ ᦅ [g]]
ᩈᨾᩮᨱᩣ ᩈᦂᦂᩃᩣ ᨷᨻ ᨷᨻᩛ] ᨩᩛ ᩮᩥᩮᨲᩣ
ᨲᩣ ᩮᩅᩁᨬᩣᨿ
ᩮᩅᩁᨬᩣᨿᩴᩴ ᩅᩉ ᩥᩉᩁᨲᩥ
ᩁᨲᩥ
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] ᦂᨹ [[ [gʰ]
]
ᨥ]
• • • • • • • • • • • • •

ᨬᦂᨱ
ᦂᨱ
ᨶᩮᩊᩁᨷᨧ
ᨶᩮᩊᩁᨷᨧᩥᨾᨾᨶᨾᩮᩃ
ᩥ ᨶᨾᩮᩃ ᨾᩉᨲᩣ ᨽᦂ
ᩥᦂᩩᩩᩈᩮᩴᩮᨥᨶ
ᨥᨶ ᩈᨴ ᨷᨬᨾᩮᨲᩉ
ᨷᨬᨾᩮᨲᩉᩥᩥ ᨽᦂ
ᩥᦂᩩᩩᩈᩮᨲᩉ
ᩮᨲᩉᩥᩥ ᨲᩴ ᩮᦃᩣ ᨷᨶ

ᨽᦂ
ᩥᦂᩩᩩᩈᩮᩴᩮᨥᨶ
ᨥᨶ ᩈᨴ ᨷᨬᨾᩮᨲᩉ
ᨷᨬᨾᩮᨲᩉᩥᩥ ᨽᦂ

ᦃᨻᨦ[[ [ṅ]
]]
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
ᩅᨶᩥᨶᨿᨷᩥ
ᨿᨷᨭᨭᦂ
ᩥᦂ
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

ᦅᨽᨧ[[ [c]
]]
ᨽᩅᨶᩴ ᩮᦅᩤᨲᨾᨾᩴᩴ ᪅ᩅ
᪅ᩅᩴᩴ ᦂᩃᩣᩮᨱᩣ ᦂᩥᨲᩥᩈᩮᨴᩣ ᦀᨻᩩᦅᩮᨲᩣ ᦀᩥᨲᨷᩥ ᩥ ᩮᩈᩣ ᨽᦅᩅᩤ ᦀᩁᩉ
ᦀᩁᩉᩴᩴ
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]1 [ ] [ 1 ] [ ] [ ] [ [ ᨷᩤ]ᩁᩣᨩ
] ᩣᨩᩥ[ ᦂᦂᨷᩤ
ᩥ ᨷᩤᩊ]ᩥ
[ ] [( 1 -1.0
]) [ ] [
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
ᨥᨾ ᦉ[[ [cʰ]
]]
• •
[
ᩈᨾᩣᩈᨾ
ᩈᨾᩣᩈᨾᩩ• ᩮᩛᩮᨴᩤ
ᩩ ᨴᩤ
• • • •

] [
ᩅᨩᩥᨩᩣᨧᩁᨱᩈᨾᩮ
ᩣᨧᩁᨱᩈᨾᩮ • •
1.0) • • •
#

] [
• [ ā • ᩮᩃᩣᦂᩅ
ᩈᦅᩮᨲᩣ
] [
ā•
ᩮᩃᩣᦂᩅᩥᨴᩥ • āᦀᨶᨲᩮᩁᩣ
] [
• ] •#

] [
ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᩈᩈᨴᨾᩈᩣᩁᨳᩥ
ᩥ • ᨴᨾᩈᩣᩁᨳᩥ • ᩈᨲᩣ

] [

] • • • • • • • • • •
ᨦᨿᨩ[[ ][j]] •

# ᨧᩁ ᨫ[[ [jʰ]
]]

a ]
ᩮᨴᩅᨾᨶᩔᩣᨶ
ᩮᨴᩅᨾᨶᩔᩣᨶᩴᩴ ᨻᩮᨴᩤ ᨽᦅᩅᩤ ᩮᩈᩣ ᦀᩥᨾᩴ ᩮᩃᩣᦂᩴ ᩈᩮᨴᩅᦂᩴ ᩈᨾᩣᩁᦂᩴ ᩈᨻᩉᦂᩴ

ᦃᩃ ᩮᨽᩣ ᩮᦅᩤᨲᩮᨾᩣ ᩈᦂᨷᩮᨲᩣ ᩈᦂ


[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
• • ᨷᩤᩁᨾᩉᩣᩅ
ᩣᨩ
ᩣᨩᩥᩴ ᦂᦂᨷᩤ
ᨾᩉᩣᩅᩥ ᩥ ᨽᩥ ᨷᩤᦀᨽ
ᦅᩴ ᩊᨬᩥᩥ ᩣ ᦉᩃᨬ[[ [ñ]
]]
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

ᩈᩔᨾᨱᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᨷᨩ
ᨷᨩᩴᩴ ᩈᩮᨴᩅᨾᨶᩔ
ᩈᩮᨴᩅᨾᨶᩔᩴ
1
( 1 -1) ᩴ ᩈᨿ
ᩈᨿᩴ ᦀᨽᩥ ᩈᨧᩥ#ᦂᨲᩣ
1 ( 1 -1)
ᨷᩮᩅᩮᨴᨲ
ᨷᩮᩅᩮᨴᨲᩥᩥ ᩮᩈᩣ ᨩᩅ ᨭ[[ [ṭ]
]]
[ • • • •
] [ •
] [ ## • • •
[[ •
] [ā ] [ a
•• • •• •• • • • ]

]] [
#
• • •
] [ • • •
] [ ]

[ ] ᨵᨾᩴᩮᦂᩅᩃᨷᩁ
[ᩮᦂᩅᩃᨷᩁᩥᩮᨴᩮᩈᨲ
[ ]ᨷᨷᨱᩴᩥ ᨱᩴ ᦀᩣᨴᩥᨷᩁᨷᩁᩥᩈᩈᨴᩴᩥ ᦂᦂᩃᩣᨱᩴ
ᩮᨴᩮᩈᨲᩥᩥ ᦀᩣᨴ •
[ᨴᩴ ᨶᩮᨾᩣᨻᩉᨧᩁ
ᩥ ᩃᩣᨱᩴ ᨾᩮᨩᦂᩃᩣᨱᨾᩮᨩᦂᩃᩣᨱᩴᩴ
] [ ] ᨷᩁ
ᨲᩔ ᨽᦅᩅᩮᨲᩣ ᦀᩁᩉᩮᨲᩣ [
ᨷᩁᩥᩮᩮᨿᩣᩈᩣᨶᦂᩃᩣᨱᩴ
ᩥ ᨿᩣᩈᩣᨶᦂᩃᩣᨱᩴ ᩈᩣᨲᩴ ᩈᨻᨬᨶ
ᩈᨾᩣᩈᨾ
ᩈᨾᩣᩈᨾᩩᨴᩛᨴᩔ
ᩩᩔ

ᩈᨻᨬᨶᩴᩴ
] [

] [
1 -1
• • • •
] •[ • • •
• •
] [ • • • • • • •
] [ •
]• [ • • • •
]
ᨫᩈᨮ[[ [ṭʰ]
ᨬᩉᨯ[[ ]]
[ḍ]
]]

ᩅᩤᨾᩮᩃ ᩮᩅᩁᨬᩣᨿ
ᩮᩅᩁᨬᩣᨿᩴ ᩴ ᩅ ᩥ
ᩉ ᩉᩁᨲᩥ
ᩁᨲ ᩥ
ᨻᩉᨧᩁᩥᨿᩥ ᩴ ᨷᦂᩣᩮᩈᨲ
ᨷᦂᩣᩮᩈᨲᩥᩥ ᩈᩣᨵ ᩮᦃᩣ ᨷᨶ ᨲᨳᩣᩁᨷᩤᨶᩴ ᦀᩁᩉᨲ
ᦀᩁᩉᨲᩴᩴ
ᨾᩉᩣᩅ
ᨾᩉᩣᩅᩥ]ᨽᩥ [ᦅᩴ
[ • ō] [ a • ] [ • ō] [ • ō] [ a • ā a • • u • a • ]
ᨭᩊᨰ[[ ]]
[ḍʰ]
[ • • •
] [ • •
] [ ( 1 -1) •
] [ • • • •
] [ (] 1 -1)[ ] [ • • • •
] [ •
]

ᨾᩉᨲᩣ ᨽ ᩥ
ᦂ ᦂᩩ

ᩩ ᩴ ᩮ
ᩮᨥᨶ
ᨥᨶ [ ]
ᩈᨴ
# #
ᨱ [ṇ]
ᨴᩔᨶ
ᨴᩔᨶᩴᩴ ᩮᩉᩣᨲ
ᩮᩉᩣᨲᨲᨲᩥ • • • •
ᨮᦀᩴ [[ ]]
[ ] [ ]
ᩮᩅᩁᨬᦂᨱ ᨲ [t]
• • • •

ᨯ[ ]
ā] [ ē a ā a ] [

• •
] • ละหุ - พยางคที่ออกเสียงเร็ว
] [ᩮᨲᨶ •
1 -1
•[
ᨶᩮᨾᩣ( 1•#-1.0
ᨲᩔ
1.0)) ᨽᦅᩅᩮᨲᩣ ᦀᩁᩉᩮᨲᩣ

] [

]ᨻᩮᨴᩤ ᨽᦅᩅᩤ[
] [[ ēะ]• a [ ็า•]-] [• [a]ิ •
••

]] [
( 1 -1.0

• [ ]ุ
#

ᩈᨾᩣᩈᨾ
ᩈᨾᩣᩈᨾᩩᨴᩛᨴᩔ
1.0)) ᩩᩔ • •


• •

[] •-็ ] [ -็ ]
] [ -
ᨳ [tʰ]
ᨰ[ ] •
7ᨴ [d] ]
คะรุ - พยางคที่ออกเสียงนานขึ้น [ -๡ ] [ ๝] [ า] [ ]๞ [ ]ี [ ]๟ [ ]ู [เเ ] [โโ ] [ ๡ง]ํ ᨱ[ ]
1 -2 ᩈᨾᩮᨿᨶ ᩮᩅᩁᨬᩣᨿ
ᩮᩅᩁᨬᩣᨿᩴᩴ ᩅᩉ
ᩥᩉᩁᨲᩥ
ᩁᨲᩥ ᨵ [dʰ]

ᩮᦅᩤᩈᨴ ᪅ᩅᩴᨷᨬᨾᩮᨲᩉ
ᨷᨬᨾᩮᨲᩉᩥ ᩥ ᦂᩥᨽᨲᦂ
ᩥᦂᩩᩥᩈᩩᩈᩮᨴᩣ
ᩮᨲᩉ
[ ē ] [ ē ] [ u ō] [ ā] [ ē a ā a ] [ ]
ᨲ[ ]
• • • • • • • •

ᩮᩅᩁᨬᦂᨱ
ᨲᨾᨾᩴᩴ ᪅ᩅ ᩴ ᦂᩃᩣᩮᨱᩣ
ᨶ [n]
ᨶᩮᩊᩁᨷᨧ
ᨶᩮᩊᩁᨷᨧᩥᨾᨾᨶᨾᩮᩃ
ᩥ ᨶᨾᩮᩃ
Sa
Sajjhāy
jjhāyaa T
Tepiṭak ᨾᩉᨲᩣ
epiṭakaa : The
( 1 -1.0
World
1.0))
ᨽᦂ
ᩥᦂᩩᩩᩈEdition
# Tipiṭaka ᩮᩴᩮᨥᨶ
ᨥᨶ in Tai Lüᩈᨴ
Script-Pāḷiᨷᨬᨾᩮᨲᩉ
ᨷᨬᨾᩮᨲᩉᩥ
# Romanᩥ Phoneticᨽ
( 1 -1.0
and
1.0))
ᩥᦂᩩᩩᩈᩮᨲᩉ
ᦂ ᩮᨲᩉᩥᩥ
Alphabet-Pāḷi
ปาฬิᨷ[ [p]
]
[ • ē • • a • • ū ē] • [ • ā] [ i • [ • • a • • ē • • ] [ a• • i ] ] [ a • • a • ē • ] [ i • • ē • ]
ᨳ 1
ᨴ [ [pʰ]]
ᦀᩮᩔᩣᩈ
ᦀᩮᩔᩣᩈᩥᩥ ᩮᦃᩣ
1 -2 ᩮᩅᩁᩮᨬᩣ ᨻᩣᩉᩮᨱᩣ ᨻᩮᨴᩤ
ᩮᨲᨶ ᩈᨾᩮᨿᨶ ᩈᨾᩮᨱᩣᨽᦅᩅᩤ ᦃᩃ ᩮᩅᩁᨬᩣᨿ
ᩮᨽᩣ ᩴ ᩮᦅᩤᨲᩅᩮᨾᩣ
ᩮᩅᩁᨬᩣᨿᩴ ᩁᨲᩥ ᩈᦂᨷᩮᨲᩣ
ᩥᩉᩁᨲᩥ
ᩉ ᨶᩮᩊᩁᨷᨧ
ᨶᩮᩊᩁᨷᨧᩥᨾᨾᨶᨾᩮᩃᩈᦂᦂᩃᩣ
ᩥ ᨶᨾᩮᩃ ᨹ

[ [ a •
ᨷᨻ
ᨾᩉᨲᩣ
[
[aa

[ a
i
ᨷᨻᩛᨩᩛ ᩮᩥᩮᨲᩣ
]
ō ]

ᨲᩣ ᨽᦂ
]
[ ō]•

ᩥᦂᩩᩩᩈᩮᩅᩁᨬᩣᨿ
[
ᩮᩅᩁᨬᩣᨿᩴ
[
ᨥᨶ ᩴ ᩈᨴ ᩅᩉ
ᩮᩴᩮᨥᨶ ••
a
[ ē a ō] [ ā
[ ] [
]
ᩥᩉᩁᨲᩥ
ō] [

] [
[
ᩥ ᨶᩮᩊᩁᨷᨧ
ō] [
] [
ᨶᩮᩊᩁᨷᨧᩥ
ᩁᨲᨷᨬᨾᩮᨲᩉ
ᨷᨬᨾᩮᨲᩉᩥ ᩥ ᨾᨾᨶᨾᩮᩃ
ᩥ ᨶᨾᩮᩃ
ᨽᦂ
a
] [ ō]
] [
ᩥᦂᩩᩩᩈᩮᨲᩉ
] [ō]
[ ō
ē ] [
] ]
ō] [ a
] [
ᨾᩉᨲᩣᩥ ᩮᦃᩣᨽᦂ
ᩮᨲᩉᩥᩥ ᦀᩮᩔᩣᩈ
ᦀᩮᩔᩣᩈᩥ

[
ᩥᦂᩩᩮᩅᩁᩮᨬᩣ
ᩩᩈᩮᩴᩮᨥᨶ
[ i
u ō] [ a

ᨥᨶ ᨻᩣᩉᩮᨱᩣ

ᩈᨴ
] ā]

[ ē a
• • • ••

ā ] a[ ]



[ ] [

• •

]


[ • •• ē

• •

] [

ᩅᨶᩥᨶᨿᨷᩥ
ᨿᨷᨭᨭᦂ
ᩥ ᦂ] •


a

• • ••

ū [ē]
• •



[


] •

ā[] ][ i [



a •

• ] ē[


]


[ a
• •

• •
••

]i

]
ᨵ•ᨻ[[k]][b]

ᨶᦃ ᨽ[[kʰ][bʰ]
]
] •

ᨷᦅ ᨾ[[g][m]
]

ᩅᨩᩥᨩᩣᨧᩁᨱᩈᨾᩮ
ᩣᨧᩁᨱᩈᨾᩮ ᩈᦅᩮᨲᩣ ᩈᦂ
ᩮᩃ
ᩈᨾᩮᨱᩣ ᦃᩃ ᩮᨽᩣᨽᩥᦂᦂᩩᩩᩈᩮᦅᩤᩮᨲᩉ
ᨲᩮᨾᩣᩥ ᩈᦂᨷᩮᨲᩣ [ ᩈᦂᦂᩃᩣ ᨷᨻ ᨷᨻᩛ] ᨩᩛ ᩮᩥᩮᨲᩣ
ᨲᩣ
ᨷᨬᨾᩮᨲᩉ
ᨷᨬᨾᩮᨲᩉᩥ ᩥ ᩮᨲᩉᩥ ᨲ ᩴ ᩮᦃᩣ ᨷᨶ ᨽᩅᨶᩴ ᩮᦅᩤᨲ] ᨾᨾᩴ[ᩴ ᩮᩅᩁᨬᩣᨿ
ᩮᩅᩁᨬᩣᨿᩴ
᪅ᩅᩴᩴ ᩴ
᪅ᩅ ᩅᩉ
ᩥᩉᩁᨲᩥ
ᩁᨲᩥ
ᦂᩃᩣᩮᨱᩣ

ᩃ ᩮᨽᩣ
[ [ a

ᩮᦅᩤ ᨲᩮᨾᩣ
] [ ] [ ] [

ᩈᦂᨷᩮᨲᩣ ] [ ] [ ] [ a ē [ i ē [ a ] [ ō] a a ] [ ō a ] [ēē a ]] [[ a] ā ō] ᨹᨥᨿ[[gʰ][y]


]
• • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • ] • • • ] [ ] [ • • • • • • •

ᨶᩮᩊᩁᨷᨧ
ᨶᩮᩊᩁᨷᨧᩥᨾᨾᨶᨾᩮᩃ
ᩥ ᨶᨾᩮᩃ ᦀᨻᩩᦅᩮᨲᩣ
ᦂᩥᨲᩥᩈᩮᨴᩣ ᨾᩉᨲᩣ ᦀᩥᨲᨽᨷᩥᦂ
ᩥᦂᩩᩩᩈᩮᩴᩮᨥᨶ
ᨥᨶ ᩈᨴ ᨷᨬᨾᩮᨲᩉ
ᨷᨬᨾᩮᨲᩉᩥᩈᨾᩣᩈᨾ
ᩥ ᨽᩩ ᦂᩥᦂᩩᨴᩤᩩᩈᩮᨲᩉ
ᩮᨲᩉᩥᩥ ᨲᩴ ᩮᦃᩣ ᨷᨶ
] [ ᩥ ᩮᩈᩣ ]ᨽᦅᩅᩤ ] [ᦀᩁᩉ
ᦀᩁᩉᩴᩴ ᩈᨾᩣᩈᨾᩩ
] [ ᩮᩛᩮᨴᩤ ᨻᨦ ᩁ[[ṅ][r]]

] [ ] [ ] [
[ [ i

] [ •

[ • a


ō]

[aa

• u • • ō]

[ ]
• •

[ ō]
• •

[ •

ā] [ a •

] [ ] [ ] [ •

]

[ a

• ā a •


u

• ō]
]
• • • • • • • ᨽᨧ ᩃ[[c][l]] •
ᦀᩥᨲᨷᩥ ᩥ ᩥ ᩮᩈᩣ ᨽᦅᩅᩤᩈᨲᩣ ᦀᩁᩉ
] [ ō] ᨽᩅᨶᩴᩣᨧᩁᨱᩈᨾᩮ
[ i
ᩮᦅᩤᨲᨾᨾᩴᩴ
[ ᩅᨩᩥᨩᩣᨧᩁᨱᩈᨾᩮ
] [•

• ā


• a


]
a
᪅ᩅ
[ ] [ •

[ ō
᪅ᩅᩴᩴ ᩈᦅᩮᨲᩣ
ᦂᩃᩣᩮᨱᩣᩮᩃᩣᦂᩅ
ᦂᩥᨲᨴᩥ ᩥᩈᩮᨴᩣ
ᩮᩃᩣᦂᩅᩥ
1] •[ •

ō]
ᨷᩤ ᩁ ᩣᨩ
ᦀᨶᨲᩮᩁᩣ
] [
ᦀᨻᩩ
ᩣᨩᩥᦂᩥ ᦅᩮᨲᩣ
ᦂᨷᩤ
ᨷᩤ ᩊ ᩥ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥ
[
ᩈᩥ
ᩈᨴᨾᩈᩣᩁᨳᩥ
ᨴᨾᩈᩣᩁᨳ
] [ 1• ] [ ] [ •
ᦀᩁᩉᩴᩴ
] [ • •

• ō]


#
• •

ō]
[ ā ā

ū]

[ • u •

• ō]

[ a
ā ]
[


#
a • • ā • ] [ a


u ā]

] ō] ᨾᦉᩅ[[cʰ][v]
] [ a •

ᩈᨾᩣᩈᨾ
ᩈᨾᩣᩈᨾᩩᩮᩛᩮᨴᩤ
ᩩ ᨴᩤ ᩅᨩᩥᨩᩣᨧᩁᨱᩈᨾᩮ
ᩣᨧᩁᨱᩈᨾᩮ ᩈᦅᩮᨲᩣ ᩮᩃᩣᦂᩅ ᩮᩃᩣᦂᩅᩥᨴᩥ ᦀᨶᨲᩮᩁᩣ ᨷᩁ ᨷᩁᩥᩈᩈᨴᨾᩈᩣᩁᨳᩥ
ᩥ ᨴᨾᩈᩣᩁᨳᩥ ᩈᨲᩣ • • • •

ᨶᩴ ᨻᩮᨴᩤᨾᩉᨲᩣᨽᦅᩅᩤ ᨽᦂ ᩮᩈᩣ ᦀᩥᨾ ᩴ ᩮᩃ


[ ᩮᨴᩅᨾᨶᩔᩣᨶ
ᩮᨴᩅᨾᨶᩔᩣᨶᩴᩴ ] [
• ᨻᩮᨴᩤ ᨽᦅᩅᩤ ] [ ᩮᩈᩣ] ᦀᩥ[ ᨾᩴ ᩮᩃᩣᦂᩴ
• • •
] [ ᩈᩮᨴᩅᦂᩴ ] [ ᩈᨾᩣᩁᦂᩴ ] [ᩈᨻᩉᦂᩴ

]
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ᨿᨩ ᩈ[[j][s]
]
[ ē u ā a ] [ u ō] [ ā] [ ō] [ a ] [ō a ] [ ē a ] [ ā a ] [ a ]

] ᩥᦂᩩ[ᩩᩈ]ᩮᩴᩮᨥᨶ
ᨥᨶ[ ] [
ᩁᨫᩉ[[jʰ]]
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
[h]
ᩮᨴᩅᨾᨶᩔᩣᨶ
ᩮᨴᩅᨾᨶᩔᩣᨶᩴᩴ ᨻᩮᨴᩤ ᨽᦅᩅᩤ ᩮᩈᩣ ᦀᩥᨾᩴ ᩮᩃᩣᦂᩴ ᩈᩮᨴᩅᦂᩴ ᩈᨾᩣᩁᦂᩴ ᩈᨻᩉᦂᩴ
[ ᩈᩔᨾᨱᨻᩣᩉᨱ] [ ] [ ᨷᨩ ᨷᨩᩴᩴ ] ᩈᩮᨴᩅᨾᨶᩔ
ᩈᩮᨴᩅᨾᨶᩔᩴ
[ ] [ ᩴ ] [ ] ᩈᨿ
ᩈᨿᩴ[ ᩴ ᦀᨽ ᦀᨽᩥᨬᩥ ] ᩣ [ ᩈᨧᩥᦂᨲᩣ] [ ᨷᩮᩅᩮᨴᨲ ᨷᩮᩅᩮᨴᨲᩥ] ᩥ ᩮᩈᩣ
] [ ] [ ᨾᩉᩣᩅ
ᨾᩉᩣᩅᩥ ᨽ
ᩥ ᩴ ᦅ ᩃᨬᩊ[ ]
[ñ][ḷ]
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

[ a ā i ] [ a ] [ ē u a ] [ a ] [ i ā] [ a a ā] [ ē ē ] [ ō]
ᩈᩔᨾᨱᨻᩣᩉᨱ • ᨷᨩ ᨷᨩᩴᩴ ᩈᩮᨴᩅᨾᨶᩔ
ᩈᩮᨴᩅᨾᨶᩔᩴ ᩴ ᩈᨿ
ᩈᨿᩴ
• ᩴ ᦀᨽ
ᦀᨽᩥᨬᩥ ᩣ (ᩈᨧᩥ ᦂᨲᩣ ᨷᩮᩅᩮᨴᨲ ᨷᩮᩅᩮᨴᨲᩥᩥ ᩮᩈᩣ
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
( 1 -1) 1 -1)
• • ᨭ ᦀᩴ[ṭ][ŋ̊] •
[ ᨵᨾᩴ •

ᩮᨴᩮᩈᨲᩥ]ᩥ [ᦀᩣᨴ
ᩮᨴᩮᩈᨲ ᩥ ] ᩃᩣᨱ
ᦀᩣᨴᩥᦂᦂᩃᩣᨱᩴ [ ᩴ #
[ ] [ āᩴ ] [ aᨷᩁ
ᨾᩮᨩᦂᩃᩣᨱ
ᨾᩮᨩᦂᩃᩣᨱᩴ
• •
]] [
ᨷᩁᩥᩮᩮᨿᩣᩈᩣᨶᦂᩃᩣᨱᩴ
ᩥ ᨿᩣᩈᩣᨶᦂᩃᩣᨱ
#
ᩴ ] [ ᩈᩣᨲᩴ ] ᩈᨻᨬᨶ

[ ] ᩴ
ᩈᨻᨬᨶᩴ • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • • •
ᩅ[]

ū ē] [ • ā] [ i a ē ] [
ᨵᨾᩴ[• a ᩮᨴᩮᩈᨲ
ᩮᨴᩮᩈᨲᩥ
a ] [ ē ē ]
ᩥ ᦀᩣᨴ
ᦀᩣᨴᩥᦂᦂᩃᩣᨱᩴ
ᩥ [āā ᩃᩣᨱa ᩴ ā aᨾᩮᨩᦂᩃᩣᨱ

ᨾᩮᨩᦂᩃᩣᨱᩴ
• ᩴ
] [ a ē a ā a ] [
ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᩮᩮᨿᩣᩈᩣᨶᦂᩃᩣᨱᩴ
ᩥ ᨿᩣᩈᩣᨶᦂᩃᩣᨱ ō ā
• ᩴ

ᩈᩣᨲᩴ• ᩈᨻᨬᨶ
a ā a ] [ •

ᩈᨻᨬᨶᩴ
a ] [
•ᩴ
a

a ] • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ᨮ [ṭʰ]
ᩈ[ ]

ᩉᨱ ᨷᨩ
ᨷᨩᩴᩴ ᩈᩮᨴᩅᨾᨶᩔ
ᩈᩮᨴᩅᨾᨶᩔᩴᩴ ᩈᨿ
[ ] [ ] [ 1 -1
ᨶᩮᨾᩣ ] ᨲᩔ [
ᨽᦅᩅᩮᨲᩣ] [ ᦀᩁᩉᩮᨲᩣ ] [
ᩈᨾᩣᩈᨾ
ᩈᨾᩣᩈᨾᩩ ᩩ ᩔ] [
ᨴᩛᨴᩔ ] ᨯ [ḍ]
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

ᩉ[ ]
ᩮᦂᩅᩃᨷᩁ
ᩮᦂᩅᩃᨷᩁᩥ
lah
lahuuᨷᩥ -ᨱᩴQuick Syllable
ᨷᨱᩴ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᩈᩈᨴᩴ
ᩥ ᨴᩴ[ ō]ᨻᩉᨧᩁ ᨻᩉᨧᩁᩥ
[ a ᨿ ᩥ ]ᩴ - [ [aaᨷᦂᩣᩮᩈᨲ
ᨷᦂᩣᩮᩈᨲᩥ
] ō[ā ] ā] [ ᩥ [ii]ᩈᩣᨵ ō] - ᩮᦃᩣ u]ᨷᨶ
[ a [u ā a - uᨲᨳᩣᩁᨷᩤ [ēē-]a ᨶ[ō
ᩴ ō] -] ᦀᩁᩉᨲ ᦀᩁᩉᨲᩴ
- ᩴ • • • • • • • • •

ᨰ [ḍʰ]
1
[ •
] [ Syllable]
garu - Prolonged
• • • •
[ [aa-]

] [aa[ ] •

[āā]
• •
] [ii[] •
] [īī][ ] [uu[] ]]
ū
[ū [ [ēē] • • •

[ōō]

] [aŋ̊
[aŋ̊] •
] ᩊ[ ]

ᨽᩅᨶᩴ ] ᩮᦅᩤ
[ ᨲᨾᨾᩴ]ᩴ ᩮᩅᩁᨬᦂᨱ
[ ᪅ᩅ
᪅ᩅᩴᩴ ᦂᩃᩣᩮᨱᩣ
] [
ᨱ [ṇ]
ᨴᩔᨶ
ᨴᩔᨶᩴᩴ ᩮᩉᩣᨲ
ᩮᩉᩣᨲᨲᨲᩥ ᦀᩴ [ ]
• [ • •
•] [ • •
] • • • • • ᨲ [t] •
( 1 -1.0
1.0)) ( 1 -1.0
1.0))
# # ᨳ [tʰ]
ละหุ - พยางคที่ออกเสียงเร็ว [ [ ēะ•] a [ •็า-] • a[ ]ิ • ] [ ]ุ [ -็ ] [ -็ ] -
Sa
Sajjhāy
jjhāyaa T
Tepiṭak
epiṭakaa : The World Tipiṭaka Edition in Tai Lü Script-Pāḷi and Roman Phonetic Alphabet-Pāḷi
ปาฬิ 1

ᦂ [k]
ᩅᨶᩥᨶᨿᨷᩥ
ᨿᨷᨭᨭᦂ
ᩥᦂ ᦃ [kʰ]

[] ᦅ [g]

ᨥ [gʰ]
ᨦ [ṅ]

ᨧ [c]
ᨷᩤᩁᩣᨩ
ᩣᨩᩥᦂᦂᨷᩤ
ᩥ ᨷᩤᩊᩥ
1 1 ᦉ [cʰ]
# #
[āā • āā •  • āā • ]
ᨩ [j]

ᨫ [jʰ]

( 1 -1)
ᨾᩉᩣᩅ
ᨾᩉᩣᩅᩥᨽᩥ ᦅᩴ ( 1 -1)
ᨬ [ñ]

# # ᨭ [ṭ]
[ • āā •  • aa • ]
ᨮ [ṭʰ]

1 -1 ᨶᩮᨾᩣ ᨲᩔ ᨽᦅᩅᩮᨲᩣ ᦀᩁᩉᩮᨲᩣ ᩈᨾᩣᩈᨾ


ᩈᨾᩩᨴᩛᨴᩩ ᩔ ᨯ [ḍ]
[ ōō] • [aa ] • [ ōō] • [ ōō] • [aa āā aa u
u aa ]
• • • • •

ᨰ [ḍʰ]
ᨱ [ṇ]

( 1 -1.0
1.0))
ᩮᩅᩁᨬᦂᨱ ( 1 -1.0
1.0))
ᨲ [t]
# # ᨳ [tʰ]
[ēē • aa •  • aa • ]
ᨴ [d]
1 -2 ᩮᨲᨶ ᩈᨾᩮᨿᨶ ᨻᩮᨴᩤ ᨽᦅᩅᩤ ᩮᩅᩁᨬᩣᨿᨿᩴᩴ ᩅᩉ
ᩥᩉᩁᨲᩥ
ᩁᨲᩥ ᨵ [dʰ]
[ēē ] • [ ēē ] • • u ōō]
[u • [ āā] • [ēē aa āā aa]
• • • []
ᨶ [n]
ᨶᩮᩊᩁᨷᨧᨾᩥᨾᨶᨶᨾᩮᩃ ᨾᩉᨲᩣ ᨽᦂ
ᩥᦂᩩᩈᩮᩴᩮᨥᨶ
ᨥᨶ ᩈᨴ ᨷᨬᨾᩮᨲᩉᩥ ᨽᦂ
ᩥᦂᩩᩈᩮᨲᩉ
ᩮᨲᩉᩥᩥ
[ ēē  aa  ū
• • ū ēē] • • • • [ āā] • [ii  aa ēē ]
• • • • [aa ii]
• [aa  aa ēē ] • • • • [ii  ēē ]
• • •
ᨷ [p]

ᦀᩮᩔᩣᩈ
ᦀᩮᩔᩣᩈᩥᩥ ᩮᦃᩣ ᩮᩅᩁᩮᨬᩣ ᨻᩣᩉᩮᨱᩣ ᩈᨾᩮᨱᩣ ᦃᩃ ᩮᨽᩣ ᩮᦅᩤᨲᩮᨾᩣ ᩈᦂᨷᩮᨲᩣ ᩈᦂᦂᩃᩣ ᨹ [pʰ]
[aa ōō ]
• • [ōō] [ēē aa ōō]
• • [ā  ōō]
• • [ ōō] • [] [ōō] [ōō  ōō] • • [aa  u
• u ōō] • • [aa  āā]
• •

ᨻ [b]
ᨷᨻ
ᨷᨻᩛᨩᩛ ᩮᩥᩮᨲᩣ
ᨲᩣ ᩮᩅᩁᨬᩣᨿᨿᩴᩴ ᩅᩉ
ᩥᩉᩁᨲᩥ
ᩁᨲᩥ ᨶᩮᩊᩁᨷᨧᨾᩥᨾᨶᨶᨾᩮᩃ ᨾᩉᨲᩣ ᨽᦂ
ᩥᦂᩩᩈᩮᩴᩮᨥᨶ
ᨥᨶ ᩈᨴ ᨽ [bʰ]
[aa  ōō]• • [ēē aa āā aa]
• • • [] [ ēē  aa  ū
• • ū ēē] • • • • [ āā] • [ii  aa ēē ]
• • • • [aa ii]

ᨾ [m]
ᨷᨬᨾᩮᨲᩉᩥ ᨽᦂ
ᩥᦂᩩᩈᩮᨲᩉ
ᩮᨲᩉᩥᩥ ᨲᩴ ᩮᦃᩣ ᨷᨶ ᨽᩅᨶᩴ ᩮᦅᩤᨲᨾᨾᩴᩴ ᪅ᩅ
᪅ᩅᩴᩴ ᦂᩃᩣᩮᨱᩣ
[aa  aa ēē ]
• • • • [ii  ēē ] • • • [aa] [ōō] [] [ aa aa]
• • [ōō  aa]• • [ēē aa]
• [aa ā ōō]
• •
ᨿ [y]
ᦂᩥᨲᩥᩈᩮᨴᩣ ᦀᨻᩩᦅᩮᨲᩣ ᦀᩥᨲᨷᩥ ᩥ ᩮᩈᩣ ᨽᦅᩅᩤ ᦀᩁᩉ
ᦀᩁᩉᩴᩴ ᩈᨾᩣᩈᨾ
ᩈᨾᩩᩮᩛᩮᨴ
ᩩ ᨴᩤ ᩁ [r]
[ii  aa ōō]
• • • [aa u
u  ōō]• • • [] [ōō] [ āā] • [ aa] • [aa āā aa u
•u ōō] • • •

ᩃ [l]
ᩅᨩᩥᨩᩣᨧᩁᨱᩈᨾᩮ ᩈᦅᩮᨲᩣ ᩮᩃᩣᦂᩅ
ᩮᩃᩣᦂᩅᩥᨴᨴᩥ  ᦀᨶᨲᩮᩁᩣ ᨷᩁᩈᩥᩈᨴᨾ
ᨴᨾᩈᩣᩁᨳ
ᩣᩁᨳᩥᩥ ᩈᨲᩣ ᩅ [v]
[ii āā  aa aa ōō]
• • • • • [ ōō] • [ōō  ū
ū]
• • u  ōō]
[ u • • • [ aa  āā ]• • • • [aa āā] •

ᩮᨴᩅᨾᨶᩔᩣᨶ
ᩣᨶᩴᩴ ᨻᩮᨴᩤ ᨽᦅᩅᩤ ᩮᩈᩣ ᦀᩥᨾᩴ ᩮᩃᩣᦂᩴ ᩈᩮᨴᩅᦂᩴ ᩈᨾᩣᩁᦂᩴ ᩈᨻᩉᦂᩴ ᩈ [s]
[ēē  u
u āā aa] u ōō]
[u [ āā] [ōō] [ aa] [ōō aa] [ ēē  aa] [ āā  aa] [ aa]
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
ᩉ [h]
ᩈᩔᨾᨱᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᨷᨩ
ᨷᨩᩴᩴ ᩈᩮᨴᩅᨾᨶᩔᩴ ᩈᨿ
ᩈᨿᩴᩴ ᦀᨽ
ᦀᨽᩥᨬᨬᩣ
ᩥ ᩣ ᩈᨧᩥᦂᨲᩣ ᨷᩮᩅᩮᨴᨲ
ᨷᩮᩅᩮᨴᨲᩥᩥ ᩮᩈᩣ ᩊ [ḷ]
[aa  ā  ii]
• • • • [ aa]• [ ēē  u
• u aa]
• • • [ aa]• [ ii āā]
• • [aa  aa ā]
• • • [ ēē ēē ]
• • • [ōō]
ᦀᩴ [ŋ̊]
ᨵᨾᩴ ᩮᨴᩮᩈᨲ
ᩮᨴᩮᩈᨲᩥᩥ ᦀᩣᨴ
ᦀᩣᨴᩥᦂᦂᩃ
ᩥ ᩃᩣᨱ
ᨱᩴᩴ ᨾᩮᨩᦂᩃᩣᨱ
ᨱᩴᩴ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᩮᩮᨿᩣᩈᩣᨶᦂᩃ
ᩥ ᨿᩣᩈᩣᨶᦂᩃᩣᨱ
ᨱᩴᩴ ᩈᩣᨲᩴ ᩈᨻᨬᨶᩴ
[aa aa] • [ēē ēē ]• • [āā  aa ā aa]
• • • • [aa ēē aa ā aa]
• • • • [ ōō āā  aa ā aa]
• • • • • • [ aa] • [ a  aa]
• • •

lah
lahu
u - Quick Syllable - [aa] [āā] [ii] - u]
[u - [ēē-] [ōō-] -
1
garu - Prolonged Syllable [aa-] [aa] [āā] [ii] [īī] u]
[u ū]
[ū [ēē] [ōō] aŋ̊]
[aŋ̊
Sa
Sajjhāy
jjhāyaa T
Tepiṭak
epiṭakaa : The World Tipiṭaka Edition in Tai Lü Script-Pāḷi and Roman Phonetic Alphabet-Pāḷi
ปาฬิ 1

ᩮᦂᩅᩃᨷᩁ
ᩮᦂᩅᩃᨷᩁᩥᨷᨷᩥ ᨱᩴ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᩈᩈᩥ ᨴᩴ ᨻᩉᨧᩁᩁᩥᨿᩥ ᩴ ᨷᦂᩣᩮᩈᨲ
ᨷᦂᩣᩮᩈᨲᩥᩥ ᩈᩣᨵ ᩮᦃᩣ ᨷᨶ ᨲᨳᩣᩁᨷᩤᨶᩴ
[ēē  u
• u aa] • • u aa]
[ u • • [ aa] • [ āā ēē ] • • • [āā ] • [ōō] [] [ āā ū
ū āā aa]
• • • •

ᦀᩁᩉᨲ
ᦀᩁᩉᨲᩴᩴ ᨴᩔᨶ
ᨴᩔᨶᩴᩴ ᩮᩉᩣᨲ
ᩮᩉᩣᨲᩦᨲᩦ ᩥ
[ aa] • [aa  aa] • • [ōō  ] • •

1 -3 ᦀᨳ ᩮᦃᩣ ᩮᩅᩁᩮᨬᩣ ᨻᩣᩉᩮᨱᩣ ᩮᨿᨶ ᨽᦅᩅᩤ ᩮᨲᨶᨷᩈᩈᩴᦂᦂᨾᩥ


ᩴ ᨾᩥ
[] [ōō] [ēē aa ōō]• • [ā  ōō] • • [ēē ] • [ āā] • [ēē  aa ]
• • •

ᩏᨷᩈ
ᩏᨷᩈᩴᦂᦂᨾᩥ
ᩴ ᨾᨲᨲ
ᩥ ᩣ ᨽᦅᩅᨲᩣ ᩈᨴ ᩈᩮᨾᩣᨴᨴᩥᩥ ᩈᩮᨾᩣᨴᨶ
ᨴᨶᩦᨿᩦ ᩴ ᦂᨳ
ᦂᨳᩴᩴ ᩈᩣᩁᨱ
ᩈᩣᩁᨱᩦᨿᩦ ᩴ ᩅᨲ
ᩦ ᩈᩥᩈᩣᩮᩁᨲ
ᩣᩮᩁᨲᩣ
[ aa  ii ā]
• • • • [ āā] • [aa ii] • [aa ōō ] • • [aa ōō   aa] • • • • [ aa] • [āā   aa]
• • • [  āā ēē ā]
• • • •

᪅ᦂᨾᨶᩴ ᨶᩈᩥ ᨴᩦ ᩥ ᪅ᦂᨾᨶᩴ ᨶᩈᩥ ᩮᩥᩮ ᩮᦃᩣ ᩮᩅᩁᩮᨬᩣ ᨻᩣᩉᩮᨱᩣ ᨽᦅᩅᨶᩴ ᪅ᨲᨴᩮᩅᩤᨧ
[ēē  aa aa]
• • • [  ] • • [ēē  aa aa]
• • • [ ii ōō]
• • [ōō] [ēē aa ōō] • • [ā  ōō] • • [ aa aa] • • [ēē  ōō ]
• • •

ᩈᨲᩴ ᩮᨾᨲ
ᩮᨾᨲᩴᩴ ᩮᨽᩣ ᩮᦅᩤᨲᨾ ᨶ ᩈᨾᩮᨱᩣ ᩮᦅᩤᨲᩮᨾᩣ ᨻᩣᩉᩮᨱ ᨩᩮᩥᩮᨱ
ᨱ ᩅᨯᩮ ᨾᩉᩃᩮᦂ
[ aa]
• [ēē aa] • [ōō] [ōō ] • [] [ ōō] • [ōō  ōō] • • [ā  ēē] • • [ii ēē] • u ēē]
[u • [ aa  ēē] • • •

ᦀᨴᦅᩮᨲ ᩅᩮᨿᩣᨶᨷᩮᨲ ᦀᨽ
ᦀᨽᩥᩅᩅᩤᩥ ᩤᩮᨴᨲ
ᨴᨲᩥᩥ ᩅᩤ ᨷᨧᩩᨭᩮᨲᨲᩥᩥ ᩅᩤ ᦀᩣᩈᩮᨶᨶ ᩅᩤ ᨶᨾᩥᨾᩮᨶ
ᩮᨶᨲᨲ
ᩦ ᩥ
[aa  ēē]
• • [ ōō  u
u aa ēē]
• • • • • [ āā ēē ] • • • [āā] [aa u
u ēē ] • • • [āā] [āā  ēē ]
• • • [āā] [ aa ēē  ]
• • • •

ᨲᨿ
ᨲᨿᩥᨴᩥ ᩴ ᩮᨽᩣ ᩮᦅᩤᨲᨾ ᨲᩮᨳᩅ ᨶ ᩉᩥ ᨽᩅ
ᨽᩅᩴᩴ ᩮᦅᩤᨲᩮᨾᩣ ᨻᩣᩉᩮᨱ ᨩᩮᩥᩮᨱ
ᨱ ᩅᨯᩮ
[ aa] • [ōō] [ōō ] • [ ēē ] • • [] [] [ aa] • [ōō  ōō] • • [ā  ēē] • • [ii ēē] • u ēē]
[u •

ᨾᩉᩃᩮᦂ ᦀᨴᦅᩮᨲ ᩅᩮᨿᩣᨶᨷᩮᨲ ᦀᨽ


ᦀᨽᩥᩅᩅᩤᩥ ᩤᩮᨴᨲ
ᨴᨲᩥᩥ ᩅᩤ ᨷᨧᩩᨭᩮᨲᨲᩥᩥ ᩅᩤ ᦀᩣᩈᩮᨶᨶ ᩅᩤ
[ aa  ēē]
• • • [aa  ēē]
• • [ ōō  u
u aa ēē]
• • • • • [ āā ēē ] • • • [āā] [aa u
u ēē ] • • • [āā] [āā  ēē ]
• • • [āā]

ᨶᨾᩥᨾᩮᨶ
ᩮᨶᨲᩥ ᨲᨿ
ᨲᨿᩥᨴᩥ ᩴ ᩮᨽᩣ ᩮᦅᩤᨲᨾ ᨶ ᩈᨾᨶᩮᨾᩅᩤᨲᩥ
[ aa ēē ]
• • • [ aa] • [ōō] [ōō ]
• [] [aa aa  ēē āā ] • • • • •

1 -4 ᩉ
ᩉᩴᩴ ᨲᩴ ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᨷᩔᩣᨾ
ᨷᩔᩣᨾᩥᩥ ᩈᩮᨴᩅᩮᦂ ᩮᩃᩣᩮᦂ ᩈᨾᩣᩁᩮᦂ ᩈᨻᩉᩮᦂ
[āā aa] • [aa] [ā ] • [aa āā ] • • [ ēē  ēē] • • • [ōō ēē] • [ āā  ēē]
• • • [ ēē] •

ᩈᩔᨾᨱᨻᩣᩉᨱᨿ
ᩥᨿᩣᩣ ᨷᨩᩣᨿ ᩈᩮᨴᩅᨾᨶᩔᩣᨿ ᨿᨾᩉ
ᨿᨾᩉᩴᩴ ᦀᨽ
ᦀᨽᩥᩅᩅᩤᩥ ᩤᩮᨴᨿᩴ ᩅᩤ ᨷᨧᩩᨭᩮᨿᩴ
[aa  ā  āā]
• • • • [ āā ] • • [ ēē  u
• u āā ] • • • • [ aa] • [ āā  aa]• • • [āā] [aa u
u  aa] • • •

ᩅᩤ ᦀᩣᩈᩮᨶᨶ ᩅᩤ ᨶᨾᩥᨾᩮᨶ
ᩮᨶᨿᩴ ᨿᨬᩥ ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᨲᨳᩣᦅᩮᨲᩣ ᦀᨽ
ᦀᨽᩥᩅᩅᩤᩥ ᩤᩮᨴᨿ ᩅᩤ ᨷᨧᩩᨭᩮᨿ
[āā] [āā  ēē ]
• • • [āā] [ aa  aa]
• • • [aa ] • [ā ] • [ āā  ōō] • • • [ āā  ] • • • [āā] [aa u
u  ] • • •

ᩅᩤ ᦀᩣᩈᩮᨶᨶ ᩅᩤ ᨶᨾᩥᨾᩮᨶ
ᩮᨶᨿ ᨾᨴᩤᨷᩥ ᨲᩔ ᩅᨷᩥᨷᩮᨲᨿ
ᩮᨲᨿᩣᨲᨲᩥᩥ
[āā] [āā  ēē ]
• • • [āā] [ aa  ]
• • • u āā ]
[u • • [aa ] • [  āā ] • • •

1 -5 ᦀᩁᩈᩁᩮᨷᩤ ᨽᩅ
ᨽᩅᩴᩴ ᩮᦅᩤᨲᩮᨾᩣᨲ
ᩮᨾᩣᨲᩥᩥ ᦀᨲᩥ ᦃᩮᩅᩈ ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣᩮᨿᩣ
ᩥ ᩣᩮᨿᩣ ᩮᨿᨶ ᨾᩴ
ū ōō]
[ ū • • [ aa] • [ōō  ōō ]
• • • [aa ] • [ē ] • [ā ] • [ āā ōō] • • [ēē ] • [aa]

ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣᩮᨿᨶ
ᩥ ᩣᩮᨿᨶ ᩈᨾᩣ ᩅᨴᨾᩣᩮ ᩅᩮᨴᨿ ᦀᩁᩈᩁᩮᨷᩤ ᩈᨾᩮᨱᩣ ᩮᦅᩤᨲᩮᨾᩣᨲ
ᩮᨾᩣᨲᩥᩥ ᩮᨿ ᩮᨲ ᨻᩣᩉᨱ
[ āā ēē ] • • • [aa āā] • [ āā ōō] • • [  ] • • ū ōō]
[ ū • • [ ōō] • [ōō  ōō ] • • • [ēē] [ēē] [ā ] •

ᩁᨷᩁᩈᩣ ᩈᨴᩁᩈᩣ ᦅᨶᩁᩈᩣ ᩁᩈᩁᩈᩣ ᩮᨹᩣᨭᨻᩁᩛᩁᩈᩣ


ᩈᩣ ᩮᨲ ᨲᨳᩣᦅᨲᩔ ᨷᩉ
ᨷᩉᩦᩦ
ū  āā]
[ū • • [aa  āā] • • [aa  āā] • • [ āā] • [ aa  āā] • • • [ēē] [ āā  aa ]
• • • • [  āā] • •

ᩏᨧᩥᨶᨾᩃᩣ ᨲᩣᩃᩣᩅᨲᩩᦂᨲᩣ ᦀᨶᨽᩣᩅ


ᦀᨶᨽᩣᩅᩴᦂᦂᨲᩣ
ᩴ ᨲᩣ ᦀᩣᨿᨲ ᦀᨶᨷᩤᨴᨵᨾᩣ ᦀᨿ
ᦀᨿᩴᩴ ᩮᦃᩣ
u ii  ū
[u • ū āā] • • • [āā āā aa  āā]
• • • • [ āā aa  āā]
• • • • [āā  ii]
• • u āā  aa āā]
[ u • • • • • [ aa] • [ōō]

ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣᩮᨿᩣ
ᩥ ᩣᩮᨿᩣ ᩮᨿᨶ ᨾᩴ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣᩮᨿᨶ
ᩥ ᩣᩮᨿᨶ ᩈᨾᩣ ᩅᨴᨾᩣᩮ ᩅᩮᨴᨿ ᦀᩁᩈᩁᩮᨷᩤ
[ā ] • [ āā ōō] • • [ēē ] • [aa] [ āā ēē ] • • • [aa āā] • [ āā ōō] • • [  ]
• • ū ōō]
[ ū • •

ᩈᨾᩮᨱᩣ ᩮᦅᩤᨲᩮᨾᩣᨲ
ᩮᨾᩣᨲᩥᩥ ᩮ ᨧ ᩮᦃᩣ ᨿᩴ ᨲᩴ ᩈᨿ ᩅᩮᨴᩈ
ᩅᩮᨴᩈᩦᨲᩦ ᩥ
[ ōō] • [ōō  ōō ]
• • • [ōō] [] [ōō] [aa] [a] [aa āā ] • • [ ēē  ] • • •

1 -6 ᨶᩮᩥᩮᨻᨻᩣᩮᦅᩤ ᨽᩅ
ᨽᩅᩴᩴ ᩮᦅᩤᨲᩮᨾᩣᨲ
ᩮᨾᩣᨲᩥᩥ ᦀᨲᩥ ᦃᩮᩅᩈ ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣᩮᨿᩣ
ᩥ ᩣᩮᨿᩣ ᩮᨿᨶ ᨾᩴ
[ii ōō ōō] • • [ aa] • [ōō  ōō ] • • • [aa ] • [ē ] • [ā ] • [ āā ōō] • • [ēē ] • [aa]

lah
lahu
u - Quick Syllable - [aa] [āā] [ii] - u]
[u - [ēē-] [ōō-] -
2
garu - Prolonged Syllable [aa-] [aa] [āā] [ii] [īī] u]
[u ū]
[ū [ēē] [ōō] aŋ̊]
[aŋ̊
Sa
Sajjhāy
jjhāyaa T
Tepiṭak
epiṭakaa : The World Tipiṭaka Edition in Tai Lü Script-Pāḷi and Roman Phonetic Alphabet-Pāḷi
ปาฬิ 1

ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣᩮᨿᨶ
ᩥ ᩣᩮᨿᨶ ᩈᨾᩣ ᩅᨴᨾᩣᩮ ᩅᩮᨴᨿ ᨶᩮᩥᩮᨻᨻᩣᩮᦅᩤ ᩈᨾᩮᨱᩣ ᩮᦅᩤᨲᩮᨾᩣᨲ
ᩮᨾᩣᨲᩥᩥ ᩮᨿ ᩮᨲ
[ āā ēē ] [aa āā] [ āā ōō] [  ] [ii ōō ōō] [ ōō] [ōō  ōō ] [ēē] [ēē]
ᦂ [k]
• • • • • • • • • • • • • •

ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᩁᨷᩮᨽᩣᦅᩤ ᩈᨴᩮᨽᩣᦅᩤ ᦅᨶᩮᨽᩣᦅᩤ ᩁᩈᩮᨽᩣᦅᩤ ᩮᨹᩣᨭᨻᩮᩛᩮᨽᩣᦅᩤ


ᨽᩣᦅᩤ ᩮᨲ ᦃ [kʰ]
[ā ]
• ū  ōō āā]
[ū • • • [aa  ōō āā] • • • [aa  ōō āā] • • • [ ōō āā] • • [ aa  ōō āā]
• • • • [ēē]
ᦅ [g]
ᨲᨳᩣᦅᨲᩔ ᨷᩉ
ᨷᩉᩦᩦ ᩏᨧᩥᨶᨾᩃᩣ ᨲᩣᩃᩣᩅᨲᩩᦂᨲᩣ ᦀᨶᨽᩣᩅ
ᦀᨶᨽᩣᩅᩴᦂᦂᨲᩣ
ᩴ ᨲᩣ ᦀᩣᨿᨲ
[ āā  aa ]
• • • • [  āā] • • u ii  ū
[u • ū āā] • • • [āā āā aa  āā]
• • • • [ āā aa  āā]
• • • • [āā  ii]
• • ᨥ [gʰ]

ᦀᨶᨷᩤᨴᨵᨾᩣ ᦀᨿ
ᦀᨿᩴᩴ ᩮᦃᩣ ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣᩮᨿᩣ
ᩥ ᩣᩮᨿᩣ ᩮᨿᨶ ᨾᩴ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣᩮᨿᨶ
ᩥ ᩣᩮᨿᨶ ᩈᨾᩣ ᨦ [ṅ]
u āā  aa āā]
[ u
• • • • • [ aa]• [ōō] [ā ] • [ āā ōō] • • [ēē ] • [aa] [ āā ēē ] • • • [aa āā] •

ᨧ [c]

ᩅᨴᨾᩣᩮ ᩅᩮᨴᨿ ᨶᩮᩥᩮᨻᨻᩣᩮᦅᩤ ᩈᨾᩮᨱᩣ ᩮᦅᩤᨲᩮᨾᩣᨲ


ᩮᨾᩣᨲᩥᩥ ᩮ ᨧ ᩮᦃᩣ ᨿᩴ ᨲᩴ ᩈᨿ ᦉ [cʰ]
[ āā ōō] • • [  ] • • [ii ōō ōō] • • [ ōō] • [ōō  ōō ] • • • [ōō] [] [ōō] [aa] [a] [aa āā ] • •

ᨩ [j]
ᩅᩮᨴᩈ
ᩅᩮᨴᩈᩦᨲᩦ ᩥ
[ ēē  ]
• • • ᨫ [jʰ]

1 -7 ᦀᦂᩥᩁᨿ
ᩥᨿᩅᩤᩅᩤᩮᨴᩤ ᨽᩅ
ᨽᩅᩴᩴ ᩮᦅᩤᨲᩮᨾᩣᨲ
ᩮᨾᩣᨲᩥᩥ ᦀᨲᩥ ᦃᩮᩅᩈ ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣᩮᨿᩣ
ᩥ ᩣᩮᨿᩣ ᩮᨿᨶ ᨬ [ñ]
[ āā ōō] • • [ aa] • [ōō  ōō ]
• • • [aa ] • [ē ] • [ā ]
• [ āā ōō] • • [ēē ]•

ᨭ [ṭ]

ᨾᩴ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣᩮᨿᨶ
ᩥ ᩣᩮᨿᨶ ᩈᨾᩣ ᩅᨴᨾᩣᩮ ᩅᩮᨴᨿ ᦀᦂᩥᩁᨿ
ᩥᨿᩅᩤᩅᩤᩮᨴᩤ ᩈᨾᩮᨱᩣ ᩮᦅᩤᨲᩮᨾᩣᨲ
ᩮᨾᩣᨲᩥᩥ ᦀᩉᨬᩥ ᨮ [ṭʰ]
[aa] [ āā ēē ] • • • [aa āā] • [ āā ōō] • • [  ] • • [ āā ōō] • • [ ōō] • [ōō  ōō ] • • • [ aa ]
• •

ᨯ [ḍ]
ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᦀᦂᩥᩁᨿ
ᩥ ᩴ ᩅᨴᩤᨾᩥ ᦂᩣᨿᨴᨧᩁᨲ
ᩥᨲᩔ
ᩔ ᩅᨧ
ᩅᨧᩦᨴᨴᩦ ᨧᩁᨲ
ᩥᨲᩔ
ᩔ ᨾᩮᨴᨧᩁᨲ
ᩥᨲᩔ

[ā ]
• [ aa] • [ āā ] • • [āā  u
u  aa ]
• • • • • u  aa ]
[  u • • • • • [ ōō u
u  aa ]
• • • • • ᨰ [ḍʰ]

ᦀᩮᨶᦂᩅ
ᦀᩮᨶᦂᩅᩥᩉ
ᩥ ᨲ
ᩥᨲᩣᨶᩴ
ᩣᨶᩴ ᨷᩤᨷᦂᩣᨶ
ᦂᩣᨶᩴᩴ ᦀᦂᩈᩃᩣᨶ
ᩃᩣᨶᩴᩴ ᨵᨾᩣᨶᨶᩴᩴ ᦀᦂᩥᩁᨿ
ᩥ ᩴ ᩅᨴᩤᨾᩥ ᦀᨿ
ᦀᨿᩴᩴ ᩮᦃᩣ ᨱ [ṇ]
[ ēē  āā aa]
• • • • [āā  āā aa] • • • [ āā aa] • • [aa āā aa] • • [ aa] • [ āā ]
• • [ aa] • [ōō]
ᨲ [t]
ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣᩮᨿᩣ
ᩥ ᩣᩮᨿᩣ ᩮᨿᨶ ᨾᩴ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣᩮᨿᨶ
ᩥ ᩣᩮᨿᨶ ᩈᨾᩣ ᩅᨴᨾᩣᩮ ᩅᩮᨴᨿ ᦀᦂᩥᩁᨿ
ᩥᨿᩅᩤᩅᩤᩮᨴᩤ ᨳ [tʰ]
[ā ]
• [ āā ōō] • • [ēē ] • [aa] [ āā ēē ] • • • [aa āā] • [ āā ōō] • • [  ] • • [ āā ōō] • •

ᨴ [d]
ᩈᨾᩮᨱᩣ ᩮᦅᩤᨲᩮᨾᩣᨲ
ᩮᨾᩣᨲᩥᩥ ᩮ ᨧ ᩮᦃᩣ ᨿᩴ ᨲᩴ ᩈᨿ ᩅᩮᨴᩈ
ᩅᩮᨴᩈᩦᨲᩦ ᩥ
[ ōō] • [ōō  ōō ]
• • • [ōō] [] [ōō] [aa] [a] [aa āā ] • • [ ēē  ] • • •
ᨵ [dʰ]

1 -8 ᩏᩮᨧᨴᩅᩤᩮᨴᩤ ᨽᩅ
ᨽᩅᩴᩴ ᩮᦅᩤᨲᩮᨾᩣᨲ
ᩮᨾᩣᨲᩥᩥ ᦀᨲᩥ ᦃᩮᩅᩈ ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣᩮᨿᩣ
ᩥ ᩣᩮᨿᩣ ᩮᨿᨶ ᨶ [n]
u ēē  āā ōō]
[u • • • • [ aa] • [ōō  ōō ] • • • [aa ] • [ē ] • [ā ] • [ āā ōō] • • [ēē ]

ᨷ [p]

ᨾᩴ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣᩮᨿᨶ
ᩥ ᩣᩮᨿᨶ ᩈᨾᩣ ᩅᨴᨾᩣᩮ ᩅᩮᨴᨿ ᩏᩮᨧᨴᩅᩤᩮᨴᩤ ᩈᨾᩮᨱᩣ ᩮᦅᩤᨲᩮᨾᩣᨲ
ᩮᨾᩣᨲᩥᩥ ᦀᩉᨬᩥ ᨹ [pʰ]
[aa] [ āā ēē ] • • • [aa āā] • [ āā ōō] • • [  ] • • u ēē  āā ōō]
[u • • • • [ ōō] • [ōō  ōō ] • • • [ aa ]
• •

ᨻ [b]
ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᩏᩮᨧᨴᩴ ᩅᨴᩤᨾᩥ ᩁᩣᦅᩔ ᩮᨴᩤᩈᩔ ᩮᨾᩣᩉᩔ ᦀᩮᨶᦂᩅ
ᦀᩮᨶᦂᩅᩥᩉ
ᩥ ᨲ
ᩥᨲᩣᨶᩴ
ᩣᨶᩴ ᨷᩤᨷᦂᩣᨶ
ᦂᩣᨶᩴᩴ
[ā ]
• u ēē aa]
[u • • [ āā ] • • [āā aa ]
• • [ōō aa ] • • [ōō aa ] • • [ ēē  āā aa]
• • • • [āā  āā aa]
• • •
ᨽ [bʰ]

ᦀᦂᩈᩃᩣᨶ
ᩃᩣᨶᩴᩴ ᨵᨾᩣᨶᨶᩴᩴ ᩏᩮᨧᨴᩴ ᩅᨴᩤᨾᩥ ᦀᨿ
ᦀᨿᩴᩴ ᩮᦃᩣ ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣᩮᨿᩣ
ᩥ ᩣᩮᨿᩣ ᩮᨿᨶ ᨾᩴ ᨾ [m]
[ āā aa] • • [aa āā aa] • • u ēē aa]
[u • • [ āā ] • • [ aa]• [ōō] [ā ] • [ āā ōō] • • [ēē ] • [aa]
ᨿ [y]
ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣᩮᨿᨶ
ᩥ ᩣᩮᨿᨶ ᩈᨾᩣ ᩅᨴᨾᩣᩮ ᩅᩮᨴᨿ ᩏᩮᨧᨴᩅᩤᩮᨴᩤ ᩈᨾᩮᨱᩣ ᩮᦅᩤᨲᩮᨾᩣᨲ
ᩮᨾᩣᨲᩥᩥ ᩮ ᨧ ᩮᦃᩣ ᩁ [r]
[ āā ēē ]
• • • [aa āā] • [ āā ōō] • • [  ] • • u ēē  āā ōō]
[u • • • • [ ōō] • [ōō  ōō ] • • • [ōō] [] [ōō]
ᩃ [l]
ᨿᩴ ᨲᩴ ᩈᨿ ᩅᩮᨴᩈ
ᩅᩮᨴᩈᩦᨲᩦ ᩥ
[aa] [a] [aa āā ] • • [ ēē  ]
• • •
ᩅ [v]

1 -9 ᩮᨩᦅᨧᩦ ᨽᩅ
ᨽᩅᩴᩴ ᩮᦅᩤᨲᩮᨾᩣᨲ
ᩮᨾᩣᨲᩥᩥ ᦀᨲᩥ ᦃᩮᩅᩈ ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣᩮᨿᩣ
ᩥ ᩣᩮᨿᩣ ᩮᨿᨶ ᩈ [s]
[ēē u
u ]• • [ aa] • [ōō  ōō ] • • • [aa ] • [ē ] • [ā ] • [ āā ōō] • • [ēē ] •

ᩉ [h]
ᨾᩴ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣᩮᨿᨶ
ᩥ ᩣᩮᨿᨶ ᩈᨾᩣ ᩅᨴᨾᩣᩮ ᩅᩮᨴᨿ ᩮᨩᦅᨧᩦ ᩈᨾᩮᨱᩣ ᩮᦅᩤᨲᩮᨾᩣᨲ
ᩮᨾᩣᨲᩥᩥ ᦀᩉᨬᩥ ᩊ [ḷ]
[aa] [ āā ēē ] • • • [aa āā] • [ āā ōō] • • [  ] • • [ēē u
u ]• • [ ōō] • [ōō  ōō ] • • • [ aa ]• •

ᦀᩴ [ŋ̊]
ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᨩᦅᩥᦅᨧᩣᨾᨾᩥᩥ ᦂᩣᨿᨴᨧᩁᩮᩥᩮᨲᨶ
ᨲᨶ ᩅᨧ
ᩅᨧᩦᨴᨴᩦ ᨧᩁᩮᩥᩮᨲᨶ
ᨲᨶ ᨾᩮᨴᨧᩁᩮᩥᩮᨲᨶ
ᨲᨶ
[ā ]
• u āā ]
[ u • • • [āā  u
u  ēē ]
• • • • • u  ēē ]
[  u • • • • • [ ōō u
u  ēē ]
• • • • •

lah
lahu
u - Quick Syllable - [aa] [āā] [ii] - u]
[u - [ēē-] [ōō-] -
3
garu - Prolonged Syllable [aa-] [aa] [āā] [ii] [īī] u]
[u ū]
[ū [ēē] [ōō] aŋ̊]
[aŋ̊
Sa
Sajjhāy
jjhāyaa T
Tepiṭak
epiṭakaa : The World Tipiṭaka Edition in Tai Lü Script-Pāḷi and Roman Phonetic Alphabet-Pāḷi
ปาฬิ 1

ᦀᩮᨶᦂᩅ
ᦀᩮᨶᦂᩅᩥᩉ
ᩥ ᨲ
ᩥᨲᩣᨶᩴ
ᩣᨶᩴ ᨷᩤᨷᦂᩣᨶ
ᦂᩣᨶᩴᩴ ᦀᦂᩈᩃᩣᨶ
ᩃᩣᨶᩴᩴ ᨵᨾᩣᨶᨶᩴᩴ ᩈᨾᩣᨷᨲᩥᨿᩣ ᨩᦅᩥᦅᨧᩣᨾᨾᩥᩥ ᦀᨿ
ᦀᨿᩴᩴ ᩮᦃᩣ
[ ēē  āā aa]
• • • • [āā  āā aa]
• • • [ āā aa] • • [aa āā aa] • • [ āā aa  āā]
• • • • u āā ]
[ u
• • • [ aa]
• [ōō]

ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣᩮᨿᩣ
ᩥ ᩣᩮᨿᩣ ᩮᨿᨶ ᨾᩴ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣᩮᨿᨶ
ᩥ ᩣᩮᨿᨶ ᩈᨾᩣ ᩅᨴᨾᩣᩮ ᩅᩮᨴᨿ ᩮᨩᦅᨧᩦ ᩈᨾᩮᨱᩣ
[ā ]
• [ āā ōō] • • [ēē ] • [aa] [ āā ēē ] • • • [aa āā] • [ āā ōō] • • [  ]
• • [ēē u
u ] • • [ ōō] •

ᩮᦅᩤᨲᩮᨾᩣᨲ
ᩮᨾᩣᨲᩥᩥ ᩮ ᨧ ᩮᦃᩣ ᨿᩴ ᨲᩴ ᩈᨿ ᩅᩮᨴᩈ
ᩅᩮᨴᩈᩦᨲᩦ ᩥ
[ōō  ōō ]
• • • [ōō] [] [ōō] [aa] [a] [aa āā ] • • [ ēē  ] • • •

1 -10 ᩮᩅᨶᨿ
ᩮᩅᨶᨿᩥᩮᩮᦂᩣ
ᩥ ᦂᩣ ᨽᩅ
ᨽᩅᩴᩴ ᩮᦅᩤᨲᩮᨾᩣᨲ
ᩮᨾᩣᨲᩥᩥ ᦀᨲᩥ ᦃᩮᩅᩈ ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣᩮᨿᩣ
ᩥ ᩣᩮᨿᩣ ᩮᨿᨶ ᨾᩴ
[ēē  ōō]
• • [ aa] • [ōō  ōō ]
• • • [aa ] • [ē ] • [ā ] • [ āā ōō] • • [ēē ] • [aa]

ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣᩮᨿᨶ
ᩥ ᩣᩮᨿᨶ ᩈᨾᩣ ᩅᨴᨾᩣᩮ ᩅᩮᨴᨿ ᩮᩅᨶᨿ
ᩮᩅᨶᨿᩥᩮᩮᦂᩣ
ᩥ ᦂᩣ ᩈᨾᩮᨱᩣ ᩮᦅᩤᨲᩮᨾᩣᨲ
ᩮᨾᩣᨲᩥᩥ ᦀᩉᨬᩥ ᨻᩣᩉᨱ
[ āā ēē ]
• • • [aa āā] • [ āā ōō] • • [  ] • • [ēē  ōō] • • [ ōō] • [ōō  ōō ] • • • [ aa ]
• • [ā ] •

ᩅᨶᩥᨶᨿᩣᨿ
ᨿᩣᨿ ᨵᨾᩴ ᩮᨴᩮᩈᨾ
ᩮᨴᩮᩈᨾᩥᩥ ᩁᩣᦅᩔ ᩮᨴᩤᩈᩔ ᩮᨾᩣᩉᩔ ᦀᩮᨶᦂᩅ
ᦀᩮᨶᦂᩅᩥᩉ
ᩥ ᨲ
ᩥᨲᩣᨶᩴ
ᩣᨶᩴ ᨷᩤᨷᦂᩣᨶ
ᦂᩣᨶᩴᩴ
[ āā ] • • [aa aa] • [ēē ēē ] • • [āā aa ]
• • [ōō aa ] • • [ōō aa ] • • [ ēē  āā aa]
• • • • [āā  āā aa]
• • •

ᦀᦂᩈᩃᩣᨶ
ᩃᩣᨶᩴᩴ ᨵᨾᩣᨶᨶᩴᩴ ᩅᨶᩥᨶᨿᩣᨿ
ᨿᩣᨿ ᨵᨾᩴ ᩮᨴᩮᩈᨾ
ᩮᨴᩮᩈᨾᩥᩥ ᦀᨿ
ᦀᨿᩴᩴ ᩮᦃᩣ ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣᩮᨿᩣ
ᩥ ᩣᩮᨿᩣ ᩮᨿᨶ
[ āā aa] • • [aa āā aa] • • [ āā ] • • [aa aa] • [ēē ēē ] • • [ aa]• [ōō] [ā ]
• [ āā ōō] • • [ēē ]

ᨾᩴ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣᩮᨿᨶ
ᩥ ᩣᩮᨿᨶ ᩈᨾᩣ ᩅᨴᨾᩣᩮ ᩅᩮᨴᨿ ᩮᩅᨶᨿ
ᩮᩅᨶᨿᩥᩮᩮᦂᩣ
ᩥ ᦂᩣ ᩈᨾᩮᨱᩣ ᩮᦅᩤᨲᩮᨾᩣᨲ
ᩮᨾᩣᨲᩥᩥ ᩮ ᨧ ᩮᦃᩣ
[aa] [ āā ēē ] • • • [aa āā] • [ āā ōō] • • [  ] • • [ēē  ōō] • • [ ōō] • [ōō  ōō ] • • • [ōō] [] [ōō]

ᨿᩴ ᨲᩴ ᩈᨿ ᩅᩮᨴᩈ


ᩅᩮᨴᩈᩦᨲᩦ ᩥ
[aa] [a] [aa āā ] • • [ ēē  ] • • •

1 -11 ᨲᨷᩔ
ᨲᨷᩔᩦᩦ ᨽᩅ
ᨽᩅᩴᩴ ᩮᦅᩤᨲᩮᨾᩣᨲ
ᩮᨾᩣᨲᩥᩥ ᦀᨲᩥ ᦃᩮᩅᩈ ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣᩮᨿᩣ
ᩥ ᩣᩮᨿᩣ ᩮᨿᨶ ᨾᩴ
[ aa ]
• • [ aa]• [ōō  ōō ]
• • • [aa ] • [ē ] • [ā ] • [ āā ōō] • • [ēē ] • [aa]

ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣᩮᨿᨶ
ᩥ ᩣᩮᨿᨶ ᩈᨾᩣ ᩅᨴᨾᩣᩮ ᩅᩮᨴᨿ ᨲᨷᩔ
ᨲᨷᩔᩦᩦ ᩈᨾᩮᨱᩣ ᩮᦅᩤᨲᩮᨾᩣᨲ
ᩮᨾᩣᨲᩥᩥ ᨲᨷᨶ
ᨲᨷᨶᩦᨿᨿᩣᩉᩴ
ᩦ ᩣᩉᩴ
[ āā ēē ]
• • • [aa āā] • [ āā ōō] • • [  ] • • [ aa ]• • [ ōō] • [ōō  ōō ] • • • [  āā aa] • • •

ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᨷᩤᨷᩮᦂ ᦀᦂᩈᩮᩃ ᨵᩮᨾ ᩅᨴᩤᨾᩥ ᦂᩣᨿᨴᨧᩁᨲ


ᩥ ᩴ ᩅᨧ
ᩅᨧᩦᨴᨴᩦ ᨧᩁᨲ
ᩥ ᩴ
[ā ]
• [āā  ēē] • • [ ēē] • [aa ēē] • [ āā ] • • [āā  u
u  aa]
• • • • u  aa]
[  u • • • •

ᨾᩮᨴᨧᩁᨲ
ᩥ ᩴ ᨿᩔ ᩮᦃᩣ ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᨲᨷᨶ
ᨲᨷᨶᩦᨿᨿᩣ
ᩦ ᩣ ᨷᩤᨷᦂᩣ ᦀᦂᩈᩃᩣ ᨵᨾᩣ ᨷᩉ
ᨷᩉᩦᩦ
[ ōō u
u  aa]
• • • • [aa ] • [ōō] [ā ] • [  āā] • • [āā  āā] • • [ āā] • [aa āā] • [  āā] • •

ᩏᨧᩥᨶᨾᩃᩣ ᨲᩣᩃᩣᩅᨲᩩᦂᨲᩣ ᦀᨶᨽᩣᩅ


ᦀᨶᨽᩣᩅᩴᦂᦂᨲᩣ
ᩴ ᨲᩣ ᦀᩣᨿᨲ ᦀᨶᨷᩤᨴᨵᨾᩣ ᨲᨾᩉ
ᨲᨾᩉᩴᩴ ᨲᨷᩔ
ᨲᨷᩔᩦᨲᩦ ᩥ
u ii  ū
[u • ū āā] • • • [āā āā aa  āā]
• • • • [ āā aa  āā]• • • • [āā  ii]• • u āā  aa āā]
[ u • • • • • [ aa] • [ aa  ]
• • •

ᩅᨴᩤᨾᩥ ᨲᨳᩣᦅᨲᩔ ᩮᦃᩣ ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᨲᨷᨶ


ᨲᨷᨶᩦᨿᨿᩣ
ᩦ ᩣ ᨷᩤᨷᦂᩣ ᦀᦂᩈᩃᩣ ᨵᨾᩣ ᨷᩉ
ᨷᩉᩦᩦ
[ āā ]
• • [ āā  aa ]
• • • • [ōō] [ā ]• [  āā] • • [āā  āā] • • [ āā] • [aa āā] • [  āā] • •

ᩏᨧᩥᨶᨾᩃᩣ ᨲᩣᩃᩣᩅᨲᩩᦂᨲᩣ ᦀᨶᨽᩣᩅ


ᦀᨶᨽᩣᩅᩴᦂᦂᨲᩣ
ᩴ ᨲᩣ ᦀᩣᨿᨲ ᦀᨶᨷᩤᨴᨵᨾᩣ ᦀᨿ
ᦀᨿᩴᩴ ᩮᦃᩣ
u ii  ū
[u • ū āā] • • • [āā āā aa  āā]
• • • • [ āā aa  āā]• • • • [āā  ii]• • u āā  aa āā]
[ u • • • • • [ aa] • [ōō]

ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣᩮᨿᩣ
ᩥ ᩣᩮᨿᩣ ᩮᨿᨶ ᨾᩴ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣᩮᨿᨶ
ᩥ ᩣᩮᨿᨶ ᩈᨾᩣ ᩅᨴᨾᩣᩮ ᩅᩮᨴᨿ ᨲᨷᩔ
ᨲᨷᩔᩦᩦ ᩈᨾᩮᨱᩣ
[ā ]
• [ āā ōō] • • [ēē ] • [aa] [ āā ēē ] • • • [aa āā] • [ āā ōō] • • [  ]
• • [ aa ] • • [ ōō] •

ᩮᦅᩤᨲᩮᨾᩣᨲ
ᩮᨾᩣᨲᩥᩥ ᩮ ᨧ ᩮᦃᩣ ᨿᩴ ᨲᩴ ᩈᨿ ᩅᩮᨴᩈ
ᩅᩮᨴᩈᩦᨲᩦ ᩥ
[ōō  ōō ]
• • • [ōō] [] [ōō] [aa] [a] [aa āā ] • • [ ēē  ] • • •

1 -12 ᦀᨷᦅᩮᨻᩣ ᨽᩅ
ᨽᩅᩴᩴ ᩮᦅᩤᨲᩮᨾᩣᨲ
ᩮᨾᩣᨲᩥᩥ ᦀᨲᩥ ᦃᩮᩅᩈ ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣᩮᨿᩣ
ᩥ ᩣᩮᨿᩣ ᩮᨿᨶ
[ aa ōō] • • [ aa] • [ōō  ōō ]
• • • [aa ] • [ē ] • [ā ] • [ āā ōō] • • [ēē ] •

ᨾᩴ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣᩮᨿᨶ
ᩥ ᩣᩮᨿᨶ ᩈᨾᩣ ᩅᨴᨾᩣᩮ ᩅᩮᨴᨿ ᦀᨷᦅᩮᨻᩣ ᩈᨾᩮᨱᩣ ᩮᦅᩤᨲᩮᨾᩣᨲ
ᩮᨾᩣᨲᩥᩥ ᨿᩔ ᩮᦃᩣ
[aa] [ āā ēē ] • • • [aa āā] • [ āā ōō] • • [  ] • • [ aa ōō] • • [ ōō] • [ōō  ōō ] • • • [aa ] • [ōō]

ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᦀᩣᨿᨲ ᦅᨻᩮᩈᨿᩣ ᨷᨶᨻᩅᩤᨽᨶᩥ ᨻᩥ ᨲ


ᩛᨲᩥ ᨷᩉ
ᨷᩉᩦᩦ ᩏᨧᩥᨶᨾᩃᩣ
[ā ]
• [āā  ii]
• • [aa   āā] • • • [ aa  āā  ii aa ]
• • • • • • • [  āā] • • u ii  ū
[u • ū āā] • • •

lah
lahu
u - Quick Syllable - [aa] [āā] [ii] - u]
[u - [ēē-] [ōō-] -
4
garu - Prolonged Syllable [aa-] [aa] [āā] [ii] [īī] u]
[u ū]
[ū [ēē] [ōō] aŋ̊]
[aŋ̊
Sa
Sajjhāy
jjhāyaa T
Tepiṭak
epiṭakaa : The World Tipiṭaka Edition in Tai Lü Script-Pāḷi and Roman Phonetic Alphabet-Pāḷi
ปาฬิ 1

ᨲᩣᩃᩣᩅᨲᩩᦂᨲᩣ ᦀᨶᨽᩣᩅ
ᦀᨶᨽᩣᩅᩴᦂᦂᨲᩣ
ᩴ ᨲᩣ ᦀᩣᨿᨲ ᦀᨶᨷᩤᨴᨵᨾᩣ ᨲᨾᩉ
ᨲᨾᩉᩴᩴ ᦀᨷᦅᩮᨻᩣᨲᨲᩥᩥ ᩅᨴᩤᨾᩥ
[āā āā aa  āā] [ āā aa  āā] [āā  ii] u āā  aa āā]
[ u [ aa] [ aa ōō ] [ āā ]
ᦂ [k]
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

ᨲᨳᩣᦅᨲᩔ ᩮᦃᩣ ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᦀᩣᨿᨲ ᦅᨻᩮᩈᨿᩣ ᨷᨶᨻᩅᩤᨽᨶᩥ ᨻᩥ ᨲ


ᩛᨲᩥ ᨷᩉ
ᨷᩉᩦᩦ ᦃ [kʰ]
[ āā  aa ]
• • • • [ōō] [ā ] • [āā  ii]
• • [aa   āā] • • • [ aa  āā  ii aa ]
• • • • • • • [  āā] • •

ᦅ [g]
ᩏᨧᩥᨶᨾᩃᩣ ᨲᩣᩃᩣᩅᨲᩩᦂᨲᩣ ᦀᨶᨽᩣᩅ
ᦀᨶᨽᩣᩅᩴᦂᦂᨲᩣ
ᩴ ᨲᩣ ᦀᩣᨿᨲ ᦀᨶᨷᩤᨴᨵᨾᩣ ᦀᨿ
ᦀᨿᩴᩴ ᩮᦃᩣ
u ii  ū
[u • ū āā] • • • [āā āā aa  āā]
• • • • [ āā aa  āā] • • • • [āā  ii]
• • u āā  aa āā]
[ u • • • • • [ aa]• [ōō] ᨥ [gʰ]

ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣᩮᨿᩣ
ᩥ ᩣᩮᨿᩣ ᩮᨿᨶ ᨾᩴ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣᩮᨿᨶ
ᩥ ᩣᩮᨿᨶ ᩈᨾᩣ ᩅᨴᨾᩣᩮ ᩅᩮᨴᨿ ᦀᨷᦅᩮᨻᩣ ᨦ [ṅ]
[ā ] • [ āā ōō] • • [ēē ] • [aa] [ āā ēē ] • • • [aa āā] • [ āā ōō] • • [  ] • • [ aa ōō] • •

ᨧ [c]

ᩈᨾᩮᨱᩣ ᩮᦅᩤᨲᩮᨾᩣᨲ
ᩮᨾᩣᨲᩥᩥ ᩮ ᨧ ᩮᦃᩣ ᨿᩴ ᨲᩴ ᩈᨿ ᩅᩮᨴᩈ
ᩅᩮᨴᩈᩥᩥ ᦉ [cʰ]
[ ōō] • [ōō  ōō ]
• • • [ōō] [] [ōō] [aa] [a] [aa āā ] • • [ ēē ] • •

ᨩ [j]
1 -13 ᩮᩈᨿᨳᩣᨷ
ᩣᨷᩥᩥ ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᦂᦂᩩᨭᨿ
ᩥᨿᩣᩣ ᦀᨱᩣᨶᨶᩥᩥ ᦀᨭ ᩅᩤ ᨴᩈ ᩅᩤ ᨴᩣᨴᩈ
[  āā ] • • • [ā ] • u  āā]
[u • • [aa āā ] • • [aa ] • [āā] [] [āā] [ā ] • ᨫ [jʰ]

ᩅᩤ ᨲᩣᨶᩔ ᦂᦂᩩᨭᨿ
ᩥᨿᩣᩣ ᩈᨾᩣ ᦀᨵ
ᦀᨵᩥᩈᩈᨿᩥ
ᩥ ᨿᨲᨲᩣᨶᩥ
ᩥ ᩣᨶᩥ ᩈᨾᩣ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᩮᩮᩈᨴᩥ
ᩥ ᩈᨴᨲᨲᩣᨶᩥ
ᩥ ᩣᨶᩥ ᩈᨾᩣ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᨽᨽᩣᩅᩥ
ᩥ ᩣᩅᨲᨲᩣᨶᩥ
ᩥ ᩣᨶᩥ ᨬ [ñ]
[āā] [āā aa ] • • u  āā]
[u • • [aa āā] • [ āā ] • • [aa āā] • [ ēē  āā ] • • • • [aa āā] • [ āā  āā ] • • • •

ᨭ [ṭ]

ᩮᨿᩣ ᨶ ᩮᦃᩣ ᩮᨲᩈ


ᩮᨲᩈᩴᩴ ᦂᦂᩩᨭᨧᩣᨷᦂᩣᨶ
ᨷᦂᩣᨶᩴᩴ ᨷᨮᨾᨲᩁ
ᨷᨮᨾᨲᩁᩴᩴ ᨷᩤᨴᨶᦃᩈ
ᨶᦃᩈᩥᦃᦃᩣᨿ
ᩥ ᩣᨿ ᩅᩤ ᨮ [ṭʰ]
[ōō] [] [ōō] [ēē aa]
• u  aa āā  āā aa]
[u • • • • • • [ aa] • [āā  āā ]
• • • [āā]
ᨯ [ḍ]
ᨾᦃᨲᨱᩮᦂᨶ ᩅᩤ ᦀᨱᩮᦂᩣᩈ
ᦂᩣᩈᩴᩴ ᨷᨴᩤᩮᩃᨲᩣ ᩮᩈᩣᨲᩥ ᦀᨽ
ᦀᨽᩥᨶᩥ ᨻᩥᨻᩥᩮᨩᨿ ᦂᩥᨶᩥ ᩈᩣᩔ
u  ēē ]
[ u • • • • [āā] [aa  ōō aa]
• • • [ āā ēē ā] • • • [  āā] • • [ ii ii  ]
• • • • [ii ] • [ ] • ᨰ [ḍʰ]

ᩅᨧᨶ
ᩅᨧᨶᩦᩮᩮᨿᩣ
ᩦ ᨿᩣ ᩮᨩᨭ ᩅᩤ ᦂᨶ
ᦂᨶᩥᨭᨭᩥ  ᩅᩤᨲᩥ ᩮᨩᨭᨲᩔ
ᩥ ᩮᨽᩣ ᩮᦅᩤᨲᨾ ᩅᨧᨶ
ᩅᨧᨶᩦᩮᩮᨿᩣ
ᩦ ᨿᩣ ᩮᩈᩣ ᩉᩥ ᩮᨶᩈ
ᩮᨶᩈᩴᩴ ᨱ [ṇ]
[  ōō] • • [ ōō] • [āā] [ ii ōō]
• • [āā ] • [ ōō ii ]
• • • [ōō] [ōō ] • [  ōō] • • [ōō] [] [ēē aa] •

ᨲ [t]
ᩮᨩᨭ ᩮᩉᩣᨲ
ᩮᩉᩣᨲᩦᨲᩦ ᩥ ᪅ᩅᩮᨾᩅ ᩮᦃᩣ ᦀᩉ
ᦀᩉᩴᩴ ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᦀᩅ
ᦀᩅᩥᨩᨩᩥ ᩣᦅᨲᩣᨿ ᨷᨩᩣᨿ ᦀᨱᨽᨲᩣᨿ ᨳ [tʰ]
[ ōō] • [ōō  ] • • [ēē  ēē ]
• • • [ōō] [ aa] • [ā ] • [ ii āā  āā ]
• • • • • [ āā ] • • [aa  ū
ū āā ]
• • • •

ᨴ [d]
ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᩮᩮᨿᩣᨶᨴ
ᩥ ᨿᩣᨶᨴᩤᨿ ᦀᩅ
ᦀᩅᩥᨩᨩᩥ ᨱᩮᦂᩣᩈ
ᦂᩣᩈᩴᩴ ᨷᨴᩤᩮᩃᨲᩣ ᪅ᩮᦂᩣᩅ ᩮᩃᩣᩮᦂ ᦀᨶᨲᩁᩴ ᩈᨾᩣᩈᩮᨾ
ᩈᩮᨾᩛᩣᩣᨵ
ᩛ ᨵ
[ ōō aa āā ]
• • • • [ ii aa  ōō aa]
• • • • • [ āā ēē ā] • • • [ēē ōō ]
• • [ōō ēē] • u  aa]
[ u • • • [aa āā aa ōō ii]
• • • •
ᨵ [dʰ]

ᦀᨽ
ᦀᨽᩥᩈᩈᨾᩩ
ᩥ ᨾᩮᩛᩮᨴ
ᩩ ᨴᩤ ᩈᩣᩉ
ᩉᩴᩴ ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᩮᨩᨭ ᩮᩈᨭ ᩮᩃᩣᦂᩔ ᨶ [n]
[ aa u
u ōō]
• • • [ā aa] • [ā ] • [ ōō] • [ ōō] • [ōō aa ]
• •

ᨷ [p]

1 -14 ᦀᩣᩁᨴᩴ ᩮᦃᩣ ᨷᨶ ᩮᨾ ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᩅᩁᩦ ᨿ


ᩥ ᩴ ᦀᩮᩉᩣᩈ
ᦀᩮᩉᩣᩈᩥᩥ ᦀᩈᩃᩦᨶᩴ ᨹ [pʰ]
[āā aa aa]
• • [ōō] [] [ēē] [ā ] • [  aa]
• • [ ōō ] • • [ aa  aa]
• • •

ᨻ [b]
ᩏᨷᨭᩥᨲᩣ ᩈᨲᩥᩥ ᦀᩈᨾᩩᨭᩣ
ᩈᨲ ᨷᩔᩮᨴᩤ ᦂᩣᩮᨿᩣ ᦀᩈᩣᩁᩮᨴᩤ ᩈᨾᩣᩉ
ᩈᨾᩣᩉᩥᨲᩥ ᩴ ᨧᨲ
ᩥᨲᩴ ᪅ᦂᦅᩴ
[ aa  āā]
• • • [] [ aa u
•u āā] • • [aa aa ōō] • • [āā ōō] • [ āā aa ōō]
• • • [ āā  aa]• • • [ii aa]
• [ēē aa aa]
• •
ᨽ [bʰ]

ᩮᩈᩣ ᩮᦃᩣ ᦀᩉ
ᦀᩉᩴᩴ ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᩅᩅᩥ ᩮᩥᩮᨧᨧᩅ ᦂᩣᩮᨾᩉ
ᦂᩣᩮᨾᩉᩥᩥ ᩅᩅᩥ ᨧᩥᨧ ᦀᦂᩈᩮᩃᩉ
ᩮᩃᩉᩥᩥ ᨵᩮᨾᩉᩥ ᩈᩅ
ᩈᩅᩥᨲᨲᦂ
ᩥ ᦂᩴ ᨾ [m]
[ōō] [ōō] [ aa]• [ā ] • [ ii ēē ]
• • • [āā ēē ] • • [ ii ]• • [ ēē ] • • [aa ēē ] • • [ aa aa] • •

ᨿ [y]
ᩈᩅ
ᩈᩅᩥᨧᨧᩣᩁᩴ
ᩥ ᩣᩁᩴ ᩅᩮᩥᩮᩅᦂᨩᩴ
ᩅᦂᨩᩴ ᨷᨲ
ᩦ ᩈᩥᩈᦃᩴ ᨷᨮᨾ
ᨷᨮᨾᩴᩴ ᦌᩣᨶ
ᦌᩣᨶᩴᩴ ᩏᨷᩈᨾᨩ ᩅᩉ
ᩥᩉᩣᩈ
ᩣᩈ ᩅᨲ
ᩥᨲᦂ
ᦂᩅᨧᩥᨧᩣᩁᩣᨶᩴ
ᩣᩁᩣᨶᩴ ᩁ [r]
[ āā aa] • • [ ēē  aa]
• • • [  aa]
• • [ aa] • [āā aa] • [ aa aa ] • • • [ āā ii] • • [ aa  āā āā aa]
• • • • •

ᩃ [l]
ᩅᨷᩈᨾᩣ ᦀᨩᨲᩴ ᩈᨾᩈᩣᨴᨶ
ᩣᨴᨶᩴᩴ ᩮᨧᨲᩮᩈᩣ ᪅ᩮᦂᩣᨴ
᪅ᩮᦂᩣᨴᩥᨽᨽᩣᩅᩴ
ᩥ ᩣᩅᩴ ᦀᩅ
ᦀᩅᩥᨲᨲᦂ
ᩥ ᦂᩴ ᦀᩅ
ᦀᩅᩥᨧᨧᩣᩁᩴ
ᩥ ᩣᩁᩴ
ū  āā]
[ū • • [aa aa aa]
• • [aa  āā  aa] • • • • [ēē  ōō]• • [ēē ōō  āā aa]
• • • • [ aa aa] • • [ āā aa]
• •
ᩅ [v]

ᩈᨾᩣᨵ
ᩈᨾᩣᨵᩥᨩᩥ ᩴ ᨷᨲ
ᩦ ᩈᩥᩈᦃᩴ ᨴᨲᨿ
ᩥ ᩴ ᦌᩣᨶ
ᦌᩣᨶᩴᩴ ᩏᨷᩈᨾᨩ ᩅᩉ
ᩥᩉᩣᩈ
ᩣᩈ ᨷᨲ
ᩦ ᨿ
ᩥᨿᩣᩣ ᨧ ᩅᩁᩥᩁᩣᦅᩤ
ᩣᦅᩤ ᩈ [s]
[ āā  aa]
• • • [  aa] • • [ aa] • [āā aa] • [ aa aa ] • • • [ āā ii] • • [  āā] • • [] [ āā āā]• •

ᩉ [h]
ᩏᩮᨷᦂᩮᦂᩣ ᨧ ᩅᩉ
ᩥᩉᩣᩈ
ᩣᩈ ᩈᩮᨲᩣ ᨧ ᩈᨾᨩᩣᩮ ᩈᦃᨬ ᦂᩣᩮᨿᨶ ᨷᨭ
ᨷᨭᩥᩈᩥ ᩮᩴᩮᩅᩮᨴᩈ
ᩅᩮᨴᩈ ᨿᩴ ᩊ [ḷ]
[   ōō]
• • • [] [ āā ii] • • [ ōō] • [] [aa  āā ōō] • • • [ aa ] • • [āā ēē ] • • [ aa ēē ēē ii] • • • • [aa]
ᦀᩴ [ŋ̊]
ᨲᩴ ᦀᩁ
ᦀᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣ
ᩥ ᩣ ᦀᩣᨧ
ᦀᩣᨧᩥᦂᦂ
ᩥ ᨶᩥ ᩏᩮᨷᦂᩮᦂᩣ ᩈᨲ
ᩈᨲᩥᨾᨾᩣ
ᩥ ᩣ ᩈᦃᩅᩅᩥᩉ
ᩥ ᩣᩁᨲᩦ ᩥ
ᩉᩣᩁᩦ ᨲᨲ
ᨲᨲᩥᨿᩥ ᩴ ᦌᩣᨶ
ᦌᩣᨶᩴᩴ ᩏᨷᩈᨾᨩ
[aa] [ āā] • [āā ii aa ]
• • • [   ōō]
• • • [ āā] • [ āā  ] • • • [ aa] • [āā aa] • [ aa aa ] • • •

lah
lahu
u - Quick Syllable - [aa] [āā] [ii] - u]
[u - [ēē-] [ōō-] -
5
garu - Prolonged Syllable [aa-] [aa] [āā] [ii] [īī] u]
[u ū]
[ū [ēē] [ōō] aŋ̊]
[aŋ̊
Sa
Sajjhāy
jjhāyaa T
Tepiṭak
epiṭakaa : The World Tipiṭaka Edition in Tai Lü Script-Pāḷi and Roman Phonetic Alphabet-Pāḷi
ปาฬิ 1

ᩅᩉ
ᩥᩉᩣᩈ
ᩣᩈ ᩈᦃᩔ ᨧ ᨷᩉᩣ ᨴᦂᩔ ᨧ ᨷᩉᩣ ᨷᩮᨻᨻᩛᩅᩛ ᩮᩈᩣᨾᨶᩔᩮᨴᩤᨾᨶᩔᩣᨶ
ᨶᩔᩣᨶᩴᩴ
[ āā ii]
• • [ aa ] • • [] [ āā āā] • • u aa ]
[u • • [] [ āā āā] • • u ēē ]
[u • • [ōō  aa  ōō  aa āā aa]
• • • • • • • •

ᦀᨲᩴᦅᨾᩣ ᦀᨴᦂᨾᩈᦃᩴ ᩏᩮᨷᦂᩣᩈᨲ


ᩈᨲᩥᨷᨷᩤᩥ ᩤᩁᩈᩥᩈᨴ ᨧᨲᨲᩴ ᦌᩣᨶ
ᦌᩣᨶᩴᩴ ᩏᨷᩈᨾᨩ ᩅᩉ
ᩥᩉᩣᩈ
ᩣᩈ
[aa aa  āā]
• • • u  aa]
[ u • • • [  āā  āā  u
• u ii] • • • • • • u aa]
[ u • • [āā aa] • [ aa aa ] • • • [ āā ii] • •

1 -15 ᩮᩈᩣ ᪅ᩅ
᪅ᩅᩴᩴ ᩈᨾᩣᩉ
ᩈᨾᩣᩉᩥᩮᩮᨲ
ᩥ ᨲ ᨧᩮᩥᩮᨲ
ᨲ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᩈᩈᩥ ᩮᨴ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᩮᩮᨿᩣᨴᩤ
ᩥ ᨿᩣᨴᩤᩮᨲ ᦀᨶ
ᦀᨶᩴᦅᦅᩮᨱ
ᩴ ᩮᨱ
[ōō] [ēē aa]
• [ āā  ēē] • • • [ii ēē] • u ēē]
[ u • • [ ōō āā ēē] • • • [ aa  ēē] • • •

ᩅᦅᩥᦅᨲ
ᨲᨷᦂᩥᩮᩃᩮᩈ ᨾᨴᨽᩮᨲ ᦂᨾᨶᩮᩥᩮᨿ
ᨿ ᨮᩮᩥᩮᨲ
ᨲ ᦀᩣᩮᨶᨬᨷᩮᨲ ᨷᩮᨻᨻᩛᨶᩛ ᩅᩥᩅᩤᩤᩈᩣᨶᩔᨲᨲᩥᨬᨬᩣᨱᩣᨿ
ᩥ ᩣᨱᩣᨿ
ū aa  ēē ēē]
[ ū • • • • • ū ēē]
[ ū • • [aa  ēē] • • [ ēē] • [āā  aa aa ēē]
• • • • u ēē  āā āā u
[u u  āā āā ]
• • • • • • • • •

ᨧᨲ
ᩥᨲᩴ ᦀᨽ
ᦀᨽᩥᨶᩥ ᩥᩮᨾᩈ ᩮᩈᩣ ᦀᩮᨶᦂᩅ
ᦀᩮᨶᦂᩅᩥᩉ
ᩥ ᨲ
ᩥ ᩴ ᨷᩮᨻᨻᩛᨶᩛ ᩅᩥᩅᩤᩤᩈᩴ ᦀᨶᩔᩁᩣᨾ
ᩁᩣᨾᩥᩥ ᩮᩈᨿᨳᨴᩥ ᩴ ᪅ᦂᨾᩥ
[ii aa]
• [ ii āā ēē ii]
• • • • [ōō] [ ēē  aa]
• • • u ēē  āā aa]
[u • • • • u  āā ]
[ u • • • • [  aa] • • [ēē aa ]
• •

ᨩᩣᨲ ᩮᨴᨷᩥ ᨩᩣᨲ


ᨩᩣᨲᩥᩮᩮᨿᩣ
ᩥ ᨿᩣ ᨲᩮᩥᩮᩔᩣᨷᩥ
ᩔᩣᨷᩥ ᨩᩣᨲ
ᨩᩣᨲᩥᩮᩮᨿᩣ
ᩥ ᨿᩣ ᨧᨲᩮᩔᩣᨷ
ᨧᨲᩮᩔᩣᨷᩥᩥ ᨩᩣᨲ
ᨩᩣᨲᩥᩮᩮᨿᩣ
ᩥ ᨿᩣ ᨷᨬᨷᩥ ᨩᩣᨲ
ᨩᩣᨲᩥᩮᩮᨿᩣ
ᩥ ᨿᩣ ᨴᩈᨷ
ᨴᩈᨷᩥᩥ
[āā ii]
• [ē ] • [āā  ōō] • • [ii ōō ] • • [āā  ōō]• • [ aa ōō ] • • • [āā  ōō]
• • [aa ] • [āā  ōō] • • []

ᨩᩣᨲ
ᨩᩣᨲᩥᩮᩮᨿᩣ
ᩥ ᨿᩣ ᩅᩈᩦᩈᨾᨾᩥ ᨩᩣᨲ
ᨩᩣᨲᩥᩮᩮᨿᩣ
ᩥ ᨿᩣ ᨲᩈᨾᩥ ᨩᩣᨲ
ᨩᩣᨲᩥᩮᩮᨿᩣ
ᩥ ᨿᩣ ᨧᨲᩣᩃ
ᩃᩦᩈᩈᨾ
ᩦ ᨾᩥ ᨩᩣᨲ
ᨩᩣᨲᩥᩮᩮᨿᩣ
ᩥ ᨿᩣ ᨷᨬᩣᩈᨾᩥ
[āā  ōō]
• • [ aa ] • • [āā  ōō]• • [ii aa ] • • [āā  ōō]• • [aa āā  aa ] • • • • [āā  ōō] • • [aa āā aa ] • • •

ᨩᩣᨲ
ᨩᩣᨲᩥᩮᩮᨿᩣ
ᩥ ᨿᩣ ᨩᩣᨲ
ᨩᩣᨲᩥᩈᩈᨲᨾ
ᩥ ᨲᨾᩥ ᨩᩣᨲ
ᨩᩣᨲᩥᩈᩈᩉᩔᨾ
ᩥ ᩉᩔᨾᩥ ᨩᩣᨲ
ᨩᩣᨲᩥᩈᩈᨲᩈᩉᩔᨾ
ᩥ ᨲᩈᩉᩔᨾᩥ ᦀᩮᨶᩮᦂᨷ
ᦀᩮᨶᩮᦂᨷᩥᩥ ᩈᩅᩴᩅᨭᨭᦂᩮᨷ ᦀᩮᨶᩮᦂᨷ
ᦀᩮᨶᩮᦂᨷᩥᩥ
[āā  ōō]
• • [āā  aa ]
• • • [āā  aa aa ]
• • • • [āā  aa aa ]
• • • • [ ēē ēē ] • • • [aa aa  aa ēē]
• • • • [ ēē ēē ]
• • •

ᩅᩅᩥᩅᨭᨭᦂᩮᨷ ᦀᩮᨶᩮᦂᨷ
ᦀᩮᨶᩮᦂᨷᩥᩥ ᩈᩅᩴᩅᨭᨭᩅᩅᩥᩅᨭᨭᦂᩮᨷ ᦀᨾᨲᩣᩈ ᪅ᩅ
᪅ᩅᩴᩮᨾᩣ
ᩴ ᩮᨾᩣ ᪅ᩅ
᪅ᩅᩴᩮᩮᦅᩤ
ᩴ ᦅᩤᩮᨲᩣ ᪅ᩅ
᪅ᩅᩴᩅᩅᩮᨱ
ᩴ ᩮᨱᩣ
[ aa  aa ēē]
• • • • [ ēē ēē ]
• • • [aa aa  aa  aa ēē]
• • • • • • u ā ii]
[ u • • • [ēē aa āā ōō]
• • • [ēē aa  ōō]
• • • [ēē aa aa ōō]
• • •

᪅ᩅᨾᩣᩉᩣᩮᩁᩣ ᪅ᩅ
᪅ᩅᩴᩈᩈᩴ ᦃᨴᦂᨷᨭᩈᩥ ᩮᩴᩮᩅᨴᩦ
ᩅᨴᩦ ᪅ᩅᨾᩣᨿᨷᩁᩁᩥᨿᨿᩮ
ᩥ ᩮ ᩮᩈᩣ ᨲᩮᨲᩣ ᨧᩮᨲᩣ ᦀᨾᨲ
[ēē  āā āā ōō]
• • • • [ēē aa  u
• u aa  aa ēē ]• • • • • • • [ēē  āā  aa ōō]
• • • • • [ōō] [ ōō] • [ ōō] • u ]
[ u • •

ᩏᨴᨷᩤᨴ ᨲᨲᩣᨷᩤᩈ ᪅ᩅ
᪅ᩅᩴᩮᨾᩣ
ᩴ ᩮᨾᩣ ᪅ᩅ
᪅ᩅᩴᩮᩮᦅᩤ
ᩴ ᦅᩤᩮᨲᩣ ᪅ᩅ
᪅ᩅᩴᩅᩅᩮᨱ
ᩴ ᩮᨱᩣ ᪅ᩅᨾᩣᩉᩣᩮᩁᩣ
[ āā ii] • • [aa ā āā ii]
• • • [ēē aa āā ōō]
• • • [ēē aa  ōō]
• • • [ēē aa aa ōō]
• • • [ēē  āā āā ōō]
• • • •

᪅ᩅ
᪅ᩅᩴᩈᩈᩴ ᦃᨴᦂᨷᨭᩈᩥ ᩮᩴᩮᩅᨴᩦ
ᩅᨴᩦ ᪅ᩅᨾᩣᨿᨷᩁᩁᩥᨿᨿᩮ
ᩥ ᩮ ᩮᩈᩣ ᨲᩮᨲᩣ ᨧᩮᨲᩣ ᦀᩥᨵᨷᨷᩮᨲᩥ ᦀᩥᨲᩥ
[ēē aa  u
• u aa  aa ēē ]
• • • • • • • [ēē  āā  aa ōō]
• • • • • [ōō] [ ōō]• [ ōō] • ū  aa ōō ]
[ ū • • • • • []

ᩈᩣᦂᩣᩁ
ᩈᩣᦂᩣᩁᩴᩴ ᩈᩏᩮᨴᩈᩴ ᦀᩮᨶᦂᩅ
ᦀᩮᨶᦂᩅᩥᩉ
ᩥ ᨲ
ᩥ ᩴ ᨷᩮᨻᨻᩛᨶᩛ ᩅᩥᩅᩤᩤᩈᩴ ᦀᨶᩔᩁᩣᨾ
ᩁᩣᨾᩥᩥ ᦀᨿ
ᦀᨿᩴᩴ ᩮᦃᩣ ᩮᨾ ᨻᩣᩉᨱ
[āā āā aa]
• • [ u ēē aa]
• • • [ ēē  aa]
• • • u ēē  āā aa]
[u • • • • u  āā ]
[ u • • • • [ aa] • [ōō] [ēē] [ā ] •

ᩁᨲᩥᨿᩣ ᨷᨮᩮᨾ ᨿᩣᩮᨾ ᨷᨮᨾᩣ ᩅᨩᩥᨩᩣ ᦀᨵ


ᦀᨵᩥᦅᦅᨲᩣ
ᩥ ᨲᩣ ᦀᩅ
ᦀᩅᩥᨩᨩᩥ ᩣ ᩅᩉ
ᩥᩉᨲᩣ
ᨲᩣ ᩅᨩᩥᨩᩣ ᩏᨷ ᨲᩮᨾᩣ
[aa  āā] • • [ ēē] • [āā ēē] • [ āā] • [ii āā] • [ āā] • [ ii āā] • • [ āā] • [ii āā] • u aa āā]
[u • • [ ōō] •

ᩅᩉ
ᩥᩉᩮᨲᩣ
ᩮᨲᩣ ᦀᩣᩮᩃᩣᩮᦂᩣ ᩏᨷᩮ ᨿᨳᩣ ᨲᩴ ᦀᨷᨾᨲᩔ ᦀᩣᨲᩣᨷ
ᦀᩣᨲᩣᨷᩥᩮᩮ
ᩥ  ᨷᩉ
ᨷᩉᩥᨲᨲᨲ
ᩥ ᨲᩔ ᩅᩉ
ᩥᩉᩁᩮᨲᩣ
ᩁᩮᨲᩣ
[ ōō] • [āā ōō ōō]
• • u aa ōō]
[u • • [ āā] • [aa] [aa  aa aa ]
• • • • [āā āā  ōō]
• • • [ aa aa ] • • • [ ōō] •

ᦀᨿ
ᦀᨿᩴᩴ ᩮᦃᩣ ᩮᨾ ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᨷᨮᨾᩣᨽ
ᨷᨮᨾᩣᨽᩥᨶᩥ ᨻᩥᨻᩥᨴᩤ ᦀᩮᩉᩣᩈ
ᦀᩮᩉᩣᩈᩥᩥ ᦂᦂᩩᨭᨧᩣᨷᦂᩮᩔᩅ ᦀᨱᩮᦂᩣᩈᨾᩣ
[ aa]
• [ōō] [ēē] [ā ] • [ āā  ii  āā] • • • • • [ ōō ]
• • u  aa āā  aa ēē ]
[u • • • • • • • [aa  ōō aa ā]
• • • •

1 -16 ᩮᩈᩣ ᪅ᩅ
᪅ᩅᩴᩴ ᩈᨾᩣᩉ
ᩈᨾᩣᩉᩥᩮᩮᨲ
ᩥ ᨲ ᨧᩮᩥᩮᨲ
ᨲ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᩈᩈᩥ ᩮᨴ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᩮᩮᨿᩣᨴᩤ
ᩥ ᨿᩣᨴᩤᩮᨲ ᦀᨶ
ᦀᨶᩴᦅᦅᩮᨱ
ᩴ ᩮᨱ
[ōō] [ēē aa]
• [ āā  ēē] • • • [ii ēē] • u ēē]
[ u • • [ ōō āā ēē] • • • [ aa  ēē] • • •

ᩅᦅᩥᦅᨲ
ᨲᨷᦂᩥᩮᩃᩮᩈ ᨾᨴᨽᩮᨲ ᦂᨾᨶᩮᩥᩮᨿ
ᨿ ᨮᩮᩥᩮᨲ
ᨲ ᦀᩣᩮᨶᨬᨷᩮᨲ ᩈᨲᩣᨶᨶᩴᩴ ᨧᨲᨷᨷᩤᨲᨬᩣᨱᩣᨿ
ū aa  ēē ēē]
[ ū • • • • • ū ēē]
[ ū • • [aa  ēē] • • [ ēē] • [āā  aa aa ēē]
• • • • [aa āā aa] • • ū  āā  āā āā ]
[ ū • • • • • • •

ᨧᨲ
ᩥᨲᩴ ᦀᨽ
ᦀᨽᩥᨶᩥ ᩥᩮᨾᩈ ᩮᩈᩣ ᨴᩮᩥᩮᨻᩛᨻᨶᩛ ᨧᦂᩩ ᩅᩈᩥᩈᩮᨴᨶ ᦀᨲ
ᦀᨲᩥᦂᦂ
ᩥ ᨶᨾᩣᨶᩈᩮᦂᨶ ᩈᩮᨲ
[ii aa]
• [ ii āā ēē ii]
• • • • [ōō] [ii ēē ] • • [aa  āā] • • u ēē ]
[ u • • • [ ii aa  āā  ēē ]
• • • • • • • [aa ēē] •

ᨷᩔᩣᨾ
ᨷᩔᩣᨾᩥᩥ ᨧᩅᨾᩣᩮᨶ ᩏᨷᨷᨩᨾᩣᩮᨶ ᩉᩮᩦᩮᨶᨶ ᨷᨱ
ᨷᨱᩦᩮᩮᨲ
ᩦ ᨲ ᩈᩅᩮᨱ ᨴᨻᩮᩛᩮᨱ
ᨱ ᩈᦅᩮᨲ ᨴᦅᩮᨲ
[aa āā ] • • [ āā ēē] • • [ aa  āā ēē]
• • • • [ ēē] • [  ēē] • • [ aa ēē]• • u aa ēē]
[u • • [ ēē] • u  ēē]
[u • •

ᨿᨳᩣᦂᨾᩪᨷᩮᦅ ᩈᩮᨲ ᨷᨩᩣᨾ


ᨷᨩᩣᨾᩥᩥ ᦀᩥᩮᨾ ᩅᨲ ᩮᨽᩣᩮ ᩈᨲᩣ ᦂᩣᨿᨴᨧᩁᩮᩥᩮᨲᨶ
ᨲᨶ
[ āā aa ū
• ū  ēē] • • • • [aa ēē] • [ āā āā ] • • • [ ēē] • [] [ ōō] • [aa āā] • [āā  u
u  ēē ]
• • • • •

lah
lahu
u - Quick Syllable - [aa] [āā] [ii] - u]
[u - [ēē-] [ōō-] -
6
garu - Prolonged Syllable [aa-] [aa] [āā] [ii] [īī] u]
[u ū]
[ū [ēē] [ōō] aŋ̊]
[aŋ̊
Sa
Sajjhāy
jjhāyaa T
Tepiṭak
epiṭakaa : The World Tipiṭaka Edition in Tai Lü Script-Pāḷi and Roman Phonetic Alphabet-Pāḷi
ปาฬิ 1

ᩈᨾᦅᨲᩣ ᩅᨧ
ᩅᨧᩦᨴᨴᩦ ᨧᩁᩮᩥᩮᨲᨶ
ᨲᨶ ᩈᨾᦅᨲᩣ ᨾᩮᨴᨧᩁᩮᩥᩮᨲᨶ
ᨲᨶ ᩈᨾᦅᨲᩣ ᦀᩁ
ᦀᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣᨶᩴ
ᩥ ᩣᨶᩴ
[ aa āā  āā] u  ēē ]
[  u [ aa āā  āā] [ ōō u
u  ēē ] [ aa āā  āā] [ āā aa]
ᦂ [k]
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

ᩏᨷᩅᩤᨴᦂᩣ ᨾᨧᩥᨧᩣᨴᨴᩥᨭᨭᩥ ᩥᦂᩣ ᨾᨧᩥᨧᩣᨴᨴᩥᨭᨭᩥ ᩥᦂᨾᩈᨾᩣᨴᩤ ᩮᨲ ᦂᩣᨿᩔ ᩮᨽᨴᩤ ᨷᩁ


ᨷᩁᩴᩴ ᦃ [kʰ]
[ āā  āā] • • • [ii āā ii  āā]
• • • • [ii āā ii  aa  āā āā āā]
• • • • • • • • [ēē] [āā aa ] • • [ēē āā] • [ aa] •

ᦅ [g]
ᨾᩁᨱᩣ ᦀᨷᩤᨿᩴ ᨴᦅᨲ ᩅᨶᩥ ᨷᩥᨷᩤᩤᨲᩴ ᨶᩁᩥᩁᨿᩴ
ᨿᩴ ᩏᨷᨷ ᦀᩥᩮᨾ ᩅᩤ ᨷᨶ ᩮᨽᩣᩮ ᩈᨲᩣ
[ āā] • [ āā aa]• • u  ii]
[u • • [ āā aa] • • [ aa] • [ aa āā] • • [ ēē] • [āā] [] [ ōō] • [aa āā] • ᨥ [gʰ]

ᦂᩣᨿᩈᨧᩁᩁᩥᩮᩮᨲᨶ
ᩥ ᨲᨶ ᩈᨾᦅᨲᩣ ᩅᨧ
ᩅᨧᩦᩈᩈᩦ ᨧᩁᩁᩥᩮᩮᨲᨶ
ᩥ ᨲᨶ ᩈᨾᦅᨲᩣ ᨾᩮᩈᨧᩁᩁᩥᩮᩮᨲᨶ
ᩥ ᨲᨶ ᨦ [ṅ]
[āā  ēē ]
• • • [ aa āā  āā]
• • • • [   ēē ] • • • • [ aa āā  āā]
• • • • [ ōō  ēē ] • • • •

ᨧ [c]

ᩈᨾᦅᨲᩣ ᦀᩁ
ᦀᩁᩥᨿᨿᩣᨶᩴ
ᩥ ᩣᨶᩴ ᦀᨶᨷᩅᩤᨴᦂᩣ ᩈᨾᩣᨴᨴᩥᨭᨭᩥ ᩥᦂᩣ ᩈᨾᩣᨴᨴᩥᨭᨭᩥ ᩥᦂᨾᩈᨾᩣᨴᩤ ᩮᨲ ᦉ [cʰ]
[ aa āā  āā]
• • • • [ āā aa] • • [ āā  āā] • • • [aa āā ii  āā] • • • • [aa āā ii  aa  āā āā āā]
• • • • • • • • [ēē]
ᨩ [j]
ᦂᩣᨿᩔ ᩮᨽᨴᩤ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩴᩴ ᨾᩁᨱᩣ ᩈᦅᨲ ᩈᦅᩴ ᩮᩃᩣᦂᩴ ᩏᨷᨷᨲᩥ ᦀᩥᨲᩥ ᨴᩮᩥᩮᨻᩛᨻᨶᩛ
[āā aa ]
• • [ēē āā] • [ aa] • [ āā] • [ ii] • [aa aa] • [ōō aa] • [ aa āā ] • • • [] [ii ēē ] • • ᨫ [jʰ]

ᨧᦂᩩ ᩅᩈᩥᩈᩮᨴᨶ ᦀᨲ
ᦀᨲᩥᦂᦂ
ᩥ ᨶᨾᩣᨶᩈᩮᦂᨶ ᩈᩮᨲ ᨷᩔᩣᨾ
ᨷᩔᩣᨾᩥᩥ ᨧᩅᨾᩣᩮᨶ ᩏᨷᨷᨩᨾᩣᩮᨶ ᨬ [ñ]
[aa  āā] • • u ēē ]
[ u • • • [ ii aa  āā  ēē ]
• • • • • • • [aa ēē] • [aa āā ] • • [ āā ēē] • • [ aa  āā ēē] • • • •

ᨭ [ṭ]

ᩉᩮᩦᩮᨶᨶ ᨷᨱ
ᨷᨱᩦᩮᩮᨲ
ᩦ ᨲ ᩈᩅᩮᨱ ᨴᨻᩮᩛᩮᨱ
ᨱ ᩈᦅᩮᨲ ᨴᦅᩮᨲ ᨿᨳᩣᦂᨾᩪᨷᩮᦅ ᩈᩮᨲ ᨷᨩᩣᨾ
ᨷᨩᩣᨾᩥᩥ ᨮ [ṭʰ]
[ ēē]
• [  ēē] • • [ aa ēē]• • u aa ēē]
[u • • [ ēē] • u  ēē]
[u • • [ āā aa ū
ū  ēē]
• • • • • [aa ēē] • [ āā āā ] • • •

ᨯ [ḍ]
ᦀᨿ
ᦀᨿᩴᩴ ᩮᦃᩣ ᩮᨾ ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᩁᨲᩥᨿᩣ ᨾᨩᩥᩮᨾ ᨿᩣᩮᨾ ᨴᨲᨿ
ᩥᨿᩣᩣ ᩅᨩᩥᨩᩣ ᦀᨵ
ᦀᨵᩥᦅᦅᨲᩣ
ᩥ ᨲᩣ ᦀᩅ
ᦀᩅᩥᨩᨩᩥ ᩣ ᩅᩉ
ᩥᩉᨲᩣ
ᨲᩣ
[ aa]
• [ōō] [ēē] [ā ] • [aa  āā]• • [aa  ēē] • • [āā ēē] • [ āā] • [ii āā] • [ āā] • [ ii āā] • • [ āā] •
ᨰ [ḍʰ]
ᩅᨩᩥᨩᩣ ᩏᨷ ᨲᩮᨾᩣ ᩅᩉ
ᩥᩉᩮᨲᩣ
ᩮᨲᩣ ᦀᩣᩮᩃᩣᩮᦂᩣ ᩏᨷᩮ ᨿᨳᩣ ᨲᩴ ᦀᨷᨾᨲᩔ ᦀᩣᨲᩣᨷ
ᦀᩣᨲᩣᨷᩥᩮᩮ
ᩥ ᨱ [ṇ]
[ii āā]• u aa āā]
[u • • [ ōō] • [ ōō] • [āā ōō ōō]• • u aa ōō]
[u • • [ āā] • [aa] [aa  aa aa ]
• • • • [āā āā  ōō]
• • •

ᨲ [t]
ᨷᩉ
ᨷᩉᩥᨲᨲᨲ
ᩥ ᨲᩔ ᩅᩉ
ᩥᩉᩁᩮᨲᩣ
ᩁᩮᨲᩣ ᦀᨿ
ᦀᨿᩴᩴ ᩮᦃᩣ ᩮᨾ ᨻᩣᩉᨱ ᨴᨲᨿ
ᩥᨿᩣᨽᩥ
ᩣᨽᨶᩥ ᨻᩥᨻᩥᨴᩤ ᦀᩮᩉᩣᩈ
ᦀᩮᩉᩣᩈᩥᩥ ᨳ [tʰ]
[ aa aa ] • • • [ ōō] • [ aa]• [ōō] [ēē] [ā ] • [ āā  ii  āā]
• • • • • [ ōō ]
• •

ᨴ [d]
ᦂᦂᩩᨭᨧᩣᨷᦂᩮᩔᩅ ᦀᨱᩮᦂᩣᩈᨾᩣ
u  aa āā  aa ēē ]
[u • • • • • • • [aa  ōō aa ā]
• • • •
ᨵ [dʰ]

1 -17 ᩮᩈᩣ ᪅ᩅ
᪅ᩅᩴᩴ ᩈᨾᩣᩉ
ᩈᨾᩣᩉᩥᩮᩮᨲ
ᩥ ᨲ ᨧᩮᩥᩮᨲ
ᨲ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᩈᩈᩥ ᩮᨴ ᨷᩁ
ᨷᩁᩥᩮᩮᨿᩣᨴᩤ
ᩥ ᨿᩣᨴᩤᩮᨲ ᦀᨶ
ᦀᨶᩴᦅᦅᩮᨱ
ᩴ ᩮᨱ ᨶ [n]
[ōō] [ēē aa]
• [ āā  ēē] • • • [ii ēē] • u ēē]
[ u • • [ ōō āā ēē] • • • [ aa  ēē]
• • •

ᨷ [p]

ᩅᦅᩥᦅᨲ
ᨲᨷᦂᩥᩮᩃᩮᩈ ᨾᨴᨽᩮᨲ ᦂᨾᨶᩮᩥᩮᨿ
ᨿ ᨮᩮᩥᩮᨲ
ᨲ ᦀᩣᩮᨶᨬᨷᩮᨲ ᦀᩣᩈᩅᩤᨶᩴ ᦃᨿᨬᩣᨱᩣᨿ ᨹ [pʰ]
ū aa  ēē ēē]
[ ū • • • • • ū ēē]
[ ū • • [aa  ēē] • • [ ēē] • [āā  aa aa ēē]
• • • • [āā  āā aa]
• • • [ āā āā ] • • •

ᨻ [b]
ᨧᨲ
ᩥᨲᩴ ᦀᨽ
ᦀᨽᩥᨶᩥ ᩥᩮᨾᩈ ᩮᩈᩣ ᦀᩥᨴᩴ ᨴᦂᨶᩥ ᨿᨳᩣᨽᨲᩴ ᦀᨻᨬᩣᩈ ᦀᨿ
ᦀᨿᩴᩴ
[ii aa]
• [ ii āā ēē ii]
• • • • [ōō] [ aa]
• u aa ]
[u • • [ āā ū
ū aa] • • • [aa aa āā ii]
• • • [ aa] •
ᨽ [bʰ]
ᨴᦂᩈᨾᨴᩮᨿᩣᨲ
ᩮᨿᩣᨲᩥᩥ ᨿᨳᩣᨽᨲᩴ ᦀᨻᨬᩣᩈ ᦀᨿ
ᦀᨿᩴᩴ ᨴᦂᨶᩮᩥᩮᩁᩣᩮᨵᩤ
ᩁᩣᩮᨵᩤᨲᩥ ᨿᨳᩣᨽᨲᩴ ᦀᨻᨬᩣᩈ ᨾ [m]
u  ōō ]
[u • • • [ āā ū
ū aa] • • • [aa aa āā ii] • • • [ aa]
• u  ōō ōō ]
[u • • • • [ āā ū
ū aa]
• • • [aa aa āā ii]