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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System

V100R001C01

Product Description

Issue 01
Date 2012-10-30

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.


Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2012. All rights reserved.
No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written
consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

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and other Huawei trademarks are trademarks of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
All other trademarks and trade names mentioned in this document are the property of their respective holders.

Notice
The purchased products, services and features are stipulated by the contract made between Huawei and the
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Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.


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Email: support@huawei.com

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Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description About This Document

About This Document

Related Versions
The following table lists the product versions related to this document.

Product Name Version

OptiX RTN 310 V100R001C01

iManager U2000 V100R008C00

Intended Audience
This document is intended for:

l Network planning engineer


l Hardware installation engineer
l Installation and commissioning engineer
l Field maintenance engineer
l Data configuration engineer
l System maintenance engineer

Familiarity with the basic knowledge related to digital microwave communication technology
will help you apply the information in this document.

Symbol Conventions
The symbols that may be found in this document are defined as follows.

Symbol Description

Indicates a hazard with a high level of risk,


which if not avoided, will result in death or
serious injury.

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Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description About This Document

Symbol Description

Indicates a hazard with a medium or low level


of risk, which if not avoided, could result in
minor or moderate injury.

Indicates a potentially hazardous situation,


which if not avoided, could result in
equipment damage, data loss, performance
degradation, or unexpected results.

Indicates a tip that may help you solve a


problem or save time.

Provides additional information to emphasize


or supplement important points of the main
text.

General Conventions
The general conventions that may be found in this document are defined as follows.

Convention Description

Times New Roman Normal paragraphs are in Times New Roman.

Boldface Names of files, directories, folders, and users are in


boldface. For example, log in as user root.

Italic Book titles are in italics.


Courier New Examples of information displayed on the screen are in
Courier New.

Update History
Updates between document issues are cumulative. Thus, the latest document issue contains all
updates made in previous issues.

Updates in Issue 01 (2012-10-30) Based on Product Version V100R001C01


This document is the first issue for the V100R001C01 product version.

Issue 01 (2012-10-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential iii


Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description Contents

Contents

About This Document.....................................................................................................................ii


1 Product Introduction.....................................................................................................................1
1.1 Network Application..........................................................................................................................................2
1.2 Basic Features.....................................................................................................................................................3
1.3 Site Configurations.............................................................................................................................................5
1.3.1 1+0 Sites....................................................................................................................................................5
1.3.2 2+0 Sites....................................................................................................................................................6
1.3.3 1+1 Sites....................................................................................................................................................8
1.3.4 XPIC Sites...............................................................................................................................................10
1.3.5 Multi-direction Sites................................................................................................................................12

2 Functions and Features...............................................................................................................15


2.1 Capacities..........................................................................................................................................................17
2.2 Adaptive Modulation........................................................................................................................................17
2.3 Cross-Polarization Interference Cancellation...................................................................................................19
2.4 Automatic Transmit Power Control.................................................................................................................19
2.5 Power over Ethernet.........................................................................................................................................20
2.6 Ethernet Service Processing Capability............................................................................................................21
2.7 QoS...................................................................................................................................................................23
2.8 Clock Features..................................................................................................................................................24
2.9 Protection Capabilities......................................................................................................................................25
2.10 Network Management....................................................................................................................................25
2.11 Zero Footprint Installation..............................................................................................................................26
2.12 Configuration-Free Deployment.....................................................................................................................26
2.13 Easy Maintenance...........................................................................................................................................28
2.13.1 Equipment-level OAM..........................................................................................................................28
2.13.2 Packet OAM (TP-Assist).......................................................................................................................30
2.14 Security Management.....................................................................................................................................31
2.15 Energy Saving.................................................................................................................................................34
2.16 Environmental Protection...............................................................................................................................34

3 Product Structure.........................................................................................................................35
3.1 System Architecture.........................................................................................................................................36
3.2 Service Signal Processing Flow.......................................................................................................................38

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Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description Contents

3.3 Ports and Indicators..........................................................................................................................................40


3.3.1 Ports.........................................................................................................................................................40
3.3.2 Indicators.................................................................................................................................................46
3.4 Labels................................................................................................................................................................48

4 Networking and Applications..................................................................................................52


4.1 Independent Networking..................................................................................................................................53
4.1.1 Chain Networks.......................................................................................................................................53
4.1.2 Ring Networks.........................................................................................................................................53
4.2 Networking with OptiX RTN 900s..................................................................................................................54

5 Network Management System..................................................................................................56


5.1 Network Management Solutions......................................................................................................................57
5.2 Web LCT..........................................................................................................................................................57
5.3 U2000...............................................................................................................................................................59

6 Technical Specifications.............................................................................................................62
6.1 RF Performance................................................................................................................................................63
6.1.1 Radio Working Modes.............................................................................................................................63
6.1.2 Frequency Band.......................................................................................................................................68
6.1.3 Receiver Sensitivity.................................................................................................................................70
6.1.4 Distortion Sensitivity...............................................................................................................................73
6.1.5 Transceiver Performance.........................................................................................................................73
6.1.6 Baseband Signal Processing Performance of the Modem.......................................................................75
6.2 Predicted Reliability.........................................................................................................................................75
6.2.1 Predicted Equipment Reliability..............................................................................................................76
6.2.2 Predicted Link Reliability........................................................................................................................76
6.3 Ethernet Interface Performance........................................................................................................................76
6.4 Clock Timing and Synchronization Performance............................................................................................77
6.5 Integrated System Performance........................................................................................................................78

7 Accessories....................................................................................................................................80
7.1 Outdoor Power Injector....................................................................................................................................81
7.1.1 Functions and Features............................................................................................................................81
7.1.2 Ports and Indicators.................................................................................................................................81
7.1.3 PI Labels..................................................................................................................................................86
7.1.4 Technical Specifications..........................................................................................................................89
7.2 Hybrid Coupler.................................................................................................................................................91
7.2.1 Types.......................................................................................................................................................91
7.2.2 Functions and Features............................................................................................................................91
7.2.3 Ports.........................................................................................................................................................91
7.2.4 Labels.......................................................................................................................................................92
7.2.5 Technical Specifications..........................................................................................................................94
7.3 OMT.................................................................................................................................................................95
7.3.1 Functions and Features............................................................................................................................96

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description Contents

7.3.2 Ports.........................................................................................................................................................96
7.3.3 Technical Specifications..........................................................................................................................97
7.4 Extra Mounting Components............................................................................................................................98
7.4.1 Mounting Brackets..................................................................................................................................98
7.4.2 Flexible Waveguides...............................................................................................................................99
7.5 Antennas.........................................................................................................................................................101
7.5.1 Types.....................................................................................................................................................101
7.5.2 Functions and Features..........................................................................................................................103
7.5.3 Working Principles................................................................................................................................104
7.5.4 Ports.......................................................................................................................................................105
7.5.5 Antenna Diameters................................................................................................................................106
7.5.6 Technical Specifications........................................................................................................................107
7.6 Antenna Adapters...........................................................................................................................................107
7.7 USB Flash Drives...........................................................................................................................................110

8 Cables...........................................................................................................................................112
8.1 OptiX RTN 310 Power Cables.......................................................................................................................114
8.2 PI Power Cables..............................................................................................................................................114
8.3 P&E Cables.....................................................................................................................................................115
8.4 OptiX RTN 310 PGND Cables......................................................................................................................118
8.5 PI PGND Cables.............................................................................................................................................119
8.6 XPIC Cables...................................................................................................................................................119
8.7 RSSI Cables....................................................................................................................................................120
8.8 Optical Fibers.................................................................................................................................................120
8.9 Outdoor Network Cables................................................................................................................................121

A Appendix....................................................................................................................................125
A.1 Port Loopbacks..............................................................................................................................................126
A.2 Compliance Standards...................................................................................................................................126
A.2.1 ITU-R Standards...................................................................................................................................126
A.2.2 ITU-T Standards...................................................................................................................................127
A.2.3 ETSI Standards.....................................................................................................................................128
A.2.4 CEPT Standards....................................................................................................................................130
A.2.5 IEC Standards.......................................................................................................................................130
A.2.6 IETF Standards.....................................................................................................................................132
A.2.7 IEEE Standards.....................................................................................................................................133
A.2.8 Other Standards....................................................................................................................................133

B Glossary......................................................................................................................................135

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Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 1 Product Introduction

1 Product Introduction

About This Chapter

The OptiX RTN 310 is a full-outdoor product in the OptiX RTN radio transmission system
series.

1.1 Network Application


The OptiX RTN 310 facilities terminal access to mobile telecommunications networks or private
networks. It provides a cost-effective solution for the terminal networks of massive micro base
stations.
1.2 Basic Features
The OptiX RTN 310 provides radio transmission channels for native Ethernet services.
1.3 Site Configurations
OptiX RTN 310s, which can be cascaded, are not only able to form 1+0 sites, but also 2+0,
XPIC, 1+1, and multi-direction sites.

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Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 1 Product Introduction

1.1 Network Application


The OptiX RTN 310 facilities terminal access to mobile telecommunications networks or private
networks. It provides a cost-effective solution for the terminal networks of massive micro base
stations.
The OptiX RTN 310 is a highly integrated full-outdoor radio transmission product (FO, for
short). All its modules are integrated into an outdoor unit that supports zero-footprint installation,
providing carriers with cost-effective full-outdoor radio solutions.
The OptiX RTN 310 can independently form chain or ring backhaul networks for a variety of
new IP base stations in either new or legacy networks. It supports 2048QAM modulation and
cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC), which enable it to provide high-bandwidth
backhaul links for large-capacity NodeBs and eNodeBs. See Figure 1-1.
The OptiX RTN 310 can work with OptiX RTN 900 products to provide more functions and to
leverage legacy radio equipment. The following is an example of how the two products can be
used in conjunction:
l The OptiX RTN 310 works with the OptiX RTN 900 to function as a multi-direction
convergence node.
l The OptiX RTN 310 works with the OptiX RTN 900 to transmit TDM services through
circuit emulation service pseudo wires (CES PWs).
l The OptiX RTN 310 works with the OptiX RTN 900 to provide 1+1 hot standby (HSB), 1
+1 frequency diversity (FD), or 1+1 space diversity (SD) protection.
See Figure 1-2.

Figure 1-1 Independent networking

NodeB 1

GE

GE
GE

RNC
NodeB 2

Regional Backhaul Network

NodeB 3

GE XPIC cable XPIC cable GE

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Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 1 Product Introduction

Figure 1-2 Networking with OptiX RTN 900s


XPIC
NodeB FE/GE

XPIC XPIC
GE GE
cable cable

NodeB FE/GE

CES E1
E1
BTS
BSC

Regional network
1+1

1+1 1+1
cascading cascading
cable cable RNC
NodeB

OptiX RTN 310 OptiX RTN 900

1.2 Basic Features


The OptiX RTN 310 provides radio transmission channels for native Ethernet services.

Table 1-1 Basic features


Item Description

Dimensions (H x W x D) 290 mm x 265 mm x 98 mm

Number of radio directions 1

Service ports Two GE service ports

Operating frequency band l 13 GHz


l 15 GHz
l 18 GHz
l 23 GHz
l 38 GHz

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Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 1 Product Introduction

Item Description

RF configuration modes l 1+0 configuration


l 2+0 configuration
l 1+1 configuration
l XPIC configuration
l Multi-direction configuration
NOTE
l In XPIC, 1+1 or 2+0 mode, two OptiX RTN
310s are required for each site.
l In multi-direction mode, multiple OptiX RTN
310s are cascaded or network with OptiX RTN
900s.

Powering modes l Power over Ethernet


l Power over a dedicated DC power port
NOTE
l Power over Ethernet applies to a maximum of
100 meters.
l Power over a dedicated DC power port applies
to a maximum of 300 meters.

Figure 1-3 Appearance of the OptiX RTN 310

Front Rear
side side
H

W D

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Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 1 Product Introduction

1.3 Site Configurations


OptiX RTN 310s, which can be cascaded, are not only able to form 1+0 sites, but also 2+0,
XPIC, 1+1, and multi-direction sites.

1.3.1 1+0 Sites


A 1+0 site provides a one-direction working radio link.
In 1+0 mode, one single-polarized antenna is used. Depending on antenna specifications, the
OptiX RTN 310 can be directly mounted on an antenna or connected to an antenna using
accessories (split mounting).

Figure 1-4 Typical configurations at a 1+0 site (direct mounting)

GE P&E USB/RSSI/NMS
COMBO PWR

Fiber
To
NodeB

Power cable
P&E cable
(optional)

To a power injector To a power


supply device

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Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 1 Product Introduction

Figure 1-5 Typical configurations at a 1+0 site (split mounting)

USB/RSSI/NMS
COMBO
PWR
GE P&E

To
NodeB

Power cable
P&E cable (optional)

To a power To a power
injector supply device

1.3.2 2+0 Sites


A 2+0 site provides two one-direction unprotected radio links.
At a 2+0 site, two OptiX RTN 310s are installed on a hybrid coupler. A hybrid coupler can be
directly mounted on an antenna or connected to an antenna using accessories (split mounting),
depending on antenna specifications. Generally, the two OptiX RTN 310s are cascaded using
gigabit Ethernet (GE) optical ports for physical link aggregation (PLA) configuration.

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Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 1 Product Introduction

Figure 1-6 Typical configurations at a 2+0 site (direct mounting)

2
1

3
Hybrid coupler

1 2

GE P&E USB/RSSI/NMS GE P&E USB/RSSI/NMS


COMBO PWR COMBO PWR

Fiber

To a power To a power
injector injector

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Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 1 Product Introduction

Figure 1-7 Typical configurations at a 2+0 site (split mounting)

1
2

3
Hybrid coupler

1 2

GE P&E USB/RSSI/NMS GE P&E USB/RSSI/NMS


COMBO PWR COMBO PWR

Fiber

To a power injector To a power injector

1.3.3 1+1 Sites


A 1+1 site provides a radio link protection system that comprises one main radio link and one
standby radio link in the same direction. Depending on configurations, a 1+1 site can provide 1
+1 hot standby (HSB), 1+1 frequency diversity (FD), or 1+1 space diversity (SD) protection for
its radio links.
For a 1+1 site configured with 1+1 HSB or 1+1 FD protection, two OptiX RTN 310s are installed
on a hybrid coupler. Depending on antenna specifications, the hybrid coupler can be directly
mounted on an antenna or connected to an antenna using accessories (split mounting). See Figure
1-8 and Figure 1-9. For a 1+1 site configured with 1+1 SD protection, two antennas are used.
Depending on antenna specifications, an OptiX RTN 310 can be directly mounted on an antenna
or connected to an antenna using accessories.
Two OptiX RTN 310s at a 1+1 site must be cascaded using their 1+1 cascade ports, and work
with an OptiX RTN 900 IDU or an LACP-supporting UNI-side device to implement NE-level
protection using Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP). When working with an OptiX

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Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 1 Product Introduction

RTN 900 IDU, the OptiX RTN 310s can connect to the power-over-Ethernet ports of an EG4P
board on the IDU using P&E cables, which carry both power signals and Ethernet service signals.
Figure 1-8 and Figure 1-9 illustrate typical configurations at a 1+1 site with 1+1 HSB or 1+1
FD configured.

Figure 1-8 Typical configuration at a 1+1 site (1+1 HSB/FD, direct mounting)

2
1

1 2

3
Hybrid Coupler

GE P&E USB/RSSI/NMS GE P&E USB/RSSI/NMS


COMBO PWR COMBO PWR

1+1 cascading cable

P&E cable P&E cable


EG4P

EG4P
STAT
SRV

L/A4
L/A1
L/A2
L/A3

SRV

L/A4
L/A1
L/A2
L/A3
STAT
P1
P2

P1
P2

OUT1/IN1 OUT2/IN2 1 2 3/P1 4/P1 OUT1/IN1 OUT2/IN21 2 3/P1 4/P1


EG4P

SRV
L/A1
L/A2
L/A3
L/A4
STAT

P1
P2

OUT1/IN1 OUT2/IN21 2 3/P1 4/P1

3/P1 4/P2 3/P1 4/P2

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Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 1 Product Introduction

Figure 1-9 Typical configuration at a 1+1 site (1+1 HSB/FD, split mounting)

1
2

3
1 2 Hybrid coupler

GE P&E USB/RSSI/NMS GE P&E USB/RSSI/NMS


COMBO PWR COMBO PWR

1+1 cascading cable

P&E cable P&E cable


EG4P

EG4P
STAT
SRV
L/A1
L/A2
L/A3
L/A4

SRV
L/A1
L/A2
L/A3
L/A4
STAT
P1
P2

P1
P2

OUT1/IN1 OUT2/IN2 1 2 3/P1 4/P1 OUT1/IN1 OUT2/IN21 2 3/P1 4/P1


EG4P

L/A4
SRV
L/A1
L/A2
L/A3
STAT

P1
P2

OUT1/IN1 OUT2/IN21 2 3/P1 4/P1

3/P1 4/P2 3/P1 4/P2

1.3.4 XPIC Sites


Cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) sites are special 2+0 sites. The two radio
links provided by an XPIC site operate at the same frequency, but their polarization directions
are orthogonal. The interference between the two radio links is canceled by the XPIC function.
At an XPIC site, two OptiX RTN 310s are installed on an orthogonal mode transducer (OMT).
The OMT can be directly mounted on an antenna or connected to an antenna using accessories
(split mounting), depending on antenna specifications. Generally, the two OptiX RTN 310s are
cascaded using gigabit Ethernet (GE) optical ports for physical link aggregation (PLA)
configuration.

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Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 1 Product Introduction

Figure 1-10 Typical configurations at an XPIC site (direct mounting)

2
1

1 2

3
OMT

GE P&E USB/RSSI/NMS GE P&E USB/RSSI/NMS


COMBO PWR COMBO PWR

XPIC cable
Fiber

P&E cable
P&E cable

To a power To a power
injector injector

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Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 1 Product Introduction

Figure 1-11 Typical configurations at an XPIC site (split mounting)

1 2 2

GE P&E USB/RSSI/NMS GE P&E USB/RSSI/NMS


COMBO PWR COMBO PWR

XPIC cable

Fiber

P&E P&E
cable cable

To a power
To a power injector
injector

1.3.5 Multi-direction Sites


A multi-direction site provides multi-direction radio links.
Multiple OptiX RTN 310s are cascaded using GE optical ports. Generally, multiple OptiX RTN
310s are used for 2x(1+0) configuration. At a site with 2x(1+0) configuration, two OptiX RTN
310s are connected back-to-back. They can independently perform service switching and
scheduling with the help of built-in switching units.

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Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 1 Product Introduction

Figure 1-12 2x(1+0) multi-direction configurations

1 2

GE P&E USB/RSSI/NMS GE P&E USB/RSSI/NMS


COMBO PWR COMBO PWR

Fiber

P&E cable
P&E cable

To a power
To a power
injector
injector

When multiple OptiX RTN 310s work with an OptiX RTN 900 IDU to form a multi-direction
site, the maximum number of radio directions are the same as that supported by the IDU. During
installation, an OptiX RTN 310 can connect to the power-over-Ethernet port of an EG4P board
using a P&E cable, which carries both power signals and Ethernet service signals.

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Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 1 Product Introduction

Figure 1-13 Typical configurations at a multi-direction site (OptiX RTN 310s networked with
RTN 900)

1 2 3

P&E P&E P&E

P&E cable
P&E cable P&E cable
EG4P

EG4P
STAT
SRV
L/A1
L/A2
L/A3
L/A4

SRV
L/A1
L/A2
L/A3
L/A4
STAT
P1
P2

P1
P2

OUT1/IN1 OUT2/IN2 1 2 3/P1 4/P1 OUT1/IN1 OUT2/IN21 2 3/P1 4/P1


EG4P

SRV
L/A1
L/A2
L/A3
L/A4
STAT

P1
P2

OUT1/IN1 OUT2/IN21 2 3/P1 4/P1

3/P1 4/P2 3/P1 4/P2

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Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 2 Functions and Features

2 Functions and Features

About This Chapter

The OptiX RTN 310 provides a variety of functions and features.It provides high-quality high-
efficient radio links for transmitting Ethernet service from base stations.

2.1 Capacities
This section provides the Ethernet service switching capacity and air interface capacity of the
OptiX RTN 310.
2.2 Adaptive Modulation
Adaptive modulation (AM) technology adjusts the modulation scheme automatically based on
channel quality.
2.3 Cross-Polarization Interference Cancellation
Cross-polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) technology is used together with co-channel
dual-polarization (CCDP) to double the radio link capacity over the same channel.
2.4 Automatic Transmit Power Control
Automatic transmit power control (ATPC) is a method that uses received signal level (RSL) of
the receiver to adjust transmit power within the ATPC control range. This feature reduces
interference with neighboring systems and residual bit error rate (BER).
2.5 Power over Ethernet
The OptiX RTN 310 supports power over Ethernet that can carry -48 V power signals, along
with GE service signals, on Ethernet cables.
2.6 Ethernet Service Processing Capability
The OptiX RTN 310 can process Native Ethernet services.
2.7 QoS
The OptiX RTN 310 supports quality of service (QoS), including simple traffic classification,
queue scheduling, and traffic shaping.
2.8 Clock Features
The clock features of the OptiX RTN 310 satisfy clock transmission requirements of mobile
communications networks and provide a complete selection of clock protection mechanisms.
2.9 Protection Capabilities
The OptiX RTN 310 provides protection schemes for radio links and Ethernet networks.

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Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 2 Functions and Features

2.10 Network Management


The OptiX RTN 310 supports multiple network management modes and provides
comprehensive management information exchange solutions.
2.11 Zero Footprint Installation
The OptiX RTN 310 supports zero footprint installation.
2.12 Configuration-Free Deployment
The OptiX RTN 310 can be quickly deployed and commissioned using a USB flash drive.
2.13 Easy Maintenance
The OptiX RTN 310 adopts easy-to-manage and easy-to-maintain architectures in hardware and
software design, and provides a variety of maintenance methods.
2.14 Security Management
The OptiX RTN 310 works with its network management system (NMS) to prevent unauthorized
logins and operations, ensuring equipment management security.
2.15 Energy Saving
The OptiX RTN 310 uses various types of technologies to reduce the amount of energy that the
device consumes, as follows:
2.16 Environmental Protection
The OptiX RTN 310 is designed to meet or exceed environmental protection requirements. The
product complies with restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS) and waste from electrical and
electronic equipment (WEEE) directives.

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Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 2 Functions and Features

2.1 Capacities
This section provides the Ethernet service switching capacity and air interface capacity of the
OptiX RTN 310.

Ethernet Service Switching Capacity


The OptiX RTN 310 with its built-in Ethernet switching unit has an Ethernet service switching
capacity of 3 Gbit/s.

Air Interface Capacity


The maximum air-interface Ethernet throughput supported by the OptiX RTN 310 can be higher
than 600 Mbit/s.

The XPIC function can almost double the service capacity of a radio channel without changing
the channel spacing.

The OptiX RTN 310 supports Ethernet frame header compression at air interfaces. The
equivalent throughput of Ethernet services at air interfaces can reach up to 1 Gbit/s.

NOTE
6.1.1 Radio Working Modes provide air interface capacities in various working modes.

2.2 Adaptive Modulation


Adaptive modulation (AM) technology adjusts the modulation scheme automatically based on
channel quality.

When AM technology is used, if using the same channel spacing, the radio service bandwidth
varies according to the modulation scheme: the higher the modulation efficiency, the higher the
bandwidth of the transmitted services. With QoS technology, packet services are groomed to
queues with different priorities. Services in different queues are transmitted to the microwave
port after the queue-scheduling algorithm has been run. Under all channel conditions, the service
capacity varies according to the modulation scheme.

l When conditions for channel quality are favorable good (such as on sunny days), the
equipment uses a higher-order modulation scheme to transmit more user services. This
improves transmission efficiency and spectrum utilization of the system.
l When conditions for channel quality are unfavorable (such as on stormy or foggy days),
the equipment uses a lower-order modulation scheme to ensure that higher-priority services
are transmitted first. If some lower-priority queues become congested due to a lack of
available bandwidth, some or all interfaces in these queues are discarded. This method
improves the anti-interference capabilities of a radio link and ensures link availability for
high-priority services.

Figure 2-1, in which the guaranteed capacity modulation scheme is QPSK Strong and the full
capacity modulation scheme is 256QAM, shows AM shifting step by step depending on weather
changes, and how modulation schemes affect service throughput and reliability.

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Product Description 2 Functions and Features

Figure 2-1 Adaptive modulation

256 256
QAM 128 64 16 64 128 QAM
QAM QAM 32 16
16 QAM 16 32
QAM QPSK QAM QAM QAM QAM
QAM Strong
QPSK QPSK Strong QAM
Strong

Receive Signal Availability

256 QAM 99.5%

128 QAM 99.9%

64 QAM 99.92%

32 QAM 99.96%

16 QAM 99.99%
Low-priority Low-priority
service service 99.995%
16 QAM strong

99.998%
QPSK
99.999%
QPSK strong
High-priority service

Time

The AM technology used by the OptiX RTN 310 has the following features:

l Uses QPSK Strong, QPSK, 16QAM Strong, 16QAM, 32QAM, 64QAM, 128QAM,
256QAM, 512QAM, 512QAM Light, 1024QAM, 1024QAM Light, and 2048QAM
modulation schemes. Compared with QPSK/16QAM, QPSK Strong/16QAM Strong, using
different parameters in forward error correction (FEC) coding, has stronger error correction
capability, and therefore has better receiver sensitivity. It has, however, less air interface
bandwidth. Compared with 512QAM/1024QAM, 512QAM Light/1024QAM Light, using
different parameters in forward error correction (FEC) coding, has weaker error correction
capability, and therefore has worse receiver sensitivity. It has, however, higher air interface
bandwidth.
l Can configure both the lowest-order modulation scheme (also called reference scheme or
guaranteed capacity modulation scheme) and the highest-order modulation scheme (also
called nominal scheme or full capacity modulation scheme).
l Can switch modulation schemes without changing the transmit frequency, receive
frequency, or channel spacing.
l Switches modulation schemes step-by-step.
l Features hitless switching. When the modulation scheme is downshifted, high-priority
services are not affected while low-priority services are discarded. Switching is successful
even when 100 dB/s channel fast fading occurs.

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Product Description 2 Functions and Features

2.3 Cross-Polarization Interference Cancellation


Cross-polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) technology is used together with co-channel
dual-polarization (CCDP) to double the radio link capacity over the same channel.
CCDP transmission uses a horizontally polarized wave and a vertically polarized wave on a
single channel to transmit two channels of signals. Ideally, for CCDP transmission, there should
be no interference between the two orthogonal signals, even though they are of the same
frequency. In actual practice, despite the orthogonal nature of the two signals, interference
between the signals inevitably occurs due to cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) of the
antenna and channel degradation. To eliminate this interference, XPIC technology is used to
receive signals horizontally and vertically. The signals in the two directions are then processed
and the original signals are recovered from interfered signals. Figure 2-2 shows the functional
block diagram for a scenario where XPIC is used together with CCDP.

Figure 2-2 CCDP channel configuration (with the application of the XPIC technology)
Cross
interference

f1
Service Service
H
Cancellation signal
V
Service f1 Service

Cross
interference
Service singnal
H: horizontal polarization direction
V: vertical polarization direction

One XPIC site requires two OptiX RTN 310s, with their COMBO ports connected by an XPIC
cable to transmit XPIC signals.

2.4 Automatic Transmit Power Control


Automatic transmit power control (ATPC) is a method that uses received signal level (RSL) of
the receiver to adjust transmit power within the ATPC control range. This feature reduces
interference with neighboring systems and residual bit error rate (BER).
When ATPC is enabled:
l If the RSL is 2 dB or more than 2 dB less than the value halfway between the upper and
lower ATPC thresholds, the receiver instructs the transmitter to increase transmit power so
that the RSL does not deviate more than 2 dB from the halfway value.

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Product Description 2 Functions and Features

l If the RSL is 2 dB or more than 2 dB greater than the value halfway between the upper and
lower ATPC thresholds, the receiver instructs the transmitter to decrease transmit power
so that the RSL does not deviate more than 2 dB from the halfway value.
Figure 2-3 shows the relationship between the RSL and the transmit signal level (TSL).

Figure 2-3 Relationship between the RSL and the TSL


TSL/RSL

TSL

Up-fading

Central value of the 2dB


ATPC upper threshold RSL
and the ATPC lower 2dB
threshold
Down-fading

2.5 Power over Ethernet


The OptiX RTN 310 supports power over Ethernet that can carry -48 V power signals, along
with GE service signals, on Ethernet cables.

The OptiX RTN 310 works with a power injector (PI) or an OptiX RTN 900 IDU to implement
power over Ethernet through its P&E port.
l One PI can power only one OptiX RTN 310. See Figure 2-4.

Figure 2-4 Working with a PI

Port P&E

Port P&E

Injecting
Power
injector

-48 V GE signal

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 2 Functions and Features

NOTE

Besides power signals, network management signals can also be carried on the P&E cable that
connects the OptiX RTN 310 to a PI, eliminating the need to climb up the tower for maintenance.
l The OptiX RTN 310 can work with EG4P boards, which support power over Ethernet, on
the OptiX RTN 900 IDU. One EG4P board can power a maximum of two OptiX RTN
310s. See Figure 2-5.

Figure 2-5 Working with the OptiX RTN 900

Port P&E Port P&E

GE and -48 V signal

EG4P
CSHx

OptiX RTN 900 IDU

2.6 Ethernet Service Processing Capability


The OptiX RTN 310 can process Native Ethernet services.

Table 2-1 Ethernet service processing capability


Item Description

Service port Two GE service ports


l The first GE port can be a P&E electrical
port or an optical port (SFP module).
l The second GE port is an optical port (SFP
module).

Port attribute l The GE electrical port supports 10M full-


duplex, 100M full-duplex, 1000M full-
duplex, and auto-negotiation.
l The GE optical port supports 1000M full-
duplex and auto-negotiation.

Ethernet service type l E-Line


l E-LAN

Range of maximum frame length 1518 bytes to 9600 bytes

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Product Description 2 Functions and Features

Item Description

VLAN l Adds, deletes, and swaps VLAN tags that


comply with IEEE 802.1q/p, and forwards
packets based on VLAN tags.
l Processes packets based on the port tag
attribute (Tag/Hybrid/Access).
l The VLAN ID ranges from 1 to 4094.

MAC address l The E-LAN service supports MAC address


self learning in two learning modes: SVL and
IVL.
l MAC addresses can be filtered (blacklisted).
l Static MAC address entries can be set.
l The capacity of the MAC address table is 8 k
(including static and blacklist entities).
l The MAC address aging time is configurable.

Link aggregation group (LAG) l Applies to GE ports and microwave ports. The
microwave port must be the main port in a
LAG.
l Supports manual aggregation and static
aggregation.
l Supports load sharing and non-load sharing.
l Supports the setting of the minimum number
of active links.

Physical link aggregation (PLA) Allows Ethernet channels in radio links provided
by two OptiX RTN 310s to form a PLA group.
Being the Layer 1 LAG technology, PLA
aggregates links and achieves load sharing over
these links based on physical-layer bandwidths.

ERPS Supports ITU-T G.8032-compliant ring network


protection for Ethernet services.

Link state pass through (LPT) Supports simple LPT. When a radio link is faulty,
the related OptiX RTN 310 automatically disables
the remote Ethernet port that is connected to a UNI
device.

QoS Supports QoS. For details, see 2.7 QoS.

Traffic control Supports IEEE 802.3x-compliant traffic control.

ETH OAM l Supports IEEE 802.1ag- and IEEE 802.3ah-


compliant ETH OAM.
l Supports ITU-T Y.1731-compliant packet
loss measurement, delay measurement, and
delay variation measurement.

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Item Description

Ethernet performance monitoring l Supports IETF RFC 2819-compliant RMON


performance monitoring.
l Supports measurement of real-time and
historical traffic and bandwidth utilization for
ports.

Synchronous Ethernet Supported.

NOTE

l The OptiX RTN 310 supports a maximum of 64 E-Line services. The supported E-Line services fall into
the following types:
l Port-based E-Line services
l Port+VLAN-based E-Line services
l The OptiX RTN 310 supports only one E-LAN service. The supported E-LAN services fall into the following
types:
l IEEE 802.1d bridge-based E-LAN services
l IEEE 802.1q bridge-based E-LAN services

2.7 QoS
The OptiX RTN 310 supports quality of service (QoS), including simple traffic classification,
queue scheduling, and traffic shaping.

QoS Processing Flow


QoS minimizes network delay and delay variations by properly allocating and monitoring
network resources, therefore guaranteeing quality of important services.
Figure 2-6 shows how the OptiX RTN 310 performs QoS processing for Ethernet services.

Figure 2-6 QoS processing


Packet
switching
Ingress Egress

Congestion Queue traffic


Queue scheduling
avoidance shaping
Buffer queue
Threshold
Simple Traffic
...... ...... ...... ......

classification
DiffServ
Port traffic
Forwarding
shaping
...

PIR
Mapping

Scheduling Token
bucket
...... ......

...

CoS x
Drop
...... ......
...

CoS z

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Product Description 2 Functions and Features

QoS Features

Table 2-2 QoS features

Feature Performance

Simple traffic classification (DiffServ) l Supports one DiffServ (DS) domain.


l Maps Ethernet services into different per-hop
behaviors (PHBs) based on the C-VLAN
priority, IP DiffServ code point (DSCP), and
MPLS experimental bits (EXP).

Congestion avoidance l Ethernet ports support tail drop.


l Microwave ports support tail drop and
weighted random early detection (WRED).

Queue scheduling l Each Ethernet port or microwave port supports


eight levels of priority scheduling.
l Flexibly sets the queue-scheduling scheme for
each Ethernet port and microwave port. The
queue scheduling modes include SP, SP
+WRR, and WRR.

Traffic shaping l Supports traffic shaping for outgoing queues


and egress ports.
l Supports setting of peak information rate
(PIR) in a step of 64 kbit/s and peak burst size
(PBS).

2.8 Clock Features


The clock features of the OptiX RTN 310 satisfy clock transmission requirements of mobile
communications networks and provide a complete selection of clock protection mechanisms.

Item Description

Clock working mode l Tracing


l Free-run

Clock source l Radio link clock


l Synchronous Ethernet clock

SSM protocol/Extended SSM protocol Supported. SSM information can be


transmitted in the following modes:
l Radio link
l Synchronous Ethernet

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Product Description 2 Functions and Features

Item Description

IEEE 1588v2 time synchronization Supports the following four modes:


l OC
l TC
l BC
l TC+BC

2.9 Protection Capabilities


The OptiX RTN 310 provides protection schemes for radio links and Ethernet networks.

Table 2-3 Protection schemes


Protected Object Protection Scheme

Radio link 1+1 hot standby (HSB), 1+1 frequency diversity (FD), or 1+1 space
diversity (SD), which provides radio link—level protection and NE-
level protection

Physical link aggregation (PLA), which provides radio link—level


protection and NE-level protection

Ethernet network Link aggregation group (LAG) for Ethernet links and radio links

Ethernet ring protection switching (ERPS) for Ethernet links and


radio links

2.10 Network Management


The OptiX RTN 310 supports multiple network management modes and provides
comprehensive management information exchange solutions.

Network Management Modes


The OptiX RTN 310 supports the following functions:
l Uses the iManager Web LCT to manage one local NE or one remote NE on a per-NE basis.
l Uses the iManager U2000 to manage Huawei OptiX RTN NEs and Huawei optical
transmission products in a centralized manner. The iManager U2000 is also able to manage
transport networks in a unified manner.
l Uses SNMP to query alarms, performance events, and some configuration data of OptiX
RTN 310s on IP networks.

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Product Description 2 Functions and Features

Network Management Information Exchange Solutions

Table 2-4 DCN information exchange schemes


Item Specifications

DCN channel Data Three Huawei-defined DCC bytes in microwave


communications frames
channel (DCC) D1 to D3 bytes transmitted on 1+1 cascade ports
bytes

NMS port One Ethernet network management port

Inband Radio All inband DCN channels are marked by one VLAN
DCN link ID. The bandwidth of each inband DCN channel is
configurable.

GE port All inband DCN channels are marked by one VLAN


ID. The bandwidth of each inband DCN channel is
configurable.

Network HWECC protocol Supported


management
protocol IP protocol Supported

2.11 Zero Footprint Installation


The OptiX RTN 310 supports zero footprint installation.
Being compact, light, and supporting power over Ethernet, the OptiX RTN 310 is a full outdoor
device that can be directly mounted onto a pole or the back of an antenna. That is, it supports
zero footprint installation.
The OptiX RTN 310 can be directly mounted on an antenna or connected to an antenna using
mounting components.

2.12 Configuration-Free Deployment


The OptiX RTN 310 can be quickly deployed and commissioned using a USB flash drive.
When deploying and commissioning an OptiX RTN 310 NE, you only need to insert a USB
flash drive storing the NE's configuration data into its USB port. The NE then automatically
imports data from the USB flash drive. That is, you do not need to configure data on site.

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 2 Functions and Features

Figure 2-7 Deployment process

Start

Perform network planning.


(network planners)

Obtain a blank USB flash drive.


(software commissioning personnel)

Copy data to the USB flash drive.


(software commissioning personnel)

Obtain the USB flash drive with data.


(hardware installation personnel)

Insert the USB flash drive.


(hardware installation personnel)

End

Table 2-5 Deployment procedures


Procedure Description

Performing Network planners provide network plans, which are archived in the
network planning network management center (NMC).

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 2 Functions and Features

Procedure Description

Obtaining a blank Software commissioning personnel obtain a blank USB flash drive,
USB flash drive which can be reused, from warehouses.

Copying data to Software commissioning personnel at the NMC need to make the
the USB flash following preparations:
drive l Convert network plan data into a script using a script generation tool,
and copy the script to the \script directory of the USB flash drive.
l Place the upgrade software on the USB flash drive if you need to
upgrade the NE during the deployment.
l Create an authentication file for the USB flash drive using the NMS,
and copy the file to the root directory of the USB flash drive.
Attach a label to the USB flash drive.

Obtaining the USB Hardware installation personnel obtain the USB flash drive with the
flash drive with the scripts from the customer' NMC. A USB flash drive contains the script
script for only one NE.

Inserting the USB After installing the OptiX RTN 310, hardware installation personnel
flash drive insert the mapping USB flash drive into the USB port. The NE then
automatically downloads data.

2.13 Easy Maintenance


The OptiX RTN 310 adopts easy-to-manage and easy-to-maintain architectures in hardware and
software design, and provides a variety of maintenance methods.

2.13.1 Equipment-level OAM


The OptiX RTN 310 provides a variety of operation, administration and maintenance (OAM)
functions that effectively reduce equipment maintenance costs.
Table 2-6 describes the OAM functions supported by the OptiX RTN 310.

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Product Description 2 Functions and Features

Table 2-6 Equipment-level OAM functions


Function Description

Management and l Supports unified management of microwave transmission


monitoring networks and optical transmission networks using the iManager
U2000, and end-to-end service creation and management.
l Reports a variety of alarms and performance events.
l Supports remote monitoring (RMON) of performance events.
l Measures real-time and historical traffic and bandwidth utilization
for ports.
l Measures congestion-caused packet loss information for flows.
l Queries equipment temperatures.
l Monitors key radio transmission performance counters, such as
the microwave transmit power, received power, signal-to-noise
ratio (SNR), and air-interface bit error rate (BER), and displays
them graphically.
l Supports frequency scanning to help identify co-channel
interference and adjacent-channel interference.
l Collects one-click fault diagnosis information.
l Supports the connection of the Web LCT to the equipment's
gigabit Ethernet (GE) port using a GE service cable or to the NMS
port on a power injector (PI), eliminating the need to climb up the
tower during equipment commissioning or maintenance.
l Supports connectivity tests for P&E cables using the iManager
U2000.

Diagnosis tests l Supports pseudo random binary sequence (PRBS) tests at


microwave ports.
l Simulates Ethernet meters to test the packet loss ratio, delay, and
throughput.
l Supports various loopback types at service ports and microwave
ports.

Packet OAM l Supports IEEE 802.1ag- and IEEE 802.3ah-compliant ETH OAM
functions.
l Supports ITU-T Y.1731-compliant packet loss measurement,
delay measurement, and delay variation measurement.
l Supports loopback tests for Ethernet services.

Database l Backs up and restores network element (NE) databases remotely


management using the iManager U2000.
l Backs up and loads NE data using universal serial bus (USB) flash
drives.

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Product Description 2 Functions and Features

Function Description

Software l Supports remote loading of NE software and data using the


management iManager U2000 and provides a complete NE upgrade solution,
allowing rapid upgrades of the entire network.
l Upgrades NE software using USB flash drives.
l Supports the not-stop forwarding (NSF) function, which prevents
Ethernet services from being interrupted by warm NE software
resets.
l Supports hot patches so that users can upgrade software without
interrupting services.
l Supports software version rollback so that original system services
are restored despite software upgrade failures.

2.13.2 Packet OAM (TP-Assist)


The OptiX RTN 310 works with the iManager U2000 to allow hierarchy operation,
administration and maintenance (OAM) of packet services. Packet OAM supports end-to-end
packet service configuration, acceptance tests, and fault locating, which simplifies packet OAM.
Table 2-7 describes the packet OAM functions supported by the OptiX RTN 310.

Table 2-7 Packet OAM functions (TP-Assist)


OAM Stage Function Description

End-to-end End-to-end packet l Supports end-to-end configuration of Native


service service Ethernet line (E-Line) and Ethernet local area
configuration configuration network (E-LAN) services.

Automatic l Automatically configures end-to-end ETH


deployment of OAM during Native Ethernet service
alarm configuration and supports connectivity tests
management and alarm reporting.

Acceptance test Service l Supports one-click connectivity tests for Native


connectivity test E-Line and E-LAN services.

Service l Supports one-click tests on the packet loss ratio,


performance test delay, and delay variation of Native E-Line and
E-LAN services.
l Simulates Ethernet meters to test the packet loss
ratio, delay, and throughput.

Fault locating Port monitoring l Reports alarms indicating Ethernet signal loss.
l Reports alarms indicating Ethernet port auto-
negotiation failures (half-duplex alarms).

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OAM Stage Function Description

Service loop l Checks E-Line service loops.


check l Automatically disables service ports involved
in a loop.

Intelligent fault l Checks the consistency of hardware, software,


diagnosis and configurations along a service path.
l Checks for zero traffic and congestion-caused
packet loss along a service path.

Performance l Measures real-time and historical performance


measurement for ports.

Performance l Reports port bandwidth utilization threshold-


monitoring crossing alarms.
l Reports zero-traffic alarms for ports.
l Reports traffic threshold-crossing alarms for
ports.

2.14 Security Management


The OptiX RTN 310 works with its network management system (NMS) to prevent unauthorized
logins and operations, ensuring equipment management security.

Overview of Hardware Security


The following hardware preventive measures are provided by the OptiX RTN 310:

l Microwave interfaces: The FEC encoding mode is adopted and the adaptive time-domain
equalizer for baseband signals is used. This enables the microwave interfaces to tolerate
strong interference. Therefore, an interceptor cannot restore the contents in a data frame if
coding details and service configurations are not obtained.
l Modular design: Control units are separated from service units and service units are
separated from each other. In this manner, a fault on any unit can be properly isolated,
minimizing the impact of the fault on other units in the system.
l CPU flow control: Data flow sent to the CPU for processing is classified and controlled to
prevent the CPU from being attacked by a large number of packets. This ensures that the
CPU operates properly under attacks.
l USB port control: The USB port is disabled when the USB port is not used, to avoid invalid
access.

Overview of Software Security


Being posit ioned at the transport layer of a communications network, the OptiX RTN 310
provides high-capacity and high-reliability transparent transmission tunnels, and is almost
invisible to end users. Therefore, the transmission tunnels are not easily exposed to external
attacks.

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Product Description 2 Functions and Features

The OptiX RTN 310 processes two categories of data: O&M data and service data. The preceding
data is transmitted over independent paths and does not affect each other. Therefore, services
on the OptiX RTN 310 are processed on two planes:
l Management plane
l Data plane
The management plane provides access to the required equipment and management functions,
such as managing accounts and passwords, communication protocols, and alarm
reporting.Security features on the management plane implement security access, integrated
security management, and all-round security audits. The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) features
provide security access to the required equipment. The Remote Authentication Dial-In User
Service (RADIUS) feature implements centralized security authentication for the equipment on
the entire network. The Syslog feature implements offline storage of more security-related logs
for audits.
The data plane processes the service data flow entering the equipment and forwards service
packets according to the forwarding table. Security features on the data plane ensure
confidentiality and integrat ion of user data by preventing malicious theft, modification, and
removal of user service packets. They ensure stable and reliable operation of the forwarding
plane by protecting forwarding entries against malicious attacks and falsification. The data plane
provides:
l User service separation methods
l Access control methods
l Methods for controlling and managing ingress and egress bandwidth of the equipment to
ensure reliable operation, such as flow control and QoS.
Table 2-8 lists the security functions provided by the OptiX RTN 310.

Table 2-8 Security functions


Plane Function Description

Management plane Account and password Manages and stores


management maintenance accounts.

Local authentication and Authenticates and authorizes


authorization accounts.

RADIUS authentication and Authenticates and authorizes


authorization remote accounts in a
centralized manner to reduce
maintenance costs.

Security log Records events related to


account management.

Operation log Records non-query


operations are recorded.

Syslog management Provides a standard solution


for offline storage of logs.

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Plane Function Description

TCP/IP attack defense Provides defense against


TCP/IP attacks, such as IP
error packets, Internet
Control Message Protocol
(ICMP) ping attacks and Jolt
attacks, and Dos attacks.

Access control list Provides access control lists


based on IP addresses and
port IDs.

SSL/TLS encryption Uses the SSL3.0 and TLS1.0


communication protocols to establish an
encryption channel based on
a security certificate.

Secure File Transfer Protocol Provides SFTP services.


(SFTP)

Open Shortest Path First Uses the OSPFv2 protocol


(OSPF) for standard MD5
authentication.

Network Time Protocol Uses the NTPv3 protocol for


(NTP) MD5 authentication and
permission control.

Simple Network Uses the SNMPv3 protocol


Management Protocol for authentication and data
(SNMP) encryption.

Data plane Flow control Controls traffic at ports.


Broadcast packets are
suppressed. Unknown
unicast packets and multicast
packets are discarded. QoS is
used to limit the service
traffic.

Discarding of incorrect Discards incorrect packets,


packets such as an Ethernet packet
shorter than 64 bytes.

Loop prevention Detects self-loops at service


ports and blocks self-looped
ports.

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Product Description 2 Functions and Features

Plane Function Description

Access control of Layer 2 Filters static MAC addresses


services in the static MAC address
table, provides a blacklist,
enables and disables the
MAC address learning
function, and filters packets
based on traffic
classification.

Service separation Includes Layer 2 logical


separation, split horizon, and
physical path separation.

2.15 Energy Saving


The OptiX RTN 310 uses various types of technologies to reduce the amount of energy that the
device consumes, as follows:
l Streamlined design with minimum components.
l High-efficiency power modules.
l Low-power components.

2.16 Environmental Protection


The OptiX RTN 310 is designed to meet or exceed environmental protection requirements. The
product complies with restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS) and waste from electrical and
electronic equipment (WEEE) directives.
l The OptiX RTN 310 complies with compulsory packing restrictions that limit the size of
the package containing the equipment and accessories to three times that of the equipment
dimensions.
l The product is designed for easy unpacking. In addition, all hazardous substances contained
in the package decompose quickly.
l Every plastic component that weighs over 25 g is labeled according to the standards of ISO
11469 and ISO 1043-1 to ISO 1043-4. All components and packages of the equipment are
provided with standard labels for recycling.
l Plugs and connectors are easy to find and the associated operations can be performed using
standard tools.
l All the accompanying materials (such as labels) are easy to remove. Certain types of
identifying information (such as silkscreens) are printed on chassis.

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Product Description 3 Product Structure

3 Product Structure

About This Chapter

This chapter describes the system architecture, service signal processing flow, external ports,
and indicator status explanation.

3.1 System Architecture


The OptiX RTN 310 has one physical board, which is displayed as SHXA2 on the NMS and
occupies logical slot 1.
3.2 Service Signal Processing Flow
This section describes how the function units of the OptiX RTN 310 process GE signals.
3.3 Ports and Indicators
The OptiX RTN 310 has most of its ports and indicators on one side for easy cabling and
observation.
3.4 Labels
Product nameplate labels, qualification card labels, electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection
labels, radiation warning labels, grounding labels, laser safety class labels, high temperature
warning labels, and other types of labels are affixed in their respective positions on chassis.
Adhere to any warnings and instructions on the labels when performing various tasks to avoid
any personal injury or damage to equipment.

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 3 Product Structure

3.1 System Architecture


The OptiX RTN 310 has one physical board, which is displayed as SHXA2 on the NMS and
occupies logical slot 1.

Physically, the SHXA2 board is divided into multiple function units based on logical functions.

Block Diagram

Figure 3-1 Block diagram

OptiX RTN 310

SHXA2
HSM signal XPIC signal
Power Supplies power
-48 V
unit to other units
NMS signal
PI P&E signal Baseband processing unit Antenna
-48 V
Ethernet Ethernet MUX Modem RF
FE/GE signal
access switching unit unit processing
GE signal unit unit unit

Control signal

NMS signal Supplies


Clock Clock unit clock signals
signal to other units

NMS port
SCC unit
USB port

RSSI test level signal


RSSI port

Function Units
Function Unit Description

Ethernet access unit l Receives/Transmits Ethernet service


signals.
l Converts serial Ethernet signals into
parallel Ethernet signals.
l Performs frame delimitation, preamble
stripping, and cyclic redundancy checks
(CRCs).
l Transmits power signals received from
the P&E port to the power unit.

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Product Description 3 Product Structure

Function Unit Description

Ethernet switching unit l Processes VLAN tags in Ethernet service


signals.
l Performs quality of service (QoS)
processing for Ethernet frames.
l Grooms services and processes protocols.

Baseband processing unit l The MUX unit maps/demaps service


signals to/from microwave frame signals.
l The MUX unit extracts overhead bytes
from microwave frames and transmits the
overhead bytes to the SCC unit.
l If a frequency diversity (FD) or space
diversity (SD) protection group is
configured, the MUX unit of the standby
NE sends hitless switch mode (HSM)
service signals to the MUX unit of the
main NE using the 1+1 cascade cable. The
MUX unit of the main NE selects signals
with better quality.
l The modem unit modulates and
demodulates digital signals.
l If an XPIC group is configured, the
modem unit performs cross polarization
interference cancellation (XPIC) for IF
signals.
l The modem unit performs forward error
correction (FEC).
l The baseband processing unit performs
conversion between analog and digital
signals.

RF processing unit l Performs frequency conversion and


power amplification, and sends RF signals
to antennas in the transmit direction.
l Performs isolation, filtering, down-
conversion, and power amplification for
RF signals, and converts RF signals into
140 MHz IF signals in the receive
direction.

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Product Description 3 Product Structure

Function Unit Description

SCC unit l Controls and manages other units, and


collects alarms and performance events
over the control bus.
l Processes network management messages
in data communications channels (DCCs).
l Reads data from a USB flash drive
through its USB port for simple initial
configuration, data backup, or software
upgrade.
l If a 1+1 protection group is configured,
the SCC units of the main and standby
NEs exchange data communication
network (DCN) information and 1+1
protection protocol information through
the 1+1 cascade ports.

Clock unit l Extracts clock signals and provides them


to other units.
l Receives and processes IEEE 1588v2
protocol messages for time
synchronization.
l If a 1+1 protection group is configured,
the standby NE synchronizes its clock
with that of the main NE through the 1+1
cascade ports.

Power unit l Receives -48 V DC power signals.


l Provides power signals to other units.

3.2 Service Signal Processing Flow


This section describes how the function units of the OptiX RTN 310 process GE signals.

Figure 3-2 Signal processing flow


OptiX RTN 310

Service Service Baseband processing unit Modulated RF


FE/GE Ethernet bus Ethernet bus signal RF signal
MUX Modem
service access switching processing
unit unit
signal unit unit unit

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Product Description 3 Product Structure

Table 3-1 Signal processing in the transmit direction


St Function Unit Processing Flow
ep

1 Ethernet access unit l Receives/Transmits Ethernet service signals.


l Extracts Ethernet frames from FE/GE service signals.

2 Ethernet switching l Performs Layer 2 protocol processing and QoS processing


unit for the Ethernet frames.
l Transmits processed FE/GE service signals to the
baseband processing unit.

3 Baseband processing l Receives FE/GE service signals from the Ethernet


unit switching unit.
l Turns FE/GE service signals and microwave frame
overheads into microwave frames.
l Performs forward error correction (FEC) coding.
l Selects a proper modulation scheme based on the current
channel quality.
l Performs modulation and digital/analog conversion.
l Transmits modulated signals to the RF processing unit.

4 RF processing unit l Performs up-conversion and power amplification to


convert the modulated signals into RF signals.
l Transmits the RF signals to the antenna through a flexible
waveguide.

Table 3-2 Signal processing in the receive direction


St Function Unit Processing Flow
ep

1 RF processing unit l Isolates and filters RF signals.


l Performs down-conversion and power amplification to
convert the RF signals into 140 MHz modulated signals.
l Transmits the modulated signals to the baseband
processing unit.

2 Baseband processing l Receives modulated signals from the RF processing unit.


unit l Performs analog/digital conversion.
l Demodulates signals.
l Performs FEC decoding.
l Extracts overhead signals and Ethernet frames from
microwave frames.
l Transmits the Ethernet frames to the Ethernet switching
unit.

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Product Description 3 Product Structure

St Function Unit Processing Flow


ep

3 Ethernet switching l Receives Ethernet frames from the baseband processing


unit unit.
l Processes the Ethernet frames based on service
configurations and Layer 2 protocols.
l Transmits the Ethernet frames to the Ethernet access unit.

4 Ethernet access unit Performs parallel/serial conversion and transmits the Ethernet
signals.

3.3 Ports and Indicators


The OptiX RTN 310 has most of its ports and indicators on one side for easy cabling and
observation.

3.3.1 Ports
The OptiX RTN 310 has one GE port, one COMBO port, one P&E port, one USB port, RSSI/
NMS port, and one antenna port.

Port Positions

Figure 3-3 Port positions

6. PGND
ground point

1. GE port 2. COMBO port 3. P&E port 4. PWR port 5. USB/RSSI/NMS port 7. Antenna port

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Product Description 3 Product Structure

Table 3-3 Ports


No. Port Description Connector Type Cable

1 GE GE optical port Small form-factor 8.8 Optical


pluggable (SFP) Fibers
optical module:
supports
1000BASE-SX,
and 1000BASE-
LX.

2 COMBO Composite port that can function as either of SFP module l XPIC port:
the following ports through software setting: l SFP electrical 8.6 XPIC
l XPIC port module Cables
l GE optical port (provided by l GE optical
an XPIC cable) port/1+1
l 1+1 cascade port for an XPIC cascade
port port: 8.8
l SFP optical Optical
module for a Fibers
GE optical port
l SFP optical
module for a 1
+1 cascade
port

3 P&E Power over Ethernet port, which can P&E connector 8.3 P&E
concurrently receive GE electrical signals, Cables
-48 V power signals, and NMS signals
NOTE
You can select either the P&E port or the COMBO
port to receive/transmit Ethernet services by
setting software, because the COMBO port
functioning as a GE optical port and the GE
electrical sub-port of the P&E port share one
service channel.

4 PWR -48 V DC power port Waterproof power 8.1 OptiX RTN


connector 310 Power
Cables

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Product Description 3 Product Structure

No. Port Description Connector Type Cable

5 USB/RSSI/ There are three ports: USB port, RSSI port, USB port: USB -
NMS and NMS port. connector
l USB port: You can insert a USB flash RSSI port/NMS
drive into the USB port to import initial port: RJ45
configuration data, to back up NE data, or connector
to upgrade software.
l RSSI port: You can obtain the received
signal level (RSL) of an OptiX RTN 310
by testing the voltage at the RSSI port
using a multimeter.
l NMS port: The NMS port transmits
network management signals, sharing an
RJ45 connector with the RSSI port but
using different pins from the RSSI port.

6 PGND point - M5 screw 8.4 OptiX RTN


310 PGND
Cables

7 Antenna port l An antenna port connects to an antenna, a l 153IEC-R120, -


hybrid coupler, or a flexible waveguide. which can be
l The OptiX RTN 310 allows the connected to a
polarization direction to change PBR120 (for
automatically. Earlier versions allow the use at the
polarization direction to be changed by frequency
rotating the vertical/horizontal polarizer. band 13 GHz)
l 153IEC-R140,
which can be
connected to a
PBR140 (for
use at the
frequency
band 15 GHz)
l 153IEC-R220,
which can be
connected to a
PBR220 (for
use at the
frequency
band 18 GHz
or 23 GHz)
l 154IEC-R320,
which can be
connected to a
PBR320 (for
use at the
frequency
band 38 GHz)

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Product Description 3 Product Structure

NOTE

l On the NMS, the Ethernet service port that the P&E and COMBO ports share is displayed as GE1, and
the GE optical port is displayed as GE2.
l Unused ports must be capped.

GE Optical Port
A GE optical port receives/transmits Ethernet services using an SFP optical module.

An SFP optical module provides one TX port and one RX port. For details, see Figure 3-4, in
which TX represents the transmit port and RX represents the receive port.

Figure 3-4 Ports of an SFP optical module

TX RX

Table 3-4 lists the types of SFP optical modules that the GE optical port supports.

Table 3-4 SFP optical modules supported by the GE optical port

Part Number Module Type Wavelength and


Transmission Distance

34060321 1000BASE-SX 850 nm, 0.5 km

34060290 1000BASE-LX 1310 nm, 10 km

COMBO Port
A COMBO port is a composite port and can be configured as a GE optical port, a 1+1 cascade
port or an XPIC port.

l If a COMBO port is configured as a GE optical port, it supports the same types of SFP
optical modules as the GE optical port, and the P&E port cannot receive Ethernet
services.
l If a COMBO port is configured as a 1+1 cascade port, it uses a 1000BASE-SX optical
module. Two OptiX RTN 310s can be configured as a 1+1 protection group by connecting
their 1+1 cascade ports.
l If the COMBO port is configured as an XPIC port, two OptiX RTN 310s can be added into
an XPIC workgroup after they are connected using an XPIC cable.

P&E Port
A P&E port is a power-over-Ethernet port and can simultaneously receive GE electrical signals,
-48 V power signals, and NMS signals. It is either connected to a PI or an EG4P board on an
OptiX RTN 900.

A P&E port has 12 pins, as shown in Figure 3-5.

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Product Description 3 Product Structure

Figure 3-5 Front view of the P&E port

Table 3-5 Pin assignments for the P&E port


Pin No. Signal Function

1 BIDA+/BGND Bidirectional data wire A (+)/


Power ground (0 V)

2 BIDA-/BGND Bidirectional data wire A (-)/


Power ground (0 V)

3 BIDB+/-48 V Bidirectional data wire B (+)/


Power signal (-48 V)

4 BIDB-/-48 V Bidirectional data wire B (-)/


Power signal (-48 V)

5 BIDC+/BGND Bidirectional data wire C (+)/


Power ground (0 V)

6 BIDC-/BGND Bidirectional data wire C (-)/


Power ground (0 V)

7 BIDD+/-48 V Bidirectional data wire D (+)/


Power signal (-48 V)

8 BIDD-/-48 V Bidirectional data wire D (-)/


Power signal (-48 V)

9 TX+ Signal output (+)

10 TX- Signal output (-)

11 RX+ Signal input (+)

12 RX- Signal input (-)

PWR Port
A PWR port supplies -48 V power signals to the OptiX RTN 310 and must be used if the OptiX
RTN 310 is more than 100 meters away from a power supply device.

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Product Description 3 Product Structure

Figure 3-6 Front view of the PWR port

USB/RSSI/NMS Ports
The USB and RSSI/NMS ports are independent from each other but share one protective cap.
For details, see Figure 3-7.

Figure 3-7 Front view of the USB/RSSI/NMS ports

USB port RSSI/NMS port

The RSSI port shares an RJ45 connector with the NMS port, with pin assignments provided in
Table 3-6.

Table 3-6 Pin assignments for the RJ45 connector on the RSSI/NMS port
Pin No. Signal

1 Signal output (+)

2 signal output (-)

3 Signal input (+)

4 Ground

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 3 Product Structure

Pin No. Signal

5 Reserved

6 Signal input (-)

7 RSSI test level signal

8 Reserved

NOTE
The NMS port inside the P&E port and the NMS port inside the RSSI/NMS port physically share the same
port, so use only the P&E port or the RSSI/NMS port as an NMS port at one time. The RSSI/NMS port is
used as an NMS port only when no 12–core P&E cable is available to connect the equipment to the NMS
for service commissioning or maintenance.

3.3.2 Indicators
The OptiX RTN 310 has one GE optical port indicator, one USB port indicator, and one system
indicator.

The indicators are on the inner sides of ports, and indicate the operating status of equipment
during the installation, commissioning, and maintenance processes.

Figure 3-8 Indicator positions


GE optical port indicator COMBO port indicator USB port indicator System indicator

Table 3-7 Status explanation for indicators

Indicator Status Meaning

GE optical port indicator On (green) The GE optical port


is connected
correctly, but is not
receiving or
transmitting data.

Blinks (green) The GE optical port


is receiving or
transmitting data.

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 3 Product Structure

Indicator Status Meaning

Off The GE optical port


is not connected or is
incorrectly
connected.

COMBO port GE optical port On (green) The GE optical port


indicator is connected
NOTE correctly, but is not
The status and receiving or
meaning of the transmitting data.
COMBO port varies
according to its Blinks (green) The GE optical port
function. is receiving or
transmitting data.

Off The GE optical port


is not connected or is
incorrectly
connected.

1+1 cascade port On (green) The 1+1 cascade port


is connected
correctly.

Other ports Off –

USB port indicator On (green) Backing up or


recovering data is
complete.

Blinks on (green) and Data is being backed


off at 300 ms up or recovered.
intervals

On (red) l The USB flash


drive is faulty, or
the NE does not
support the USB
flash drive.
l Backing up or
recovering data
has failed.

Off No USB flash drive


is connected to the
USB port.

System indicator Blinks on (green) and Software is being


off at 100 ms loaded during the
intervals power-on or resetting
process of the
equipment.

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Product Description 3 Product Structure

Indicator Status Meaning

Blinks on (green) and Software is in the


off at 300 ms BIOS boot state
intervals during the power-on
or resetting process
of the equipment.

On (green) l The upper-layer


software is being
initialized during
the power-on or
resetting process
of the equipment.
l Software is
running normally
during the
operating process
of the equipment.

On (red) l The memory self-


check has failed
or loading the
upper-layer
software has
failed during the
power-on or
resetting process
of the equipment.
l The logic file or
upper-layer
software has been
lost during the
operating process
of the equipment.

NOTE
After you load script data to the OptiX RTN 310 using a USB flash drive, the OptiX RTN 310 automatically
resets. All the indicates are off during the reset. After the reset is complete, observe the system indicator
to learn about the status of the OptiX RTN 310.

3.4 Labels
Product nameplate labels, qualification card labels, electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection
labels, radiation warning labels, grounding labels, laser safety class labels, high temperature
warning labels, and other types of labels are affixed in their respective positions on chassis.
Adhere to any warnings and instructions on the labels when performing various tasks to avoid
any personal injury or damage to equipment.

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Product Description 3 Product Structure

Label Positions

Figure 3-9 Label positions


Product nameplate label

Bar code

MAC address label

ESD protection label


ESD
Radiation warning label

High temperature
warning label

Grounding label

Label Description

Table 3-8 Label description


Label Label Name Description

Product nameplate Indicates the


label product name
and certification.

Bar code Uniquely


identifies a
chassis.

MAC address Indicates the


label equipment's
MAC address.

ESD protection Indicates that the


label equipment is
sensitive to static
electricity.

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Product Description 3 Product Structure

Label Label Name Description

Radiation warning Indicates that the


label equipment
generates
electromagnetic
radiation.

High temperature Indicates that the


warning label equipment
surface
temperature may
exceed 70°C
when the
ambient
temperature is
higher than 55°
C. Wear
protective
gloves to handle
the equipment.

Grounding label Indicates the


grounding
position of a
chassis.

Product Nameplate Label

Figure 3-10 Product nameplate label

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 3 Product Structure

Table 3-9 Description of the product nameplate label


Label Information Content Example Parameter Parameter
Meaning

Product name Frequency band OptiX RTN 310s can


operate at the
following frequency
bands:
l 13 GHz
l 15 GHz
l 18 GHz
l 23 GHz
l 38 GHz

ITEM - Identifies a product


type.

T/R SPACING - Indicates a T/R


spacing (MHz).

SUB BAND - Indicates a sub-band,


which is expressed in
letters.

TX 1: Tx high/low site l Hi: Tx high site


1 2
l Lo: Tx low site

2: Tx frequency Indicates a Tx
range frequency range
(MHz).

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 4 Networking and Applications

4 Networking and Applications

About This Chapter

OptiX RTN 310s can independently form chain or ring networks at the tails of mobile backhaul
networks, or work with OptiX RTN 900s at convergence links.

4.1 Independent Networking


OptiX RTN 310s can independently form chain or ring networks.
4.2 Networking with OptiX RTN 900s
OptiX RTN 310s can work with OptiX RTN 900s, which increases the service convergence
capabilities of nodal NEs.

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 4 Networking and Applications

4.1 Independent Networking


OptiX RTN 310s can independently form chain or ring networks.

4.1.1 Chain Networks


The OptiX RTN 310 supports point-to-point networks. Chain, tree, or star networks can be built
by cascading NEs.
Figure 4-1 shows a chain network solution. In this solution:
l Medium-/Small-capacity radio links use 1+0 configuration.
l Large-capacity radio links use cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) or 2+0
configuration, so two OptiX RTN 310s must be installed at one site.
l Large-capacity radio links generally use both XPIC and physical link aggregation (PLA)
configurations to improve bandwidths and reliability for Ethernet channels.

Figure 4-1 Chain network solution


2+0
NodeB 0 FE/GE

GE

XPIC
NodeB 1 FE/GE

GE XPIC cable XPIC cable GE


RNC

Regional Backhaul Network

1+0
1+0
FE/GE GE
NodeB 2

FE/GE

NodeB 3

OptiX RTN 310

4.1.2 Ring Networks


The OptiX RTN 310 supports and provides protection for ring networks. In addition, ring
networks and chain networks can be combined to form ring with chain networks.
Figure 4-2 shows a ring network solution. In this solution:

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 4 Networking and Applications

l Ethernet ring protection switching (ERPS) can be configured to protect Ethernet services
on the ring network.
l Two OptiX RTN 310s must be installed at one site.

Figure 4-2 Ring network solution

NodeB 1

FE/GE

GE

RNC

Regional Backhaul Network

GE
GE

FE/GE

NodeB 2
OptiX RTN 310

4.2 Networking with OptiX RTN 900s


OptiX RTN 310s can work with OptiX RTN 900s, which increases the service convergence
capabilities of nodal NEs.
Figure 4-3 shows a network that combines OptiX RTN 310s and OptiX RTN 900s.
l OptiX RTN 310s can work with OptiX RTN 900s , increasing the service convergence
capabilities of nodal NEs
l Large-capacity radio links can use cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) or
2+0 configuration.
l Large-capacity radio links generally use both XPIC and physical link aggregation (PLA)
configurations to improve bandwidths and reliability for Ethernet channels.
l For important links, OptiX RTN 310 can work with OptiX RTN 900 to provide 1+1 link
protection.
l If packet networks need to backhaul a small number of E1 services from base stations,
OptiX RTN 310s can work with OptiX RTN 910s to transparently transmit circuit
emulation services (CESs), improving compatibility of legacy radio transmission networks.
l P&E ports of OptiX RTN 310s can be connected to EG4P boards so OptiX RTN 310s can
form networks with OptiX RTN 900s.

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 4 Networking and Applications

Figure 4-3 Hybrid network solution


XPIC
NodeB FE/GE

XPIC XPIC
GE GE
cable cable

NodeB FE/GE

CES E1
E1
BTS
BSC

Regional network
1+1

1+1 1+1
cascading cascading
cable cable RNC
NodeB

OptiX RTN 310 OptiX RTN 900

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 5 Network Management System

5 Network Management System

About This Chapter

This chapter describes the network management solution and the network management system
(NMS) software that constitutes this solution.

5.1 Network Management Solutions


Huawei provides complete transport network management solutions that satisfy
telecommunications management network (TMN) requirements of various function domains
and customer groups on telecommunications networks.
5.2 Web LCT
The Web LCT provides the following management functions at the NE layer: NE management,
alarm management, performance management, configuration management, communication
management, security management, and hop management.
5.3 U2000
The U2000 is a network-level network management system. A user can access the U2000 server
through a U2000 client to manage Huawei transport subnets in a unified manner. The U2000
can provide NE-level and network-level management functions.

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Product Description 5 Network Management System

5.1 Network Management Solutions


Huawei provides complete transport network management solutions that satisfy
telecommunications management network (TMN) requirements of various function domains
and customer groups on telecommunications networks.
The network management solution consists of the following:
l OptiX iManager U2000 Web LCT local maintenance terminal
The Web LCT, a web-based local maintenance terminal, manages local and remote NEs
on a per-NE/hop basis.
l OptiX iManager U2000 unified network management system
The iManager U2000 manages Huawei transport equipment, such as the OptiX RTN, PTN,
MSTP, and WDM equipment.

Figure 5-1 NM solutions for transport networks


iManager U2000

WAN/LAN

Backbone layer

Aggregation layer

Access layer

Web LCT Web LCT

5.2 Web LCT


The Web LCT provides the following management functions at the NE layer: NE management,
alarm management, performance management, configuration management, communication
management, security management, and hop management.

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Product Description 5 Network Management System

Function Overview

Table 5-1 Management functions of the Web LCT


Function Description

NE management l Searches for NEs.


l Adds/Deletes NEs.
l Logs in to or logs out of NEs.
l Starts up the NE Explorer.

Alarm management l Sets alarm monitoring strategies.


l Browses alarms.
l Deletes alarms.

Performance management l Sets performance monitoring strategies.


l Displays performance events.
l Resets performance registers.
l Graphically displays performance data.

Configuration management l Configures basic NE information.


l Configures radio links.
l Configures ports.
l Configures services.
l Configures clocks.

Software management Supports one-click importing of scripts.

Communication l Manages communication parameters.


management l Manages data communications channels (DCCs).
l Manages inband data communication networks (DCNs).
l Manages the HWECC protocol.
l Manages the IP protocol.
l Sends packets with a specified VLAN ID.

Security management l Manages NE users.


l Manages NE user groups.
l Controls local craft terminal (LCT) access.
l Manages online users.
l Manages NE security parameters.
l Manages NE security logs.
l Allows the file transmission protocol to be specified as
FTP or sFTP.

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Product Description 5 Network Management System

Function Description

Hop management l Parameters on both ends of a hop can be set on the same
interface.
l After the parameters on one end of a hop are set, the
settings are automatically duplicated on the other end.

5.3 U2000
The U2000 is a network-level network management system. A user can access the U2000 server
through a U2000 client to manage Huawei transport subnets in a unified manner. The U2000
can provide NE-level and network-level management functions.

Function Overview

Table 5-2 Management functions of the U2000


Function Module Description

NE management l Displays the NE panel.


l Provides a built-in NE manager to implement all-
around NE management.

Network Topology l Provides physical topologies.


management management l Manages service topologies in end-to-end mode.
l Provides clock views.
l Discovers topologies automatically.
l Allows customization of topology views.
l Backs up gateway configurations.

Network-level alarm l Monitors, counts, and manages network-wide


management alarms.
l Customizes alarm query templates.
l Analyzes alarm relevance.
l Manages alarm time locally.
l Supports alarm notification.
l Dumps alarms.

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 5 Network Management System

Function Module Description

Network-level l Creates performance-monitoring templates.


performance l Supports scheduled and real-time performance
management monitoring.
l Views historical performance.
l Graphically displays performance data.
l Compares performance based on time or
resources.
l Dumps historical performance data.

Network-level l Configures E-Line services in end-to-end mode.


configuration l Configures E-LAN services in end-to-end mode.
management

Network-level l Supports one-click testing of Ethernet service


diagnosing and connectivity.
testing l Supports one-click testing of Ethernet service
performance.
l Supports one-click intelligent diagnosis of
Ethernet service faults.

Network-level l Manages data communications channel (DCC)


communication views.
management l Manages Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
communication.
l Supports the access control list (ACL).

Network-level l Manages account policies.


security management l Manages user groups.
l Manages rights.
l Supports the Remote Authentication Dial-In User
Service (RADIUS).
l Supports SSLv3 encrypted communication
between the U2000 server and U2000 clients.
l Supports SSLv3 encrypted communication
between the U2000 server and gateway NEs.
l Allows IP packets accessing the NE to be filtered
based on the preset ACL rules.
l Supports Syslog management.
l Supports sFTP.

Inventory management l Supports inventory management of NEs and ports.


l Supports inventory management of fibers and
links.

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 5 Network Management System

Function Module Description

Log management l Manages U2000 operation logs, system logs, and


security logs.
l Manages NE security logs.

Database management l Backs up and restores NMS databases.


l Backs up and restores NE databases.
l Synchronizes NE data with NMS data.

Software management l Loads and upgrades software.


l Manages NE software databases.
l Saves, backs up, and restores NE databases.

Report management l Manages alarm reports, log reports, license


reports, or resource reports.
l Displays reports using the Internet Explorer.
l Exports reports.

Northbound interface l Provides SNMP, CORBA, and XML northbound


interfaces.
l Provides performance text interfaces.

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 6 Technical Specifications

6 Technical Specifications

About This Chapter

This chapter describes the technical specifications of the OptiX RTN 310.

6.1 RF Performance
This chapter describes the radio frequency (RF) performance and various technical
specifications related to microwaves.
6.2 Predicted Reliability
Predicted reliability includes predicted equipment reliability and predicted link reliability.
Reliability is measured by mean time between failures (MTBF), and predicated equipment
reliability complies with the Bellcore TR-332 standard.
6.3 Ethernet Interface Performance
Ethernet interface performance complies with IEEE 802.3.
6.4 Clock Timing and Synchronization Performance
The clock timing performance and synchronization performance of the product meet relevant
ITU-T recommendations.
6.5 Integrated System Performance
Integrated system performance includes the dimensions, weight, power consumption, power
supply, EMC, surge protection, safety, and environment.

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 6 Technical Specifications

6.1 RF Performance
This chapter describes the radio frequency (RF) performance and various technical
specifications related to microwaves.

6.1.1 Radio Working Modes


This section lists the radio working modes that the OptiX RTN 310 supports.

Table 6-1 Overview of radio working modes


Radio Type Channel Modulation Scheme Range
Spacing
XPIC Disabled XPIC Enabled

Packet radio 7 MHz QPSK Strong to QPSK Strong to


256QAM 128QAM

14 MHz QPSK Strong to QPSK Strong to


256QAM 256QAM

28 MHz QPSK Strong to QPSK Strong to


2048QAM (13 GHz, 15 1024QAM (13 GHz, 15
GHz, 18 GHz, and 23 GHz, 18 GHz, and 23
GHz) GHz)
QPSK Strong to QPSK Strong to
1024QAM Light (38 512QAM (38 GHz)
GHz)

56 MHz QPSK Strong to QPSK Strong to


2048QAM (13 GHz, 15 1024QAM Light (13
GHz, 18 GHz, and 23 GHz, 15 GHz, 18 GHz,
GHz) and 23 GHz)
QPSK Strong to QPSK Strong to
1024QAM Light (38 512QAM Light (38
GHz) GHz)
NOTE
Strong/Light modulation schemes and common modulation schemes differ in FEC encoding parameters.
The FEC capability of Strong modulation schemes is higher, resulting in improved receiver sensitivity and
reduced air interface bandwidth. For Light modulation schemes, the opposite is true.

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 6 Technical Specifications

Table 6-2 Radio working modes (XPIC disabled)


Channel Modulatio Native Ethernet Throughput (Mbit/s)
Spacing n Scheme
(MHz) Without With L2 With L2+L3 With L2+L3
Compressi Frame Frame Frame
on Header Header Header
Compressi Compressi Compressi
on on (IPv4) on (IPv6)

7 QPSK 8 to 10 8 to 13 8 to 19 8 to 24
Strong

QPSK 10 to 13 10 to 16 10 to 25 11 to 31

16QAM 17 to 22 17 to 26 17 to 41 18 to 51
Strong

16QAM 20 to 26 20 to 32 20 to 49 22 to 61

32QAM 25 to 32 25 to 39 25 to 60 26 to 75

64QAM 32 to 40 33 to 50 32 to 76 33 to 95

128QAM 37 to 48 38 to 59 37 to 90 39 to 112

256QAM 42 to 53 43 to 66 42 to 101 43 to 125

14 QPSK 18 to 22 18 to 27 18 to 42 18 to 51
Strong

QPSK 21 to 27 22 to 33 22 to 50 22 to 62

16QAM 36 to 44 36 to 55 36 to 85 36 to 104
Strong

16QAM 42 to 53 42 to 65 42 to 100 43 to 123

32QAM 52 to 66 53 to 81 53 to 125 53 to 154

64QAM 65 to 83 66 to 102 66 to 157 66 to 194

128QAM 77 to 98 78 to 120 78 to 186 78 to 229

256QAM 88 to 112 89 to 137 89 to 212 89 to 262

28 QPSK 37 to 46 37 to 57 37 to 87 37 to 107
Strong

QPSK 43 to 54 43 to 66 43 to 102 43 to 126

16QAM 74 to 93 74 to 114 74 to 176 74 to 218


Strong

16QAM 86 to 109 86 to 133 86 to 206 87 to 255

32QAM 109 to 139 110 to 170 110 to 263 110 to 325

64QAM 135 to 172 136 to 210 136 to 325 136 to 402

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 6 Technical Specifications

Channel Modulatio Native Ethernet Throughput (Mbit/s)


Spacing n Scheme
(MHz) Without With L2 With L2+L3 With L2+L3
Compressi Frame Frame Frame
on Header Header Header
Compressi Compressi Compressi
on on (IPv4) on (IPv6)

128QAM 159 to 203 160 to 249 160 to 384 161 to 475

256QAM 182 to 232 183 to 284 183 to 438 183 to 542

512QAM 195 to 249 196 to 304 196 to 470 197 to 581

512QAM 209 to 267 209 to 326 210 to 503 210 to 622


Light

1024QAM 216 to 276 217 to 337 217 to 520 220 to 644

1024QAM 227 to 289 227 to 354 228 to 546 230 to 676


Light

2048QAM 239 to 306 240 to 375 240 to 578 241 to 716

56 QPSK 74 to 93 74 to 114 74 to 176 74 to 218


Strong

QPSK 86 to 109 86 to 133 86 to 206 87 to 255

16QAM 148 to 188 148 to 230 148 to 355 148 to 440


Strong

16QAM 172 to 219 172 to 269 173 to 415 173 to 514

32QAM 216 to 275 216 to 337 216 to 519 217 to 643

64QAM 271 to 346 272 to 423 272 to 653 273 to 810

128QAM 321 to 409 321 to 500 322 to 773 323 to 957

256QAM 366 to 467 366 to 571 367 to 882 368 to 1000

512QAM 392 to 501 393 to 612 394 to 945 395 to 1000

512QAM 419 to 536 420 to 655 421 to 1000 422 to 1000


Light

1024QAM 443 to 567 444 to 692 445 to 1000 446 to 1000

1024QAM 472 to 606 478 to 745 479 to 1000 479 to 1000


Light

2048QAM 497 to 636 497 to 777 498 to 1000 499 to 1000

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System
Product Description 6 Technical Specifications

Table 6-3 Radio working modes (XPIC enabled)


Channel Modulatio Native Ethernet Throughput (Mbit/s)
Spacing n Scheme
(MHz) Without With L2 With L2+L3 With L2+L3
Compressi Frame Frame Frame
on Header Header Header
Compressi Compressi Compressi
on on (IPv4) on (IPv6)

7 QPSK 8 to 10 8 to 12 8 to 19 8 to 24
Strong

QPSK 10 to 12 10 to 15 10 to 24 10 to 30

16QAM 16 to 21 16 to 26 16 to 40 16 to 49
Strong

16QAM 19 to 25 20 to 31 20 to 48 20 to 59

32QAM 24 to 31 24 to 38 24 to 59 24 to 73

64QAM 31 to 39 31 to 48 31 to 74 31 to 92

128QAM 36 to 46 36 to 56 36 to 87 36 to 108

14 QPSK 16 to 21 16 to 26 16 to 40 16 to 49
Strong

QPSK 20 to 25 20 to 31 20 to 48 20 to 60

16QAM 34 to 43 34 to 53 34 to 82 34 to 101
Strong

16QAM 40 to 51 40 to 62 40 to 97 40 to 102

32QAM 50 to 64 50 to 78 50 to 121 50 to 149

64QAM 63 to 80 63 to 98 63 to 152 63 to 188

128QAM 74 to 95 74 to 116 74 to 180 75 to 223

256QAM 84 to 107 84 to 131 84 to 203 84 to 251

28 QPSK 37 to 46 37 to 57 37 to 87 37 to 107
Strong

QPSK 43 to 54 43 to 66 43 to 102 43 to 126

16QAM 74 to 93 74 to 114 74 to 176 87 to 255


Strong

16QAM 86 to 109 86 to 133 86 to 206 87 to 255

32QAM 109 to 139 110 to 170 110 to 263 110 to 325

64QAM 135 to 172 136 to 210 136 to 235 136 to 402

128QAM 159 to 203 160 to 249 160 to 384 161 to 475

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Product Description 6 Technical Specifications

Channel Modulatio Native Ethernet Throughput (Mbit/s)


Spacing n Scheme
(MHz) Without With L2 With L2+L3 With L2+L3
Compressi Frame Frame Frame
on Header Header Header
Compressi Compressi Compressi
on on (IPv4) on (IPv6)

256QAM 180 to 229 180 to 281 181 to 433 181 to 536

512QAM 186 to 238 187 to 291 188 to 450 188 to 557

512QAM 200 to 255 200 to 312 201 to 481 201 to 596


Light

1024QAM 212 to 272 213 to 333 213 to 513 214 to 636

56 QPSK 74 to 93 74 to 114 74 to 176 74 to 218


Strong

QPSK 86 to 109 86 to 133 86 to 206 87 to 255

16QAM 148 to 188 148 to 230 148 to 355 148 to 440


Strong

16QAM 172 to 219 172 to 269 173 to 415 173 to 514

32QAM 216 to 275 216 to 337 216 to 519 217 to 643

64QAM 271 to 346 272 to 423 272 to 653 273 to 810

128QAM 321 to 409 321 to 500 322 to 773 323 to 957

256QAM 362 to 462 362 to 565 363 to 871 364 to 1000

512QAM 376 to 480 376 to 586 377 to 905 378 to 1000

512QAM 401 to 513 402 to 627 403 to 1000 404 to 1000


Light

1024QAM 428 to 548 429 to 670 429 to 1000 431 to 1000

1024QAM 449 to 575 450 to 703 451 to 1000 452 to 1000


Light

NOTE

l The throughput specifications listed in the tables are based on the following conditions.
l Without compression: untagged Ethernet frames with a length ranging from 64 bytes to 9600 bytes
l With L2 frame header compression: untagged Ethernet frames with a length ranging from 64 bytes
to 9600 bytes
l With L2+L3 frame header compression (IPv4): tagged Ethernet frames with a length ranging from
64 bytes to 9600 bytes
l With L2+L3 frame header compression (IPv6): tagged Ethernet frames with a length ranging from
90 bytes to 9600 bytes

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Product Description 6 Technical Specifications

6.1.2 Frequency Band


The OptiX RTN 310 supports the 13 GHz, 15 GHz, 18 GHz, 23 GHz and 38 GHz frequency
bands.

Frequency Band

Table 6-4 Frequency Band

Frequency Band Frequency Range (GHz) T/R Spacing (MHz)

13GHz 12.751-13.248 266

15GHz 14.400-15.358 315/322, 420, 490, 644, 728

18GHz 17.685-19.710 1010/1008, 1092.5, 1560

23GHz 21.200-23.618 1008, 1200, 1232

38GHz 37.044-39.452 1260

Frequency Information

Table 6-5 Information about the 13 GHz frequency band

T/R Sub-Band Lower Sub-band TX Higher Sub-band TX


Spacing Frequency (MHz) Frequency (MHz)
(MHz)
Lower Upper Lower Upper
Limit Limit Limit Limit

266 A 12,751.00 12,870.00 13,017.00 13,136.00

266 B 12,863.00 12,982.00 13,129.00 13,248.00

Table 6-6 Information about the 15 GHz frequency band

T/R Sub-Band Lower Sub-band TX Higher Sub-band TX


Spacing Frequency (MHz) Frequency (MHz)
(MHz)
Lower Upper Lower Upper
Limit Limit Limit Limit

315/322 A 14,627.00 14,746.00 14,942.00 15,061.00

315/322 B 14,725.00 14,844.00 15,040.00 15,159.00

315/322 C 14,823.00 14,942.00 15,138.00 15,257.00

420 A 14,501.00 14,725.00 14,921.00 15,145.00

420 B 14,718.00 14,928.00 15,138.00 15,348.00

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T/R Sub-Band Lower Sub-band TX Higher Sub-band TX


Spacing Frequency (MHz) Frequency (MHz)
(MHz)
Lower Upper Lower Upper
Limit Limit Limit Limit

490 A 14,403.00 14,634.00 14,893.00 15,124.00

490 B 14,627.00 14,858.00 15,117.00 15,348.00

644 A 14,400.00 14,708.00 15,044.00 15,352.00

728 A 14,500.00 14,625.00 15,228.00 15,353.00

Table 6-7 Information about the 18 GHz frequency band

T/R Sub-Band Lower Sub-band TX Higher Sub-band TX


Spacing Frequency (MHz) Frequency (MHz)
(MHz)
Lower Upper Lower Upper
Limit Limit Limit Limit

1010/1008 A 17,685.00 18,230.00 18,695.00 19,240.00

1010/1008 B 18,180.00 18,700.00 19,190.00 19,710.00

1560 C 17,700.00 18,140.00 19,260.00 19,700.00

1092.5 A 17,712.50 18,060.00 18,805.00 19,152.50

1092.5 B 17,987.50 18,595.00 19,080.00 19,687.50

Table 6-8 Information about the 23 GHz frequency band

T/R Sub-Band Lower Sub-band TX Higher Sub-band TX


Spacing Frequency (MHz) Frequency (MHz)
(MHz)
Lower Upper Lower Upper
Limit Limit Limit Limit

1008 A 21,990.50 22,330.00 22,998.50 23,338.00

1008 B 22,260.00 22,610.00 23,268.00 23,618.00

1200 A 21,200.00 21,600.00 22,400.00 22,800.00

1200 B 21,600.00 22,000.00 22,800.00 23,200.00

1200 C 21,950.00 22,400.00 23,150.00 23,600.00

1232 A 21,200.00 21,786.00 22,432.00 23,018.00

1232 B 21,779.00 22,386.00 23,011.00 23,618.00

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Table 6-9 Information about the 38 GHz frequency band


T/R Sub-Band Lower Sub-band TX Higher Sub-band TX
Spacing Frequency (MHz) Frequency (MHz)
(MHz)
Lower Upper Lower Upper
Limit Limit Limit Limit

1260 A 37,044.00 37,632.00 38,304.00 38,892.00

1260 B 37,604.00 38,192.00 38,864.00 39,452.00

6.1.3 Receiver Sensitivity


The receiver sensitivity reflects the anti-fading capability of the microwave equipment.

Table 6-10 Typical receiver sensitivity (7 MHz)


Item Performance (Channel Spacing: 7 MHz)

@13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @38 GHz

RSL@ BER = 10–6 (dBm)

QPSK –95 –95 –95 –94.5 –92.5


Strong

QPSK –93 –93 –93 –92.5 –90.5

16QAM –88.5 –88.5 -88.5 –88 –86


Strong

16QAM –86.5 –86.5 –86.5 –86 –84

32QAM –83.5 –83.5 –83.5 –83 –81

64QAM –80.5 –80.5 –80.5 –80 –78

128QAM –77.5 –77.5 –77.5 –77 –75

256QAM –74.5 –74.5 –74.5 –74 –72


NOTE
When the XPIC function is enabled, 256QAM is not supported.

Table 6-11 Typical receiver sensitivity (14 MHz)


Item Performance (Channel Spacing: 14 MHz)

@13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @38 GHz

RSL@ BER = 10–6 (dBm)

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Item Performance (Channel Spacing: 14 MHz)

@13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @38 GHz

QPSK –93 –93 –93 –92.5 –90.5


Strong

QPSK –91 –91 –91 –90.5 –88.5

16QAM –85.5 –85.5 –85.5 –85 –83


Strong

16QAM –83.5 –83.5 –83.5 –83 –81

32QAM –80.5 –80.5 –80.5 –80 –78

64QAM –77.5 –77.5 –77.5 –77 –75

128QAM –74.5 –74.5 –74.5 –74 –72

256QAM –71.5 –71.5 –71.5 –71 –69

Table 6-12 Typical receiver sensitivity (28 MHz)


Item Performance (Channel Spacing: 28 MHz)

@13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @38 GHz

RSL@ BER = 10–6 (dBm)

QPSK –89.5 –89.5 –89.5 –89 –87


Strong

QPSK –88 –88 –88 –87.5 –85.5

16QAM –82.5 –82.5 –82.5 –82 –80


Strong

16QAM –81 –81 –81 –80.5 –78.5

32QAM –78 –78 –78 –77.5 –75.5

64QAM –74.5 –74.5 –74.5 –74 –72

128QAM –71.5 –71.5 –71.5 –71 –69

256QAM –68.5 –68.5 –68.5 –68 –66

512QAM –66.5 –66.5 –66.5 –66 –64

512QAM –65 –65 –65 –64.5 –62.5


Light

1024QAM –63.0 –63.0 –63 –62.5 –60.5

1024QAM –61.5 –61.5 –61.5 –61 –59.0


Light

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Item Performance (Channel Spacing: 28 MHz)

@13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @38 GHz

2048QAM –60 –60 –60 –59.5 –


NOTE
l The 38 GHz frequency band does not support 2048QAM.
l When the XPIC function is enabled, the 13 GHz, 15 GHz, 18 GHz, and 23 GHz frequency bands do
not support 1024QAM Light and 2048QAM, and the 38 GHz frequency band does not support
1024QAM and 1024QAM Light.

Table 6-13 Typical receiver sensitivity (56 MHz)

Item Performance (Channel Spacing: 56 MHz)

@13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @38 GHz

RSL@ BER = 10–6 (dBm)

QPSK –86.5 –86.5 –86.5 –86 –84


Strong

QPSK –85 –85 –85 –84.5 –82.5

16QAM –79.5 –79.5 –79.5 –79 –77


Strong

16QAM –78 –78 –78 –77.5 –75.5

32QAM –75 –75 –75 –74.5 –72.5

64QAM –71.5 –71.5 –71.5 –71 –69

128QAM –68.5 –68.5 –68.5 –68 –66

256QAM –65.5 –65.5 –65.5 –65 –63

512QAM –63.5 –63.5 –63.5 –63 –61

512QAM –62 –62 –62 –61.5 –59.5


Light

1024QAM –60 –60 –60 –59.5 –57.5

1024QAM –58.5 –58.5 –58.5 –58 –56


Light

2048QAM –56.5 –56.5 –56.5 –56 –


NOTE
l The 38 GHz frequency band does not support 2048QAM.
l When the XPIC function is enabled, the 13 GHz, 15 GHz, 18 GHz, and 23 GHz frequency bands do
not support 2048QAM, and the 38 GHz frequency band does not support 1024QAM and 1024QAM
Light.

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Product Description 6 Technical Specifications

6.1.4 Distortion Sensitivity


The distortion sensitivity reflects the anti-multipath fading capability of the OptiX RTN 310.
The notch depth of the OptiX RTN 310 meets the requirements described in ETSI EN
302217-2-1.
Table 6-14describes the anti-multipath fading capability of the OptiX RTN 310 in 28M/
128QAM microwave working modes.

Table 6-14 Anti-multipath fading capability


Item Performance

28M/128QAM W-curve See Figure 6-1

28M/128QAM dispersion fading margin 51dB

Figure 6-1 W-curve

6.1.5 Transceiver Performance


The performance of the transceiver includes the maximum/minimum transmit power, maximum
receive power, and frequency stability.

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Maximum transmit power

Table 6-15 Maximum transmit power


Modulatio Performance (dBm)
n Scheme
13GHz 15GHz 18GHz 23GHz 38GHz

QPSK 24 24 23.5 23.5 19.5


Strong

QPSK

16QAM 23 23 22 22 17
Strong

16QAM

32QAM 23 23 22 22 17

64QAM 22 22 21 21 16

128QAM 22 22 21 21 16

256QAM 21 21 20 20 15

512QAM 20 20 19 19 14

512QAM
Light

1024QAM 18 18 17 17 12

1024QAM
Light

2048QAM 16 16 15 15 –

Minimum transmit power

Table 6-16 Minimum transmit power


Modulatio Performance (dBm)
n Scheme
13GHz 15GHz 18GHz 23GHz 38GHz

QPSK –10 –10 –5 –5 –10


Strong-1024
QAM Light

2048QAM –10 –10 –5 –5 –

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Maximum receive power

Table 6-17 Maximum receive power


Modulatio Performance (dBm)
n Scheme
13GHz 15GHz 18GHz 23GHz 38GHz

QPSK –20 –20 –20 –20 –20


Strong-32Q
AM

64QAM-128 –22 –22 –22 –22 –22


QAM

256QAM-10 –25 –25 –25 –25 –25


24QAM
Light

2048QAM –25 –25 –25 –25 –

Frequency stability
Frequency stability : ±5 ppm

6.1.6 Baseband Signal Processing Performance of the Modem


The baseband signal processing performance of the modem indicates the FEC coding scheme
and the performance of the baseband time domain adaptive equalizer.

Table 6-18 Baseband signal processing performance of the modem


Item Performance

Encoding mode Low-density parity check code (LDPC)


encoding
NOTE
Strong and Light modulation supports LDPC
coding. Strong and Light indicate FEC coding
strength. Strong FEC improves receiver sensitivity
by increasing error-correcting codes. Light FEC
expands service capacity by reducing error-
correcting codes.

Adaptive time-domain equalizer for Supported.


baseband signals

6.2 Predicted Reliability


Predicted reliability includes predicted equipment reliability and predicted link reliability.
Reliability is measured by mean time between failures (MTBF), and predicated equipment
reliability complies with the Bellcore TR-332 standard.

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6.2.1 Predicted Equipment Reliability


The equipment reliability reflects the reliability of a single equipment.

Table 6-19 Predicted equipment reliability

Item Performance

MTBF (hour) 31.95×104

MTBF (year) 36.47

MTTR (hour) 1

Availability 99.99969%

6.2.2 Predicted Link Reliability


The link reliability reflects the equipment reliability of a microwave hop and reflects the
reliability of all the involved components.

Table 6-20 Predicted equipment reliability for a single hop of link

Item Performance

MTBF (hour) 15.97×104

MTBF (year) 18.24

MTTR (hour) 1

Availability 99.99937%

6.3 Ethernet Interface Performance


Ethernet interface performance complies with IEEE 802.3.

GE Optical Interface Performance


The characteristics of GE optical interfaces comply with IEEE 802.3. Table 6-21-Table
6-22provide GE optical interface performance.

Table 6-21 GE optical interface performance

Item Performance

Classification code 1000BASE-SX (0.55km) 1000BASE-LX (10km)

Nominal wavelength (nm) 850 1310

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Item Performance

Classification code 1000BASE-SX (0.55km) 1000BASE-LX (10km)

Nominal bit rate (Mbit/s) 1000 1000

Fiber type Multi-mode Single-mode

Transmission distance (km) 0.55 10

Operating wavelength (nm) 830 to 860 1274 to 1360

Mean launched power (dBm) -10.0 to -2.5 -9.5 to -3.0

Receiver minimum -17.0 -20.0


sensitivity (dBm)

Minimum overload (dBm) 0 -3.0

Minimum extinction ratio 9.0 9.0


(dB)

GE Electrical Interface Performance


The characteristics of GE electrical interfaces comply with IEEE 802.3. The following table
provides GE electrical interface performance.

Table 6-22 GE Electrical Interface Performance


Item Performance

Nominal bit rate (Mbit/s) 10(10BASE-T)


100(100BASE-TX)
1000(1000BASE-T)

Code pattern Manchester encoding signal (10BASE-T)


MLT-3 encoding signal (100BASE-TX)
4D-PAM5 encoding signal (1000BASE-T)

Interface type P&E port

6.4 Clock Timing and Synchronization Performance


The clock timing performance and synchronization performance of the product meet relevant
ITU-T recommendations.

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Table 6-23 Clock timing and synchronization performance

Item Performance

Pull-in and pull-out ranges Compliant with ITU-T G.813

Noise generation

Noise tolerance

6.5 Integrated System Performance


Integrated system performance includes the dimensions, weight, power consumption, power
supply, EMC, surge protection, safety, and environment.

Mechanical performance and power consumption


Item Performance

13 GHz 15 GHz 18 GHz 23 GHz 38 GHz

Dimensions 290mm x 265mm x 98mm


(H x W x D)

Weight 6.2 kg 6.0 kg 6.0 kg 6.0 kg 6.0 kg

Power 42 W 42 W 44 W 44 W 43 W
Consumptio
n

Power l Support power over Ethernet.


Supply l The power input voltage ranges from –38.4 V to –57.6 V.

Electromagnetic Compatibility
l Passes CE authentication.
l Compliant with ETSI EN 301 489-1.
l Compliant with ETSI EN 301 489-4.
l Compliant with ETSI EN 300 385.
l Compliant with ETSI EN 300 386.

Lightning Protection
l Compliant with ITU-T K.27.
l Compliant with ETSI EN 300 253.

Safety
l Passes CE authentication.

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l Compliant with IEC 60825.


l Compliant with IEC 60215.
l Compliant with IEC 60950-1
l Compliant with K.20.
l Compliant with K.21.
l Compliant with GB 12638-1990
l Compliant with EN 41003

Environment
The OptiX RTN 310 is used outdoors.

Table 6-24 Environment performance


Item Performance

Major reference Operation Compliant with EN 300 019-1-4(Class 4.1)


standards
Transport Compliant with EN 300 019-1-2(Class 2.3)
ation

Storage Compliant with EN 300 019-1-1(Class 1.2)

Air temperature Operation -33ºC to +55ºC

Transport -40ºC to +70ºC


ation and
storage

Protection class IP65

Relative humidity 5% to 100%

Earthquake Compliant with ETSI 300 019-2-4.

Mechanical stress Compliant with ETSI EN 300 019-2-1.

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Product Description 7 Accessories

7 Accessories

About This Chapter

The OptiX RTN 310 has accessories including power injectors (PIs), USB flash drives, hybrid
couplers, orthogonal mode transducers (OMTs), and mounting components.

7.1 Outdoor Power Injector


An outdoor power injector (PI) supplies power outdoors to the OptiX RTN 310.
7.2 Hybrid Coupler
A hybrid coupler (RF signal combiner/divider) is used for installing two OptiX RTN 310s on
an antenna. The hybrid couplers in this document are adaptive to the OptiX RTN 310.
7.3 OMT
An orthogonal mode transducer (OMT), which is a type of polarized hybrid coupler, helps mount
one horizontally polarized OptiX RTN 310 and one vertically polarized OptiX RTN 310 directly
on an antenna.
7.4 Extra Mounting Components
If OptiX RTN 310s or hybrid couplers are not to be directly mounted on their antennas, extra
mounting components, including mounting brackets and flexible waveguides, are required to
mount and connect them to their antennas.
7.5 Antennas
Radio equipment uses parabolic antennas to emit and receive electromagnetic waves. The
antennas that are described in this document are parabolic antennas compatible with OptiX RTN
310s.
7.6 Antenna Adapters
If OptiX RTN 310s need to be directly mounted on inapplicable antennas, antenna adapters are
required.
7.7 USB Flash Drives
Configuring, replacing, and upgrading OptiX RTN 310s is simple with USB flash drives, which
store NE data and new software to be installed, and are also used to back up configuration data.

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7.1 Outdoor Power Injector


An outdoor power injector (PI) supplies power outdoors to the OptiX RTN 310.

NOTE
The OptiX RTN 310 of an earlier version provides indoor PIs, which have the same ports and functions as
outdoor PIs. Indoor PIs and outdoor PIs have difference appearance and apply to different environments.

7.1.1 Functions and Features


PIs transmit GE electrical signals, -48 V power, and network management signals to OptiX RTN
310s through P&E cables.

Functions and Features


l Provides an NMS port to forward network management signals. The PI connects the OptiX
RTN 310 is connected to the NMS, eliminating the need to climb the tower during
commissioning.
l Receives/Transmits 1xGE electrical signals.
l Receives -48 V DC power signals.
l Couples -48 V power signals to eight pins of the GE electrical port and transmits them to
the OptiX RTN 310 through a P&E cable. See Figure 7-1.

Figure 7-1 -48 V power signal coupling

1 BIDA+ BIDA+ 1

2 BIDA- BIDA- 2
4 BIDC+ BIDC+ 4
BGND
5 BIDC- BIDC- 5 DC
converter
-48 V
3 BIDB+ BIDB+ 3 -48 V
6 BIDB- BIDB- 6
7 BIDD+ BIDD+ 7

8 BIDD- BIDD- 8
(PI) ( RTN 310)

There is no interference between DC power signals and Ethernet service signals, which can
be transmitted over the same twisted pair.

An outdoor PI can be installed:

l On an outdoor wall
l On a pole with a diameter ranging between 51 mm to 114 mm
l On a tower

7.1.2 Ports and Indicators


A PI has one GE service port, one NMS port, one P&E port, one power input port, indicators,
and labels on its front panel.

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Front Panel
An outdoor PI has a protective cover, as shown in Figure 7-2 and Figure 7-3.

Figure 7-2 Outdoor PI appearance

H
D
W

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Figure 7-3 Schematic drawing of an outdoor PI


Pins of port
P&E and FE/GE
service To FO To NMS
port MGMT

1:2 1:1
peeling
indicator

-48.0 V power

Cable ground point

Power Outdoor P&E Outdoor


cable network cable network
through cable through cable
through through
(GE (NMS
service) signals)

Ports

Table 7-1 Ports on a PI


Port Description Connector Type Corresponding
Cable

RTN (+) 0 V power input port OT terminal block 8.2 PI Power Cables

NEG (-) -48 V power input


port

GE GE electrical port RJ45 8.9 Outdoor


Network Cables
NMS NMS port
(connected to the
NMS)

MGMT NMS port RJ45 8.3 P&E Cables


(connected to the
OptiX RTN 310)

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Port Description Connector Type Corresponding


Cable

P&E Ethernet service and


-48 V power port

The GE service port, NMS port, and P&E port use RJ45 connectors. Figure 7-4 shows the front
view of an RJ45 connector.

Figure 7-4 RJ45 connector front view

1 2 3 4 5 6 78

The GE electrical port is compatible with an FE electrical port and supports the MDI, MDI-X,
and auto-MDI/MDI-X modes. Table 7-2 and Table 7-3 show pin assignments for an RJ45 port
in MDI and MDI-X modes.

Table 7-2 Pin assignments for an RJ45 connector in MDI mode


Pin 10/100BASE-T(X) 1000BASE-T

Signal Function Signal Function

1 TX+ Transmitting data (+) BIDA+ Bidirectional data wire A


(+)/Power ground (0 V)

2 TX- Transmitting data (-) BIDA- Bidirectional data wire A


(-)/Power ground (0 V)

3 RX+ Receiving data (+) BIDB+ Bidirectional data wire B


(+)/Power signal (-48 V)

4 Reserved - BIDC+ Bidirectional data wire C


(+)/Power ground (0 V)

5 Reserved - BIDC- Bidirectional data wire C


(-)/Power ground (0 V)

6 RX- Receiving data (-) BIDB- Bidirectional data wire B


(-)/Power signal (-48 V)

7 Reserved - BIDD+ Bidirectional data wire D


(+)/Power signal (-48 V)

8 Reserved - BIDD- Bidirectional data wire D


(-)/Power signal (-48 V)

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Table 7-3 Pin assignments for an RJ45 connector in MDI-X mode

Pin 10/100BASE-T(X) 1000BASE-T

Signal Function Signal Function

1 RX+ Receiving data (+) BIDB+ Bidirectional data wire B


(+)

2 RX- Receiving data (-) BIDB- Bidirectional data wire B


(-)

3 TX+ Transmitting data (+) BIDA+ Bidirectional data wire A


(+)

4 Reserved - BIDD+ Bidirectional data wire D


(+)

5 Reserved - BIDD- Bidirectional data wire D


(-)

6 TX- Transmitting data (-) BIDA- Bidirectional data wire A


(-)

7 Reserved - BIDC+ Bidirectional data wire C


(+)

8 Reserved - BIDC- Bidirectional data wire C


(-)

NOTE
The P&E port can transmit -48 V power signals through pins 1, 2, 3, and 6.

The NMS and MGMT ports transmit network management signals. Table 7-4 lists their pin
assignments.

Table 7-4 Pin assignments for the NMS and MGMT ports

Pin Signal Function

1 TX+ Transmitting data (+)

2 TX- Transmitting data (-)

3 RX+ Receiving data (+)

4 Reserved -

5 Reserved -

6 RX- Receiving data (-)

7 Reserved -

8 Reserved -

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NOTE
The NMS port supports the MDI, MDI-X, and auto-MDI/MDI-X modes; that is, the NMS port can transmit
data through pins 3 and 6 and receive data through pins 1 and 2.

Indicators

Table 7-5 Status explanation for indicators


Indicator State Meaning

DC IN On continuously (green) Power is supplied.

Off Power is not supplied.

P&E OUT On continuously (green) Power over Ethernet is being


output normally.

Off Power over Ethernet is not


being output.

7.1.3 PI Labels
This section lists the labels that are attached to a power injector (PI). Adhere to any warnings
and instructions on the labels when performing various tasks to avoid any personal injury or
damage to equipment.

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Figure 7-5 Label positions on an outdoor PI


Product
nameplate
B

Qualification
Operation card label
warning
合格证/QUALIFICATION CARD
label
HUAWEI

华为技术有限公司 中国制造

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.,LTD. MADE IN CHINA

Grounding
label

Table 7-6 Label description


Label Label Name Description

B
Product nameplate Indicates the
label product name
and certification.

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Label Label Name Description

Qualification card Indicates that the


合 格证/ QUALIFICATION CARD label equipment has
been quality
checked.

HUAWEI
华为技术有限公司 中国制造
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.,LTD. MADE IN CHINA

High temperature Indicates that the


warning label equipment
surface
temperature may
exceed 70°C
when the
ambient
temperature is
higher than 55°
C. Wear
protective
gloves to handle
the equipment.

Grounding label Indicates the


grounding
position of a PI.

Operation l Indicates the


warning label input of -48 V
power.
l Instructs you
to check wire
connections
of a P&E
cable.
l Instructs you
to check the
connection of
a P&E cable
to a port.

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Table 7-7 Product nameplate label description

Label Example of the Label Content Parameter Parameter


Information Description

PI model 1: Product -
OptiX RTN PI – DC B 10
name
1 2 3 4
2: Power DC: direct
supply current
mode

3: l A: indoor
Applicatio l B: outdoor
n
environme
nt

4: Number 10: single


of channels channel. That
is, one PI can
provide
power supply
to only one
OptiX RTN
310.

Power supply 电源额定值 POWER RATING : -48V; 2.2A - PI power


rated value supply rated
value

7.1.4 Technical Specifications


The technical specifications of PIs include electromagnetic compatibility, anti-interference
capability, safety, and environmental standards.

Power Supply
Item Specifications

Input voltage range -38.4 V to -57.6 V

Power over Ethernet Supports one power-over-Ethernet output.

Dimensions and Weight


Item Specifications

Outdoor PI

Dimensions (H x W x D) 224mm x 156mm x 44mm

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Item Specifications

Outdoor PI

Weight 1.3 kg

Electromagnetic Compatibility
l Passes CE authentication.
l Compliant with ETSI EN 301 489-1.
l Compliant with ETSI EN 301 489-4.
l Compliant with ETSI EN 300 385.
l Compliant with ETSI EN 300 386.

Safety
l Passes CE authentication.
l Compliant with IEC 60825.
l Compliant with IEC 60215.
l Compliant with IEC 60950-1
l Compliant with K.20.
l Compliant with K.21.
l Compliant with EN 41003

Environment

Table 7-8 Environment performance


Item Specifications

Major reference standards Operating Complies with ETSI EN 300


019-1-3 class 3.2.

Transportation Complies with ETSI EN 300


019-1-2 class 2.3.

Storage Complies with ETSI EN 300


019-1-1 class 1.2.

Temperature Operating -33°C to +55°C

Transportation and storage -40°C to +70°C

Relative humidity 5% to 100%

Earthquake Complies with ETSI 300


019-2-4.

Protection class IP65 for outdoor PIs

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7.2 Hybrid Coupler


A hybrid coupler (RF signal combiner/divider) is used for installing two OptiX RTN 310s on
an antenna. The hybrid couplers in this document are adaptive to the OptiX RTN 310.

7.2.1 Types
Hybrid couplers are available as 3 dB balanced and 6 dB unbalanced hybrid couplers.
3 dB balanced and 6 dB unbalanced hybrid couplers are described as follows:
l A 3 dB balanced hybrid coupler splits one RF signal into two almost equivalent RF branch
signals. Each branch signal is attenuated by about 3 dB, compared to the original RF signal.
l A 6 dB unbalanced hybrid coupler splits one RF signal into two RF signals with different
power levels. The lower-power branch signal is attenuated by about 6 dB and the higher-
power branch signal is attenuated by about 2 dB, compared to the original RF signal.

7.2.2 Functions and Features


Hybrid couplers combine and divide RF signals.
Hybrid couplers have the following functions and features:
l In the transmit direction, a hybrid coupler combines two RF signal routes from two OptiX
RTN 310s into one and transmits the signals to an antenna.
l In the receive direction, the hybrid coupler divides the RF signals received from the antenna
into two outputs and transmits the signals to OptiX RTN 310s.

7.2.3 Ports
A hybrid coupler has one antenna port, one main tributary port, and one extension tributary port.
Figure 7-6 shows ports on a hybrid coupler.

Figure 7-6 Ports on a hybrid coupler


2

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Table 7-9 describes the ports on a hybrid coupler.

Table 7-9 Description of ports on a hybrid coupler


N Port Mark Function Port Type
o.

1 Antenna - Connects to an l 153IEC-R120, which can be


port antenna, an antenna connected to a PBR120 (for use at
adapter, or a flexible the frequency band 13 GHz)
waveguide. l 153IEC-R140, which can be
connected to a PBR140 (for use at
2 Extensio STAND Connects to the
the frequency band 15 GHz)
n BY extension tributary
tributary OptiX RTN 310. l 153IEC-R220, which can be
port connected to a PBR220 (for use at
the frequency band 18 GHz or 23
3 Main MAIN Connects to the main GHz)
tributary tributary OptiX RTN l 154IEC-R320, which can be
port 310. connected to a PBR320 (for use at
the frequency band 38 GHz)

7.2.4 Labels
Labels are attached to a hybrid coupler and its packaging to provide the basic information of the
device.
Figure 7-7 shows the label of a hybrid coupler.

Figure 7-7 Label of a hybrid coupler

Table 7-10 describes information provided on a hybrid coupler label.

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Table 7-10 Information provided on a hybrid coupler label


Label Content Example Parameter Parameter
Informati Meaning
on

Name - Indicates that the


component is a hybrid
coupler.

Model 1: component C indicates the hybrid


(MODEL) type coupler.

2: frequency Indicates the


band operating frequency
of the hybrid coupler
in GHz. For example,
15 indicates that the
hybrid coupler
operates at 15 GHz.
A hybrid coupler can
operate at 13 GHz, 15
GHz, 18 GHz, 23
GHz, or 38 GHz.

3: tributary B: balanced
features U: unbalanced

4: coupling 03 indicates that the


coupling of the
tributary is 3 dB.
06 indicates that the
coupling of the
tributary is 6 dB.

5: type of the C: round waveguide


antenna port R: rectangular
waveguide

6: type of ports C: round waveguide


connected to R: rectangular
OptiX RTN 310 waveguide

7: adaptation C: Matches OptiX


relationship RTN XMC ODUs.
NOTE
The OptiX RTN 310
and OptiX RTN XMC
ODUs are compatible
with the same hybrid
coupler.

Item code - Uniquely identifies


(ITEM) the model of hybrid
coupler.

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Label Content Example Parameter Parameter


Informati Meaning
on

Descriptio 1: operating Indicates the


n frequency range operating frequency
(DEP) range of the hybrid
coupler in GHz.

2: coupling Indicates coupling of


the main and
extension tributaries
(dB).

3: adaptation Matches OptiX RTN


relationship XMC ODUs.
NOTE
The OptiX RTN 310
and OptiX RTN XMC
ODUs are compatible
with the same hybrid
coupler.

Serial - Identifies a hybrid


number coupler uniquely.
(S/N)

Bar code - Indicates bar code of


area the hybrid coupler
serial number

7.2.5 Technical Specifications


The technical specifications of hybrid couplers include electrical and mechanical specifications.
Table 7-11 lists the technical specifications of hybrid couplers.

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Table 7-11 Technical specifications of hybrid couplers


Item Specifications

Attenuation of the ≤ 3.8 (3 dB balanced hybrid coupler, for use at frequency bands 13
main tributary (dB) GHz and 15 GHz)
≤ 3.6 (3 dB balanced hybrid coupler, for use at frequency bands 18
GHz and 23 GHz)
≤ 4.1 (3 dB balanced hybrid coupler, for use at frequency band 38
GHz)
≤ 1.9 (6 dB unbalanced hybrid coupler, for use at frequency bands
13 GHz and 15 GHz)
≤1.7 (6 dB unbalanced hybrid coupler, for use at frequency band 18
GHz and 23 GHz)
≤ 2.1 (6 dB unbalanced hybrid coupler, for use at frequency band 38
GHz)

Attenuation of the 3.3±0.3 (3 dB balanced hybrid coupler)


extension tributary 6.5±0.6 (6 dB unbalanced hybrid coupler)
(dB)

Flatness of the main ≤ 1.0 (3 dB balanced hybrid coupler)


tributary (dB) ≤ 0.5 (6 dB unbalanced hybrid coupler)

Flatness of the ≤ 1.0


extension tributary
(dB)

Isolation between the ≥ 20


main tributary and the
tributary path (dB)

Standing wave ratio ≤ 1.3 (for use at frequency bands 13 GHz, 15 GHz, 18 GHz and 23
GHz)
≤ 1.4 (for use at frequency band 38 GHz)

Power capacity (W) 8

Dimensions (H x W x < 270 mm x 140 mm x 415 mm


D)

Weight ≤ 5 kg

7.3 OMT
An orthogonal mode transducer (OMT), which is a type of polarized hybrid coupler, helps mount
one horizontally polarized OptiX RTN 310 and one vertically polarized OptiX RTN 310 directly
on an antenna.
NOTE

OMTs are produced by Huawei's partner company Andrew and must work in conjunction with Andrew dual-
polarized antennas. All copyrights and information about OMTs are the property of Andrew.

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7.3.1 Functions and Features


An orthogonal mode transducer (OMT) converts vertically and horizontally polarized waves
into dually polarized RF signals in the transmit direction, and separates vertically polarized
waves from horizontally polarized waves in the receive direction.
An OMT has two rectangular waveguide cavities and one round waveguide cavity. One
rectangular waveguide cavity transmits only vertically polarized waves and the other rectangular
waveguide cavity transmits only horizontally polarized waves. The round waveguide cavity
transmits both vertically and horizontally polarized waves.
l In the transmit direction, an OMT converts the vertically and horizontally polarized waves
from its two rectangular waveguide cavities into dually polarized RF signals, and transmits
the RF signals to its round waveguide cavity and then to an antenna with a round waveguide
port.
l In the receive direction, the OMT receives dually polarized waves from the round
waveguide port of an antenna, separates the waves, and transmits the waves to their
respective rectangular waveguide cavities.

7.3.2 Ports
An OMT has one antenna port, one V-polarized port, and one H-polarized port.
l The antenna port is a round recessed waveguide port.
l The V-polarized and H-polarized ports are rectangular protruding waveguide ports.

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Figure 7-8 Ports on an OMT

Table 7-12 Ports on an OMT


Port Mark Function Connector Type

Antenna port - Connects to an Dedicated to interconnection with


antenna. an antenna

V-polarized V Connects to a 153IEC-R120 (for use at frequency


port vertically band 13 GHz)
polarized OptiX 153IEC-R140 (for use at frequency
RTN 310. band 15 GHz)
H-polarized H Connects to a 153IEC-R220 (for use at frequency
port horizontally band 18 GHz and 23 GHz)
polarized OptiX 0.219" diameter (for use at
RTN 310. frequency band 38 GHz)

7.3.3 Technical Specifications


The technical specifications of OMTs include electrical and mechanical specifications.

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Table 7-13 Electrical specifications of OMTs


Freque Frequency Minimum Standing Minimum Point-to-
ncy Range (GHz) Cross- Wave Point Isolation (dB)
Band Polarization Radio at
(GHz) Discrimination Ports
(dB)

13 12.75 to 13.25 35 1.3 38

15 14.4 to 15.35 35 1.3 38

18 17.7 to 19.7 35 1.3 38

23 21.2 to 23.6 35 1.3 38

38 37.0 to 40.0 35 1.3 38

Table 7-14 Mechanical specifications of OMTs


Item Value

Dimensions (H x W x 450 mm x 360 mm x 269 mm


D)

Weight ≤ 5.79 kg

7.4 Extra Mounting Components


If OptiX RTN 310s or hybrid couplers are not to be directly mounted on their antennas, extra
mounting components, including mounting brackets and flexible waveguides, are required to
mount and connect them to their antennas.

7.4.1 Mounting Brackets


Mounting brackets help fix OptiX RTN 310s or hybrid couplers onto poles.

Appearance
Figure 7-9 shows a mounting bracket.

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Figure 7-9 Mounting bracket


1
2
4

3
5

1. Main fixture 2. Conversion bracket 3. Stay bolt 4. Double-headed nut 5. Assistant fixture

Mounting brackets can fit onto poles with diameters ranging from 51 mm to 114 mm.
Mounting brackets are fixed on poles using main fixtures, assistant fixtures, stay bolts, and
double-headed nuts. Conversion brackets are used to attach OptiX RTN 310s or hybrid couplers
to main fixtures.

7.4.2 Flexible Waveguides


Flexible waveguides are rectangular in form. They connect antennas to the flange ports on OptiX
RTN 310s or hybrid couplers.

Appearance
Figure 7-10 shows a flexible waveguide.

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Figure 7-10 Flexible waveguide

Technical Specifications
Table 7-15 lists the technical specifications of flexible waveguides.

Table 7-15 Technical specifications of flexible waveguides

Item Specifications

Length (m) 0.6/0.9/1.2/1.8 (for use at frequency band 13 GHz)


0.6/0.9 (for use at frequency bands 15 GHz, 18 GHz,
23 GHz, and 38 GHz)

Attenuation (dB) ≤ 0.3/0.5/0.6/0.9 (for use at frequency band 13 GHz,


corresponding to lengths of flexible waveguides 0.6
m/0.9 m/1.2 m/1.8 m)
≤ 0.4/0.8 (for use at frequency band 15 GHz,
corresponding to lengths of flexible waveguides 0.6
m/0.9 m)
≤0.75/1.2 (for use at frequency band 18 GHz and 23
GHz corresponding to lengths of flexible
waveguides 0.6 m/0.9 m)
≤ 1.2/1.8 (for use at frequency band 38 GHz,
corresponding to lengths of flexible waveguides 0.6
m/0.9 m)

Flatness (dB) ≤ 0.2 (for use at frequency band 13 GHz)


≤ 0.3 (for use at frequency band 15 GHz)
≤ 0.5 (for use at frequency band 18 GHz, 23 GHz,
and 38 GHz)

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Item Specifications

Standing wave ratio ≤ 1.1 (for use at frequency bands 13 GHz and 15
GHz)
≤ 1.2 (for use at frequency band 18 GHz, 23 GHz,
and 38 GHz)

Port On the side of an OptiX 154IEC-PBR120 (for use at frequency band 13


RTN 310 or a hybrid GHz)
coupler 154IEC-PBR140 (for use at frequency band 15
GHz)
On the antenna side
154IEC-PBR220 (for use at frequency band 18 GHz
and 23 GHz)
154IEC-PBR320 (for use at frequency band 38
GHz)

Maximum twist degree (assuming that 220°/ 330°/ 440°/ 660° (for use at frequency band 13
a whole flexible waveguide is GHz, corresponding to lengths of flexible
uniformly twisted) waveguides 0.6 m/0.9 m/1.2 m/1.8 m)
270°/ 405° (for use at frequency band 15 GHz,
corresponding to lengths of flexible waveguides 0.6
m/0.9 m)
310°/ 465° (for use at frequency band 18 GHz and
23 GHz, corresponding to lengths of flexible
waveguides 0.6 m/0.9 m)
310°/ 465° (for use at frequency band 38 GHz,
corresponding to lengths of flexible waveguides 0.6
m/0.9 m)

Minimum E-bend radius 64 mm (for use at frequency band 13 GHz)


52 mm (for use at frequency band 15 GHz)
38 mm (for use at frequency band 18 GHz, 23 GHz,
and 38 GHz)

Minimum H-bend radius 115 mm (for use at frequency band 13 GHz)


102 mm (for use at frequency band 15 GHz)
76 mm (for use at frequency band 18 GHz, 23 GHz,
and 38 GHz)

7.5 Antennas
Radio equipment uses parabolic antennas to emit and receive electromagnetic waves. The
antennas that are described in this document are parabolic antennas compatible with OptiX RTN
310s.

7.5.1 Types
Antennas are classified into single-polarized antennas and dual-polarized antennas.

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l Single-polarized antennas emit or receive electromagnetic waves in a specific polarization


direction. A single-polarized antenna provides a feed port, which can be set to vertically
or horizontally polarized.
Single-polarized antennas can also be classified into directly mounted antennas and
separately mounted antennas based on how OptiX RTN 310s are installed. Single-polarized
antennas with diameters of 1.8 meters or less support both direct and separate mounting,
whereas those with diameters of more than 1.8 meters support only separate mounting.
Figure 7-11 and Figure 7-12 show the feeds of single-polarized antennas.

Figure 7-11 Feed of a single-polarized antenna with a diameter of 1.8 meters or less

Figure 7-12 Feed of a single-polarized antenna with a diameter more than 1.8 meters

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l Dual-polarized antennas concurrently emit or receive vertically and horizontally polarized


electromagnetic waves. Dual-polarized antennas can also be classified into directly
mounted antennas and separately mounted antennas based on how OptiX RTN 310s are
installed.
Figure 7-13 and Figure 7-14 show the feeds of dual-polarized antennas.

Figure 7-13 Feed of a separately mounted, dual-polarized antenna

Figure 7-14 Feed of a directly mounted, dual-polarized antenna

7.5.2 Functions and Features


Antennas convert between RF signals received from OptiX RTN 310s and electromagnetic
waves radiated in free space.

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l In the transmit direction, antennas convert RF signals received from OptiX RTN 310s into
directional electromagnetic waves and emit these waves into free space.
l In the receive direction, antennas receive and assemble electromagnetic waves from free
space, convert these waves into RF signals, and transmit the RF signals to OptiX RTN
310s.

7.5.3 Working Principles


An antenna consists of a reflector, a feed, a radome, a shield, and a mounting bracket.
Figure 7-15 shows the structure of an antenna.

NOTE

This section considers a single-polarized antenna as an example. A dual-polarized antenna has two feed
ports and can concurrently transmit electromagnetic waves in both the vertical and horizontal polarization
directions. The working principles of each component of a dual-polarized antenna are almost the same as
those of its counterpart of a single-polarized antenna.

Figure 7-15 Antenna structure

1. Feed 2. Reflector 3. Shield


4. Radome 5. Mounting bracket -

The functions of each component of an antenna are described as follows:


l Feeds
A feed receives RF signals from an OptiX RTN 310 at its input port and transmits those
signals to its output port through its waveguide. Located at the focal spot of the reflector,
the output port of the feed is equivalent to a preliminary horn antenna and emits
electromagnetic waves towards the reflector.
You can rotate the feed to change the polarization direction of an antenna. Here, polarization
direction refers to the polarization direction of emitted electromagnetic waves or the
direction of an electrical field. Figure 7-16 shows the polarization directions that
rectangular waveguides support.

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NOTE

Antennas must have the same polarization directions as their connected OptiX RTN 310s or hybrid
couplers. Antennas of certain types use feeds with round waveguides. To adjust the polarization
directions of these antennas, follow their installation instructions and check their polarization marks.

Figure 7-16 Polarization directions that rectangular waveguides support

Horizontal
polarization
Vertical
polarization

Direction of an electrical field

l Reflectors
Generally taking the form of rotatable paraboloids, antenna reflectors reflect
electromagnetic waves and increase directive gain.
– In the transmit direction, reflectors reflect the electromagnetic waves emitted from feeds
so the reflected electromagnetic waves are directional.
– In the receive direction, reflectors focus the electromagnetic waves from free space to
feeds' output ports.
l Radomes
Radomes protect antennas from being damaged by wind, rain, snow, or ice. Radomes do
not prevent electromagnetic waves penetrating to the reflector.
l Shields
Shields are installed on high-performance antennas and help prevent side-lobe radiation.
l Mounting brackets
Mounting brackets are used to attach antennas onto poles and help achieve fine elevation
and azimuth adjustments. Large antennas generally require reinforcing rods besides
mounting brackets. For details, see specific antenna documentation.

7.5.4 Ports
Directly mounted, single-polarized antennas use waveguide ports as feed ports, whereas dual-
polarized antennas and separately mounted, single-polarized antennas use flange ports as feed
ports.
Table 7-16 lists specifications of feed ports on antennas compatible with OptiX RTN 310s.

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Table 7-16 Specifications of feed ports on antennas

Frequen Port Type


cy Band
Feed Port on Single- Feed Port on Directly Feed Port on Single-
Polarized Antenna Mounted, Dual- Polarized Antenna
(Diameter ≤ 1.8 meters) Polarized Antenna (Diameter > 1.8
meters) or Separately
Mounted, Dual-
Polarized Antenna

13 GHz 153IEC-R120 153IEC-R120 154IEC-UBR120

15 GHz 153IEC-R140 153IEC-R140 154IEC-UBR140

18 GHz/ 153IEC-R220 153IEC-R220 154IEC-UBR220


23 GHz

38 GHz 154IEC-R320 154IEC-R320 154IEC-UBR320

7.5.5 Antenna Diameters


Antennas of different types or operating at different frequency bands are available in a wide
variety of diameters.

Table 7-17 to Table 7-19 list diameters that antennas of different types support. "Yes" indicates
that the corresponding antenna diameter is supported. "NA" indicates that the corresponding
antenna diameter is not supported.

Table 7-17 Diameters of single-polarized antennas

Freque Antenna Diameter


ncy
Band 0.3 m 0.6 m 0.9 m 1.0 m 1.2 m 1.8 m 2.4 m 3.0 m 3.7 m

13 GHz Yes Yes Yes Y Yes Yes Yes Yes NA

15 GHz Yes Yes Yes Y Yes Yes NA NA NA

18 GHz Yes Yes Yes Y Yes Yes NA NA NA

23 GHz Yes Yes Yes Y Yes Yes NA NA NA

38 GHz Yes Yes NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Table 7-18 Diameters of separately mounted, dual-polarized antennas

Freque Antenna Diameter


ncy
Band 0.3 m 0.6 m 0.9 m 1.2 m 1.8 m 2.4 m 3.0 m 3.7 m

13 GHz NA Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

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Freque Antenna Diameter


ncy
Band 0.3 m 0.6 m 0.9 m 1.2 m 1.8 m 2.4 m 3.0 m 3.7 m

15 GHz NA Yes Yes Yes Yes NA NA NA

18 GHz NA Yes Yes Yes Yes NA NA NA

23 GHz NA Yes Yes Yes Yes NA NA NA

38 GHz Yes Yes NA NA NA NA NA NA

Table 7-19 Diameters of directly mounted, dual-polarized antennas


Frequenc Antenna Diameter
y Band
0.3 m 0.6 m 0.9 m 1m 1.2 m 1.8 m

13 GHz Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

15 GHz Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

18 GHz Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

23 GHz Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

38 GHz Yes Yes NA NA NA NA

7.5.6 Technical Specifications


The technical specifications of antennas include electrical and mechanical specifications. The
electrical specifications of antennas include the antenna gain, half-power beamwidth, standing
wave ratio, and front-to-back ratio. The mechanical specifications of antennas include the
dimensions, weight, anti-wind capability, and anti-snow/ice capability.
Huawei provides complete antenna portfolios. For information about antenna specifications,
contact Huawei.

7.6 Antenna Adapters


If OptiX RTN 310s need to be directly mounted on inapplicable antennas, antenna adapters are
required.

Appearance and Ports


Figure 7-17 shows the appearance and ports of an antenna adapter.

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Figure 7-17 Appearance and ports of an antenna adapter

1. Port on the OptiX RTN 310/hybrid coupler 2. Polarization mark 3. Port on the antenna side 4. Hook trough
side

Technical Specifications
Table 7-20 lists the technical specifications of antenna adapters.

Table 7-20 Technical specifications of antenna adapters

Item Specifications

Insertion loss ≤ 0.2 dB (for use at frequency bands 13 GHz, 15 GHz, 18


GHz, 23 GHz and 38 GHz)

Standing wave ratio ≤ 1.2 (for use at frequency bands 13 GHz, 15 GHz, 18 GHz,
23 GHz and 38 GHz)

Port On the antenna 153IEC-R120 (for use at frequency band 13 GHz)


side 153IEC-R140 (for use at frequency band 15 GHz)
153IEC-R220 (for use at frequency band 18 GHz and 23
GHz)
0.219-inch dia Circular (for use at frequency band 38 GHz)

On the OptiX 153IEC-R120, which can be connected to a PBR120 (for


RTN 310/hybrid use at frequency band 13 GHz)
coupler side 153IEC-R140, which can be connected to a PBR140 (for
use at frequency band 15 GHz)
153IEC-R220, which can be connected to a PBR220 (for
use at frequency band 18 GHz and 23 GHz)
154IEC-R320, which can be connected to a PBR320 (for
use at frequency band 38 GHz)

Weight ≤ 2.5 kg

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Labels
Antenna adapters have nameplate labels and bar codes providing adapter information.

l Nameplate label
Figure 7-18 shows a nameplate label attached to an antenna adapter.

Figure 7-18 Nameplate label attached to an antenna adapter

Table 7-21 describes information provided on a nameplate label.

Table 7-21 Description of a nameplate label

Label Content Example Parameter Parameter


Informatio Meaning
n

Name 1: frequency Indicates the


band frequency band at
which the
antenna adapter
operates: 13 GHz,
15 GHz, 18 GHz,
23 GHz or 38
GHz.

2: Indicates that the


component component is an
name antenna adapter.

Item code - Identifies an


(ITEM) antenna adapter
type.

l Bar code
Table 7-22 shows the bar code of an antenna adapter and describes the meaning of the bar
code.

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Table 7-22 Bar code

Name Appearance Meaning

Bar code Indicates the serial number of an


antenna adapter and uniquely
identifies the antenna adapter.

7.7 USB Flash Drives


Configuring, replacing, and upgrading OptiX RTN 310s is simple with USB flash drives, which
store NE data and new software to be installed, and are also used to back up configuration data.

Functions and Features


USB flash drives prepared for OptiX RTN 310s store NE software, configuration data (including
databases, system parameters, and scripts), and license files.
l Equipment software, scripts, and license files stored in USB flash drives are installed on
OptiX RTN 310s for deployment and commissioning. With this system, users do not need
to configure data on site.
l Software, patch packages, license files, NE databases, and system parameters are backed
up to USB flash drives. This avoids the need to reconfigure data when replacing a OptiX
RTN 310.
l Software of target versions stored in USB flash drives are imported to OptiX RTN 310s.

Application Scenario
l For deployment and commissioning of the OptiX RTN 310, the license, scripts, and
software are stored on a USB flash drive. After the USB flash drive is plugged in and
functioning, the OptiX RTN 310 downloads software, scripts, and license in sequence.
l For an upgrade or downgrade of the OptiX RTN 310, only the software of the target version
is stored on a USB flash drive. After the USB flash drive is plugged in and functioning, the
OptiX RTN 310 compares the versions of the running software and the software stored on
the USB flash drive. If the versions are not the same, the OptiX RTN 310 automatically
downloads the software from the USB flash drive for an upgrade or downgrade.
l During OptiX RTN 310 replacement, an empty USB flash drive is inserted into a faulty
device, which automatically backs up its data to the drive. After the faulty device is replaced,
the drive holding the backup data is inserted into the new device, which automatically
downloads the backed up NE data, software, license, and system parameters and restores
the NE data.

Data uploading
A USB flash drive contains the following folders:
l The root directory stores a RTN.CER file.
NOTE
The RTN.CER file, which stores administrator-level account and password information, is used for
authenticating the USB flash drive. The file is generated by a system administrator at the NMC using
a dedicated tool.

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l pkg: stores the NE software.


l patch: stores the patch software.
l sysdata: stores system parameters.
l script: stores scripts.
l db: stores NE databases.

When a USB flash drive is connected to an OptiX RTN 310, the OptiX RTN 310 checks the
folders on the USB flash drive in the following order:
1. Checks for the RTN.CER file in the root directory. If the file exists, the USB flash drive
is authenticated. Otherwise, the USB flash drive fails to be identified.
2. Checks the NE software folder pkg. If the NE software version is different from that of the
local OptiX RTN 310, the OptiX RTN 310 upgrades its software.
3. Checks the patch software folder patch. If the patch software version is different from that
of the local OptiX RTN 310, the OptiX RTN 310 loads the patch software from the folder.
4. Checks the system parameter folder sysdata. If the folder contains data, the OptiX RTN
310 imports system parameters from the folder.
5. Checks the script folder script. If the folder contains data, the OptiX RTN 310 imports
script data from the folder.
6. Checks the database folder db. If the folder contains data, the OptiX RTN 310 loads the
database from the folder.
7. Checks the license folder license. If the folder contains the license, the OptiX RTN 310
loads the license from the folder.
8. If any of the preceding folders contains no data or does not exist, the OptiX RTN 310 checks
the next folder. If the OptiX RTN 310 finds none of the preceding folders, it exports its
data to the USB flash drive.

Ensure that USB flash drives have only the preceding folders, as extra folders may lead to
malfunctions.

The following are working principles of USB flash drives in various scenarios:

NOTE
A device reads data from a USB flash drive at different rates in different scenarios. The user can check
whether the device is reading data from a USB flash drive by observing the USB port or USB flash drive
indicator.

Types of USB Flash Drives


Table 7-23 lists the types of USB flash drives supported by the OptiX RTN 310. Not all USB
flash drives are supported by the OptiX RTN 310. If a USB flash drive of another model or
capacity is required, confirm with the local Huawei representative office that the USB flash drive
is supported by the OptiX RTN 310.

Table 7-23 Types of USB flash drives

No. Manufacturer Model Capacity

1 Netac U208 4 GB

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8 Cables

About This Chapter

This chapter describes the purposes, appearances, and connections of various cables used with
OptiX RTN 310s.

8.1 OptiX RTN 310 Power Cables


Power cables connect OptiX RTN 310s to power supply devices and supply them with -48 V
power.
8.2 PI Power Cables
PI power cables connect PIs to power supply devices and supply them with -48 V power.
8.3 P&E Cables
P&E cables connect OptiX RTN 310s to PIs and transmit GE service signals, -48 V power
signals, and network management signals.
8.4 OptiX RTN 310 PGND Cables
PGND cables are connected to ground screws and outdoor ground points (such as ground points
on towers) so that the OptiX RTN 310 is connected to the outdoor ground grid.
8.5 PI PGND Cables
PI PGND cables also connect outdoor PIs to outdoor ground points (for example, ground points
on towers), so outdoor PIs connect to outdoor ground grids.
8.6 XPIC Cables
An XPIC cable transmits reference IF signals between the two OptiX RTN 310s in an XPIC
group to implement XPIC.
8.7 RSSI Cables
Received signal strength indicator (RSSI) cables connect RSSI ports of OptiX RTN 310s to
multimeters.
8.8 Optical Fibers
OptiX RTN 310s use optical fibers with DLC/UPC connectors at both ends to transmit optical
signals.
8.9 Outdoor Network Cables

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Fitted with RJ45 connectors at both ends, outdoor network cables connect outdoor power
injectors (PIs) to indoor Ethernet equipment.

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8.1 OptiX RTN 310 Power Cables


Power cables connect OptiX RTN 310s to power supply devices and supply them with -48 V
power.
OptiX RTN 310 power cables are shielded outdoor cables with outdoor protection capabilities,
such as water resistance.

Cable Diagram

Figure 8-1 OptiX RTN 310 power cable


Connector
Cable jacket

View A 0 V PGND cable (brown)

-48 V power cable (blue)

Cable Parameters

Table 8-1 Cable parameters


Cable Cable Parameter Terminal Parameter

OptiX RTN 310 power cable Power cable, 600 V/1000 V, Waterproof round connector,
ROV-K, 4 mm2, black jacket 2-pin, 500 V, 30 A, straight
(core in blue/brown), 36 A, female, 4 mm2 (12 AWG),
shielded outdoor cable matching cables with
external diameters ranging
from 9.7 mm to 12.3 mm

NOTE
Power cables can extend for a maximum distance of 300 m.

8.2 PI Power Cables


PI power cables connect PIs to power supply devices and supply them with -48 V power.

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Cable Diagram

Figure 8-2 Outdoor-PI power cable

OT terminal -48V power (blue)

0V power ground (brown)

Cable Parameters

Table 8-2 Cable parameters


Cable Cable Parameter Terminal Parameter

Outdoor-PI power cable Power cable, 600 V, ROV-K, OT terminal, M4, 2.5 mm2
2.5 mm2, black jacket (the
color of core is blue and
brown), 27 A, shielded style
outdoor cable

8.3 P&E Cables


P&E cables connect OptiX RTN 310s to PIs and transmit GE service signals, -48 V power
signals, and network management signals.
P&E cables are available in 12-core and 8-core cables.
l A 12-core P&E cable connects an OptiX RTN 310 to a PI. Four cores of the cable transmit
network management signals and the other eight cores transmit GE electrical signals and
-48 V power signals.
l An 8-core P&E cable connects an OptiX RTN 310 to an EG4P board on an OptiX RTN
900. All its eight cores transmit GE electrical signals and -48 V power signals.

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Cable Diagram

Figure 8-3 12-core P&E cable

View B
Label 1

B
Main label
P&E port connected to
an OptiX RTN 310 P&E port connected to a PI

Label 2 MGMT port connected to a PI


H.S. tube
C

Label 1: P&E
Label 2: MGMT

View C

View A

Figure 8-4 8-core P&E cable


Main label Label 1
P&E port connected to
P&E port connected
an OptiX RTN 310
to an OptiX RTN 900

A
B

Label 1: P&E

View B

View A

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Pin Assignments

Table 8-3 Pin assignments for P&E cables


Connector Connector Color Signal Function Relationsh
X1 X2/X3 ip

X1.1 X2.1 White/ BIDA+/ Bidirectional Twisted pair


Orange BGND data wire A
(+)/Power
ground (0 V)

X1.2 X2.2 Orange BIDA-/ Bidirectional


BGND data wire A
(-)/Power
ground (0 V)

X1.3 X2.3 White/Green BIDB+/-48 Bidirectional Twisted pair


V data wire B
(+)/Power
signal (-48
V)

X1.4 X2.6 Green BIDB-/-48 V Bidirectional


data wire B
(-)/Power
signal (-48
V)

X1.5 X2.4 Blue BIDC+/ Bidirectional Twisted pair


BGND data wire C
(+)/Power
ground (0 V)

X1.6 X2.5 White/Blue BIDC-/ Bidirectional


BGND data wire C
(-)/Power
ground (0 V)

X1.7 X2.7 White/ BIDD+/-48 Bidirectional Twisted pair


Brown V data wire D
(+)/Power
signal (-48
V)

X1.8 X2.8 Brown BIDD-/-48 V Bidirectional


data wire D
(-)/Power
signal (-48
V)

X1.9 (only X3.1 (only Red/Orange TX+ Transmitting Twisted pair


for 12-core for 12-core data (+)
P&E cables) P&E cables)

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Connector Connector Color Signal Function Relationsh


X1 X2/X3 ip

X1.10 (only X3.2 (only Orange TX- Transmitting


for 12-core for 12-core data (-)
P&E cables) P&E cables)

X1.11 (only X3.3 (only Red/Green RX+ Receiving Twisted pair


for 12-core for 12-core data (+)
P&E cables) P&E cables)

X1.12 (only X3.6 (only Green RX- Receiving


for 12-core for 12-core data (-)
P&E cables) P&E cables)

Shield layer Shield layer - - - -

Length
Both 12-core and 8-core P&E cables are available in four lengths:
l 30 m
l 50 m
l 70 m
l 100 m

Select among the preceding lengths depending on distances between OptiX RTN 310s and power
supply devices, or make cables with site-specific lengths (a maximum length of 100 ms is
allowed).

8.4 OptiX RTN 310 PGND Cables


PGND cables are connected to ground screws and outdoor ground points (such as ground points
on towers) so that the OptiX RTN 310 is connected to the outdoor ground grid.

Cable Diagram

Figure 8-5 OptiX RTN 310 PGND cable


1
2

1500 mm

1. Bare crimp terminal, OT 2. Base of the ground clip

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8.5 PI PGND Cables


PI PGND cables also connect outdoor PIs to outdoor ground points (for example, ground points
on towers), so outdoor PIs connect to outdoor ground grids.

Cable Diagram

Figure 8-6 Outdoor-PI PGND cable


1
2

1500 mm

1. Bare crimp terminal, OT 2. Base of a ground clip

8.6 XPIC Cables


An XPIC cable transmits reference IF signals between the two OptiX RTN 310s in an XPIC
group to implement XPIC.
OptiX RTN 310s use high-speed outdoor SFP cables as XPIC cables.

Cable Diagram

Figure 8-7 XPIC cable


View A

2 2
1 1
A

1. SFP20 male connector 2. Protective tube

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Cable Parameters

Table 8-4 Cable parameters


Cable Parameter

SFP high-speed cable 2 meters, SFP20M, CC2P0.5 black, SFP20M,


low smoke, zero halogen, ultraviolet-resistant
for outdoor use

8.7 RSSI Cables


Received signal strength indicator (RSSI) cables connect RSSI ports of OptiX RTN 310s to
multimeters.

Cable Diagram

Figure 8-8 RSSI cable


Main label

H.S. tube

Tin View A
X1
W
A

Connected to a
multimeter testing RSSI
Connected to port RSSI
on an OptiX RTN Smart

Pin Assignments
An RSSI cable uses two cores to detect level signals.

Table 8-5 Pin assignments for RSSI cables


Connector X1 Signal

X1.4 Ground signal

X1.7 RSSI test level signal

8.8 Optical Fibers


OptiX RTN 310s use optical fibers with DLC/UPC connectors at both ends to transmit optical
signals.

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Fiber Diagram

Figure 8-9 Optical fiber


Yellow Identifier

DLC/UPC
DLC/UPC
Junction implement Blue
(With glue)(Black)

NOTE

l Fiber connectors must be fit into outdoor protective tubes.


l Optical fibers already have correct receive/transmit connections at both ends.

Technical Specifications

Table 8-6 Technical specifications of optical fibers

Connector Type Fiber Parameter

DLC/UPC Single-mode, GYFJH 2B1.3 (low smoke and


zero halogen), 7.0 mm, 2-core, 0.03 m/0.34
m, 2 mm, outdoor protected branch cable

DLC/UPC Multi-mode, GYFJH 2A1a (low smoke zero


halogen), 7.0 mm, 2-core, 0.03 m/0.34 m, 2
mm, outdoor protected branch cable

Optical fibers for GE optical ports are available in 10 lengths, ranging from 10 meters to 150
meters. Select optical fibers of appropriate lengths based on transmission distances.

Optical fibers for 1+1 cascade ports are available in two lengths, 2 meters and 20 meters. A 2-
meter optical fiber is used when 1+1 hot standby (HSB) or 1+1 frequency diversity (FD)
protection is configured. A 20-meter optical fiber is used when 1+1 space diversity (SD)
protection is configured. You can use optical fibers of appropriate lengths if the two lengths
cannot meet onsite requirements.

8.9 Outdoor Network Cables


Fitted with RJ45 connectors at both ends, outdoor network cables connect outdoor power
injectors (PIs) to indoor Ethernet equipment.

Two types of interfaces use RJ45 connectors: medium dependent interfaces (MDIs) and medium
dependent interface crossovers (MDI-Xs). MDIs are used by terminal equipment (for example,
network cards) and their pin assignments are provided in Table 8-7. MDI-Xs are used by network
equipment and their pin assignments are provided in Table 8-8.

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Table 8-7 Pin assignments for MDIs


Pin 10/100BASE-T(X) 1000BASE-T

Signal Function Signal Function

1 TX+ Transmitting data (+) BIDA+ Bidirectional data wire A


(+)

2 TX- Transmitting data (-) BIDA- Bidirectional data wire A


(-)

3 RX+ Receiving data (+) BIDB+ Bidirectional data wire B


(+)

4 Reserved - BIDC+ Bidirectional data wire C


(+)

5 Reserved - BIDC- Bidirectional data wire C


(-)

6 RX- Receiving data (-) BIDB- Bidirectional data wire B


(-)

7 Reserved - BIDD+ Bidirectional data wire D


(+)

8 Reserved - BIDD- Bidirectional data wire D


(-)

Table 8-8 Pin assignments for MDI-Xs


Pin 10/100BASE-T(X) 1000BASE-T

Signal Function Signal Function

1 RX+ Receiving data (+) BIDB+ Bidirectional data wire B


(+)

2 RX- Receiving data (-) BIDB- Bidirectional data wire B


(-)

3 TX+ Transmitting data (+) BIDA+ Bidirectional data wire A


(+)

4 Reserved - BIDD+ Bidirectional data wire D


(+)

5 Reserved - BIDD- Bidirectional data wire D


(-)

6 TX- Transmitting data (-) BIDA- Bidirectional data wire A


(-)

7 Reserved - BIDC+ Bidirectional data wire C


(+)

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Product Description 8 Cables

Pin 10/100BASE-T(X) 1000BASE-T

Signal Function Signal Function

8 Reserved - BIDC- Bidirectional data wire C


(-)

Straight-through cables are used between MDIs and MDI-Xs, and crossover cables are used
between MDIs or between MDI-Xs. The only difference between straight-through cables and
crossover cables is with regard to their pin assignments.
The NMS ports and GE electrical ports of PIs support the MDI, MDI-X, and auto-MDI/MDI-
X modes. Straight-through cables and crossover cables can be used to connect NMS ports and
GE electrical ports to MDIs or MDI-Xs. Straight-through cables are recommended if network
cables are made onsite.

Cable Diagram

Figure 8-10 Network cable


1
Label 1 Main Label Label 2

8 8

1 1

1. Network port connector, RJ45

Pin Assignments

Table 8-9 Pin assignments for straight-through cables


Connector X1 Connector X2 Color Relationship

X1.1 X2.1 White/Orange Twisted pair

X1.2 X2.2 Orange

X1.3 X2.3 White/Green Twisted pair

X1.6 X2.6 Green

X1.4 X2.4 Blue Twisted pair

X1.5 X2.5 White/Blue

X1.7 X2.7 White/Brown Twisted pair

X1.8 X2.8 Brown

Braided shield

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Product Description 8 Cables

Table 8-10 Pin assignments for crossover cables


Connector X1 Connector X2 Color Relationship

X1.1 X2.3 White/Green Twisted pair

X1.2 X2.6 Green

X1.3 X2.1 White/Orange Twisted pair

X1.6 X2.2 Orange

X1.4 X2.4 Blue Twisted pair

X1.5 X2.5 White/Blue

X1.7 X2.7 White/Brown Twisted pair

X1.8 X2.8 Brown

Braided shield

NOTE
When an outdoor PI is installed indoors or connects to a personal computer, you can use a network cable
without the braided shield.

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Product Description A Appendix

A Appendix

A.1 Port Loopbacks


The loopback capabilities of ports on the OptiX RTN 310 differ based on the port type.
A.2 Compliance Standards

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Product Description A Appendix

A.1 Port Loopbacks


The loopback capabilities of ports on the OptiX RTN 310 differ based on the port type.

Table A-1 Port loopbacks

Port Type Loopback Capability

Microwave port l Inloops at the IF port


l Outloops at the IF port
l Inloops at the composite port
l Outloops at the composite port
l Inloops at the MAC layer

GE port l Inloops at the MAC layer


l Inloops at the PHY layer

A.2 Compliance Standards

A.2.1 ITU-R Standards


The OptiX RTN 310 complies with the ITU-R standards designed for microwave equipment.

Table A-2 ITU-R standard

Standard Description

Radio-frequency channel arrangements for radio-relay systems


ITU-R F.497-7 operating in the 13 GHz frequency band

Radio-frequency channel arrangements for radio-relay systems


ITU-R F.636-3 operating in the 15 GHz band

Radio-frequency arrangements for systems of the fixed service


ITU-R F.749-2 operating in the 38 GHz band

ITU-R F.1191-2 Bandwidths and unwanted emissions of digital radio-relay systems

ITU-R SM.329-10 Unwanted emissions in the spurious domain

ITU-R P.676-8 Attenuation by atmospheric gases

ITU-R P.530-13 Propagation data and prediction methods required for the design of
terrestrial line-of-sight systems

ITU-R P.453-9 The radio refractive index: its formula and refractivity data

ITU-R P.525 Calculation of free-space attenuation

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Product Description A Appendix

Standard Description

ITU-R P.837-5 Characteristics of precipitation for propagation modelling

ITU-R P.838-3 Specific attenuation model for rain for use in prediction methods

Effects of multipath propagation on the design and operation of line-


ITU-R F.1093 of-sight digital fixed wireless systems

ITU-R F.1101 Characteristics of digital fixed wireless systems below about 17 GHz

ITU-R F.1102 Characteristics of fixed wireless systems operating in frequency


bands above about 17 GHz

ITU-R F.1605 Error performance and availability estimation for synchronous digital
hierarchy terrestrial fixed wireless systems

ITU-R F.1703 Availability objectives for real digital fixed wireless links used in 27
500 km hypothetical reference paths and connections

ITU-R F.592 Vocabulary of terms for the fixed service

ITU-R F.746 Radio-frequency arrangements for fixed service systems

Hypothetical reference digital path for radio-relay systems which may


form part of an integrated services digital network with a capacity
ITU-R F.556 above the second hierarchical level

Radiation pattern of reference antennas for fixed wireless systems


used for coordination studies and interference assessment in the
ITU-R F.699-7 frequency range between 100 MHz and 70 GHz

A.2.2 ITU-T Standards


The OptiX RTN 310 complies with the ITU-T standards.

Table A-3 ITU-T standard


Standard Description

ITU-T G.8011 Ethernet over Transport - Ethernet services


framework

ITU-T G.8011.1 Ethernet private line service

ITU-T G.8011.2 Ethernet virtual private line service

ITU-T G.8261 Timing and synchronization aspects in packet


networks

ITU-T G.8262 Timing characteristics of synchronous


Ethernet equipment slave clock (EEC)

ITU-T G.8264 Timing distribution through packet networks

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Product Description A Appendix

Standard Description

ITU-T G.8031 Ethernet protection switching

ITU-T G.8032 Ethernet ring protection switching

ITU-T Y.1730 Requirements for OAM functions in Ethernet


based networks and Ethernet services

ITU-T Y.1731 OAM functions and mechanisms for Ethernet


based networks

ITU-T G.8010 Architecture of Ethernet layer networks

ITU-T G.8021 Characteristics of Ethernet transport network


equipment functional blocks

ITU-T Y.1291 An architectural framework for support of


quality of service (QoS) in packet networks

ITU-T K.20 Resistibility of telecommunication


equipment installed in a telecommunications
centre to overvoltages and overcurrents

ITU-T K.21 Resistibility of telecommunication


equipment installed in customer premises to
overvoltages and overcurrents

ITU-T K.27 Bonding configurations and earthing inside a


telecommunication building

A.2.3 ETSI Standards


The OptiX RTN 310 complies with the ETSI standards designed for microwave equipment.

Table A-4 ETSI standard


Standard Description

ETSI EN 302 217-1 Fixed Radio Systems; Characteristics and requirements for point-to-
V1.3.1 point equipment and antennas; Part 1: Overview and system-
independent common characteristics

ETSI EN 302 Fixed Radio Systems; Characteristics and requirements for point-to-
217-2-1 V1.3.1 point equipment and antennas; Part 2-1: System-dependent
requirements for digital systems operating in frequency bands where
frequency co-ordination is applied

ETSI EN 302 Fixed Radio Systems; Characteristics and requirements for point-to-
217-2-2 V1.4.1 point equipment and antennas; Part 2-2: Harmonized EN covering
essential requirements of Article 3.2 of R&TTE Directive for digital
systems operating in frequency bands where frequency co-ordination
is applied

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Product Description A Appendix

Standard Description

ETSI EN 302 217-3 Fixed Radio Systems; Characteristics and requirements for point-to-
V1.4.1 point equipment and antennas; Part 3: Harmonized EN covering
essential requirements of Article 3.2 of R&TTE Directive for
equipment operating in frequency bands where no frequency co-
ordination is applied

ETSI EN 302 Fixed Radio Systems; Characteristics and requirements for point-to-
217-4-1 V1.4.1 point equipment and antennas; Part 4-1: System-dependent
requirements for antennas

ETSI EN 302 Fixed Radio Systems; Characteristics and requirements for point-to-
217-4-2 V1.5.1 point equipment and antennas; Part 4-2: Harmonized EN covering
essential requirements of Article 3.2 of R&TTE Directive for
antennas

ETSI EN 301 126-1 Fixed Radio Systems; Conformance testing; Part 1: Point-to-Point
V1.1.2 equipment - Definitions, general requirements and test procedures

ETSI EN 301 Fixed Radio Systems; Conformance testing; Part 3-1: Point-to-Point
126-3-1 V1.1.2 antennas; Definitions, general requirements and test procedures

ETSI EN 301 390 Fixed Radio Systems; Point-to-point and Multipoint Systems;
V1.2.1 Spurious emissions and receiver immunity limits at equipment/
antenna port of Digital Fixed Radio Systems

ETSI EN 300 385 Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM);
ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMC) standard for fixed radio links
and ancillary equipment

ETSI EN 300 386 Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM);
Telecommunication network equipment; ElectroMagnetic
Compatibility (EMC) requirements

ETSI EN 301 489-1 Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters(ERM);


V1.8.1 Electromagnetic Compatibility(EMC) standard for radio equipment
and services; Part 1: Common technical requirements

ETSI EN 301 489-4 Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters(ERM);


V1.3.1 Electromagnetic Compatibility(EMC) standard for radio equipment
and services; Part 4: Specific conditions for fixed radio links and
ancillary equipment and services

ETSI TR 102 457 Transmission and Multiplexing (TM);Study on the electromagnetic


V1.1.1 radiated field in fixed radio systems for environmental issuesStudy
on the electromagnetic radiated field in fixed radio systems for
environmental issues

ETSI EN 300 132-2 Environmental Engineering (EE); Power supply interface at the input
V2.2.2 to telecommunications equipment; Part 2: Operated by direct current
(dc)

ETSI EN 300 Environmental conditions and environmental tests for


019-1-1(Class 1.2) telecommunications equipment; Part 1-1: Classification of
V2.1.4 environmental conditions;Storage Class 1.2

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Standard Description

ETSI EN 300 Environmental conditions and environmental tests for


019-1-2(Class 2.3) telecommunications equipment;Part 1-2: Classification of
V2.1.4 environmental conditions; Transportation Class 2.3

ETSI EN 300 Environmental Engineering (EE); Environmental conditions and


019-2-4 V2.2.2 environmental tests for telecommunications equipment; Part 2-4:
Specification of environmental tests; Stationary use at non-
weatherprotected locations

ETSI TR 102 489 Thermal Management Guidance for equipment and its deployment
V1.1.1

ETSI ETS 300 253 Equipment Engineering; Earthing and bonding of telecommunication
(1995) equipment in telecommunication centres

A.2.4 CEPT Standards


OptiX RTN 310 complies with the CEPT standards.

Table A-5 CEPT Standards

Standard Description

ERC/REC 74-01 Unwanted Emissions in the Spurious Domain

ERC/REC 12-02 Harmonized radio frequency channel arrangements for analogue and
digital terrestrial fixed systems operating in the band 12.75 GHz to
13.25 GHz

ERC/REC 12-07 Harmonized radio frequency channel arrangements for digital


terrestrial fixed systems operating in the band 14.5 - 14.62 GHz paired
with 15.23 - 15.35 GHz

T/R 12-01 Harmonized radio frequency channel arrangements for analogue and
digital terrestrial fixed systems operating in the band 37-39.5 GHz

A.2.5 IEC Standards


The OptiX RTN 310 complies with the IEC standards related to the waveguide.

Table A-6 IEC standards

Standard Description

IEC 60154-1 Flanges for waveguides. Part 1: General requirements

IEC 60154-2 Flanges for waveguides. Part 2: Relevant specifications for flanges for
ordinary rectangular waveguides

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Standard Description

IEC 60154-3 Flanges for waveguides. Part 3: Relevant specifications for flanges for
flat rectangular waveguides

IEC 60154-4 Flanges for waveguides. Part 4: Relevant specifications for flanges for
circular waveguides

IEC 60154-6 Flanges for waveguides. Part 6: Relevant specifications for flanges for
medium flat rectangular waveguides

IEC 60154-7 Flanges for waveguides - Part 7: Relevant specifications for flanges for
square waveguides

IEC 60153-1 Hollow metallic waveguides. Part 1 : General requirements and


measuring methods

IEC 60153-2 Hollow metallic waveguides. Part 2 : Relevant specifications for ordinary
rectangular waveguides

IEC 60153-3 Hollow metallic waveguides. Part 3 : Relevant specifications for flat
rectangular waveguides

IEC 60153-4 Hollow metallic waveguides. Part 4 : Relevant specifications for circular
waveguides

IEC 60153-6 Hollow metallic waveguides. Part 6 : Relevant specifications for medium
flat rectangular waveguides

IEC 60153-7 Hollow metallic waveguides. Part 7 : Relevant specifications for square
waveguides

IEC 60215 Safety requirements for radio transmitting equipment

IEC 60825 Safety of laser products

IEC 60950-1 Information technology equipment - Safety

IEC 60657 Non-ionizing radiation hazards in the frequency range from 10 MHz to
300 000 MHz

IEC 60297 Dimensions of mechanical structures of the 482.6 mm (19 in) series

IEC 60529 Degrees of protection provided by enclosures

IEC 721-3-4 Classification of environmental conditions - Part 3: Classification of


groups of environmental parameters and their severities - Section 4:
Stationary use at non-weather protected locations. Classes
4K2/4Z5/4Z7/4B1/4C2(4C3)/4S2/4M5(Outdoor Unit)

IEC 61000-4-2 Electromagnetic compatibility(EMC) Part 2:Testing and measurement


techniques Section 2:Electrostatic discharge immunity test Basic EMC
Publication

IEC 61000-4-3 Electromagnetic compatibility; Part 3:Testing and measurement


techniques Section 3 radio frequency electromagnetic fields; immunity
test.

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Standard Description

IEC 61000-4-4 Electromagnetic compatibility(EMC) Part 4:Testing and measurement


techniques Section 4:Electrical fast transient/burst immunity test Basic
EMC publication

IEC 61000-4-5 Electromagnetic compatibility(EMC) Part 5:Testing and measurement


techniques Section 5:Sruge immunity test

IEC 61000-4-6 Electromagnetic compatibility: Part 6:Testing and measurement


techniques: Section 6 conducted disturbances induced by radio-frequency
fields; immunity test

IEC 61000-4-29 Electromagnetic compatibility: Part 29:Testing and measurement


techniques –Voltage dips, short interruptinns and voltage variations on
DC input power port immunity tests

A.2.6 IETF Standards


The OptiX RTN 310 complies with IETF standards.

Table A-7 IETF standards


Standard Description

RFC 791 Internet Protocol

RFC 2819 Remote Network Monitoring Management Information


Base

draft-ietf-l2vpn-oam-req- L2VPN OAM requirements and framework


frmk-05

draft-ietf-l2vpn-signaling-08 Provisioning, autodiscovery, and signaling in L2VPNs

RFC 4664 Framework for layer 2 virtual private networks (L2VPNs)

RFC 3916 Requirements for pseudo-wire emulation edge-to-edge


(PWE3)

RFC 3289 Management information base for the differentiated


services architecture

RFC 3644 Policy quality of service (QoS) Information model

RFC 3670 Information model for describing network device QoS


datapath mechanisms

RFC 2212 Specification of guaranteed quality of service

RFC 2474 Definition of the Differentiated Services Field(DS Field)


in the IPv4 and IPv6 Headers

RFC 2475 An architecture for differentiated services

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Standard Description

STD 0062 An Architecture for Describing Simple Network


Management Protocol (SNMP) Management Frameworks

A.2.7 IEEE Standards


The OptiX RTN 310 complies with the IEEE standards designed for Ethernet networks.

Table A-8 IEEE standards

Standard Description

IEEE 802.1D Media Access Control (MAC) Bridges

IEEE 802.3 Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)
access method and physical layer specifications

IEEE 802.1Q Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks

IEEE 802.1ag Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks — Amendment 5: Connectivity


Fault Management

IEEE 802.3ah Media Access Control Parameters, Physical Layers, and Management
Parameters for Subscriber Access Networks

IEEE 802.3x Supplements to Carrier Sense Multiple Access With Collision Detection
(CSMA/CD) Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications

IEEE 802.3ad Link Aggregation Task Force

A.2.8 Other Standards


This section describes other standards with which the OptiX RTN 310 complies.

Table A-9 Other standards

Standard Description

MEF 2 Requirements and framework for Ethernet service protection in metro


Ethernet networks

MEF 4 Metro Ethernet network architecture framework - Part 1: generic


framework

MEF 9 Abstract Test Suite for Ethernet Services at the UNI

MEF 10 Ethernet services attributes phase 1

MEF 14 Abstract Test Suite for Traffic Management Phase 1

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Product Description A Appendix

Standard Description

AF-PHY-0086.001 AF-PHY-0086.001 Inverse Multiplexing for ATM Specification


Version 1.1

AF-TM-0121.000 Traffic Management Specification

CISPR 22(1997) limits and methods of measurement of radio disturbance characteristics


of information

CISPR 24(1998) Information Technology Equipment - Immunity characteristics -


Limits and methods measurement

EN 50383 Basic standard for the calculation and measurement of electromagnetic


field strength and SAR related to human exposure from radio base
stations and fixed terminal stations for wireless telecommunications
system (110 MHz - 40 GHz)

EN 50385 Product standard to demonstrate the compliances of radio base stations


and fixed terminal stations for wireless telecommunication systems
with the basic restrictions or the reference levels related to human
exposure to ratio frequency electromagnetic fields(110MHz-40GHz)-
General public

EN 55022 Information technology equipment - Radio disturbance characteristics


- Limits and methods of measurement (IEC/CISPR 22:1997, modified
+ A1:2000); German version EN 55022:1998 + Corrigendum:2001 +
A1:2000

EN 55024 Information technology equipment - Immunity characteristics - Limits


and methods of measurement

EN 41003 Particular safety requirements for equipment to be connected to


telecommunication networks;

EN 60825 Safety of laser products

EN 60950-1 Safety of information technology equipment

EN 60529 Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP code) (IEC


60529:1989 + A1:1999): German version EN 60529:1991 + A1:2000

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Product Description B Glossary

B Glossary

Numerics
3G See 3rd Generation.
3rd Generation (3G) The third generation of digital wireless technology, as defined by the International
Telecommunications Union (ITU). Third generation technology is expected to deliver
data transmission speeds between 144 kbit/s and 2 Mbit/s, compared to the 9.6 kbit/s to
19.2 kbit/s offered by second generation technology.

A
ABR See area border router.
ACAP See adjacent channel alternate polarization.
ACL See access control list.
AF See assured forwarding.
AIS alarm indication signal
AM See adaptive modulation.
ARP See Address Resolution Protocol.
ASBR See autonomous system boundary router.
ATM asynchronous transfer mode
ATPC See automatic transmit power control.
Address Resolution An Internet Protocol used to map IP addresses to MAC addresses. It allows hosts and
Protocol (ARP) routers to determine the link layer addresses through ARP requests and ARP responses.
access control list A list of entities, together with their access rights, which are authorized to have access
(ACL) to a resource.
adaptive modulation A technology that is used to automatically adjust the modulation mode according to the
(AM) channel quality. When the channel quality is favorable, the equipment uses a high-
efficiency modulation mode to improve the transmission efficiency and the spectrum
utilization of the system. When the channel quality is degraded, the equipment uses the
low-efficiency modulation mode to improve the anti-interference capability of the link
that carries high-priority services.

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adjacent channel A channel configuration method, which uses two adjacent channels (a horizontal
alternate polarization polarization wave and a vertical polarization wave) to transmit two signals.
(ACAP)
air interface The interface between the cellular phone set or wireless modem (usually portable or
mobile) and the active base station.
alarm suppression An alarm management method. Alarms that are set to be suppressed are not reported
from NEs any more.
area border router A router that can belong to more than two areas of which one area must be a backbone
(ABR) area.
assured forwarding One of the four per-hop behaviors (PHB) defined by the Diff-Serv workgroup of IETF.
(AF) It is suitable for certain key data services that require assured bandwidth and short delay.
For traffic within the bandwidth limit, AF assures quality in forwarding. For traffic that
exceeds the bandwidth limit, AF degrades the service class and continues to forward the
traffic instead of discarding the packets.
automatic transmit A method of adjusting the transmit power based on fading of the transmit signal detected
power control (ATPC) at the receiver
autonomous system A router that exchanges routing information with other ASs.
boundary router
(ASBR)

B
BE See best effort.
BIOS See basic input/output system.
backup A periodic operation performed on the data stored in the database for the purposes of
database recovery in case that the database is faulty. The backup also refers to data
synchronization between active and standby boards.
bandwidth A range of transmission frequencies that a transmission line or channel can carry in a
network. In fact, it is the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies the
transmission line or channel. The greater the bandwidth, the faster the data transfer rate.
baseband A form of modulation in which the information is applied directly onto the physical
transmission medium.
basic input/output A firmware stored in the computer mainboard. It contains basic input/output control
system (BIOS) programs, power-on self test (POST) programs, bootstraps, and system setting
information. The BIOS provides hardware setting and control functions for the computer.
best effort (BE) A traditional IP packet transport service. In this service, the diagrams are forwarded
following the sequence of the time they reach. All diagrams share the bandwidth of the
network and routers. The amount of resource that a diagram can use depends of the time
it reaches. BE service does not ensure any improvement in delay time, jitter, packet loss
ratio, and high reliability.
blacklist A method of filtering packets based on their source IP addresses. Compared with ACL,
the match condition for the black list is much simpler. Therefore, the black list can filter
packets at a higher speed and can effectively screen the packet sent from the specific IP
address.

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Product Description B Glossary

bridge A device that connects two or more networks and forwards packets among them. Bridges
operate at the physical network level. Bridges differ from repeaters because bridges store
and forward complete packets, while repeaters forward all electrical signals. Bridges
differ from routers because bridges use physical addresses, while routers use IP
addresses.
broadcast A means of delivering information to all members in a network. The broadcast range is
determined by the broadcast address.
burst A process of forming data into a block of the proper size, uninterruptedly sending the
block in a fast operation, waiting for a long time, and preparing for the next fast sending.

C
CC See continuity check.
CCDP See co-channel dual polarization.
CSES consecutive severely errored second
CSMA/CD See carrier sense multiple access with collision detection.
carrier sense multiple Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) is a computer
access with collision networking access method in which:
detection (CSMA/CD)
l A carrier sensing scheme is used.
l A transmitting data station that detects another signal while transmitting a frame,
stops transmitting that frame, transmits a jam signal, and then waits for a random
time interval before trying to send that frame again.
chain network One type of network that all network nodes are connected one after one to be in series.
channel spacing The center-to-center difference in frequency or wavelength between adjacent channels
in a WDM device.
co-channel dual A channel configuration method, which uses a horizontal polarization wave and a vertical
polarization (CCDP) polarization wave to transmit two signals. The Co-Channel Dual Polarization has twice
the transmission capacity of the single polarization.
congestion A flow control measure to solve the problem of network resource competition. When
management the network congestion occurs, it places packets into the queue for buffer and determines
the packet forwarding order.
continuity check (CC) Ethernet CFM can detect the connectivity between MEPs. The detection is achieved after
MEPs transmit Continuity Check Messages (CCMs) periodically.
cross polarization A technology used in the case of the Co-Channel Dual Polarization (CCDP) to eliminate
interference the cross-connect interference between two polarization waves in the CCDP.
cancellation (XPIC)

D
DCC See data communications channel.
DCN See data communication network.
DD database description
DM See delay measurement.

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Product Description B Glossary

DRDB dynamic random database


DS data service
DSCP differentiated services code point
data communication A communication network used in a TMN or between TMNs to support the data
network (DCN) communication function.
data communications The data channel that uses the D1–D12 bytes in the overhead of an STM-N signal to
channel (DCC) transmit information about operation, management, maintenance and provision
(OAM&P) between NEs. The DCC channels that are composed of bytes D1–D3 are
referred to as the 192 kbit/s DCC-R channel. The other DCC channels that are composed
of bytes D4–D12 are referred to as the 576 kbit/s DCC-M channel.
delay measurement The time elapsed since the start of transmission of the first bit of the frame by a source
(DM) node until the reception of the last bit of the loopbacked frame by the same source node,
when the loopback is performed at the frame's destination node.
dual-polarized antenna An antenna intended to simultaneously radiate or receive two independent radio waves
orthogonally polarized.

E
E-LAN See Ethernet local area network.
E-Line See Ethernet line.
E1 An European standard for high-speed data transmission at 2.048 Mbit/s. It provides
thirty-two 64 kbit/s channels. A time division multiplexing frame is divided in to 32
timeslots numbered from 0 to 31. Timeslot 0 is reserved for frame synchronization, and
timeslot 16 is reserved for signaling transmission. The rest 30 timeslots are use as speech
channels. Each timeslot sends or receives an 8-bit data per second. Each frame sends or
receives 256-bit data per second. 8000 frames will be sent or received per second.
Therefore the line data rate is 2.048 Mbit/s.
ECC See embedded control channel.
EF See expedited forwarding.
EMC See electromagnetic compatibility.
ERPS Ethernet ring protection switching
ES errored second
ESD electrostatic discharge
ETS European Telecommunication Standards
ETSI See European Telecommunications Standards Institute.
Ethernet line (E-Line) A type of Ethernet service that is based on a point-to-point EVC (Ethernet virtual
connection).
Ethernet local area A type of Ethernet service that is based on a multipoint-to-multipoint EVC (Ethernet
network (E-LAN) virtual connection).
European A standards-setting body in Europe. Also the standards body responsible for GSM.
Telecommunications
Standards Institute
(ETSI)

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Product Description B Glossary

electromagnetic A condition which prevails when telecommunications equipment is performing its


compatibility (EMC) individually designed function in a common electromagnetic environment without
causing or suffering unacceptable degradation due to unintentional electromagnetic
interference to or from other equipment in the same environment.
embedded control A logical channel that uses a data communications channel (DCC) as its physical layer,
channel (ECC) to enable transmission of operation, administration, and maintenance (OAM)
information between NEs.
expedited forwarding The highest order QoS in the Diff-Serv network. EF PHB is suitable for services that
(EF) demand low packet loss ratio, short delay, and broad bandwidth. In all the cases, EF
traffic can guarantee a transmission rate equal to or faster than the set rate. The DSCP
value of EF PHB is "101110".
extended ID The number of the subnet that an NE belongs to, for identifying different network
segments in a WAN. The physical ID of an NE is comprised of the NE ID and extended
ID.
extended NE ID The serial number of a subnetwork where an NE resides, which is usually used to
distinguish different network segments. An extended ID and an ID form the physical ID
of an NE.

F
FE See fast Ethernet.
FEC See forward error correction.
FIFO See first in first out.
FPGA See field programmable gate array.
FTP File Transfer Protocol
fast Ethernet (FE) Any network that supports transmission rate of 100 Mbit/s. The Fast Ethernet is 10 times
faster than 10BaseT, and inherits frame format, MAC addressing scheme, MTU, and so
on. Fast Ethernet is extended based on the IEEE802.3 standard, and it uses the following
three types of transmission media: 100BASE-T4 (4 pairs of phone twisted-pair cables),
100BASE-TX (2 pairs of data twisted-pair cables), and 100BASE-FX (2-core optical
fibers).
field programmable A type of semi-customized circuit used in the application specific integrated circuit
gate array (FPGA) (ASIC) field. It is developed on the basis of the programmable components, such as the
PAL, GAL, and EPLD. It not only remedies the defects of customized circuits but also
overcomes the disadvantage of the original programmable components in terms of the
limited number of gate arrays.
first in first out (FIFO) A stack management mechanism. The first saved data is first read and invoked.
flooding A type of incident, such as insertion of a large volume of data, that results in denial of
service.
forward error A bit error correction technology that adds the correction information to the payload at
correction (FEC) the transmit end. Based on the correction information, the bit errors generated during
transmission are corrected at the receive end.

G
GE See gigabit Ethernet.

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GNE See gateway network element.


gateway A device that connects two network segments using different protocols. It is used to
translate the data in the two network segments.
gateway network A network element that is used for communication between the NE application layer and
element (GNE) the NM application layer.
gigabit Ethernet (GE) A collection of technologies for transmitting Ethernet frames at a rate of a gigabit per
second, as defined by the IEEE 802.3z standard. GE is compatible with 10 Mbit/s and
100 Mbit/s Ethernet. It runs at 1000 Mbit/s. Gigabit Ethernet uses a private medium, and
it does not support coaxial cables or other cables. It also supports the channels in the
bandwidth mode. If Gigabit Ethernet is, however, deployed to be the private bandwidth
system with a bridge (switch) or a router as the center, it gives full play to the performance
and the bandwidth. In the network structure, Gigabit Ethernet uses full duplex links that
are private, causing the length of the links to be sufficient for backbone applications in
a building and campus.

H
HSDPA See High Speed Downlink Packet Access.
HUAWEI Electronic The software used to view, search for, and upgrade electronic documentation of Huawei
Document Explorer products. HedEx, pronounced as [hediks], has two editions, HedEx Lite and HedEx
(HedEx) Server.
HedEx See HUAWEI Electronic Document Explorer.
High Speed Downlink A modulating-demodulating algorithm put forward in 3GPP R5 to meet the requirement
Packet Access for asymmetric uplink and downlink transmission of data services. It enables the
(HSDPA) maximum downlink data service rate to reach 14.4 Mbit/s without changing the
WCDMA network topology.

I
ICMP See Internet Control Message Protocol.
IDU See indoor unit.
IEEE See Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
IETF See Internet Engineering Task Force.
IP Internet Protocol
IP address A 32-bit (4-byte) binary digit that uniquely identifies a host (computer) connected to the
Internet for communication with other hosts in the Internet by transferring packets. An
IP address is expressed in dotted decimal notation, consisting of decimal values of its 4
bytes, separated by periods (,), for example, 127.0.0.1. The first three bytes of an IP
address identify the network to which the host is connected, and the last byte identifies
the host itself.
IPv4 See Internet Protocol version 4.
IPv6 See Internet Protocol version 6.
ISO International Organization for Standardization
ITU See International Telecommunication Union.

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ITU-T See International Telecommunication Union-Telecommunication Standardization


Sector.
Institute of Electrical A society of engineering and electronics professionals based in the United States but
and Electronics boasting membership from numerous other countries. The IEEE focuses on electrical,
Engineers (IEEE) electronics, computer engineering, and science-related matters.
International A United Nations agency, one of the most important and influential recommendation
Telecommunication bodies, responsible for recommending standards for telecommunication (ITU-T) and
Union (ITU) radio networks (ITU-R).
International An international body that develops worldwide standards for telecommunications
Telecommunication technologies. These standards are grouped together in series which are prefixed with a
Union- letter indicating the general subject and a number specifying the particular standard. For
Telecommunication example, X.25 comes from the "X" series which deals with data networks and open
Standardization Sector system communications and number "25" deals with packet switched networks.
(ITU-T)
Internet Control A network-layer (ISO/OSI level 3) Internet protocol that provides error correction and
Message Protocol other information relevant to IP packet processing. For example, it can let the IP software
(ICMP) on one machine inform another machine about an unreachable destination. See also
communications protocol, IP, ISO/OSI reference model, packet (definition 1).
Internet Engineering A worldwide organization of individuals interested in networking and the Internet.
Task Force (IETF) Managed by the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG), the IETF is charged with
studying technical problems facing the Internet and proposing solutions to the Internet
Architecture Board (IAB). The work of the IETF is carried out by various working groups
that concentrate on specific topics such as routing and security. The IETF is the publisher
of the specifications that led to the TCP/IP protocol standard.
Internet Protocol The current version of the Internet Protocol (IP). IPv4 utilizes a 32bit address which is
version 4 (IPv4) assigned to hosts. An address belongs to one of five classes (A, B, C, D, or E) and is
written as 4 octets separated by periods and may range from 0.0.0.0 through to
255.255.255.255. Each IPv4 address consists of a network number, an optional
subnetwork number, and a host number. The network and subnetwork numbers together
are used for routing, and the host number is used to address an individual host within the
network or subnetwork.
Internet Protocol An update version of IPv4, which is designed by the Internet Engineering Task Force
version 6 (IPv6) (IETF) and is also called IP Next Generation (IPng). It is a new version of the Internet
Protocol. The difference between IPv6 and IPv4 is that an IPv4 address has 32 bits while
an IPv6 address has 128 bits.
indoor unit (IDU) The indoor unit of the split-structured radio equipment. It implements accessing,
multiplexing/demultiplexing, and intermediate frequency (IF) processing for services.

J
jitter Short waveform variations caused by vibration, voltage fluctuations, and control system
instability.

L
L2VPN Layer 2 virtual private network
LACP See Link Aggregation Control Protocol.

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LAG See link aggregation group.


LAN See local area network.
LB See loopback.
LBM See loopback message.
LBR See loopback reply.
LCT local craft terminal
LM See loss measurement.
LOS See loss of signal.
LSA link-state advertisement
LSDB link state database
LSR See label switching router.
LT linktrace
LTM See linktrace message.
LTR See linktrace reply.
Layer 2 switching A data forwarding method. In a LAN, a network bridge or 802.3 Ethernet switch
transmits and distributes packet data based on the MAC address. Since the MAC address
is at the second layer of the OSI model, this data forwarding method is called Layer 2
switching.
Link Aggregation A method of bundling a group of physical interfaces together as a logical interface to
Control Protocol increase bandwidth and reliability. For related protocols and standards, refer to IEEE
(LACP) 802.3ad.
label switching router Basic element of an MPLS network. All LSRs support the MPLS protocol. The LSR is
(LSR) composed of two parts: control unit and forwarding unit. The former is responsible for
allocating the label, selecting the route, creating the label forwarding table, creating and
removing the label switch path; the latter forwards the labels according to groups
received in the label forwarding table.
link aggregation group An aggregation that allows one or more links to be aggregated together to form a link
(LAG) aggregation group so that a MAC client can treat the link aggregation group as if it were
a single link.
linktrace message The message sent by the initiator MEP of 802.1ag MAC Trace to the destination MEP.
(LTM) LTM includes the Time to Live (TTL) and the MAC address of the destination MEP2.
linktrace reply (LTR) For 802.1ag MAC Trace, the destination MEP replies with a response message to the
source MEP after the destination MEP receives the LTM, and the response message is
called LTR. LTR also includes the TTL that equals the result of the TTL of LTM minus
1.
local area network A network formed by the computers and workstations within the coverage of a few square
(LAN) kilometers or within a single building. It features high speed and low error rate. Ethernet,
FDDI, and Token Ring are three technologies used to implement a LAN. Current LANs
are generally based on switched Ethernet or Wi-Fi technology and running at 1,000 Mbit/
s (that is, 1 Gbit/s).
loopback (LB) A troubleshooting technique that returns a transmitted signal to its source so that the
signal or message can be analyzed for errors. The loopback can be a inloop or outloop.

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loopback message The loopback packet sent by the node that supports 802.2ag MAC Ping to the destination
(LBM) node. LBM message carries its own sending time.
loopback reply (LBR) A response message involved in the 802.2ag MAC Ping function, with which the
destination MEP replies to the source MEP after the destination MEP receives the LBM.
The LBR carries the sending time of LBM, the receiving time of LBM and the sending
time of LBR.
loss measurement (LM) A method used to collect counter values applicable for ingress and egress service frames
where the counters maintain a count of transmitted and received data frames between a
pair of MEPs.
loss of signal (LOS) No transitions occurring in the received signal.

M
MA maintenance association
MAC See Media Access Control.
MAC address A link layer address or physical address. It is six bytes long.
MD See maintenance domain.
MDI medium dependent interface
ME maintenance entity
MEP maintenance end point
MIB See management information base.
MIP maintenance intermediate point
MP maintenance point
MPLS See Multiprotocol Label Switching.
MSTP See Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol.
MTBF See mean time between failures.
MTTR See mean time to repair.
MTU See maximum transmission unit.
Media Access Control A protocol at the media access control sublayer. The protocol is at the lower part of the
(MAC) data link layer in the OSI model and is mainly responsible for controlling and connecting
the physical media at the physical layer. When transmitting data, the MAC protocol
checks whether to be able to transmit data. If the data can be transmitted, certain control
information is added to the data, and then the data and the control information are
transmitted in a specified format to the physical layer. When receiving data, the MAC
protocol checks whether the information is correct and whether the data is transmitted
correctly. If the information is correct and the data is transmitted correctly, the control
information is removed from the data and then the data is transmitted to the LLC layer.
Multiple Spanning A protocol that can be used in a loop network. Using an algorithm, the MSTP blocks
Tree Protocol (MSTP) redundant paths so that the loop network can be trimmed as a tree network. In this case,
the proliferation and endless cycling of packets is avoided in the loop network. The
protocol that introduces the mapping between VLANs and multiple spanning trees. This
solves the problem that data cannot be normally forwarded in a VLAN because in STP/
RSTP, only one spanning tree corresponds to all the VLANs.

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Multiprotocol Label A technology that uses short tags of fixed length to encapsulate packets in different link
Switching (MPLS) layers, and provides connection-oriented switching for the network layer on the basis of
IP routing and control protocols. It improves the cost performance and expandability of
networks, and is beneficial to routing.
maintenance domain The network or the part of the network for which connectivity is managed by connectivity
(MD) fault management (CFM). The devices in a maintenance domain are managed by a single
Internet service provider (ISP).
management A type of database used for managing the devices in a communications network. It
information base (MIB) comprises a collection of objects in a (virtual) database used to manage entities (such as
routers and switches) in a network.
maximum transmission The largest packet of data that can be transmitted on a network. MTU size varies,
unit (MTU) depending on the network—576 bytes on X.25 networks, for example, 1500 bytes on
Ethernet, and 17,914 bytes on 16 Mbit/s token ring. Responsibility for determining the
size of the MTU lies with the link layer of the network. When packets are transmitted
across networks, the path MTU, or PMTU, represents the smallest packet size (the one
that all networks can transmit without breaking up the packet) among the networks
involved.
mean time between The average time between consecutive failures of a piece of equipment. It is a measure
failures (MTBF) of the reliability of the system.
mean time to repair The average time that a device will take to recover from a failure.
(MTTR)
microwave The portion of the electromagnetic spectrum with much longer wavelengths than infrared
radiation, typically above about 1 mm.
multicast A process of transmitting data packets from one source to many destinations. The
destination address of the multicast packet uses Class D address, that is, the IP address
ranges from 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255. Each multicast address represents a multicast
group rather than a host.

N
NAS network access server
NE network element
NE Explorer The main operation interface, of the network management system, which is used to
manage the telecommunication equipment. In the NE Explorer, the user can query,
manage and maintain the NE, boards, and ports on a per-NE basis.
NTP Network Time Protocol
network segment A part of an Ethernet or other network, on which all message traffic is common to all
nodes, that is, it is broadcast from one node on the segment and received by all others.
network storm A phenomenon that occurs during data communication. To be specific, mass broadcast
packets are transmitted in a short time; the network is congested; transmission quality
and availability of the network decrease rapidly. The network storm is caused by network
connection or configuration problems.

O
OAM See operation, administration and maintenance.

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ODF optical distribution frame


ODU See outdoor unit.
OSI See open systems interconnection.
OSPF See Open Shortest Path First.
Open Shortest Path A link-state, hierarchical interior gateway protocol (IGP) for network routing. Dijkstra's
First (OSPF) algorithm is used to calculate the shortest path tree. It uses cost as its routing metric. A
link state database is constructed with the network topology which is identical on all
routers in the area.
open systems A framework of ISO standards for communication between different systems made by
interconnection (OSI) different vendors, in which the communications process is organized into seven different
categories that are placed in a layered sequence based on their relationship to the user.
Each layer uses the layer immediately below it and provides a service to the layer above.
Layers 7 through 4 deal with end-to-end communication between the message source
and destination, and layers 3 through 1 deal with network functions.
operation, A group of network support functions that monitor and sustain segment operation,
administration and support activities that are concerned with, but not limited to, failure detection,
maintenance (OAM) notification, location, and repairs that are intended to eliminate faults and keep a segment
in an operational state, and support activities required to provide the services of a
subscriber access network to users/subscribers.
outdoor unit (ODU) The outdoor unit of the split-structured radio equipment. It implements frequency
conversion and amplification for radio frequency (RF) signals.

P
P2P See point-to-point service.
PBS See peak burst size.
PDU protocol data unit
PHB See per-hop behavior.
PLL See phase-locked loop.
PPP Point-to-Point Protocol
PPPoE Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet
PRBS See pseudo random binary sequence.
PSN See packet switched network.
PTP Precision Time Protocol
PWE3 See pseudo wire emulation edge-to-edge.
packet loss The discarding of data packets in a network when a device is overloaded and cannot
accept any incoming data at a given moment.
packet switched A telecommunications network that works in packet switching mode.
network (PSN)
peak burst size (PBS) A parameter that is used to define the capacity of token bucket P, that is, the maximum
burst IP packet size when the information is transferred at the peak information rate. This
parameter must be larger than 0. It is recommended that PBS should be not less than the
maximum length of the IP packet that might be forwarded. See also CIR, CBS, and PIR.

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per-hop behavior IETF Diff-Serv workgroup defines forwarding behaviors of network nodes as per-hop
(PHB) behaviors (PHB), such as, traffic scheduling and policing. A device in the network should
select the proper PHB behaviors, based on the value of DSCP. At present, the IETF
defines four types of PHB. They are class selector (CS), expedited forwarding (EF),
assured forwarding (AF), and best-effort (BE).
phase-locked loop A circuit that consists essentially of a phase detector which compares the frequency of
(PLL) a voltage-controlled oscillator with that of an incoming carrier signal or reference-
frequency generator; the output of the phase detector, after passing through a loop filter,
is fed back to the voltage-controlled oscillator to keep it exactly in phase with the
incoming or reference frequency.
physical layer Layer 1 in the Open System Interconnection (OSI) architecture; the layer that provides
services to transmit bits or groups of bits over a transmission link between open systems
and which entails electrical, mechanical and handshaking.
point-to-point service A service between two terminal users. In P2P services, senders and recipients are
(P2P) terminal users.
polarization A kind of electromagnetic wave, the direction of whose electric field vector is fixed or
rotates regularly. Specifically, if the electric field vector of the electromagnetic wave is
perpendicular to the plane of horizon, this electromagnetic wave is called vertically
polarized wave; if the electric field vector of the electromagnetic wave is parallel to the
plane of horizon, this electromagnetic wave is called horizontal polarized wave; if the
tip of the electric field vector, at a fixed point in space, describes a circle, this
electromagnetic wave is called circularly polarized wave.
policy A set of rules that are applied when the conditions for triggering an event are met.
pseudo random binary A sequence that is random in a sense that the value of an element is independent of the
sequence (PRBS) values of any of the other elements, similar to real random sequences.
pseudo wire emulation An end-to-end Layer 2 transmission technology. It emulates the essential attributes of a
edge-to-edge (PWE3) telecommunication service such as ATM, FR or Ethernet in a packet switched network
(PSN). PWE3 also emulates the essential attributes of low speed time division
multiplexing (TDM) circuit and SONET/SDH. The simulation approximates to the real
situation.

Q
QPSK See quadrature phase shift keying.
QoS See quality of service.
quadrature phase shift A modulation method of data transmission through the conversion or modulation and
keying (QPSK) the phase determination of the reference signals (carrier). It is also called the fourth period
or 4-phase PSK or 4-PSK. QPSK uses four dots in the star diagram. The four dots are
evenly distributed on a circle. On these phases, each QPSK character can perform two-
bit coding and display the codes in Gray code on graph with the minimum BER.
quality of service (QoS) A commonly-used performance indicator of a telecommunication system or channel.
Depending on the specific system and service, it may relate to jitter, delay, packet loss
ratio, bit error ratio, and signal-to-noise ratio. It functions to measure the quality of the
transmission system and the effectiveness of the services, as well as the capability of a
service provider to meet the demands of users.

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RADIUS See Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service.


RADIUS An authentication mode in which the BRAS sends the user name and the password to
authentication the RADIUS server by using the RADIUS protocol. The RADIUS server authenticates
the user, and then returns the result to the BRAS.
RDI remote defect indication
RED See random early detection.
RF See radio frequency.
RFC See Request For Comments.
RMON remote network monitoring
RNC See radio network controller.
RSL See received signal level.
RSSI See received signal strength indicator.
RTN radio transmission node
Remote Authentication A security service that authenticates and authorizes dial-up users and is a centralized
Dial-In User Service access control mechanism. RADIUS uses the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) as its
(RADIUS) transmission protocol to ensure real-time quality. RADIUS also supports the
retransmission and multi-server mechanisms to ensure good reliability.
Request For Comments A document in which a standard, a protocol, or other information pertaining to the
(RFC) operation of the Internet is published. The RFC is actually issued, under the control of
the IAB, after discussion and serves as the standard. RFCs can be obtained from sources
such as InterNIC.
radio frequency (RF) A type of electric current in the wireless network using AC antennas to create an
electromagnetic field. It is the abbreviation of high-frequency AC electromagnetic wave.
The AC with the frequency lower than 1 kHz is called low-frequency current. The AC
with frequency higher than 10 kHz is called high-frequency current. RF can be classified
into such high-frequency current.
radio network A piece of equipment in the RNS which is in charge of controlling the use and the integrity
controller (RNC) of the radio resources.
random early detection A packet loss algorithm used in congestion avoidance. It discards the packet according
(RED) to the specified higher limit and lower limit of a queue so that global TCP synchronization
resulting from traditional tail drop can be prevented.
received signal level The signal level at a receiver input terminal.
(RSL)
received signal strength The received wide band power, including thermal noise and noise generated in the
indicator (RSSI) receiver, within the bandwidth defined by the receiver pulse shaping filter, for TDD
within a specified timeslot. The reference point for the measurement shall be the antenna
receiver sensitivity The minimum acceptable value of average received power at point R to achieve a 1 x
10-12 BER (The FEC is open).
route The path that network traffic takes from its source to its destination. In a TCP/IP network,
each IP packet is routed independently. Routes can change dynamically.
routing table A mapping table that stores the relationship between the original address, destination
address, SMS protocol type, and account. The SMSC delivers an SMS message to the
designated account according to the information in the routing table.

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S
SD See signal degrade.
SF See signal fail.
SFP small form-factor pluggable
SNMP See Simple Network Management Protocol.
SNR See signal-to-noise ratio.
SPF shortest path first
SSL See Secure Sockets Layer.
SSM See Synchronization Status Message.
Secure Sockets Layer A security protocol that works at a socket level. This layer exists between the TCP layer
(SSL) and the application layer to encrypt/decode data and authenticate concerned entities.
Simple Network A network management protocol of TCP/IP. It enables remote users to view and modify
Management Protocol the management information of a network element. This protocol ensures the
(SNMP) transmission of management information between any two points. The polling
mechanism is adopted to provide basic function sets. According to SNMP, agents, which
can be hardware as well as software, can monitor the activities of various devices on the
network and report these activities to the network console workstation. Control
information about each device is maintained by a management information block.
Synchronization Status A message that carries quality levels of timing signals on a synchronous timing link.
Message (SSM) Nodes on an SDH network and a synchronization network acquire upstream clock
information through this message. Then the nodes can perform proper operations on their
clocks, such as tracing, switching, or converting to holdoff, and forward the
synchronization information to downstream nodes.
service flow An MAC-layer-based unidirectional transmission service. It is used to transmit data
packets, and is characterized by a set of QoS parameters, such as latency, jitter, and
throughput.
shaping A process of delaying packets within a traffic stream to cause it to conform to specific
defined traffic profile.
signal degrade (SD) A signal indicating that associated data has degraded in the sense that a degraded defect
condition is active.
signal fail (SF) A signal indicating that associated data has failed in the sense that a near-end defect
condition (non-degrade defect) is active.
signal-to-noise ratio The ratio of the amplitude of the desired signal to the amplitude of noise signals at a
(SNR) given point in time. SNR is expressed as 10 times the logarithm of the power ratio and
is usually expressed in dB (Decibel).
single-polarized An antenna intended to radiate or receive radio waves with only one specified
antenna polarization.
subnet mask The technique used by the IP protocol to determine which network segment packets are
destined for. The subnet mask is a binary pattern that is stored in the client machine,
server or router matches with the IP address.

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TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol


TD-SCDMA See Time Division-Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access.
Time Division- A 3G mobile communications standard found in UMTS mobile telecommunications
Synchronous Code networks in China as an alternative to W-CDMA. TD-SCDMA integrates technologies
Division Multiple of CDMA, TDMA, and FDMA, and makes use of technologies including intelligent
Access (TD-SCDMA) antenna, joint detection, low chip rate (LCR), and adaptive power control. With the
flexibility of service processing, a TD-SCDMA network can connect to other networks
through the RNC.
tail drop A congestion management mechanism, in which packets arrive later are discarded when
the queue is full. This policy of discarding packets may result in network-wide
synchronization due to the TCP slow startup mechanism.
tolerance Permissible degree of variation from a pre-set standard.
traffic classification A function that enables you to classify traffic into different classes with different
priorities according to some criteria. Each class of traffic has a specified QoS in the entire
network. In this way, different traffic packets can be treated differently.
traffic shaping A way of controlling the network traffic from a computer to optimize or guarantee the
performance and minimize the delay. It actively adjusts the output speed of traffic in the
scenario that the traffic matches network resources provided by the lower layer devices,
avoiding packet loss and congestion.

U
UAS unavailable second
UAT See unavailable time event.
UDP See User Datagram Protocol.
UNI See user-to-network interface.
User Datagram A TCP/IP standard protocol that allows an application program on one device to send a
Protocol (UDP) datagram to an application program on another. User Datagram Protocol (UDP) uses IP
to deliver datagram. UDP provides application programs with the unreliable
connectionless packet delivery service. There is a possibility that UDP messages will be
lost, duplicated, delayed, or delivered out of order. The destination device does not
confirm whether a data packet is received.
unavailable time event An event that is reported when the monitored object generates 10 consecutive severely
(UAT) errored seconds (SES) and the SESs begin to be included in the unavailable time. The
event will end when the bit error ratio per second is better than 10-3 within 10 consecutive
seconds.
unicast The process of sending data from a source to a single recipient.
user-to-network The interface between user equipment and private or public network equipment (for
interface (UNI) example, ATM switches).

V
VB virtual bridge
VLAN virtual local area network
VM virtual memory

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W
WAN See wide area network.
WEEE waste electrical and electronic equipment
WRED See weighted random early detection.
WRR weighted round robin
WTR See wait to restore.
Web LCT The local maintenance terminal of a transport network, which is located at the NE
management layer of the transport network.
wait to restore (WTR) The number of minutes to wait before services are switched back to the working line.
weighted random early A packet loss algorithm used for congestion avoidance. It can prevent the global TCP
detection (WRED) synchronization caused by traditional tail-drop. WRED is favorable for the high-priority
packet when calculating the packet loss ratio.
wide area network A network composed of computers which are far away from each other which are
(WAN) physically connected through specific protocols. WAN covers a broad area, such as a
province, a state or even a country.
window General method for speech preprocessing, like Haming window.

X
XPIC See cross polarization interference cancellation.

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