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SEMINAR-WORKSHOP ON THE

HIGHWAY DESIGN

TOPIC OUTLINE

HIGHWAY TYPES/CLASSIFCICATIONS

BASIC HIGHWAY DESIGN DATA

GEOMETRIC

PAVEMENT

DRAINAGE

EARTHWORKS

HIGHWAY DRAINAGE

INTRODUCTION

Water is often the cause of highway destruction.

Highway drainage’s prime objective is to maintain all parts of it in an excellent drainage condition.

Another objective of highway drainage is to prevent traffic

congestion and slip accidents caused by the flooding of water

A good drainage system refers to collection, conveyance, removal and disposal of water running the surface, the water coming as precipitation in the form of rainwater.

HIGHWAY ALIGNMENT

Horizontal

Alignment

Determines where stream crossings will occur and where there will be a transverse or longitudinal encroachments

Vertical

Alignment

Normally easier to alter and

is not firmly set as early in

the project development

PAVEMENT DRAINAGE

Water enters the pavement structure in many ways, such as through

cracks, or pavement infiltration, or a s groundwater

Effects of this water (when trapped within the pavement structure) on pavements include:

Reduced strength of unbounded granular materials,

Pumping of concrete pavements with subsequent faulting, cracking, and general shoulder deterioration

Pumping of fines in aggregate base under

flexible

pavements resulting loss of support

PAVEMENT DRAINAGE

GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Preventing water from entering the pavement

Providing drainage to remove excess water quickly

Building the pavement strong enough to resist the combined effect of load and water

PAVEMENT

DRAINAGE

GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Surface

Subsurface

Slope

Structure

HYDROLOGIC

ANALYSIS

ESTIMATION OF DISCHARGE

The design discharge is the flow rate of the defined probability (or Average Recurrence Interval) for the required drainage works. Usually the design discharge is used to provide the size of the drainage structure and the level of the road.

The design discharge is expressed as a flow rate, usually as

cubic meters per second (m3/s).Usually the discharge is

calculated directly by a hydrology procedure, such as the Rational Method for the drainage structure

HYDROLOGIC ANALYSIS

ESTIMATION OF DISCHARGE

Catchment Delineation

Design Rainfall Analysis

HYDROLOGIC ANALYSIS

ESTIMATION OF DISCHARGE

CATCHMENT DELINEATION

“Catchment Area” is computed by

determining the basin boundary

from a 1:50,000 map coming from the National Mapping and

Resource Information Authority

(NAMRIA) or maps produced from topographical or aerial survey

HYDROLOGIC ANALYSIS

ESTIMATION OF DISCHARGE

Triangulation

Cross-

Section

Millimeter

Paper

Catchment
Delineation

Planimeter

Software

HYDROLOGIC ANALYSIS

ESTIMATION OF DISCHARGE

RAINFALL ANALYSIS Rainfall Analysis includes the formation of design

hyetograph for hydrological analysis as well as the

analysis of recorded rainfall data

Design Rainfall Intensity of a particular place is determined

by using the Rainfall Intensity Duration Frequency (RIDF) data

prepared by the Hydrometeorological Investigation and Special Studies of the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA)

HYDROLOGIC ANALYSIS

ESTIMATION OF DISCHARGE

RAINFALL ANALYSIS LOCATION MAP OF

PAGASA WITH RIDF DATA

RUNOFF ANALYSIS

HYDROLOGIC

ANALYSIS

Rational Formula

Flood Frequency Analysis

Unit Hydrograph

Storage Function Method

RUNOFF ANALYSIS

HYDROLOGIC

ANALYSIS

Rational Formula

Flood Frequency Analysis

Unit Hydrograph

Storage Function Method

RUNOFF ANALYSIS

HYDROLOGIC

ANALYSIS

Rational Formula

Flood Frequency Analysis

Unit Hydrograph

Storage Function Method

HYDROLOGIC ANALYSIS

RUNOFF ANALYSIS

RATIONAL FORMULA

Q= c I A/ 3.6

Where:

Q = rate of runoff (m 3 /s) c = coefficient of runoff I = rainfall intensity (mm/h) A = drainage/catchment area (km 2 )

HYDROLOGIC ANALYSIS

RUNOFF ANALYSIS

CATCHMENT AREA

Each type of road drainage has its designated drainage area as shown in Table.

HYDROLOGIC ANALYSIS

RUNOFF ANALYSIS

RAINFALL INTENSITY

is defined as a rainfall depth per unit time and is defined for a frequency and duration. The normal units for rainfall

intensity, I, are millimeters per hour (mm/hr).

Design Storm

Frequency

Based on the probability that the given event will be

equaled or exceeded in any

of a given year.

Time of Concentration

Time taken for water to flow from the most remote point

on the catchment to the

outlet or point of interest

HYDROLOGIC ANALYSIS

RUNOFF ANALYSIS

RAINFALL INTENSITY | STORM FREQUENCY

The design flow return period for the rainfall intensity is provided in the table:

 STRUCTURE TYPE DESIGN FLOW PERIOD Bridges 50 years Box Culverts 25 years Pipe Culverts 15 years Side Drainage 5 years Surface Drainage 2 years

HYDROLOGIC ANALYSIS

RUNOFF ANALYSIS

RAINFALL INTENSITY | STORM FREQUENCY

“Unnumbered Memo dated June 21, 2011”

HYDROLOGIC ANALYSIS

RUNOFF ANALYSIS

RAINFALL INTENSITY | TIME OF CONCENTRATION

The design flow return period for the rainfall intensity is provided in the table:

Where:

T c = Time of Concentration in minutes

L = Length of watershed along the mainstream in meters

H = difference in elevation between the most distant ridge in the watershed along the mainstream and target point in meters

HYDROLOGIC ANALYSIS

RUNOFF ANALYSIS

RAINFALL INTENSITY

HYDROLOGIC ANALYSIS

RUNOFF ANALYSIS

RAINFALL INTENSITY | COEFFICIENT OF RUNOFF

The design flow return period for the rainfall intensity is provided in the table:

Where:

T c = Time of Concentration in minutes

L = Length of watershed along the mainstream in meters

H = difference in elevation between the most distant ridge in the watershed along the mainstream and target point in meters

HYDROLOGIC ANALYSIS

RUNOFF ANALYSIS

RAINFALL INTENSITY | COEFFICIENT OF RUNOFF

Expressed as a percentage to

which the

peak runoff is

reduced due to transitory storage.

 Type of Surface Factor C Cement Concrete or Asphalt Concrete Pavement 0.9 to 1.0 Bituminous Surface Treatment 0.7 to 0.9 Gravel Surface 0.3 to 0.6 Residential Area/City 0.3 to 0.6 Residential Area/Town & Village 0.2 to 0.5 Rocky Surface 0.7 to 0.9 Bare Clay Surface 0.7 to 0.9 Forested Land (sandy and clay) 0.3 to 0.5 Flattish Cultivated Areas (not flooded) 0.3 to 0.5 Steep or Rolling Grassed Areas 0.5 to 0.7 Flooded or Wet Paddies 0.7 to 0.8

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS

OPEN CHANNELS

Parallel to a highway for the purpose of carrying

and/or from the back slope and beyond the right of way.

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS

CAPACITY OF DRAINAGE

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS

CAPACITY OF DRAINAGE

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS

CAPACITY OF DRAINAGE

An allowance of at least 20% should be provided for area obtained in Q=AV in consideration of the reduction of flow

area due to siltation.

A larger allowance should be provided if there is any likelihood of voluminous sediment or driftwood flowing in due to heavy rain.

Actual discharge is lesser than Discharge Capacity

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS

CAPACITY OF DRAINAGE

 Condition Type of Channel Best Good Fair Bad Brick in cement mortar, brick sewers .012 .013 .015 .017 Smooth cement surface .010 .011 .012 .013 Concrete pipe .012 .013 .015 .016 Concrete lined channel .012 .014 .016 - Cement rubble surface .017 .020 .025 .030 Dredge earth canals .025 .027 .030 .033 Canals with rough stone bed, weeded slope .025 .030 .035 .040 Earth bottom, rubble side .028 .030 .033 .035 Clean straight bank .025 .027 .030 .033 Winding .033 .035 .040 .045 Sluggish river weedy reaches .050 .060 .070 .080 Very weedy reaches .075 .100 .125 .150

Manning’s Roughness Coefficient, n

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS

CAPACITY OF DRAINAGE

 Types Range of Flow Velocity (m/sec) Road Side Drain 0.5 to 1.0 Pipe Culvert (910 mm) 0.6 to 1.0 Pipe Culvert (greater than 910mm) 0.8 to 2.0 Cement Concrete 0.6 to 3.0 Asphalt Concrete 0.6 to 1.5 Stone/Bricky 0.6 to 1.8 Gravel 0.6 to 1.0 Coarse Sand 0.3 to 0.6 Silt 0.1 to 0.2

Appropriate Range of Flow Velocity

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS

UNDERGROUND DRAINAGE

High water contents in road base material enormously affect the strength(bearing capacity)

of the pavement . Figure shows

the relationship between CBR of

road base material and its water contents.

To keep the road base material in good condition, provision of underground drainage system is recommended.

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS

UNDERGROUND DRAINAGE Typical Underground Drainage for a 2-lane Road

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS

UNDERGROUND DRAINAGE Typical Underground Drainage for a 4-lane Road

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS

UNDERGROUND DRAINAGE

Typical Underground Road Drainage for Mountainous Terrain

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS

UNDERGROUND DRAINAGE

Treatment of Seepage from Mountainous Slope

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS

UNDERGROUND DRAINAGE

Underground Drainage on Cut and Embankment Portions

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS

CULVERT LOCATION

Culvert Location in Natural Channel

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS

CULVERT LOCATION

Methods of Culvert Location in Natural Channel

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS

CULVERT PROFILE

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS

VELOCITY FOR CULVERTS

The minimum velocity for culverts is 0.8 m/s

The maximum velocity to be adopted for piped drainage systems is 5.0 m/s

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS

MINIMUM SIZING

For culverts crossing under local roads, a minimum

internal width and clear depth of 910mm is required

For culverts crossing under expressways, a minimum

internal width and clear depth of 1.0m is required

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS

CULVERT INLET TREATMENTS

Projecting type of culvert end is economical but

vulnerable to various types of failures

Miltered structurally inadequate to withstand hydraulic, earth, and impact loads unless anchored and protected

Standard end section - sometimes called “flared”; used

to retain the embankments and improve aesthetics but usually do not improve structural stability

Headwalls/Wingwalls Retain the fill material and

reduce erosion of embankment slopes; improve hydraulic efficiency; provide structural stability to the culvert ends and serve as a counterweight to offset buoyant or uplift forces

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS

COVER

Pipe culverts shall be laid at such grades that

there will be a cushion of at least 0.60m of fill

over the top of the pipe

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS

TYPICAL SPILLWAY SECTION

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS

CULVERT HYDRAULICS

INLET-OUTLET CONTROL

Inlet Control Operation discharge rate is dependent upon the water headwater elevation above the invert at the entrance, pipe size, and the entrance geometry and is independent of the pipe length

Outlet Control Operation the discharge rate is dependent on all the hydraulic factors upstream of the outlet (headwater, entrance geometry, pipe size, wall roughness, pipe length, and slope).

Inlet control shall be adopted in rolling and mountainous and outlet controls in flat sections

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS

CULVERT HYDRAULICS

INLET-OUTLET CONTROL

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS

CULVERT HYDRAULICS

The vertical distance from the culvert invert at the entrance to the water surface elevation

permissible in the approach channel (usually

500mm below the shoulder edge elevation)

Normally, if ratio of the headwater depth to the depth of culvert is equal or less than 1.2 (HW/D <=

1.2) it will not be submerged and and no

protection works are needed at the inlet.

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS

CULVERT HYDRAULICS

INLET-OUTLET CONTROL | TAILWATER DEPTH

The flow depth in the downstream channel measured from the invert of the culvert outlet.

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS

CULVERT HYDRAULICS

INLET-OUTLET CONTROL

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS

CULVERT HYDRAULICS

PROCEDURE IN CULVERT SIZE DETERMINATION

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS

CULVERT HYDRAULICS

PROCEDURE IN CULVERT SIZE DETERMINATION

STEP 1: List Design Data

a.Design Discharge Q

b.Approximate length L of culvert c.Slope of Culvert d.Allowable Headwater Depth e.Flow Velocity

f. Type of Culvert

g.Tailwater

STEP 2: Determine the first trial culvert a.By Arbitrary Selection b.By using an approximate Q/10=A c.By using inlet control nomographs (assume HW/D = 1.5 and use given Q)

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS

CULVERT HYDRAULICS

PROCEDURE IN CULVERT SIZE DETERMINATION

STEP 3: Find Headwater Depth for Trial Size Culvert, mm

a. Assume INLET CONTROL

Using the trial size from step 2, find the headwater depth HW by use of the appropriate inlet control nomograph. Tailwater TW conditions are to be neglected in this determination. HW

in this case is found by multiplying HW/D obtained from the

nomographs by the height of culvert D

If HW is greater than allowable, try another trial size until HW is acceptable for inlet control before computing HW for outlet control.

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS

CULVERT HYDRAULICS

PROCEDURE IN CULVERT SIZE DETERMINATION

STEP 3: Find Headwater Depth for Trial Size Culvert

b. Assume OUTLET CONTROL

Approximate the depth of tailwater TW, above the invert at the outlet for the design flood condition in the outlet channel.

For tailwater TW elevation equal to or greater than the top of the culvert at the outlet set ho equal to TW and find HW by the following equation HW = H +ho LSo

where

HW = vertical distance in feet from culvert invert (flow line) at entrance to the pool surface. H = head loss as determined from the appropriate nomograph ho = vertical distance in feet from culvert invert at outlet to the hydraulic

grade line (In this case ho equals TW, measured in feet above the culvert

invert.) So = slope of barrel in ft./ft. L = culvert length

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS

CULVERT HYDRAULICS

PROCEDURE IN CULVERT SIZE DETERMINATION

STEP 3: Find Headwater Depth for Trial Size Culvert

b. Assume OUTLET CONTROL

For tailwater TW elevation less than the top of the culvert at the outlet, find HW by the following equation HW = H +ho Lso except that ho = (dc+D)/2 or TW, whichever is greater

where HW = vertical distance in feet from culvert invert (flow line) at entrance to

the pool surface.

H = head loss as determined from the appropriate nomograph

ho = vertical distance in feet from culvert invert at outlet to the hydraulic

grade line (In this case ho equals TW, measured in feet above the culvert invert.)

So = slope of barrel in ft./ft. L = culvert length

dc = critical depth

D = height of culvert opening

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS

CULVERT HYDRAULICS

PROCEDURE IN CULVERT SIZE DETERMINATION

STEP 3: Find Headwater Depth for Trial Size Culvert

c. Compare the headwaters found in Step 3(a) and Step 3(b) (Inlet Control and

Outlet Control). The higher headwater governs and indicates the flow control existing under the given conditions for the trial size selected.

d. If outlet control governs and the HW is higher than is acceptable, select a larger trial size and find HW as instructed under Step 3b. (Inlet control need not be checked, since the smaller size was satisfactory for this control as

determined under Step 3a.)

Step 4: Try a culvert of another type or shape and determine size and HW by the above procedure

Step 5: Compute outlet velocities for size and types to be considered in selection

and determine need for channel protection

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS

CULVERT HYDRAULICS

PROCEDURE IN CULVERT SIZE DETERMINATION

Step 5: Compute outlet velocities for size and types to be considered in selection and determine need for channel protection a. If outlet control governs in Step 3c above, outlet velocity equals Q/Ao, where Ao is the cross-sectional area of flow in the culvert barrel at the outlet. If dc or TW is less than the height of the culvert barrel use Ao corresponding to dc or TW depth, whichever gives the greater area of flow. Ao should not exceed the total cross-sectional area A of the culvert barrel.

b. If inlet control governs in Step 3c, outlet velocity can be assumed to equal

mean velocity in open-channel flow in the barrel as computed by Manning's equation for the rate of flow, barrel size, roughness and slope of culvert selected.

Step 6: Record final selection of culvert with size, type, required headwater,

outlet velocity, and economic justification

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS

CULVERT HYDRAULICS

CULVERT HYDRAULICS FORM

END

Thank You!

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Design is how it works…

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