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Global System for Mobile Communication -Adityaa Anand

Global System for Mobile Communication

-Adityaa Anand

What is GSM?

GSM is a standard developed by ETSI to describe protocols for 2G digital cellular network.

It is a digital cellular technology used for transmitting mobile Voice and Data services.

GSM makes use of TDMA technique for transmitting signals.

Why GSM?

The following features of GSM account for its popularity and wide

acceptance-

1. Improved spectrum and e ciency.

2. International roaming.

3. Low cost Mobile sets and Base Stations.

4. High Quality Speech.

5. Compatibility with ISDN and other telephone company services.

Network Structure

The network is structured into several discrete sections:

1. Mobile Station (MS)- the physical equipment

2. Base Station Subsystem (BSS)- the base station and their controllers.

3. Network Switching Subsystem (NSS)- the part of the network and most similar to a fixed network, sometimes called the core network.

4. Operation Support Subsystem(OSS)- set of programs to monitor, control, analyse and manage the network.

MS

MS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 # Base Station Subsystem
MS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 # Base Station Subsystem
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 # Base Station Subsystem BSS
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Base

Station

Subsystem

BSS

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 # Base Station Subsystem BSS Network Switching
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 # Base Station Subsystem BSS Network Switching

Network

Switching

Subsystem

NSS

R
R

PSTN

ISDN

Mobile Station

It comprises of all user equipment and software needed for communication to the mobile network.

In GSM, a MS consists of four main components-

1. Mobile Termination

2. Terminal Equipment

3. Terminal Adapter

Base Station Subsystem

It is the section that is responsible for handling tra c and signalling between MS and NSS.

BSS is composed of two parts-

1. Base Transceiver Station (BTS)

2. Base Station Controller (BSC)

BTS and BSC communicate across the specified Abis interface, enabling operations between components that are made by di erent suppliers.

Base Transceiver Station

The BTS houses radio transceivers that define a cell and handles the radio link protocols with the MS.

It also includes the following functions-

A. Encoding, encrypting, multiplexing, modulating, and feeding the RF signals to the antenna.

B. Transcoding and rate adaptation.

C. Time and Frequency Synchronising.

D. Decoding, decrypting, and equalising received signals.

E. Random access detection.

Base Station Controller

The BSC manages the radio resource for one or more BTS.

It handles radio channel setup, frequency hopping, and handovers.

Its functions include-

A. Control of frequency hopping

B. Performing tra c concentration to reduce the number of lines from MSC.

C. Providing an interface to the operations and maintenance center for BSS.

D. Reallocation of frequencies among BTSs.

E. Time and Frequency synchronisation.

F. Power Management.

G. Time-delay measurements of received signals from MS.

MS

MS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 # Base Station Subsystem
MS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 # Base Station Subsystem
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 # Base Station Subsystem BTS

Base

Station

Subsystem

4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 # Base Station Subsystem BTS BSC Network Switching
BTS BSC
BTS
BSC
4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 # Base Station Subsystem BTS BSC Network Switching
4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 # Base Station Subsystem BTS BSC Network Switching

Network

Switching

Subsystem

NSS

R
R

PSTN

ISDN

Network Switching Subsystem

It performs switching of calls between the mobile and other fixed or mobile network users, as well as management of mobile services like authentication.

The switching subsystem consists of the following functional elements-

1. Mobile Switching Center (MSC)

2. Home Location Register (HLR)

3. Visitor Location Register (VLR)

4. Authentication Center (AuC)

5. Equipment Identity Register (EIR)

Mobile Switching Center

It performs switching of calls between the mobile and other fixed or mobile network users, as well as the management of mobile services.

Its functions include-

A. Registration

B. Authentication

C. Location Updating

D. Handovers

E. Call Routing to a roaming subscriber

F. Toll Ticketing

G. Network interfacing

H. Common channel signalling

And others

Home Location Register

HLR is a database used for storage and management of subscriptions.

It stores the following information-

A. IMSI

B. MSISDN

C. Supplementary Services

D. Subscriber Status

E. Authentication Key

F. Subscription Details

Visitor Location Register

VLR contains temporary information about subscriber needed by MSC in order to service a visiting subscriber.

VLR is always integrated with MSC.

Whenever a MS roams into a new MSC area the VLR requests data about the mobile station from the HLR.

Functions-

A. Stores TMSI.

B. Stores LAI.

Authentication Center

It is a protected database that stores a copy the secret key stored in each subscribers’ SIM card, which is used for authentication and ciphering of the radio channel.

Equipment Identity Register

It is database that contains a list of all valid mobile equipment on the network, where its IMEI identifies each MS.

An IMEI is marked invalid if it has been reported stolen or is not type approved.

Gateway MSC

It is a special kind of MSC that is used to route call outside the mobile network.

Whenever a call is routed to or from outside network, the call is routed through GMSC.

MS

MS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 # Base Station Subsystem
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 # Base Station Subsystem Network

Base

Station

Subsystem

6 7 8 9 * 0 # Base Station Subsystem Network Switching Subsystem BTS BSC EIR

Network

Switching

Subsystem

BTS BSC
BTS
BSC
EIR AuC MSC HLR VLR GMSC
EIR
AuC
MSC
HLR
VLR
GMSC
8 9 * 0 # Base Station Subsystem Network Switching Subsystem BTS BSC EIR AuC MSC
8 9 * 0 # Base Station Subsystem Network Switching Subsystem BTS BSC EIR AuC MSC

PSTN

ISDN

General Packet Radio Service

GPRS is a packet-based wireless communication service that promises data rates from 56 up to 114 Kbps and continuous connection to the Internet for mobile phone and computer users.

GPRS is based on GSM communication and complements existing services such circuit-switched cellular phone connections and the Short Message Service (SMS).

Packet Control Unit

The packet control unit (PCU) is a late addition to the GSM standard. It performs some of the processing tasks of the BSC, but for packet data.

The allocation of channels between voice and data is controlled by the base station, but once a channel is allocated to the PCU, the PCU takes full control over that channel.

Serving GPRS Support Node

The SGSN is the main part of the GPRS network, which handles all packet switched data within a network, e.g. the mobility management and authentication of users.

The SGSN performs same functions as MSC for voice tra c.

SGSN and MSC are often co-located.

Gateway GPRS Support Node

GGSN is responsible for the inter networking between GPRS network and the external packet switched network, like internet and X.25 network.

From external networks’ viewpoint, the GGSN is a router to a sub network, because the GGSN ‘hides’ the GPRS infrastructure from external networks.

GPRS Network

GPRS Network 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 # PSTN/ Voice
GPRS Network 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 # PSTN/ Voice
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PSTN/

Voice

Network

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 # PSTN/ Voice Network MSC HLR PCU
MSC HLR PCU
MSC
HLR
PCU

BTS

SGSN

GGSN

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 # PSTN/ Voice Network MSC HLR PCU
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 # PSTN/ Voice Network MSC HLR PCU
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 # PSTN/ Voice Network MSC HLR PCU
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 # PSTN/ Voice Network MSC HLR PCU
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 # PSTN/ Voice Network MSC HLR PCU
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 # PSTN/ Voice Network MSC HLR PCU
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 # PSTN/ Voice Network MSC HLR PCU
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 # PSTN/ Voice Network MSC HLR PCU
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 # PSTN/ Voice Network MSC HLR PCU
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 # PSTN/ Voice Network MSC HLR PCU

Data Network (PDN)

Key Performance Indicator

1. Call Setup Success Rate (CSSR)

2. Dropped Call Rate

3. Handover Success Rate

4. Minutes per Drop

5. TCH Raw Blocking

6. SDCCH Blocking

KPI for Packet Switched Tra c-

1. Throughput in UL/DL.

CALL FLOW in GSM

MS BSS MSC/VLR PSTN RIL3 RR Channel Assignment RIL3 RR Immediate Assignment DTAP-MM CM SERVICE
MS
BSS
MSC/VLR
PSTN
RIL3 RR Channel Assignment
RIL3 RR Immediate Assignment
DTAP-MM CM
SERVICE REQUEST
DTAP-CC
SETUP
DTAP-CC
CALL PROCEEDING
BSSMAP ASSIGNMENT
RIL3 RR ASSIGNMENT
COMMAND
RIL3 RR ASSIGNMENT
COMPLETE
BSSMAP ASSIGNMENT
COMPLETE
NETWORK SETUP MESSAGE
NETWORK ALERTING
DTAP-CC
ALERTING
CONNECT (if answered)
DTAP-CC
CONNECT
DTAP-CC CONNECT
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

BSC Architecture

BCSU- BSC Signalling Unit including Packet Control Unit

CLS- Clock and Synchronisation Unit

ET- Exchange Terminal

GSWB- Bit Group Switch

MCMU- Marker and Cellular Management Unit including IP switch

OMU- Operation and Maintenance Unit including System Disk and Magneto-Optical Drive

C GSWB BCSU L 2N N+1 S MCMU OMU 2N BCSU N+1 BCSU N+1 ET
C
GSWB
BCSU
L
2N
N+1
S
MCMU
OMU
2N
BCSU
N+1
BCSU
N+1
ET
ET

Base Station Controller Signalling Unit

The BCSU is a part of decentralised control system in the DX 200 system.

BCSU handles the BSC functions that are highly dependent on the amount of trac and signalling network.

It is installed with MC1C cartridge where the microcomputer of the BCSU is. It is composed of CPU plug unit and various other plug-in units.

It consists of two parts to handle both A and Abis interfaces.

Functions of A part of BCSU-

A. Controlling Mobile and Base Station Signalling.

B. Performing all message handling and processing functions of the signalling channels connected to it.

The Abis interface channels associated with transceivers (TRX) and Abis signalling channels.

Hardware of BCSU consists of the following components-

1. A microcomputer.

2. An SS7 interface.

3. A LAPD interface.

4. A LAPD interface for control of ET.

5. Packet Control Unit

Marker and Cellular Management Unit

MARKER PART-

The marker part of the MCMU controls the 8 kbit/s Group Switch (GSWB) and performs connecting and releasing of circuits.

The switch control interface writes the required connection to the switch control memory and reads the contents of the control memory.

The control interface also performs the tests defined by the microcomputer in the switching network and generates the required timing signals. The marker part exchange message with the other control computers via message bus.

CELLULAR MANAGEMENT PART-

The cellular management part of functionality of the MCMU has the centralised responsibility of the cells and radio channels under the control of BSC.

It seizes and keeps a track of the radio resources requested by the interface and handover applications and manages the configuration of cellular network.

Bit based Group Switch

The GSW conveys to the tra c passing through the DX 200 Base Station Controller.

The GSW establishes the needed connections to the signalling unit, the internal data transmission channels and the SMUX of BSC.

Clock and Synchronisation Unit

This level is synchronised with the signal coming from upper level of the synchronisation hierarchy of the network(the MSC).

Normally, the synchronisation signal is extracted from the PCM circuit signal coming to the network elements. The Synchronisation unit generates the basic timing signals for units in its own rack needing clock signals. The Clock and Tone Generator (CLxTG) acts as the synchronisation unit in the exchange.

In application containing a expansion rack, signals are taken from the synchronisation unit to the rack-specific Clock and alarm Bu er (CLAB) . The CLAB uses the timing signals to generate he cartridge-specific basic timing signals for the units in its own rack.

Operation and Maintenance Unit

The OMU is installed in the MC1C cartridge where the microcomputer of the OMU is.

The tasks of OMU are divided into four groups-

1.

Tra c Control Functions

2.

Maintenance

3.

System Configuration Administration

1. Tra c Control Functions include-

A. Routing administration

B. Routing State Administration

C. Trac Administration

2. The maintenance includes the maintenance of the exchange, subscriber, network and trunk circuits. These include the following functions-

A. Supervision

B. Alarm Output

C. Recovery

D. Diagnostics

3. The System Configuration Administration takes place by means of MML programs used to manage,

A. Exchange expansion

B. Introduction of new features in the exchange and network.

4. The system management includes the functions closely related to the operating system of the microcomputer in the OMU which serve other operation and maintenance function.

A. Input and Output System

B. Input and Output function Management

C. MMI system

D. Data Communications

E. File Management

F. System Support Functions

Exchange Terminal

The ET plug in unit is used as PCM trunk circuit interface for a network element based on DX 200 system.

The ET can be connected to no more than 2 PCM trunk circuits.

In the exchange, the ET is also connected to the GSW and via this to the computer unit supervising the exchange terminal, to the Clock Equipment (CLS), to the Hardware Alarm Collection Unit (HWAL) and to power supply.

Questions ?

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