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SECTION 5: LAPLACE TRANSFORMS MAE 3401 – Modeling and Simulation
SECTION 5: LAPLACE TRANSFORMS MAE 3401 – Modeling and Simulation
SECTION 5: LAPLACE TRANSFORMS MAE 3401 – Modeling and Simulation
SECTION 5: LAPLACE TRANSFORMS MAE 3401 – Modeling and Simulation
SECTION 5: LAPLACE TRANSFORMS MAE 3401 – Modeling and Simulation

SECTION 5: LAPLACE TRANSFORMS

MAE 3401 – Modeling and Simulation

SECTION 5: LAPLACE TRANSFORMS MAE 3401 – Modeling and Simulation
2 Introduction – Transforms This section of notes contains an introduction to Laplace transforms. This
2 Introduction – Transforms
This section of notes contains an introduction
to Laplace transforms. This should mostly be a
review of material covered in your differential
equations course.
K. Webb
MAE 3401
 

Transforms

3

 
 

What is a transform?

A mapping of a mathematical function from one domain to another

A change in perspective not a change of the function

Why use transforms?

Some mathematical problems are difficult to solve in their natural domain

Transform to and solve in a new domain, where the problem is simplified

Transform back to the original domain

Trade off the extra effort of transforming/inverse transforming for simplification of the solution procedure

K. Webb

MAE 3401

Transform Example – Slide Rules

4

Transform Example – Slide Rules 4  Slide rules make use of a logarithmic transform 

Slide rules make use of a logarithmic transform

4  Slide rules make use of a logarithmic transform  Multiplication/division of large numbers is

Multiplication/division of large numbers is difficult

Transform the numbers to the logarithmic domain

Add/subtract (easy) in the log domain to multiply/divide (difficult) in the linear domain

Apply the inverse transform to get back to the original domain

Extra effort is required, but the problem is simplified

K. Webb

MAE 3401

5 Laplace Transforms K. Webb MAE 3401
5 Laplace Transforms
K. Webb
MAE 3401
 

Laplace Transforms

 

6

 
 

An integral transform mapping functions from the time domain to the Laplace domain or sdomain

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Timedomain functions are functions of time,

 
   
   
 
 

Laplace domain functions are functions of

 
   
   
 
 

is a complex variable

 
 
 
 
   
 

K. Webb

MAE 3401

 

Laplace Transforms – Motivation

7

 
 

We’ll use Laplace transforms to solve differential equations

Differential equations in the time domain

 

difficult to solve

 

Apply the Laplace transform

 
 

Transform to the s domain

 

Differential equations become algebraic equations

 

easy to solve

 

Transform the sdomain solution back to the time domain

Transforming back and forth requires extra effort, but the solution is greatly simplified

K. Webb

MAE 3401

Laplace Transform

8

Laplace Transform 8  Laplace Transform : (1)  Unilateral or one ‐ sided transform 

Laplace Transform :

Laplace Transform 8  Laplace Transform : (1)  Unilateral or one ‐ sided transform 

(1)

Unilateral or one sided transform

Lower limit of integration is Assumed that the time domain function is zero for all negative time, i.e.

is  Assumed that the time domain function is zero for all negative time, i.e. K.
is  Assumed that the time domain function is zero for all negative time, i.e. K.

K. Webb

MAE 3401

9 Laplace Transform Properties In the following section of notes, we’ll derive a few important
9 Laplace Transform Properties
In the following section of notes, we’ll derive a
few important properties of the Laplace
transform.
K. Webb
MAE 3401
Laplace Transform – Linearity 10  Say we have two time‐ domain functions: and 
Laplace Transform – Linearity
10
 Say we have two time‐ domain functions:
and
 Applying the transform definition, (1)
∙ ∙
(2)
 The Laplace transform is a linear operation
K. Webb
MAE 3401
Laplace Transform of a Derivative 11  Of particular interest, given that we want to
Laplace Transform of a Derivative
11
 Of particular interest, given that we want to use Laplace
transform to solve differential equations
 Use integration by parts to evaluate
 Let
and
then
and
K. Webb
MAE 3401
Laplace Transform of a Derivative 12 0 0 0  The Laplace transform of the
Laplace Transform of a Derivative
12
0 0 0
 The Laplace transform of the derivative of a
function is the Laplace transform of that function
multiplied by minus the initial value of that
function
(3)
K. Webb
MAE 3401

Higher Order Derivatives

13

Higher ‐ Order Derivatives 13  The Laplace transform of a second derivative is 0 0

The Laplace transform of a second derivative is

0 0
0 0

(4)

In general, the Laplace transform of the derivative of a function is given by

the Laplace transform of the derivative of a function is given by 0 0 ⋯ 0
0 0 ⋯ 0
0 0 ⋯ 0

(5)

K. Webb

MAE 3401

Laplace Transform of an Integral

14

Laplace Transform of an Integral 14  The Laplace Transform of a definite integral of a

The Laplace Transform of a definite integral of a function is given by

of a definite integral of a function is given by (6)  Differentiation in the time

(6)

Differentiation in the time domain corresponds to multiplication by in the Laplace domain

Integration in the time domain corresponds to division by in the Laplace domain

domain  Integration in the time domain corresponds to division by in the Laplace domain K.
domain  Integration in the time domain corresponds to division by in the Laplace domain K.

K. Webb

MAE 3401

Laplace Transforms of Common 15 Functions Next, we’ll derive the Laplace transform of some common
Laplace Transforms of Common
15 Functions
Next, we’ll derive the Laplace transform of
some common mathematical functions
K. Webb
MAE 3401

Unit Step Function

16

Unit Step Function 16  A useful and common way of characterizing a linear system is

A useful and common way of characterizing a linear system is with its step response

The system’s response (output) to a unit step input

The unit step function or Heaviside step function :

(output) to a unit step input  The unit step function or Heaviside step function :
(output) to a unit step input  The unit step function or Heaviside step function :
(output) to a unit step input  The unit step function or Heaviside step function :
(output) to a unit step input  The unit step function or Heaviside step function :

K. Webb

MAE 3401

Unit Step Function – Laplace Transform 17 Using the definition of the Laplace transform 
Unit Step Function – Laplace Transform
17
Using the definition of the Laplace transform
1 1
1
1
1
0
 The Laplace transform of the unit step
(7)
Note that the unilateral Laplace transform assumes that
the signal being transformed is zero for
 Equivalent to multiplying any signal by a unit step
K. Webb
MAE 3401

Unit Ramp Function

18

Unit Ramp Function 18  The unit ramp function is a useful input signal for evaluating

The unit ramp function is a useful input signal for evaluating how well a system tracks a constantly increasing input

The unit ramp function:

how well a system tracks a constantly ‐ increasing input  The unit ramp function :

K. Webb

MAE 3401

Unit Ramp Function – Laplace Transform

19

Unit Ramp Function – Laplace Transform 19  Could easily evaluate the transform integral  Requires

Could easily evaluate the transform integral

Requires integration by parts

Alternatively, recognize the relationship between the unit ramp and the unit step

Unit ramp is the integral of the unit step

Apply the integration property, (6)

K. Webb

ramp is the integral of the unit step  Apply the integration property, (6) K. Webb

1

ramp is the integral of the unit step  Apply the integration property, (6) K. Webb

1

1

ramp is the integral of the unit step  Apply the integration property, (6) K. Webb

(8)

MAE 3401

Exponential – Laplace Transform

20

Exponential – Laplace Transform 20  Exponentials are common components of the responses of dynamic systems
Exponential – Laplace Transform 20  Exponentials are common components of the responses of dynamic systems

Exponentials are common components of the responses of dynamic systems

K. Webb

20  Exponentials are common components of the responses of dynamic systems K. Webb 1 0

20  Exponentials are common components of the responses of dynamic systems K. Webb 1 0
1
1

0

20  Exponentials are common components of the responses of dynamic systems K. Webb 1 0

20  Exponentials are common components of the responses of dynamic systems K. Webb 1 0

(9)

MAE 3401

Sinusoidal functions 21  Another class of commonly occurring signals, when dealing with dynamic systems,
Sinusoidal functions
21
 Another class of commonly occurring signals, when
dealing with dynamic systems, is sinusoidal signals –
both
and
 Recall Euler’s formula
 From which it follows that
K. Webb
MAE 3401
Sinusoidal functions 22 1 sin 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2
Sinusoidal functions
22
1
sin
2
1
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
2 2
1 2
2 0 2 0
1
1
1
1
2
(10)
K. Webb
MAE 3401
Sinusoidal functions 23  It can similarly be shown that (11)  Note that for
Sinusoidal functions
23
 It can similarly be shown that
(11)
 Note that for neither
nor
as the Laplace
is the
function equal to zero for
transform assumes
 Really, what we’ve derived is
1 ∙ sin
and 1 ∙ cos
K. Webb
MAE 3401
24 More Properties and Theorems K. Webb MAE 3401
24 More Properties and Theorems
K. Webb
MAE 3401
Multiplication by an Exponential, 25  We’ve seen that  What if another function is
Multiplication by an Exponential,
25
 We’ve seen that
 What if another function is multiplied by the
decaying exponential term?
 This is just the Laplace transform of
replaced by
with
(12)
K. Webb
MAE 3401
Decaying Sinusoids 26  The Laplace transform of a sinusoid is sin  And, multiplication
Decaying Sinusoids
26
 The Laplace transform of a sinusoid is
sin
 And, multiplication by an decaying exponential,
, results in a substitution of
for , so
and
K. Webb
MAE 3401

Time Shifting

27

Time Shifting 27  Consider a time ‐ domain function,  To Laplace transform we’ve assumed

Consider a timedomain function,

Shifting 27  Consider a time ‐ domain function,  To Laplace transform we’ve assumed 0
Shifting 27  Consider a time ‐ domain function,  To Laplace transform we’ve assumed 0

To Laplace transform we’ve assumed 0 for 0, or equivalently multiplied by 1

0 for 0 , or equivalently multiplied by 1  To shift by an amount, ,
0 for 0 , or equivalently multiplied by 1  To shift by an amount, ,

To shift by an amount, , in time, we must also multiply by a shifted step function, 1

shift by an amount, , in time, we must also multiply by a shifted step function,

K. Webb

shift by an amount, , in time, we must also multiply by a shifted step function,
shift by an amount, , in time, we must also multiply by a shifted step function,
shift by an amount, , in time, we must also multiply by a shifted step function,

MAE 3401

Time Shifting – Laplace Transform 28  The transform of the shifted function is given
Time Shifting – Laplace Transform
28
 The transform of the shifted function is given by
∙1
 Performing a change of variables, let
and
 The transform becomes
∙1
 A shift by in the time domain corresponds to multiplication by in the
Laplace domain
∙1
(13)
K. Webb
MAE 3401
Multiplication by time, 29  The Laplace transform of a function multiplied by time: (14)
Multiplication by time,
29
 The Laplace transform of a function multiplied by time:
(14)
 Consider a unit ramp function:
1
1
⋅1
 Or a parabola:
 In general
!
K. Webb
MAE 3401

Initial and Final Value Theorems

30

Initial and Final Value Theorems 30  Initial Value Theorem  Can determine the initial value

Initial Value Theorem

Can determine the initial value of a timedomain signal or function from its Laplace transform

0 lim →
0 lim

Final Value Theorem

(15)

Can determine the steadystate value of a timedomain signal or function from its Laplace transform

∞ lim →
∞ lim

(16)

K. Webb

MAE 3401

Convolution 31  Convolution of two functions or signals is given by ∗  Result
Convolution
31
 Convolution of two functions or signals is given by
 Result is a function of time
 is flipped in time and shifted by
 Multiply the flipped/shifted signal and the other signal
 Integrate the result from 0…
 May seem like an odd, arbitrary function now, but we’ll later
see why it is very important
 Convolution in the time domain corresponds to multiplication
in the Laplace domain
(17)
K. Webb
MAE 3401

Impulse Function

32

Impulse Function 32  Another common way to describe a dynamic system is with its impulse

Another common way to describe a dynamic system is with its impulse response

System output in response to an impulse function input

Impulse function defined by

impulse function input  Impulse function defined by 0, 0 1  An infinitely tall, infinitely

0,

0

1

function input  Impulse function defined by 0, 0 1  An infinitely tall, infinitely narrow

An infinitely tall, infinitely narrow pulse

K. Webb

input  Impulse function defined by 0, 0 1  An infinitely tall, infinitely narrow pulse

MAE 3401

 

Impulse Function – Laplace Transform

33

   
   

To derive , consider the following function

 

  1

1

  1

,

0

0,

0 or

 
 Can think of as the sum of two step functions:

Can think of as the sum of two step functions:

 

1

1

 
1 1
1 1
1 1

1 1

 

The transform of the first term is

 
 

1 1

1

 

 

 

Using the time shifting property, the second term transforms to

 

1

1

1

 

K. Webb

 

MAE 3401

Impulse Function – Laplace Transform 34  In the limit, as → 0, → ,
Impulse Function – Laplace Transform
34
 In the limit, as → 0, → , so
lim
1
lim
 Apply l’Hôpital’s rule
1
lim
lim
 The Laplace transform of an impulse function is one
1
(18)
K. Webb
MAE 3401
35 Common Laplace Transforms 1 sin 1 1 cos 1 0 ! 0 0 1

35

35 Common Laplace Transforms 1 sin 1 1 cos 1 0 ! 0 0 1 1

Common Laplace Transforms

35 Common Laplace Transforms 1 sin 1 1 cos 1 0 ! 0 0 1 1
1 sin 1 1 cos 1 0 ! 0 0 1 1 1 sin ∙1
1
sin
1
1
cos
1
0
!
0 0
1
1
1
sin
∙1
cos
K. Webb
MAE 3401
! 0 0 1 1 1 sin ∙1 cos ∙ K. Webb MAE 3401
36 Inverse Laplace Transform We’ve just seen how time‐ domain functions can be transformed to
36 Inverse Laplace Transform
We’ve just seen how time‐ domain functions can be
transformed to the Laplace domain. Next, we’ll look at
how we can solve differential equations in the Laplace
domain and transform back to the time domain.
K. Webb
MAE 3401
 

Laplace Transforms – Differential Equations

37

   
 

Consider the simple spring/mass/damper system from the previous section of notes

   Consider the simple spring/mass/damper system from the previous section of notes

State equations are:

 
 

  (1)

(1)

 

 

 

(2)

 

Taking the displacement of the mass as the output

 

 

(3)

 

Using (2) and (3) in (1) we get a single secondorder differential equation

 Using (2) and (3) in (1) we get a single second ‐ order differential equation

(4)

K. Webb

 

MAE 3401

 

Laplace Transforms – Differential Equations

38

   
 

We’ll now use Laplace transforms to determine the step response of the system

1N step force input

 

(5)

( 5 )
 

1 ∙1 0 1 , , 0 0

1 ∙1 0 1 , , 0 0
1 ∙1 0 1 , , 0 0
 
 

For the step response, we assume zero initial conditions

 
 
0 0 and 0 0
0 0 and 0 0

0 0 and 0 0

 

(6)

 

Using the derivative property of the Laplace transform, (4) becomes

 

0 0 0

0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0

1

1

(7)

 

K. Webb

 

MAE 3401

 

Laplace Transforms – Differential Equations

39

 
 

The input is a step, so (7) becomes

 The input is a step, so (7) becomes 1
 The input is a step, so (7) becomes 1
 The input is a step, so (7) becomes 1

1

(8)

   The input is a step, so (7) becomes 1 (8)
 Solving (8) for 1 1 /

Solving (8) for

 Solving (8) for 1 1 /
 Solving (8) for 1 1 /

1 1

/

(9)  Equation (9) is the solution to the differential equation of (4), given the

(9)  Equation (9) is the solution to the differential equation of (4), given the

(9)

Equation (9) is the solution to the differential equation of (4), given the step input and I.C.’s

The system step response in the Laplace domain

 

Next, we need to transform back to the time domain

K. Webb

MAE 3401

 

Laplace Transforms – Differential Equations

40

   
 
    /

 

/

    /
   

(9)

 

The form of (9) is typical of Laplace transforms when dealing with linear systems

 

A rational polynomial in

 

Here, the numerator is 0 th order

 
 
 

 

 

 
 Roots of the numerator polynomial, , are called the zeros of the function

Roots of the numerator polynomial, , are called the zeros of the function

 Roots of the denominator polynomial, , are called the poles of the function

Roots of the denominator polynomial, , are called the poles of the function

K. Webb

 

MAE 3401

 

Inverse Laplace Transforms

41

 
 
    / (9)

 

/

(9)

 

 

To get (9) back into the time domain, we need to perform an inverse Laplace transform

 To get (9) back into the time domain, we need to perform an inverse Laplace

An integral inverse transform exists, but we don’t use it

Instead, we use partial fraction expansion

Partial fraction expansion

 

Idea is to express the Laplace transform solution, (9), as a sum of Laplace transform terms that appear in the table

Procedure depends on the type of roots of the denominator polynomial

Real and distinct

 

Repeated

 

Complex

K. Webb

MAE 3401

 

Inverse Laplace Transforms – Example 1

42

   
 

Consider the following system parameters

   Consider the following system parameters
 

1

16

10

 

Laplace transform of the step response becomes

 
    ( 1 0 )

 

(10)

 
 

 

Factoring the denominator

 
    (11)

 

(11)

 Factoring the denominator     (11)    In this case, the denominator polynomial

 Factoring the denominator     (11)    In this case, the denominator polynomial
 

In this case, the denominator polynomial has three real, distinct roots

 

0,

2,

8

 

K. Webb

 

MAE 3401

 

Inverse Laplace Transforms – Example 1

43

   
 

Partial fraction expansion of (11) has the form

 
(12)  The numerator coefficients, , , and , are called residues

(12)  The numerator coefficients, , , and , are called residues
(12)  The numerator coefficients, , , and , are called residues

(12)

The numerator coefficients, , , and , are called residues

(12)  The numerator coefficients, , , and , are called residues
 

Can already see the form of the timedomain function

 

Sum of a constant and two decaying exponentials

 

To determine the residues, multiply both sides of (12) by the denominator of the lefthand side

           
1 2 8 8 2

1 2 8 8 2

 

1 10 16 8 2

 

Collecting terms, we have

 
 

1

 

10 8 2 16

10 8 2 16 (13)

(13)

 

K. Webb

 

MAE 3401

 

Inverse Laplace Transforms – Example 1

44

   
 

Equating coefficients of powers of on both sides of (13) gives a system of three equations in three unknowns

coefficients of powers of on both sides of (13) gives a system of three equations in
 

: 0

 

: 10 8 2 0

 

: 16 1

 
 

Solving for the residues gives

 
 

0.0625 0.0833 0.0208

 

The Laplace transform of the step response is

 
 
  . (14)

.

(14)

 

Equation (14) can now be transformed back to the time domain using the Laplace transform table

K. Webb

 

MAE 3401

Inverse Laplace Transforms – Example 1

45

Inverse Laplace Transforms – Example 1 45  The time ‐ domain step response of the

The time domain step response of the system is the sum of a constant term and two decaying exponentials :

0.0625 0.0833 0.0208
0.0625 0.0833 0.0208

(15)

Step response plotted in MATLAB

Characteristic of a signal having only real poles

No overshoot/ringing

Steadystate displacement agrees with intuition

1 force applied to a 16 / spring

K. Webb

Steady ‐ state displacement agrees with intuition  1 force applied to a 16 / spring

MAE 3401

 

Inverse Laplace Transforms – Example 1

 

46

 
 

Go back to (10) and apply the initial value theorem

   Go back to (10) and apply the initial value theorem
 

1

 
0 lim lim → → 10 16 0  Which is, in fact our assumed
0 lim lim → → 10 16 0  Which is, in fact our assumed

0 lim lim

10 16 0

0 lim lim → → 10 16 0  Which is, in fact our assumed initial

Which is, in fact our assumed initial condition

Next, apply the final value theorem to the Laplace transform step response, (10)

 
 

1

 

∞ lim lim → →
∞ lim lim → →

lim lim

 
10 16
10 16
 
∞ 0.0625 6.25

0.0625 6.25

 

This final value agrees with both intuition and our numerical analysis

 

K. Webb

MAE 3401

Inverse Laplace Transforms – Example 2

47

Inverse Laplace Transforms – Example 2 47  Reduce the damping and re ‐ calculate the

Reduce the damping and re calculate the step response

1

16

8

and re ‐ calculate the step response 1 16 8 ∙  Laplace transform of the

Laplace transform of the step response becomes

 Laplace transform of the step response becomes  Factoring the denominator ( 1 6 )

 Laplace transform of the step response becomes  Factoring the denominator ( 1 6 )

Factoring the denominator

step response becomes  Factoring the denominator ( 1 6 ) (17)  In this case,

step response becomes  Factoring the denominator ( 1 6 ) (17)  In this case,

(16)

(17)

In this case, the denominator polynomial has three real roots, two of which are identical

K. Webb

0,

4,

4

MAE 3401

Inverse Laplace Transforms – Example 2

Inverse Laplace Transforms – Example 2 48  Partial fraction expansion of (17) has the form

48

Inverse Laplace Transforms – Example 2 48  Partial fraction expansion of (17) has the form

Partial fraction expansion of (17) has the form

 Partial fraction expansion of (17) has the form (18)  Again, find residues by multiplying

 Partial fraction expansion of (17) has the form (18)  Again, find residues by multiplying

 Partial fraction expansion of (17) has the form (18)  Again, find residues by multiplying

(18)

Partial fraction expansion of (17) has the form (18)  Again, find residues by multiplying both

Again, find residues by multiplying both sides of (18) by the left hand side denominator

1 4 4

1 8 16 4

4 4 1 8 16 4  Collecting terms, we have 1 8 4 16
4 4 1 8 16 4  Collecting terms, we have 1 8 4 16

Collecting terms, we have

1

8 4 16

8 16 4  Collecting terms, we have 1 8 4 16 K. Webb (19) MAE
8 16 4  Collecting terms, we have 1 8 4 16 K. Webb (19) MAE

K. Webb

(19)

MAE 3401

 

Inverse Laplace Transforms – Example 2

49

   
 

Equating coefficients of powers of on both sides of (19) gives a system of three equations in three unknowns

coefficients of powers of on both sides of (19) gives a system of three equations in
 

: 0

 

: 8 4 0

 

: 16 1

 
 

Solving for the residues gives

 

0.0625

0.0625

0.2500

 

The Laplace transform of the step response is

 
. . . (20)  Equation (20) can now be transformed back to the time

.

.

.

. . . (20)  Equation (20) can now be transformed back to the time domain

(20)

Equation (20) can now be transformed back to the time domain using the Laplace transform table

K. Webb

 

MAE 3401

 

Inverse Laplace Transforms – Example 2

50

   
 

The time domain step response of the system is the sum of a constant, a decaying exponential, and a decaying exponential scaled by time:

 
0.0625 0.0625 0. 25
0.0625 0.0625 0. 25

(21)

 

Step response plotted in MATLAB

   Step response plotted in MATLAB

Again, characteristic of a signal having only real poles

 

Similar to the last case

A bit faster – slow pole at 2 was eliminated

 

K. Webb

MAE 3401

Inverse Laplace Transforms – Example 3

51

Inverse Laplace Transforms – Example 3 51  Reduce the damping even further and go through

Reduce the damping even further and go through the process once again

1

16

4

and go through the process once again 1 16 4 ∙  Laplace transform of the

Laplace transform of the step response becomes

 Laplace transform of the step response becomes ( 2 2 )  The second ‐

 Laplace transform of the step response becomes ( 2 2 )  The second ‐

(22)

The second order term in the denominator now has complex roots, so we won’t factor any further

The denominator polynomial still has a root at zero and now has two roots which are a complexconjugate pair

0,

2 3.464,

2 3.464

K. Webb

MAE 3401

Inverse Laplace Transforms – Example 3 52  Want to cast the partial fraction terms
Inverse Laplace Transforms – Example 3
52
 Want to cast the partial fraction terms into
forms that appear in the Laplace transform
table
 Second ‐ order terms should be of the form
(23)
 This will transform into the sum of damped sine and cosine terms
cos sin
 To get the second ‐ order term in the denominator of (22) into the form of
(23), complete the square , to give the following partial fraction expansion
.
.
(24)
K. Webb
MAE 3401
 

Inverse Laplace Transforms – Example 3

53

   
 

Note that the and terms in (23) and (24) are the real and imaginary parts of the complex conjugate denominator roots

terms in (23) and (24) are the real and imaginary parts of the complex ‐ conjugate
 

, 2 3.464

 
 

Multiplying both sides of (24) by the left hand side denominator, equate coefficients and solve for residues as before:

 

0.0625

 

0.0625

0.0361

 

Laplace transform of the step response is

 
 
  . .     (25)

.

.

.

   

(25)

 

 
 
 

 
 

K. Webb

 

MAE 3401

Inverse Laplace Transforms – Example 3

54

Inverse Laplace Transforms – Example 3 54  The time ‐ domain step response of the

The time domain step response of the system is the sum of a constant and two decaying sinusoids :

is the sum of a constant and two decaying sinusoids : 0.0625 0.0625 cos 3.464 0.0361

0.0625 0.0625 cos 3.464 0.0361 sin 3.464 (26)

Step response and individual components plotted in MATLAB

Characteristic of a signal having complex poles

Sinusoidal terms result in overshoot and (possibly) ringing

a signal having complex poles  Sinusoidal terms result in overshoot and (possibly) ringing K. Webb

K. Webb

MAE 3401

 

Laplace Domain Signals with Complex Poles

55

   
 

The Laplace transform of the step response in the last example had complex poles

 

A complex conjugate pair :

   A complex ‐ conjugate pair :
 

Results in sine and cosine terms in the time domain

 

cos sin

cos sin
cos sin
 

Imaginary part of the roots,

 

Frequency of oscillation of sinusoidal components of the signal

 

Real part of the roots, ,

 
 

Rate of decay of the sinusoidal components

 

Much more on this later

 

K. Webb

 

MAE 3401