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Air Heaters

Supplement to Performance Test Code


for Steam Generating Units, PTC 4.1

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ASME P T C * 4 - 3 bA 0757b.70 0 0 5 4 0 8 5 3 m

PERFORMANCE
Air Heaters
Supplement
Performance
to Test Code TEST
1
ICODES
forSteamGenerating Units, PTC 4.1

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Library of Congress Catalog No. 68-21272

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Copyright,1968, by
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Printed in the United States of America

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FOREWORD

Performance Test Code CommitteeNo. 4 on Stationary Steam-Generating Units was reorganized i n May,
1958 to rewrite and bring up to date the 1946 edition of t h e T e s t C o d e for Stationary Steam-Generating
Units.
During the formulation of the new T e s t C o d e , P T C 4.1-1964, the technical committee brought to the
attention of the Performance Test Codes Committee that for the Air Heater, an auxiliary heat absorption
equipmentcommon to all large sttam generating units, there existed nopowertestcode. PTC Com-
mittee No, 4 recommended the development of such a T e s t C o d e a s p a r t of its assignment.
The Performance Test Codes Committee instructed F'TC Committee No. 4 to prepare such a T e s t C o d e a s
a Supplement to be known a s PTC 4.3 on Air Heaters. This Test Code was developed and its format
follows closely that of PTC 4.1, the Test Code for Steam Generating Units.
This Test Code was approved by the Performance Test Codes Committee on June 9, 1966. Final publica-
tion was delayed, however, until a number of suggestions made by the standing Committee were con-
sidered and satisfactorily resolved. It was approved and adopted by the Council as a standard practice
of the Society by action of the Policy Board, Codes and Standards on November 8, 1967.

January, 1968

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ASME P T C * 4 - 3 68 81 0 7 5 7 b 7 0 0 0 5 4 0 8 8 7 m

PERSONNEL OF PERFORMANCETEST CODE COMMITTEE

NO. 4 ON STATIONARY STEAM-GENERATING UNITS

John M. Driscoll, Chairman


John V. Cleary, Jr., Secretary
James U. Baley, General Superintendent, Electric Operations, Baltimore Gas and Electric Company, Gas and
Electric Building, Baltimore, Maryland, 21203

Charles D. Birget, formerly Chief Mechanical Engineer, Commonwealth Associates, Inc., 209 E. Washington Avenue,
Jackson, hlichigan, 49201

John A. Bostic, General Supervising Engineer, Civil and Mechanical Engineering Department, The Cleveland Electric
Illuminating Company, Box 5000, Cleveland, Ohio, 44101

Hugh J. Byrne, Steam-Power Engineer, Central Engineering Office, Crown Zellerbach Corporation, 6363 Airport Way,
Seattle, Washington, 98108

John v. Cleary, Jr., Chief Cost Engineer, Cost Control Engineering Bureau, Consolidated Edison Company of New York?
InC., 4 Irving Place, New York, New York, 10003

Leonard Cohen, Head, Operation Management Department, Naval Ship Engineering Center, Philadelphia Division, U.S.
Naval Base, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 19112

John M.Driscoll, Chief Mechanical Engineer, Consolidated Edison Company of Nelv York, Inc,, 4 Irving
Place, New York, New York, 10003

John H. Fernandes, Senior Project Engineer, Product Diversification, Combustion Engineering, Inc., Prospect Hill
Road, Windsor, Connecticut, 06095

William 2. Harper, Assistant Superintendent, Utilities Division, Kodak Park Works, Eastman Kodak Company,
Rochester, New York, 14604
Edward C. Kistner, Engineer in Charge of Power Plant Section, Mechanical Engineering Division, Philadelphia
Electric Company, 9th and Sansom Streets, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 19105

Frank C. Lisevick, Mechanical Engineer, Stone & Webster, Inc., 225 Franklin St., Boston, Mass. 02107

Robert A. Lorenzini, Senior Vice-president, Foster Wheeler Corporation, 110 South Orange Avenue, Livingston,
New Jersey, 07039

John F. McLaughlin, Jr., Manager, Production Engineering, Union Electric Company, 315 North 12th Boulevard,
St. Louis, Missourl, 63101

Silas L. Morse, Assistant Manager Field Engineering, The Babcock ¿G Wilcox Company, 20 South Van Buren Avenue,
Barberton, Ohio, 44203
Richard EI. Pechstein, Assistant Chief Mechanical Engineer, American Electric Power Service Corporation,
Two Broadway, New York, New York, 10008

Herbert C. Schrveikart, Vice President and Chief Engineer, Gilbert Associates, Inc., 525 Lancaster Avenue, Reading,
Pennsylvania, 19602

Lawson E. Stewart, Marketing Representative, International Business Machines Corporation, 2330 St. paul Street,
Baltimore, Maryland, 21218

Joseph A. Waddell, Assistant Chief Service Engineer, Riley Stoker Corporation, Worcester, Massachusetts, 01606

-" -

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A S I E PTC*:L1*3 bB m 0757b70 0 0 5 4 0 8 7 O m

Personnel of Performance Test Codes Committee

F. H. Light, Chairman
J. W. Murdock, Vice-Chairman

J. H. Anderson J. H. Fernandes J. F. McLaughlin, Jr.


Theodore Baumeister F. K. F i s c h e r W. G. McLean
H. S. Bean L. J. Hooper W. T. Moore
K. C. Cotton T. J. J u d g e W. C. Osborne
R. C. Dannettel R. C. King, Jr. W. A. Pollock
J. M. Driscoll E. L. Knoedler J. H. Potter
M. D. Engle R. T. Mathews H. C. Schweikart
V. F. Estcourt ' J. F. Sebald

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ASME PERFORMANCE TEST CODES
Test Code for
AIR HEATERS
CONTENTS

Section Pars. Section

O INTRODUCTION. ............ 0.1-0.3 6 PERFORMANCE


FACTORS - 6.1-6.6
1 OBJECT AND SCOPE - 1.1-1.4 Analysis of Over-allPerformance 6.1
................. OperatingConditions ........ 6.2
Object.
.................. 1.1 ThermalPerformance ........ 6.3
Scope 1.2 .........
A i rH e a t e rL e a k a g e 6.4
ExitGasTemperature. ....... 6.5
2 DEFINITION
OF
TERMS, SYMBOLS
AND THEIR DESCRIPTIONS - 2.1-2.2
............
P r e s s u r eL o s s 6.6

Air Leakage. ............. 2.1.1


COMPUTATIONS -
Exit Gas Temperature - With 7 7.01-7.16
Leakage. .............. 2.1.2
.........
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GasSideEfficiency 7.01
Exit Gas Temperature - No
Leakage. .............. 2.1.3
Temperature of Exit Gas Corrected
..........
.......
Air Temperature Rise. 2.1.4
for No Leakage.
.......
7.02
Gas Temperature Drop....... 2.1.5
Per Cent Air Leakage.
................
7.03
.......... Dry G a s . 7.04

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ..
Temperature Head 2.1.6
.........
Gas Side Efficiency 2.1.7 Moisture Content of F l u e G a s . 7.05
X-Ratio
Symbols.
.................
................ 2.1.8
2.2
DryAir
T e s t X-Ratio .............
7.06
7.07
Air Heater Arrangements ...... Fig. 1 Corrected Gas Temperature
Leaving Air Heater for Devia-
3 - tion from Design Entering Air
GUIDING PRINCIPLES 3.01-3.11
Temperature ............ 7.08
Items on Which Agreement Shall Corrected Gas Temperature
be Reached Prior to Test
Selection of P e r s o n n e l
....
....... 3.01
3.02
Leaving Air Heater for Devia-
tion from Design Entering Gas
Tolerances and Limits of Error . 3.03 Temperature ............ 7.09
Acceptance Test........... 3.04 Corrected Gas Temperature
........
Preparation for T e s t . 3.05 Leaving Air Heater for Devia-
...........
Preliminary Run. 3.06 .... 7.10
TestConditions ........... 3.07
tion from Design X-Ratio
Duration ................ 3.08
Corrected Gas Temperature
Leaving Air Heater for Devia-
Frequency and Consistency of
Readings................ 3.09 tion from Design Entering Wet
..........
. . . . . . . . . . 3.10
Rejection of Runs
Flue Gas Flow. 7.11
Records and Test Reports . . . . . 3.1 1 Totally Corrected Gas Tempera-
ture Leaving Air Heater ..... 7.12
Air Leakage Corrected for Devia-
4 DATA
REQUIRED,INSTRUMENTS tion from D e s i g n P r e s s u r e Dif-
AND APPARATUS - 4.1-4.2.6
DataRequired ............ 4.1
ferential and from Design Air
Temperature ............ 7.13
....
Instruments and Apparatus. 4.2 G a s S i d e P r e s s u r e L o s s of t h e
Air Heater Corrected for Devia-
5 MEASUREMENT - 5.1-5.5 tion from Design Flow and
Location of Test Sampling Points Temperatures ........... 7.14
for Air and Gas Temperature A i r S i d e P r e s s u r e L o s s of the Air
and Gas Analysis ......... 5.1 Heater Corrected for Deviation

. . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Flue Gas and Air Temperatures. 5.2 from Design Flow and Tempera-
Gas Analysis 5.3 tures ................. 7.15
Flue Gas and Air Quantity. .... 5.4 Accuracy of Correction to Pressure
Fuel Quantity. ............ 5.5 Loss for Turbulent and Laminar
Power..... ............. 5.6 Flow... .............. 7.16

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AIR HEATERS

SECTION O, INTRODUCTION

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0.1 This Code for air heater testing shall 0.3 General instructions for the conduct of
govern the preparation for tests, the taking of tests are given in the Code on General Instruc-
data, and the calculation of test results. tions (PTC 1) which should be studied carefully.
The Code on Definitions and Values (PTC 2) and
the Test Code for Steam Generating Units (PTC
0.2 The air heater is defined as a heat ex- 4.1) should be followed where applicable. The
changer used to transfer heat directly from com- Supplements on Instruments and Apparatus (PTC
bustion gases to combustion air without the u s e 19) shall b e u s e d as a guide to the selection and
of an intermediate heat transfer fluid. u s e of test equipment not specified in this Code.

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ASME P E R F O R M A N C E TEST C O D E S

SECTION 1, OBJECT AND SCOPE

1.1 Obiect. The purpose of this Code is t o 7.7.4.6 Obtaining any other pertinent information
establish procedures for conducting performance required.
tests to determine:
J , 7, I Gas side efficiency 1.2 Scope. This Code applies specifically to
7.1.2 Air leakage the regenerative and tubular type air heaters. It
7.1.3 Other related operating characteristics also applies to any combustion gas-to-air heat ex-
such as: changers used in conjunction with a steam gen-
7.1.3.7 X-Ratio erat or.
I. 1.3.2 Gas and air pressure loss
1.3 For the purpose of this Code, the air
I , 7.3.3 Gas and air temperature
heater is defined a s a heat exchanger used to
1 , 7.4 A determination of any or all of the perform-
transfer heat from gases of combustion to combus-
ance items specified above may be necessary for:
tion air without the u s e of an intermediate heat
I. I .4.1 Checking the actual performance against
transfer fluid. Specifically excluded are the sup-
the manufacturer's guarantee
plementary steam coil air heater, direct-fired air
7.1.4.2 Comparing these items with a standard of
heater and low temperature economizer. How-
operation
ever, a separate low temperature air heater would
7.7.4.3 Comparing performance when firing dif-
be considered part of the air heater installation.
ferent fuels
7.7.4.4 Determining the effect of changes to 1.4 If the installation consists of more than
equipment one air heater in parallel, all air heaters are in-
7.7.4.5 Determining .corrections to air heater exit cluded as a unit. However, if the air heaters are
gas temperature caused by variations in inlet air in series and have other apparatus in between,
temperature in an efficiency test of a steam gen- then each air heater, or each group of parallel air
erator. heaters, shall be tested individually.

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....

AIR HEATERS

SECTION 2, DEFINITION OF TERMS, SYMBOLS AND THEIR DESCRIPTIONS

2.1 The Code on Definitions and Values 2.1.5 Gas TemperatureDrop. Decrease in the
( P T C 2) defines the meaning and values of b a s i c temperature of the gas in passing through the air
technical terms and numerical constants, which heater, based on exit gas temperature - no
are used throughout this Code. Definitions of leakage.
t e r m s s p e c i f i c t o t h i s C o d e a r eas follows: 2.1.6 TemperatureHead. Temperature of gas
entering air heater minus temperature of air enter-
2.7.7 A i r Leakage. Weight of air passing from ing air heater.
the air side to the gas s i d e . It i s a s s u m e d i n 2.7.7 Gas Side Efficiency. Ratio of gas tem-
calculations to leak directly from the air inlet to perature drop, corrected for no air leakage, to
the gas outlet. temperature head.
2.7.8 X-Ratio. T h i s i s the ratio of the heat
2-72 E x i t Gas Temperature - With Leakage. The capacity of the air passing through the air heater
measured exit gas temperature. to the heat capacity of the gas passing through
the air heater. See P a r s . 6.3 and 7.07.
2.7.3 E x i t Gas Temperature - No Leakage. T h e 2.2 Symbols. A l i s t of symbols used through-
temperature at which the gas would have left t h e out this Code follows. With numerous quantities
air heater if there were no leakage. This temper- and points of reference, it has been found im-
ature must be calculated by heat balance, if leak- practical to restrict the Code to the use of s i n g l e
age is present. See Computations, Section 7 . subscripts. Where both letter and numerical sub-
scripts are used, a numerical one is given second
2.7.4 Air TemperatureRise. I n c r e a s e i n t h e for example V ~ 1 4 . This signifies the pounds of
temperature of the air in passing through the air gas per pound of “as fired” fuel at location 14,
heater. Fig. 1.

Symbols and their Descriptions

Symbol Description Unit

Air ...........
Dry air ............

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As fired ............
Air leakage per cent

Bypass ............
Pounds of carbon per pound of “as fired” fuel - (laboratory lb per lb of A.F.
anaIysis) fuel
Pounds of carbon burned per pound of “as fired” fuel lb per lb of A.F.
fuel
Per cent carbon monoxide per volume of dry flue gas. Determined per cent
by flue gas a n a l y s i s
Per cent carbon dioxide per volume of dry flue gas. Determined by per cent
flue gas a n a l y s i s
Mean specific heat of air at constant pressure Btu per lb F

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Symbols and their Descriptions (Cont’d)

Symbol Description Unit

C Mean specific heat of the flue gas at constant pressure Btu per lb F
PG
D Standard or guarantee ............
e Elapsed time hr

f Fuel - ............
G r l u e gas ............
o F l u e gas flow lb per hr
G’ Dry flue gas ............
H Pounds of hydrogen exclusive of that in moisture per pound of lb per lb of A.F.
as fired” fuel - (laboratory analysis)
I I
fuel

H2 Hydrogen content of the dry flue gas - (laboratory analysis) CU ft perCU ft dry gas

Hd ’ p / High-heat value of the dry refuse (laboratory analysis) Btu per lb of refuse

k Constant ............
o m
Leakage
Moisture content
............
per cent by weight

mf Moisture in fuel lb of water per lb


of A.F. fuel

N Pounds of nitrogen per pound of “as fired” fuel - (laboratory lb per lb of A.F.
analysis) fuel

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N2 Per cent nitrogen per volume of dry flue gas. Determined by sub- per cent
tracting the sum of the measured quantities C02 02 and CO
from 100

@ No leakage ............
O Pounds of oxygen per pound “ a s fired” fuel - (laboratory lb per lb of A.F.
analysis) fuel

o2 Per cent oxygen per volume of dry flue gas. Determined by flue per cent
gas a n a l y s i s
P Pressure in. of water (gage)

m Ashpit ............
Dry pit refuse lb
P‘

8 Recirculation ............
S Pounds of sulfur per pound of “as fired” fuel - (laboratory lb per lb of A.F.
analysis) fuel

T Temperature Rankine R
t Temperature Fahrenheit F

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ASME P T C x 4 . 3 68 m 0757b70 0054075 b W

AIR HEATERS

Symbols and their Descriptions (Cont’d)

Symbol I Description I Unit

Temperature of a i r F
Temperature of the flue gas F
Weight lb
Pounds of air supplied per pound of “as fired” fuel lb per lb of A.F.
fuel
Pounds of dry air per pound of “as fired” fuel lb per lb of A.F.
fuel
P o u n d s of air leakage per pound of “as fired” fuel lb per lb of A.F.
fuel
Pounds of dry refuse per pound of “as fired” fuel lb per lb of A.F.
fuel
Pounds of fuel fired (rate), either solid or liquid lb per hr
Pounds of dry gas leavingunitperpound of “as fired”fuellbperlb of A.F.

Pounds of moisture per pound of dry air lb per lb of dry air


X-Ratio ............
i Atomizing steam ............
S Corrected ............
Efficiency per cent
Gas side efficiency per cent
Change ............
Dry ............

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"
J
GAS
IN
PTC 4.3 - 1967
Al R OUT 'G 14
+ 'G14
'A9 'A9

PLAN 1 BASICARRANGEMENT
OUT
-7
GAS OUT

'G15 tG15 I
PLAN 2 BASIC ARRANGEMENT
REGENERATIVE AIR HEATER TUBULAR A!!? HEATER

f.0. F

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PLAN 3 AIR HEATER WITH PLAN 4 AIR HEATER WITH
Al R RECl RClJLATlON L
AIRBYPASS
1

II
'm' OUT
u

PLAN 5 AIR HEATER WITH PLAN 6 AIR HEATER WITH PLAN 7 AIR HEATER WITH
SUPPLEMENTARY STEAM COILS LOW LEVEL ECONOMIZER LOW LEVEL AIR HEATER

FIG. 1 AIR HEATERARRANGEMENTS

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AIR HEATERS

SECTION 3, GUIDINGPRINCIPLES
3.01 Ifems on WhichAgreementShallbe Allowances for errors o f measurement and
ReachedPriortoTest: sampling are permissible provided they are agreed
upon in advance by the parties to the test and
3.01.07 Object of T e s t . clearly stated in the test report.
3.07.02 Permissible deviation in gas side effi-
ciency between duplicate runs. 3.04 AcceptanceTest. An acceptance test
3.01.03 Air and gas flow quantities. shall be undertaken only when the parties to the
test certify that the unit is operating to their
3.01 .O4 Allocation of responsibility for all per- satisfaction and is, therefore, ready for test. Es-
formance and operating conditions which affect pecially in the case of fuel burning equipment,
the test. adjustments and changes are sometimes neces-
3.01.05 Selection of test personnel to conduct sary to obtain optimum performance. The accept-
the test. ance test should be started as soon as the unit is
in satisfactory condition for test, provided the
3.01 .O6 Establishment of acceptable operational load and other governing factors are suitable.
conditions, number of load points, duration of
runs, b a s i s of rejection of runs and procedures 3.04.7 P a r t i e s to the test may designate a person
to be followed during the test. to direct the test and to serve as arbiter in the
event of d i s p u t e s a s to the accuracy of observa-
3.07.07 Cleanliness of unit initially and how this tions, conditions or methods of operation.
is to be maintained during the test. See P a r .
3.04.2. 3.04.2 All heat transfer surfaces, both internal
and external, should be commercially clean
3.07.08 Condition of apparatus affecting air (normal operating 'cleanliness) before starting the
leakage. test. During the test, only the amount of cleaning
3.07.09 The fuel to be fired, the method of ob- shall be permitted as is necessary to maintain
taining fuel samples and the laboratory to make normal operating cleanliness.
the analysis. 3.04.3 After a preliminary run has been made, it
3.07.10 Observations and readings to be taken to may be declared an acceptance run if agreed to
comply with the object or objectives of t h e t e s t . and provided that all the requirements of a regu-
lar run have been met.
3.01.1 1 Instruments to be used, calibration of in-
struments, methods of measurement and equip- 3.04.4 At least two runs shall be made approxi-
ment to be used in testing the unit. The Perform- mating the load required for acceptance. If the
ance Test Code Supplements on Instruments and results exceed the previously agreed upon devia-
Apparatus should be used, when applicable. tion in efficiency between runs, a third run s h a l l
be required. The test efficiency at the required
3.07.12 Tolerances and limits of error in meas- load will be the average of the two runs which
urement and sampling. fall within the permissible deviation in efficiency.
3.07.73 Distribution of fuel refuse quantities be-
tween various collection points and methods of 3.05 PreparationforTest. Install such meas-
sampling. uring apparatus as may be required to attain the
3.07.74 Corrections to be made for deviations objective of the test. It i s recommended that the
from specified operating conditions. air heater be inspected prior to t h e t e s t to note
the condition of all parts which can affect the
3.02 selectionofPersonnel. To insure ob- performance. In particular, the tightness and
taining reliable results, all personnel partici- cleanliness of air heater tubes and condition and
pating in the test shall be fully qualified to per- cleanliness of elements and condit ion of the
form their particular function. s e a l s of regenerative air heater should be exam-
3.03 TolerancesandLimits of Error. This ined and the air heater placed in proper operating
Code does not include consideration of over-all condition. The bypass or recirculating dampers
tolerances or margins on performance guarantees. should be checked for tight shutoff. A prelim-
The t e s t r e s u l t s shall be reported a s computed inary check of air leakage, calculated from Orsat
from test observations, with proper corrections for analysis at the gas inlet and outlet should be
calibrations. conducted prior to the actual test.

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ASME P T C * 4 - 3 h8 U. 0757b70 0 0 5 4 0 7 8 L

. ASME P E R F O R M A N C E T E S T C O D E S

3.06 A Preliminary Run shall be made for the intervals. If, however, there are fluctuations, the
purpose of: readings shall be taken at such frequency as may
be necessary to determine a value that represents
3.06.1 Checking the operation of all instruments.
a true average.
3.06.2 Training the observers and other test
personnel.
3.09.1 It is suggested that, in s o far as i s feas-
ible, pertinent data of the run be plotted continu-
3.06.3 Makingminor adjustments, the needs for ously, a s the run progresses, on coordinate paper
which were not evident during the preparation for of suitable scale to permit a complete review of
the test, and establishing proper combustion con- the conduct of the run, at least hourly.
ditions for the particular fuel and rate of burning
to be employed. 3.10 Rejection of Runs. Shouldinconsis-
3.07 TestConditions. It i s important that air tencies in the observed data be detected during a
and gas flow through the air heater remain essen- run or during the computations that would cause
tially constant throughout the test. The steam obviously untrue results, the run shall be rejected
generator yutput shall be s e t as c l o s e a s possible completely, or in part if the affected part is a t t h e
to that required of the test run and shall be held beginning or at the end of the run. A run that has
stable for a t l e a s t 30 minutes prior to the start of been rejected shall be repeated, if necessary, to
the test.

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attain the objectives of the test.
3.08 Duration. T e s t r u n s s h a l l be of a t l e a s t
two-hour duration but sufficiently long to permit 3.11 RecordsandTestReports. Allobserva-
the taking of a t least two complete sets of con- tions, measurements and instrument readings
sistent readings. necessary for the objective of the test shall be
3.09 Frequency and Consistency of Readings. recorded as observed. Corrections and corrected
Except for quantity measurements (see Pars. S.4 v a l u e s shall be entered separately in the test
and S.S), the readings shall be taken at 1S minute record.

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AIR HEATERS

SECTION 4, DATA REQUIRED, INSTRUMENTS AND APPARATUS

4.1 DataRequired. The followingdataare 4.2 InstrumentsandApparatus. Directions re-


needed in order to determine the performance of garding the characteristics, use and calibration of
the air heater: the apparatus required are given in PTC 19 Sup-
plements on Instruments and Apparatus (I & A).
4.1 .O1 Temperature of air entering air heater The instruments and apparatus required for air
4.J .O2 Temperature of air leaving air heater heater tests are as follows:

4.J .O3 Temperature of gas entering air heater 4.2.7 Determining air and gas temperatures -
Calibrated thermocouples shall be used with a
4.I .O4 Temperature of gas leaving air heater calibrated'potentiometer. The thermocouples
4.1.05 Quantity of air entering air heater shall be in accordance with I & A, Temperature
4.J .O6 Quantity of heated air leaving air heater Measurement (PTC 19.3) and arranged s o that
they can be traversed across the duct.
4#1,07 Quantity of gas entering air heater
4.2.2 Determining air humidity adjacent to air
4.7.08 Quantity of gas leaving air heater inlet - A psychrometer shall be used.
4.J .O9 Air side inlet and outlet static pressure 4.2.3 Measuring air and gas pressure - U-tube
4.J JO Air side inlet and outlet velocity pressure
I or inclined manometers for determining pressure
s h a l l be filled with water or a light liquid of
4.J.1 J Gas side inlet and outlet static pressure known specific gravity. (Refer to PTC 4.1, P a r s .
4.I . J2 Gas side inlet and outlet velocity pressure 8.06 and 8.07.)
4.7.13 Humidity of inlet air 4.2.4 Analyzing dry flue gas - Gas analyzer
s h a l l be used to determine percentages of carbon
4.J. J4 Gas analysis of flue gas entering and dioxide, oxygen and carbon monoxide,
leaving air heater
4.2.5 Measuring fuel input, if required - Calí-
4.7.75 Quantity of fuel measured or computed by brated coal scales, oil meters, or gas meters
steam generator output and efficiency s h a l l be used.
4.7.76 Ultimate anaIysis of fuel 4.2.6 Sampling of fuel - Air tight containers
4.7. J7Quantity of fuel oil atomizing steam if s h a l l be used for individual fuel samples to avoid
burning oil. moisture loss.

--``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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ASME PTC*K4*3 bB S 0 7 5 7 b 7 0 0 0 5 ~ 1 0 0b u

ASME P E R F O R M A N C E T E S T C 0 D E . S

SECTION 5, MEASUREMENT

5.1 Location of Test Sampling Points for A i r recommended that the temperature measurements
and Gas Temperature and Gas Analysis. Tem- at individual locations in the duct cross section
perature and/or gas analysis sampling points in be weighted in proportion to the gas flow at the
the inlet gas and inlet air ducts shall be located corresponding locations, and an average of the
a s close to the air heater a s practical and as weighted temperatures be used a s representing
consistent as possible with good velocity meas- the gas temperature at that cross section.
urement practice. Due to the probable stratifica- 5.2.2 Choice of temperature measuring instru-
tion at the gas and air outlets and air infiltration ments depends upon the conditions of the individ-
of a regenerative air heater, the traverse section ual case. The selection, design, construction,
should be located a s far from the heater as prac- calibration, installation, and operation of temper-
tical and be divided into equal areas for velocity ature measuring instruments shall be in accord-
measurement and simultaneous gas sampling from ance with I & A, Temperature Measurement (PTC
the center of these areas. A weighted average 19.3).
can then be calculated, taking into consideration
the gas temperature, Par. 5.2, as well as a veloc- 5.2.3 For determination of the air temperature,
ity function. See Performance ï'est Code for. the same general methods and the same precau-
tions noted in Pars. 5.2.1 and 5.2.2 shall apply
--``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

(PTC 11). The number and arrangement of the


equal areas will depend on the size and layout for the air entering and leaving the air heater.
of the gas passage. In rectangular ducts, the
areas shall be approximately square and the 5.3 GasAnalysis. Gas analysis is required
sampling points shall be not more than three feet to calculate gas flow. Analysis to be employed
apart, and a total of not less than four points i s d e p e n d e n t upon the type of fuel burned and
shall be used. Where judgment indicates a pos- upon the purpose of the test. Design, construc-
sible severe stratification, consideration should tion and operation of the apparatus and prepara-
be given to a system of closer spacings. In round tion of the reagents shall be in accordance with
ducts, test points shall be located on two tra- I & A, Flue and Exhaust Gas Analyses (PTC
verses along axes normal to each other as de- 19.10).
scribed in the Performance Test Codefor Fans (PTC) 5.3.7 An analysis should be made to verify
11). It is recognized that there may b e c a s e s in presence or absence of gaseous combustibles.
which the gas velocity is so low that velocity If combustibles are found and cannot be elimi-
measurements would be impractical. In such nated by adjustment to the fuel burning equip-
cases an arithmetic rather than weighted average ment, the hydrogen and hydrocarbons shall be
should be employed. Ehen the importance of the measured and the gas flow corrected following
test does not warrant making velocity measure- the principles covered in Section 7 of t h e T e s t
ments and taking individual samples from the Code for Steam Generating Units, (PTC 4.1).
equal areas, an aspirator and suitable apparatus
5.3.2 For hydrogen and hydrocarbon analyses, it
for obtaining a composite sample from several
is necessary to obtain representative field sam-
'
sampling points may beemp1oye.d. Rith the ex-
p l e s of the gases for submission to an established
ception of the area sampling instruction above,
laboratory. Refer to I & A, Flue and Exhaust Gas
a l l of the procedures are to be in accordance
Analyses (PTC 19.10).
with recommendations of I & A, P a r t 10 on Flue
and Exhaust Gas Analyses (PTC 19.10). 5.3.3 Proper steps shall be taken to prevent
leakage to or from gas analyzing apparatus and
5.2 FlueGasandAirTemperatures. Flue sampling lines, to avoid contamination and de-
gas temperatures must be taken at the same lo- vitalization of reagents, to provide fresh reagents
cations a s those used for flue gas sampling, when needed, to keep manifolds clear of reagents,
Par. 5.1, to minimize the effect of probable gas to avoid errors due to physical solubility of g a s e s
temperature stratification. in reagents and confining liquids, to avoid injury
by contact with reagents, to allow for burette
5.2.1 If a preliminary survey of flue gas flow, error and drainage time, to avoid change of sam-
Par. 5.1, indicates severe stratifications, it i s ple temperature during analysis, to keep ap.

18
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AIR HEATERS

paratus
clean,
to
minimize human errorsby em- 5.4 FlueGas and Air Quantity. F l u eg a s
ployingcarefuloperatorswhoaregivenadequatequantityshallbedetermined by calculation from
informationoncommonsources of error,topro-fuelanalysisandfluegascomposition.Calcu-
videoperatorswithadequatelightandreasonablelationprocedurefor gas weightperheatunit of
comfort, to verifyresultsbycheckingagainstfuelshallbeasgiveninPar. 7.04.1. Similarly,
theoretical, and in allotherways,toassurethatairquantitiesshallbecalculatedasperPar.
recordeddataarecorrectandtheirdegree of pre- 7.06.
cision known. Sampling should be continuous
when possible. Because al1 g a s e se,s p e c i a l l y 5.5 F u eQlu a n t i t y . The quantity of fuel may
SOp and C O p , aresolubletosomeextentinbeobtained by measurement in
accordancewith
water,thewaterinthel'evellingbottleshallbeproceduresgivenin PTC 4.1,Section 4, or by
saturatedwithsamplegasbeforetakinganycomputingfromtestefficiencyandoutput of the
readings.
5.3.4 Detailed precautions given in I & A, P a r t 5-6 Power. Power requirement of the regen-
10 on F l u e and Exhaust Gas Analyses (PTC erative air heaters may be disregarded for per-
19.10) shall be followed. formance purposes.

--``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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'ASME P T C x 4 . 3 6 8 M 0 7 5 7 b 7 0 0054302 T H

ASME P E R F O R M A N C E T E S T C O D E S
--``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

SECTION 6, PERFORMANCEFACTORS

6.1 Analysis of Over-allPerformance. The 6.3 ThermalPerformance. A veryimportant


a n a l y s i s of air heater performance is confined to factor in evaluating the thermal performance of an
the following considerations: air heater is X-Ratio. This fa'etor is nondimen-
sional and is obtained during test by recording
6.1 .I Comparison of test thermal performance gas side in and out temperatures, air side in and
with design. out temperatures and Orsat readings at gas inlet
and outlet. From the latter two readings the air
6.1.2 Comparison of test air leakage with design. leakage to the gas side is obtained in pounds per
6.1.3 Comparison of test air and gas side pres- pound of wet gas and permits correction of the
sure loss with design. test temperature of gas out to temperature of gas
out with zero air heater leakage. T h e u s e of the
X-Ratio accounts partially for differences be-
6.2 OperatingConditions. Conditionswhich tween test and design values of air heater exit
affect the air heater performance and which gas temperatures. The X-Ratio is also affected
should be given special consideration are: by tempering air flow, sealing air flows, setting
infiltration and in some arrangements by gas
6.2.7 Quantity of air passing through the air recirculation.
heater. 6.4 Air HeaterLeakage. From the O r s a t
6.2.2 Temperature of air entering the air heater. readings used to obtain X-Ratio the amount of air
leakage is determined and when corrected i s com-
6.2.3 Recirculating or bypassing of air to control pared with design.
cold-end temperature.
6.5 ExitGasTemperature. Test anddesign
6.2.4 Tempering air and setting infiltration which exit gas temperature should not be compared un-
did not pass through the air heater. til corrections to the test values have been made
6.2.5 Air heater leakage - condition of s e a l s . in accordance with Section 7, Par. 7.07 through
P a r . 7.11.
6.2.6 Quantity of gas passing through the air
heater. 6.6 PressureLoss. Aftercorrectionsfor
temperature and flow rate, test gas side and air
6.2.7 Temperature of gas entering the air heater. side pressure losses are to be compared with de-
6.2.8 Fouled or corroded elements or tubes. sign values.

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A.IR H E A T E R S

SECTION 7, COMPUTATIONS

The following computation procedures are for determining air heater performance.

7.01 qG = per cent = Gas sideefficiency.

¿G14 - tG15 @
’lG = x 100
tG14 - tA8
Where
t ~ 1 4= F = Measured gas temperature entering air heater.
¿G15 @ =F = Calculated gas temperature leaving air heater corrected for no air leakage
a s g i v e n in Par. 7.02.

tA8 = F = Measured air temperature entering air heater.

7.02 ¿Cf5 @
J = F = Calculated gas temperature leaving air heater corrected for no air leakage.

A@ C p A (tC15 - tA8)
tG15 @ = f ¿C15
100 C p ( ;

Where
A@ = Per cent = Air heater leakage as given in Par. 7.03

c P ~ ( l=) m
Btu
= The mean specificheatbetweentemperaturesand ¿G15

c ~ G (=
~ ) - Btu
lb - F’ = The mean specific heat between temperatures tCl5 and tG15 @

Where
tc15 = F = Measured gas temperature leaving air heater.

t ~ 8= F = Measured air temperature entering air heater.

7.03 AO - lb wet air leakage x 100 = Per cent air heater leakage, - defined as
lb wet gas entering air heater pounds of air leakage to the gas side divided
by pounds gas entering the air heater. --``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

(l’For the determination of the mean specific heats use PTC 4.1, F i g . 3 for air and Fig. 7 for g a s to calculate the weighted
average specific heat for wet air and wet gas.

21
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ASME P E R F O R M A N C E T E S T C O D E S

lb wet gas leaving entering air heater


vG15914 = l b A.F. fuel

(2)
= wG’15, 14 + WmG

vG‘15314 = lb dry gas = Dry gas flow leaving/entering the air heater as given in Par. 7.04
l b A.F. fuel

lbmoisture
R’mG = = Total moisture in flue gas entering the air heater a s given in Par.
lb A.F. fuel 7,0s

7.03.1 While not a part of this Code, an interesting empirical approximation of percentage of leakage
may be obtained by the use of the per cent voIume of the CO2 in the gas entering and leaving the
heater. The approximation does not account for the moisture in the flue gas.
Thus:
% CO;! gas entering heater - % COZ gas leaving heater
% LEAKAGE = x 90
% CO2 gas leaving heater

Experience h a s shown that the use of this factor, 90, will result in percentage leakage figures that are
very close (plus or minus one percentage point) to leakage determined on a weight basis.

7.04
lb dry gas
= = Pounds of dry gas per
pound of “ a s fired”
fuel.
lb A.F. fuel

7.04.1
4 . 0 1 CO, + 32.00 O2 + 28.01 CO -t 28.02 N2 12.01
WG‘14,15 =
12.01 (CO, + CO)
--``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

The above formula i s b a s e d on molecular weights accurate to four significant figures, but it is not to
be implied that the dry gas weight derived has this degree of accuracy. The four digit molecular
weights are used to hold errors from calculation procedure to a minimum.
COP, 02, and CO = per cent by volume of dry gas.
N2 being determined by subtracting the total of COP, 02, and CO from 100 per cent.

lb carbon burned
c, =
lb A.F. fuel
= Pounds of carbon burned per pound of “ a s fired” fuel.

Cb =c-

(2)In this Code, air leakage is assumed to bypass directly from the inlet air side to the outlet gas side. Therefore moisture in
airleakagedoesnotbecome a part of V G T G+, ~ ~ butdoesbecome a part of v ~ / 1 t5 V&. Theomission of t h i s
moisture in the latter term will not affect the accuracy of the leakage calculation since it is a very small part of the total
moisture term. If i t is desired to calculate this moisture term, the following procedure may be used:
1. Calculate the actual pounds of dry air leakage per pound of “as fired” fuel; V~,15 -WGI,~.
2. Multiply the result of (1) by the specific humidity (pounds moisture/pounds dry air) to get the pounds of moisture in
leakage air per pound of “as fired” fuel.
3, Add the result of (2) tothe v m term
~ used to calculate rV,,, and then recalculate A L

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ASME P T C m Y . 3 bd m 0 7 5 9 b 7 0 005Y105 5 m

AIR HEATERS

Where
lb carbon CI
C= = Pounds of carbon in a s fired” fuel by laboratory analysis.
lb A.F. fuel
lb
--``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

= Pounds of dry refuse per pound of “as fired” fuel.


wd“PØ = lb A.F. f u e l

Where
lb
Vd) e = F = Dry refuse rate

Where refuse rate at various collection points, such as ashpit, dust collector, boiler hoppers, is not
actually determined, it can be estimated if all parties agree.

/]dlp) = = Laboratory
determination of per
cent
combustible
times 14.500 Btu
Ib dry refuse
per lb

or

HdØp/ = = Laboratory determination of heating value by bomb calorimeter


lb dry refuse

Btu
14SOO = - = Heat value of 1 lb of carbon a s it occurs in refuse (see Par. 9.4 of t h e T e s t
lb CodeforSteamGeneratingUnits, PTC 4.1)
lb
S = = The “as fired” sulfur content of fuel as determined by laboratory analysis.
lb A.F. fuel

7.05
lb = Pounds of moisture in the flue gas per pound of “as fired” fuel.
FrnG =
lb A.F. fuel

Wrnc = 8.9368 + ( V m ~X/ VA I ) + m, + W, + IVrn


Where

8.936 = 8.936 pounds of water produced from burning one pound of hydrogen.

H = lb
= P o u n d s of hydrogen from an “as fired” ultimate analysis,
lb A.F. fuel
lb
FmA/ =
lb dry air
= Pounds of moisture per pound of dry air at boiler inlet.

lb
VA‘ -- lb A.F. fuel
= Pounds of dry air per pound of “as fired” fuel as given in P a r . 7.06.

23
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ASME PTCmLI.3 b 8 m 0 7 5 9 b 7 0 005LI10b 7 m

ASME P E R F O R M A N C E T E S T C O D E S

lb
mf = = P o u n d s of moisture per pound of “as fired” fuel.
lb A.F. fuel
lb
wz lb A.F. fuel = Pounds of atomizingsteamperpound of “as fired”fuel.Theprocedure
for obtaining this term i s given in Pars, 4.17 and 7.3.2.06 of the Test
Code for Steam Generating Units, PTC 4.1.
--``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

7.06
”’ =
lb = Pounds of dry air per pound of “as fired” fuel.
lb A.F. fuel

W,,, = (VG’N~- N)
0.7685
Where

lb = Pounds of nitrogen in dry gas per pound of “as fired” fuel.


U’GC‘N =
2 lb A.F. fuel

28.02 N2
WGG’N2=
12.01
(CO2
+CO)
(c + 2.07 S)
312-01
The preceding formula is based on molecular weights accurate to four significant figures, but it is not
to be implied that the weight of dry air has this degree of accuracy. The four digit molecular weights
are used to hold errors from calculation procedures to a minimum. The values used are from the National
Bureau of Standards Circular 564, dated 11/1/55.

CO,, 0, and CO = P e r c e n t b y volume of dry flue gas. (Location 14 or 15, Fig. 1.)
N2 being determined by subtracting the total of CO2 O2 and CO from 100 per cent.

lb .
Cb = = Pounds of carbon burned per pound of “as fired” fuel.
lb A.F. fuel

Where

lb = Pounds carbon in “as fired” fuel by laboratory analysis.


C =
l b A.F. fuel

lb
= = Pounds of dry refuse per pound of “as fired” fuel, see Par. 7.04.
l b A.F. fuel

HdtP# =
lb dry refuse
Heat
value‘for dry ref-use from laboratory
determination.

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AIR HEATERS

Btu
14,500 = -= IIeat value of 1 Ib of carbon a s i t o c c u r s in refuse (see Par. 9.4 of t h e T e s t
lb Code forSteamGeneratingUnits, PTC 4.1)

lb
S= = Pounds sulfur per pound of “as fired” fuel as determined by laboratory
lb A.F. fuel
analysis.
lb
N = lb A.F. fuel
= P o u n d s of nitrogen per pound of “as fired” fuel.

0.7685 = P o u n d s of nitrogenperpound of standardair,thenbecomes

W,, =
28.02 N2
12.01 (CO, + CO)
0.768.5
+
12.01 S
32.01 ) -N

air passing through the heater to the heat capacity of the gas passing through the heater.

lb wet air
= Wet air flow leaving air heater.
lb A.F. fuel
lb w e t g a s
FG,4 r= = Wet gas flow entering air heater as given in Par. 7.03.
lb A.F. fuel

CPA(4L -Btu
lb-F=
Mean specificheat of airbetweentemperatures t ~ and
g t ~ e .

(4) -
-F -
.
--``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

‘PG - lbBtu - Mean specific heat of gas between temperatures tG14 and tG15 @
t ~ 1 4 = F Measuredgastemperatureenteringairheater.
tG(5 @ = F = Calculated gas temperature leaving the air heater with no leakage as given in
P a r . 7.02.
tA9 F = = Measured air temperature leaving air heater.
t ~ a= F = Measured air temperature entering air heater,

X-Ratio is derived from heat balance taken around an air heater corrected for no air leakage. Using the
basic design diagram of Fig. 1, the heat balance is a s follows:

~~

(4)For the determinntion of the mean specific heats use PTC 4.1, Fig. 3 for air and Fig. 7 for gas to calculate the weighted
average specific heat for wet air and wet gas.

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ASME P E R F O R M A N C E T E S T C O D E S

17.07.7 Design X-Ratio is obtained by using the above formula and factoring into it the design data.

7 .O8
tc 15 S A = F = Corrected gas temperature leaving air heater for deviation from design entering
air temperature.

Where
~ A =~ FD = Design air temperature entering air heater
¿Gl4 = F = Measured gas temperature entering air heater
t~ 15 = F = Measured gas temperature leaving air heater

t~~ = F = Measured air temperature entering air heater

The above equation is based on the test gas side efficiency remaining constant with changes in inlet
air temperature. It's derivation follows:

The nonleakage leaving gas temperature t ~ 1 5@ FA is the corrected variable to be solved for. T h i s
temperature is related to the leaving gas temperature with leakage as shown by Par. 7.02. The two
equations for the two nonleakage leaving gas temperatures in the above equation are shown a s follows:
--``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

R e writing
~ the above equation to correct for the deviation from design entering air temperature.

k t 5 @ 6A = k (¿G15 SA - tAsD) + tG156A

Upon substitution of the above two nonleakage leaving gas temperature equations into the equated gas
side efficiency equation, the corrected leaving gas temperature with leakage t ~ l Fj A can be solved for.
The result of this substitution is a s follows:

k l 4 - k(t~15 - tA8) - tG15 -


-
¿G14 -k ( t ~ 1 5-
6 ~L A s D ) - t G t 5 8 A

tG14 - LA8 k t 4 - tA8D

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AIR HEATERS

The above equation reduces to:

7.09
5 =
t ~ 1 SG F = Corrected Gas Temperature Leaving Air Heater for Deviation from Design Enter-
ing Gas Temperature

"here

t C 1 4 ~= F = Design gas temperature entering air heater


t~ 15 = F = Measured gas temperature leaving air heater

~ A E = F = Measuredairtemperatureenteringairheater

t ~ 1 4 t F = Measured gas temperature entering air heater


The above equation is based on the test gas side efficiency remaining constant with changes in inlet
gas temperature. The derivation follows:

The nonleakageleavinggastemperature t G 15 @ is the corrected variable to be solved for. This


temperature is related to the leaving gas temperature with leakage as shown by P a r . 7.02. The two
equations for the two nonleakage leaving gas temperatures in the above equation are shown below:

--``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Upon substitution of these nonleakage leaving gas temperature equations into the equated gas side ef-
ficiency equation, the corrected leaving gas temperature with leakage t G 1 5 6~ can be solved for. The
result of this substitution is shown below

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ASME P E R F O R M A N C E T E S T C O D E S

7.11 t ~ 1 5 8@ = .F = Corrected Gas Temperature Leaving Air Heater for Deviation from Design
Entering Flue Gas Flow.
Correction to measured gas temperature leaving the air heater for deviation from design flue gas flows
(5)
may be made by the use of appropriate design correction curves.

7.12
t ~ 1 5 8 T =. F
~ ~ ~=l Totally corrected gas temperature leaving air heater

t G 1 5 6 ~=
~ ~t G~1 5l 8 A $. tG158G +k158 @ + tG158@"tGl5

Where
¿G15 S A = F = Gas temperature leaving the air heater corrected for deviation from design
entering air temperature
t G 1 58G = F = Gas temperature leaving the air heater corrected for deviation from design
entering gas temperature
t ~ 1 8
5 @= F = Gas temperature leaving the air heater corrected for deviation from design
X-Ratio
t~ 15 8 @ = F = Gas temperature leaving the air heater corrected for deviation from design
gas flow
¿G 15 = F = Measuredgastemperatureleavingtheairheater.

7.13
lb
" O = lb of A.F. fuel
= Corrected Air Leakage for Deviation from Design Pressure Dif-
ferential and from Design Air Temperature

--``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Where
lb
" O = lb of A.F. fuel
= Air leakage

'G@= KG15 - wGí4

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AIR HEATERS

Where
lb wet gas leaving/entering air heater
wG15,14 = lb A.F. fuel
(6 1
= IvG’15,14 VmG

=
l b dry g a s
= Dry g a s flow leaving/entering the air heater a s given in Par. 7.04
lb A.F. fuel
lb moisture
ll.’,G = = Total moisture in flue gas entering the air heater as given in P a r .
lb A.F. fuel 7.0s

Ap(8-15)~= Inches of water = Design static pressure difference between air inlet at the duct
connection flange and gas outlet at the duct connection flange.
AP(8-15) = Inches of water = Measured static pressure difference between air inlet at the duct
connection flange and gas outlet at the duct connection flange.

TAS = R = Measured average Rankine temperature of air entering air heater.


T A ~ D= R = Design Rankine temperature of air entering air heater.

It is recognized that the above orifice correction is not a rigorous treatment of the subject but is con-

--``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
sidered sufficiently accurate for the purpose of the Code.

7.73.7 To determine the above corrections when leakage is expressed on a percentage basis, use the
following procedure:

A @ 80 = Per cent = Corrected Air Leakage for Deviation from Design Pressure Differential
and from Design Air Temperature

Where
A@ = Per cent = Air heater leakage as given in Par. 7,.03
lb wet gas = Wet g a s flow entering air heater as given in Par. 7.03
IvG l 4
lb A.F. fuel
lb wet gas = Wet g a s flow entering air heater at design conditions
lb A.F. fuel

AP(8-15)~ = Inches of water = Design static pressure difference between air inlet at the duct
connection flange and gas outlet at the duct connection flange.

(6)In this Code, air leakage is assumed to bypass directly from the inlet air side to the outlet g a s side. Therefore moisture in
air leakage does not become a part of W ~ ’ 1 4 + vmctbut does become a part of v G / 1 5 + v r n. ~
The omission of this mois-
ture in the latter term will not affect the accuracy of the leakage calculation since it is a very small part of the total moisture
term. If i t is desired to calculate this moisture term, the following procedure may be used:
1. Calculate the actual pounds of dry air leakage per pound of “as fired” fuel; -
V~t15 V~’14 I

2. Multiply the result of (1) by the specific humidity (pounds moisture/pounds dry air) to get the pounds of moisture in leak-
age air per pound of “as fired” fuel.
3, Add the result of (2) to the w r n ~term used to calculate K‘~15 and then recalculate A L O

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ASME PERFORMANCE T E S T C O D E S

AP(8- 1 5 ) = Inches of water = Measured static pressure difference between air inlet at the
duct connection flange and gas outlet at the duct connection
flange.
. TA^ R =
= Measured average Rankine temperature of air entering air heater.
TA B D = R = Design Rankine temperature of air entering air heater.
It is recognized that the above orifice correction is not a rigorous treatment of the subject but is con-
sidered sufficiently accurate for the purpose of the Code.

7.1 4
Ap(14.-i5) = I n c h e s of water = Gas S i d e P r e s s u r e Loss of the Air Heater Corrected for Devia-
tion from Design Flow and Temperatures

Where
A P ( 1 4 - 15) = I n c h e s of water = Measured pressure loss

lb
= = Design gas flow
lb of A.F. fuel
T c 1 4 ~= R = Design Rankine temperature of entering gas

T~15, = R = Design Rankine temperature of leaving gas

rG. -- lb - Test gas flow


l b of A.F. fuel -

Tc14 = R = Measured Rankine temperature of entering gas

TG 15 = R = Measured Rankine temperature of leaving gas

7.1 5
AP(8-g) 8 = Inches of water = Air side pressure loss of the air heater corrected for deviation
from design flow and temperatures.

Where
AP(8- 9 ) = Inches of water = Measured pressure loss

lb
= = Design air flow
lb of A.F. fuel

TA8D = R = Design Rankine temperature of entering air


TA9D = R = Design Rankine temperature of leaving air
lb
r* = l b of A.F. fuel
= T e s t a i r flow

--``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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A I R HEATERS

Tti8 = 11 = \leasured Itankine temperature of entering air


TA, = R = Measured Rankine temperature of leaving air

7.16 Accuracy of Correction to Pressure L o s s for Turbulent and Laminar Flow. It is recognized that
the above corrections for p r e s s u r e l o s s e s in P a r s . 7.14 and 7.15 are not rigorous for turbulent flow but
the approach is considered sufficiently accurate for the purpose of this Code. For correction to pressure
losses in laminar flow air heaters coming on the market at the time of completion of this Code, the
treatment is much less accurate and it is suggested the correction be made an item of agreement until
such time as field testing firms up the b a s i s of correction.

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PERFORMANCE TEST 60D'ES HOW AVAILABLE


PTC 23 -
Atmospheric Water Cooling Equipment .. . .-*.,. ,, .. (1958)
.,. . .. .-..... .,. ,. (1965)
e

PTC 8.2- Centrifugal Pumps f. ,,


PTC 4.2- C o o l P u l w r i z e r s I .....-..
$ .

,.. , ) + , . ..,...... ,,,,, (1944)


i.,
I a,.

PTC 1 - Code on General Instructions., '. ,..., ,. ,.,,,,..,.,. (1945)


PTC 2 - CodeonDefinitionsand V'alues .. .. ,..... ..(,...... (1945)
10 - Campressor and Exhsusters ,...,.....,,.,,.,..,,, ., (1965)
PTC
PTC 9
PTC 2.1-
- Displacement Compressors,VacuumPumpsand
Disp.lacernent Bumps,
Blowers
.... .....,. (,..,,.......... (1962)
,
(1954)

*..,. .._. , *.. , ...,.. ...... ,,., (1958)


+..
PTC 12.3- Deaerators * , , :&, , ,
PTC 27 - ..,, (1957)
PTC 28 -
3.1-
Determining Dust Concentration in g Gas Stream,,
DeterminingtheProperties
Diesel and Burner ßuels
of FiheParticulateMatter .. (1965)
..,,. ,,,.....,... .........., (1958)
-.....,, .... .,. ....,, (1941)
PTC
21 - ,r..
24 -
PTC Dust Se.parating Apparatus
.....,., .. . .....,(. ... ....* (1956)
I

PTC Ejectors and Boosters , , .


PTC 14 - EvaporatingApparatus ,,...,.. ,, ,. ..,.,. ..,..., (1955)
,.. . ,.. . ,, ... ..,. , ... (1955).
i,..

P T C 12.1- Fsedwater Heaters , , ,.


,., . (1958).
, i , .

PTC 16 - GasProducersondConfinuous Gas Generators.. * ,


. P T C 22 - Gas Turbine- Power Plirnfs ,,.., . ,,., .,.. . . *.. ,. (i966)
, , , ,
PTC 18 - Hydraulic Prime Movers ....., ..,,. . .,,,.....-., (19.49)
,
- . * , ,,, , , .., ,,.. , . (1957)
.i

PTC 17- Internal Cornbusfion Engines , i &,.

PTC 20.2- Overspeed Trip. Systems for


Steam Turbine .-Generator
Units
~.
.......,.,,... ...,....,.,.... (1965)
.
i...,....ri.;

PTC 7 - ReciprocatingSteam-Driven Dis


placement Púmps * . . I . (1949)
PTC 5 - Reciprocating Steam Engines, ..*.'. ....,.,..*..,.... (1949)
PTC 25.2- Safety and
Relief Valves,. ..,..*.. .. .. .. ,...... (1966)
,....,..: ...,... ......,. .*., .. (1954)
.t..

PTC 3.2 - Solid Fuels , .,


-
e

PTC 29
..*,.,,, ..,.. . , ...* ,,.., .,.-...i , ...... (1965)
Speed-GoverningSystemsforHydraulicTurbine-Generator
Units ,
PTC 26 - Speed-GoverningSystemsfor Internal Combustion
Engine-GeneratorUnits ..,., . *,....... *,..., (1962)
-
e

PTC 20,l Speed=Gaverníng Systems far Steam Turbine-GenerotQr

T PTC
Units..,...,, .,....
12.2- Steam Condensing Apparatus,, ,,,,, ,,, , , , . . .. ,.-..,. .(1958)
(1.955)
.. . . ...,...,. .. . ..... (1964)
.
PTC 4.1 - Steam -Generating Un i t s
...... . .... .. ...,...... (1964)
,,, , ,
P T C 6 .- Steam Turbines ..i. ,, ,
a.

,. ... (1964)
I

PTC 6 8 - Appendix A to Tesf Code fgr Sfeam Turbines. ,.

Copyright ASME International


Provided by IHS under license with ASME
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale