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This experimental study will engross the manipulation of conditions for studying the effects of
various treatments applied to numbers of different samples. Convenience sampling technique
will be employed in this particular study. This study followed OPPTS 810.3800

Product Performance Guideline of J. Sweeney, Entomologist, OPP/RD/IB.
A. Collection of Plant Material
Red onions (A. cepa) will be gathered from different fruit stands. The bulbs of red onions will be
used in this study to assess its termiticidal bioactivity. Approximately 1000 grams of the bulbs
will be needed in this study.
B. Extraction Procedure and Formulation of Set Ups
B1. Extraction Procedure
The following steps will be carried out to increase the efficiency of the extraction process.
Fresh and mature A. cepa will be conveniently selected during the study period. Fresh red onion
bulb (1.0 g) will be washed and air-dried for a few minutes. The plant materials will be cut into
small pieces and soaked in 1.0 liter of hexane for 24 hours (for defatting). Afterwards, 400 ml of
distilled water/ethanol (25/75) will be added to the samples.
B2. Formulation of Set Ups
Seven set ups will be prepared in this study: one for the commercially available termicide
Permethrin, two negative controls and four varying concentrations of the bulb extract. For the
negative controls and the commercially available insecticide, the first will consist of 10 ml of
distilled water alone, the second negative control will consist of 5 ml of water and 5 ml of 70%
ethyl alcohol and lastly 10ml of the commercially available will be collected. For four varying
concentrations of the bulb extract, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the bulb will be prepared. For
25% concentration, 2.50ml of the extract will be added to 7.50 ml of distilled water. For 50%
concentration, 5 ml of the leaf extract will be mixed with 5 ml of distilled water. For 75%
concentration, 7.50 ml of the bulb extract will be added to 2.50 ml of distilled water. And for
the 100% concentration, 10 ml of the bulb extract will be used without any addition of distilled
C. Termiticidal Bioassay Test
The termiticidal bioassay will follow the World Health Organization (WHO) standard protocols
for testing the efficacy of a termiticide with modifications (WHO, 1981). The researcher will
place the termites in seven dishes, with approximately 50 termites (regardless of its
classification); the set-ups will be administered by not touching any of the dishes. The dishes
will be subjected for 1-hour surveillance to monitor and observe the effects of the treatments.
The number of termites will be recorded after exposure period with a 15-minute interval. Dead
termites will be able to determine when it failed to move after probing with a paintbrush in the
siphon or cervical regions. Three trials will be in this study. Before the experiment course, the
termites were fed with moist powdered wood and were given chunks of wood to serve as their
houses. According to Hernandez (2001), if the termiticidal mortality is greater than 50%, it is
regarded as a positive result.
D. Statistical Analysis
One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was employed to determine whether significant
differences exist in mortality rate of the six treatments. The Turkey-Kramer HSD test was used
in this study to test if there is a significant difference between the six treatments in terms of the
termite mortality. Kaplan-Meier Survival Probability Estimates was utilized to determine the
possibility of termite mortality. T-test was also employed to test the acceptability of the efficacy
of the treatment. Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient was also used to determine
the relationship between concentration and mortality and Spearman Rho was applied to test
the reliability of the obtained data. These statistical tolls were computed through the use of
hhtp://, a website for statistical computation formulated by some professors
of Vassar College in the United States of America.
E. Disposal of Specimens
After the test is done and the termites died, the woods that will be used as the home of the
specimens will be soaked in alcohol for about an hour, before throwing it in the garbage to
ensure that the remaining termites have died if there is any. The containers of the termites and
instruments that will be used such as beakers and pipettes will be washed with soapy water to
kill all the termites and to clean the instruments as well.

One of the most common sources of nutritional saponins, soybeans (Glycine max) are
cultivated around the world as a food crop and for industrial processing. Numerous
cultivars exist, each varying in size and growth habit, although all bear hairy pods
containing between two and four waxy, light-green beans. The beans are eaten whole or
used in the production of food products such as tofu and soy sauce. As a source of
industrially important saponins, soy beans are extensively processed to remove their
hydrophilic ("water-loving") and hydrophobic ("water-repelling") chemical properties,
which are then used as foaming agents and emulsifiers in many commercially produced