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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of Content

Chapter One: Introduction

1.1 Preamble
1.2 Aims and Objectives
1.3 Statement of the Problem
1.4 Significant of Study
1.5 Scope of Study

Chapter Two: Literature Review

2.1 Review of Relevant Theories and Technologies

2.2 Timetabling

2.3 Examination Timetable

2.4 Examination Timetabling as a NP-Complete Problem

2.5 Cultural algorithm

Chapter Three: Proposed Methodology

3.1 Components

3.2 Proposed Approach


Chapter Four: Result and Discussion

4.1 Implementation

4.2 Examination Timetable Generator System Screen

4.3 TEST CASE: Login Screen

Chapter Five: Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

5.2 Recommendation

References

Appendix
CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this project is to produce a narrative description of the design and construction
of an electronic display board. Firstly computer aided design is the modelling of physical system
on computer allowing both interactive and automatics analysis of design variant and the
expression of design in a form of suitable for manufacturing. This follows by explaining the
electronics display board as a device which is fast gaining wide acceptance and application in
the present days due to its ability to provide a very high precision timing. This can be describe
as an electro-mechanical system for processing information in which the information is
represented by physical quantities, which are so constrained to take only discrete values than
can be referred to as binary signals.
In this design, we are implored the used of both hardware and software to bring about the
entire project. The hardware components are solely coordinated by the AT 89551 electronics
display chip while the C-programming language is used to program the chip.

1.1 PREAMBLES
Electronics display board system, is a system electronically designed and constructed, that is
used to display different information to the view of the masses. The information to be
displayed could be diagrams, symbols letters, colours, numbers, codes etc depending on what is
needed at a particular places and time. This without doubt, has made life easier for the people
in different ways, however electronics display board, which is the heart of this system, can be
described thus: an electronic display is a computer. All computers whether we are talking
personal desktop computer you are using is a general-purpose computer than can run any of
thousands of programs. Electronic n-display are special purpose computer Electronics display
do one thing well, there are a number of other common characteristics, that defined electronic
display if a computer matches a majority of these characteristics, then you can call it an
electronics display.

1. Electronics displays are embedded inside some other devices (often a consumer
product) so that they can control the features or action of the product. Another name
for an electronics display, therefore, is embedded display.

2. Electronic display are dedicated to one task and run one specific program. The program
is store in Read Only Memory (ROM) and generally does not change. Electronics displays
are often low power devices. A desktop computer is almost always plugged into a well
sucked and might consume 50watt of electricity. A battery operated electronics display
might consume 50mw.

3. An electronics display has a dedicated input device and often (but not always) has a
small LED or LED display for output. An electronics display also take from the devices it
is controlling and control the device, meanwhile the use of an electronics display board
to implement an electronics display system design made up of LED connected in
common cathode matrix form is referred to as electronic display board programmable
DOT matrix information display system.

1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT


Depending on one’s intension, electronics display board system has many aims and objectives.
For instance, this one in particularly aims at displaying a moveable coded letter that accept any
input display the output given at any given time” also electronic display board system can be
used to control the traffic minder standing among motorist especially in junctions, moreover,
electronic scoreboard during football matches to used display when a goal is scored, also to
display the name of that played who scored the goal, above all, this system has contributed a
lot in boosting advertisement.

1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


Due to the various problems encountered in the manual/analyze design and construction of
sign post for advertisement, there is every need for an automated electronics display system
that will solve this problem. This will ensure that viewers get the adequate information that is
displayed in good and attractive colours. Though the manual/analog way of displaying
information to the view of the people is still targeted viewer are attracted. The height is which
advertisement in Nigeria have attained will be maintained if some of its design/construction
operation is computerized (electronics display board) especially the ones that has to do with
bigger companies. This will also maintain the good relationship between the company and its
numerous customers.

1.4 SIGNIFICANT OF STUDY

In all field of human endeavour, electronic digital display system plays very vital role, such as means of
advertisement, means of communication, presentations, exhibitions, identification and direction. It is
also used in giving warning or safety instructions, such as warning signs, traffic signs, exit signs or signs
conveying rules and regulations. This project write-up will be a guide to future designing in a related
work.

1.5 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT


This project can serve in any aspect of life; this project (electronics display board) is a board on
a computer aided design. In the implementation of this project, the scope that shall
concentrate more on are: the architecture of the electronics display port interface, multiplexing
the data port control sequence and algorithm of the traffic light. The features of the AT89551
were exploited to achieve the desired sequence of operation of this project.

1.6 CONSTRAINTS OF THE PROJECT


One of the obvious constraints I had in the course of this project was the security of sometime
outright. Unavailability of some of the required components in the markets. Since scarcity is
followed by a high in price, when such components were even found, they were out lightly
expensive. Another major constraint I had relatively short time too sources out the materials
from net, libraries, etc. fully understand the underlying principles and come up with a design
that would work as a result, I had to forgo pleasure and even lecture in order to achieve this.
CHAPTER TWO

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

Message displayed on LCD Screen using GSM and Bluetooth Technology. (September 2015)
Savan Shah
In this paper a project model for electronic notice board is described which uses two
different technologies, GSM and Bluetooth for displaying on LCD screen. Here the main part is
Microcontroller 8051. The microcontroller is interfaced with GSM Modem via MAX232 level
convertor. It is used to convert RS232 voltage levels to TTL voltage level and vice versa. The
hardware also has a 64K EEPROM. This EEPROM is used to store the timings and messages to be
displayed. While using Bluetooth technolgy, Bluetooth modem fetch thje message and sends it
forward to the display board.When using GSM technology, GSM module is used.

Android Based Wireless Notice Board and Printer.(December 2015)


Prof. Sudhir Kadam, Abhishek Saxena, Tushar Gaurav.
This project deals about an advanced Hi-Tech wireless Notice Board. This system is
enhanced to display the latest information through an Android application of smart phones or
tablet. While user sends the message from the Android application device, it is received and
retrieved by the Bluetooth device at the display unit. The Bluetooth access password password
will only be known to the user, it is then sent to the microcotroller that further displays the
notice sent from the user on the electronic notice board which is equipped with a LCD Monitor
display. It uses an Arduino system system(AVR microcotroller) to control the operation.
Bluetooth wireless technology is becoming a popular standard in the wireless technologies.
“Wireless printers” refers to printers to printers in which a radio frequency (RF) connects the
printer to the network, a controlling PC, a handheld computer or both.
GSM Based Wireless Notice Board.(March 2016)
Prof. Ravindra Joshi, Abhishek Gupta, Rani Borkar, Samita Gawas, Sarang Joshi.
This paper describes the design and construction of E-notice board using GSM technology. The
system cosists of four basic units: GSM modem, Raspberry pi board, LCD monitor and Mobile
device. The operation of the system is centered on Raspberry pi Board. The operation of system
is such that the notice which is to be displayed is send by the mobile device to the GSM modem
and displayed on the LCD monitor using Raspberry Pi board. The system is based on real time
process and saves lot of resources i.e. human effort. The main objective of this paper is to
develop a wireless e-notice board that displays message sent from the user and to design a
simple, easy to install, user friendly system, user friendly system. Wi-Fi provides higher data
rates for multimedia access as compared to bluetooth which provides lower data transfer rates.
Bluetooth are intended for communication (about 10m), while Wi-Fi is designed for WLAN
about 100m.[3]
But when using GSM we cannot display message without Network connectivity.

Android Controlled Digital Notice Board(May-2016)


Prof. Madhavi Repe, Akshay Hadoltikar, Pranav Deshmukh, Sumit Ingle
This paper presents a model about advanced wireless notice board. The project is build around
ARM controller, Raspberry-pi which is most important in this system.Display is obtained on LCD
monitor display. Remote control is the most popular system nowadays. The main objective of
this project as described in the project is to develop a wireless notice board which can receive
and display message sent from the user. The project aims atdesigning A LCD monitor based
message display controlled fom an Android mobile phone. The proposed system has a provision
to communicate from Android phone to LCD display board. Range of communication is large.
Android contains a full set of tools that have been built from the ground up alongside the
platform providing developers with high productivity and deep insight into their
applications.[4].
As the Android applications is command centre of the notice board and this application is built
around Android OS platform it will not support other Os such as IOS, Windows, Blackberry, etc.
Remotely Controlled Android Based Electronic Notice Board
Prof.P.Yakaiah,Bijjam Swathi, M.Jhansi, B.Nikhala,K.Shiva Prasad
This project is dealing with hitch wireless electronic notice board. The main aim of the project is
to have an electronic notice board where the least information can be shorted by the faculty to
the students using Wi-Fi through connection terminal app. This message can be sent from any
Smart phone with Android OS upon GUI based on touch screen operation. Here 8051
Microcotroller is used. As the Wi-Fi module has its own IP address and port number that will be
known only to the user the system becomes more secure. When the user is sending the
message from android application device will be received by the Wi-Fi module. Along wih the
notice messages, date and time, breaking news can be flashed timely

Minseok Ha, Samuel Graham, 2012, in this study conduct a thermal analysis of high power LED
packages implementing chip-on-board (COB) architecture combined with power electronic
substrate focusing on heat spreading effect. An analytical thermal resistance model is
presented for the LED array and validated by comparing it with finite element analysis (FEA)
results. In this study, the thermal resistance of high power LEDs implementing COB architecture
was analyzed by FEA and analytical analysis. The thermal resistance of LED-array largely
depends on the pitch, which is the distance between two adjacent LED-chips, as well as other
parameters that mentioned previously. The design shows that LED-chips placed evenly on the
heat sink have the lowest thermal resistance and it increases gradually as the pitch decreases
The analytical solution derived in this study can provide simple and easy way to find the
response with respect to the change of each design parameter.
Heinle, C, Drummer D., 2010, shows in their work, adding thermally conductive fillers to
polymers the thermal conductivity can be raised significantly. Thermal conductive polymers
(TC-plastics) open up a vast range of options to set up novel concepts of polymer technological
system solutions in the area of mechatronics. Heating experiment of cooling ribs show the
potential in thermal management of mechatronic parts with TC- polymers in comparison with
widely used reference materials copper and aluminum. The results demonstrate that especially
for certain thermal boundary conditions comparable performance between these two material
grades can be measured. The investigations have shown that, under specific thermal boundary
conditions, thermally conductive plastics have a high potential for cooling mechatronic systems.
In the area of low to average dissipated energy, if linked to minor degrees of convective
cooling, polymers’ cooling performance is almost identical to that of metal materials (aluminum
or copper). It is thus possible to remove the energy usually dissipated by LEDs, i.e. approx. 0.5
to up to approx. 5 watts, by means of TC-polymer cooling elements. Additional potential may
be expected from using ceramic fillers. These materials’ heat conductivities are similar to those
of the TC- polymers presented; they are electrically insulating.

Chen Jie, at el, 2013 in this study, to solve the heat dissipation problem of LED (light-emitting
diode) down light, CFD thermal simulation software was used to establish LED down light
dissipation model. Material’s thermal conductivity, thermal resistance, thermal emissive values,
heat load forms and other factors were all taken in considered, and then numerical simulation
combined with laboratory measurement methods was used to analysis the lamp’s dissipation.
Based on this method, focused on the dissipation effect with different LED quantities and LED
ring distances, and then optimized light source layout of current LED down light products. After
experimental verification, LED working temperatures were more ideal after the light source
layout optimized, and it can improve the LED lamp lifetime effectively, this result also has
important practice significance in the future LED down light design process.

LiuYi-bing, 2012, in this paper, using APDL language to generate the analysis file the LED lamp
heat sink of finite element model is established. The length, width and numbers of the heat sink
fins being design variables; the maximum junction temperature of LED being the objective
function, the mathematical model is set up and optimized using ANSYS thermal analysis
software. The results show that the longer the length of heat sink fins, the lower the maximum
junction temperature of the chip; the wider the fins width, the higher the maximum chip
junction temperature; with the increasing of the numbers of fins, the maximum junction
temperature will go down; but when reaching a certain value, the junction temperature will
slowly increase again. Under the conditions of the LED chip junction temperature not exceeding
60 ℃, the heat sink structure optimized values were: fin length is 62.5mm, fin width is1mm, the
number of fins is 20. Using the ANSYS thermal analysis software, this paper exhibits 60W LED
illumination lamps and lanterns in array distribution, carries on the thermal analysis and
optimizes the heat sink structure. The conclusion has been drawn as following: Heat sink fin
length shows approximate linear relationship with the maximum junction temperature, that is
to say, the longer the heat sink fins, the lower the maximum junction temperature. The heat
sink wing piece width assumes the approximate parabola relations with the maximum junction
temperature.

Zeng Dehuai, Liu Yuan, at el , 2012, based their work on heat removal in packaged high-power
light-emitting diode (LED) chips is critical to device performance and reliability. Thermal
performance of LEDs is important in that lowered junction temperatures extend the LED’s
lifetime at a given photometric flux. Optionally, lower thermal resistance can enable increased
brightness operation without exceeding the maximum allowable junction temperature for a
given lifetime. The goal of this study is to improve the thermal characteristics of high-power
LED package by using phase change heat sink. The heat-release characteristics of high-power
LED package are analyzed and a novel phase change heat sink with 3D integral-fin boiling
structures for high-power LED is developed. Two different fin structures were obtained in
grooves formed with chopping-ploughing-extrusion compound forming technology and
observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). By the excellent heat dissipating ability of
phase change heat sink, the junction temperature of LED with the phase change heat sink was
lower than the one with a copper rod. In order to reduce the thermal resistance, a novel high-
power LED package phase change heat sink is analyzed and 3D integral fin boiling structures for
high-power LED is developed. 3D integral fin on inside surface of red copper tube with diameter
of 30 mm and wall thickness of 2 mm is achieved by chopping-ploughing-extrusion compound
processing.

Jingsong Li, at el, 2011, review the thermal properties of graphene and multilayer graphene,
and discuss graphene’s applications in thermal management of advanced electronics and
optoelectronics. A special attention is paid to the use of the liquid-phase-exfoliated graphene
and multilayer graphene as the fillers in the thermal interface materials. It has been
demonstrated that addition of an optimized mixture of graphene and multilayer graphene to
the composites with different matrix materials produces the record-high enhancement of the
effective thermal conductivity at the small filler loading fraction (f r 10 vol%). The thermal
conductivity enhancement due to the presence of graphene in the composites has been
observed for a range of matrix materials used by industry. The hybrid composites where
graphene is utilized together with metallic micro- and nanoparticles allow one to tune both the
thermal and electrical conductivity of these materials. Theoretical considerations indicate that
the graphene- based thermal interface materials can outperform those with carbon nanotubes,
metal nanoparticles and other fillers owing graphene’s geometry, mechanical flexibility and
lower Kapitza resistance at the graphene–base material interface.

Angie Fan1, Richard Bonner1, at el, 2012, In this paper describes a recent development effort
that integrates a planar thermosyphon into a printed circuit board (PCB) for LED devices. The
planar thermosyphon/PCB uses a dielectric fluid as the heat pipe working fluid, achieving
significantly improved heat spreading performances over conventional PCBs. Analytical
modeling showed a more than 50% thermal resistance reduction from typical metal core PCBs.
A low temperature electroplating technique was also investigated to fabricate wick structures
onto PCB surfaces to enhance the boiling heat transfer performance of the dielectric fluids. Test
results showed that a boiling heat transfer coefficient of 20,000W/m2-K can be achieved with
the 3M Novec fluid. In this paper, the preliminary study on heat transfer enhancement by using
the PCB planar thermosyphon in single LED assembly was reported. Future development efforts
will verify the design in practical applications, address manufacturing issues and improve the
cost efficiency. The feasibility of a novel PCB based planar thermosyphon concept for high
power LED cooling was demonstrated through numerical simulation and experimental study.
This PHS PCB was made of a FR-4 PCB lid and a copper chamber, and used a dielectric working
fluid. Although an initial permeation test showed the dielectric fluid permeated through the
PCB wall, standard copper cladding solved the PCB permeation issue. Wick structures were
applied to the evaporator of the thermosyphon to achieve the desired boiling heat transfer
performance.

Xiang-you Lu, at el ,2011, improve the thermal characteristics of high power LED (light-emitting
diode) package using a flat heat pipe (FHP). The heat-release characteristics of high power LED
package are analyzed and a novel flat heat pipe (FHP) cooling device for high power LED is
developed. The thermal capabilities, including startup performance, temperature uniformity
and thermal resistance of high power LED package with flat heat pipe heat sink have been
investigated experimentally. The obtained results indicate that the junction temperature of LED
is about 52 1C for the input power of 3 W, and correspondingly the total thermal resistance of
LED system is 8.8 K/W. The impact of the different filling rates and inclination angles of the heat
pipe to the heat transfer performance of the heat pipe should be evaluated before such a
structure of heat pipe cooling system is used to cool high power LED system. A novel flat heat
pipe cooling device for high power LED is developed and the heat-release characteristics of high
power LED package are analyzed. The thermal capabilities, including startup performance,
temperature uniformity and thermal resistance of high power LED package with flat heat pipe
heat sink, have been investigated experimentally. The obtained results indicate that the
junction temperature of LED is about 52 1C for the input power of 3 W, and correspondingly the
total thermal resistance of LED system is 8.8 K/W. The impact of the different filling rates and
inclination angles of the heat pipe to the heat transfer performance of the heat pipe should be
evaluated before such a structure of heat pipe cooling system is used to cool high power LED
system.

Ugo Lafont.at el, 2012, in this review we will first briefly expose the state of the art on
inorganic semiconductor based LED research and development, trends and challenges that lead
to an increase of lighting efficiency. In a second part the different failure mode occurring for SSL
devices have been compiled highlighting what are the main mechanism influencing and limiting
LED reliability. Strong from this knowledge, in the last part, self-healing concepts will be
proposed to further improve LED’s reliability. Led’s have a very bright future as they already
offer a high en- ergy-light conversion efficiency and a wide range of strategies to improve their
properties well beyond their current level. Despite the extensive efforts made to improve
packaging and thermal management, LEDs’ reliability in high power devices is still an issue that
slows down the market penetration. The heat generated due to the presence of non-radiative
charge recombination at the die level is the main cause of LED failure resulting in the decrease
of luminous efficacy or in the worst case in the death of the device. Their potential for multiple
healing, the ease for processing and the availability of external stimuli to trigger the healing are
the clear advantages Reversible adhesion can also be achieved by a ‘‘bricks and mortar’’
approach where a soft flowable thermo- plastic is included in a hard thermoset. All these
approaches are thermally triggered and the thermal healing response can be tuned playing with
the chemistry of the chosen system. Thus it is virtually possible to create reversible adhesive
that can be activated from room temperature to 190 C. The implementation of conductive
species in the thermally induced reversible adhesives could al- low electrical triggering of the
self-repairing process.

Khan M.F. Shahil , Alexander A. Balandin 2012, review the thermal properties of graphene and
multilayer graphene, and discuss graphene’s applications in thermal management of advanced
electronics and optoelectronics. A special attention is paid to the use of the liquid-phase-
exfoliated graphene and multilayer graphene as the fillers in the thermal interface materials. It
has been demonstrated that addition of an optimized mixture of graphene and multilayer
graphene to the composites with different matrix materials produces the record-high
enhancement of the effective thermal conductivity at the small filler loading fraction (f r 10
vol%). The thermal conductivity enhancement due to the presence of graphene in the
composites has been observed for a range of matrix materials used by industry. The hybrid
composites where graphene is utilized together with metallic micro- and nanoparticles allow
one to tune both the thermal and electrical conductivity of these materials. Theoretical
considerations indicate that the graphene- based thermal interface materials can outperform
those with carbon nanotubes, metal nanoparticles and other fillers owing to graphene’s
geometry, mechanical flexibility and lower Kapitza resistance at the graphene–base material
interface.
CHAPTER THREE

PROPOSED METHODOLOGY
3.1 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

For the GSM based notice board display system, a microcontroller will be used to handle all

the controls in the design. The microcontroller that will be used here is the Atmega328p

microcontroller from Arduino and will be programmed using micro-C.

The project will involve a GSM module (sim800l) that will be used to receive the text

messages, the microcontroller will receive the text from the GSM module save it and process it

for display on the notice board. The display board that will be used in this project is a 32x16

monochrome dmd display board.

3.2 COMPONENTS REQUIRED

1. ATmega328p microcontroller

2. (32x16)monochrome dmd display board

3. Lm317 IC

4. Transformer

5. Diode

6. Resistor

7. Capacitor

8. 7805ic
RESISTOR

Resistor

An array of axial-lead resistors


Type Passive
Working principle Electric resistance
Electronic symbol

Two common schematic symbols

Axial-lead resistors on tape. The component is cut from the tape during assembly and the part
is inserted into the board.
Size comparison of axial-lead resistors.

A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance


as a circuit element. In electronic circuits, resistors are used to reduce current flow, adjust
signal levels, to divide voltages, bias active elements, and terminate transmission lines, among
other uses. High-power resistors that can dissipate many watts of electrical power as heat, may
be used as part of motor controls, in power distribution systems, or as test loads for generators.
Fixed resistors have resistances that only change slightly with temperature, time or operating
voltage. Variable resistors can be used to adjust circuit elements (such as a volume control or a
lamp dimmer), or as sensing devices for heat, light, humidity, force, or chemical activity.

Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are
ubiquitous in electronic equipment. Practical resistors as discrete components can be
composed of various compounds and forms. Resistors are also implemented within integrated
circuits.

The electrical function of a resistor is specified by its resistance: common commercial resistors
are manufactured over a range of more than nine orders of magnitude. The nominal value of
the resistance falls within the manufacturing tolerance, indicated on the component.

ATMEGA328

Pin Descriptions
VCC
Digital supply voltage.
GND
Ground.
Port B (PB7:0) XTAL1/XTAL2/TOSC1/TOSC2
Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit).
The
Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source
capability. As inputs, Port B pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up
resistors are activated. The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active,
even if the clock is not running.
Depending on the clock selection fuse settings, PB6 can be used as input to the inverting
Oscillator
amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit.
Depending on the clock selection fuse settings, PB7 can be used as output from the inverting
Oscillator amplifier.
If the Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator is used as chip clock source, PB7...6 is used as
TOSC2...1 input for the Asynchronous Timer/Counter2 if the AS2 bit in ASSR is set.
The various special features of Port B are elaborated in and ”System Clock and Clock Options”

Port C (PC5:0)
Port C is a 7-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The
PC5...0 output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source
capability. As inputs, Port C pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up
resistors are activated. The Port C pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active,
even if the clock is not running.
PC6/RESET
If the RSTDISBL Fuse is programmed, PC6 is used as an I/O pin. Note that the electrical
characteristics
of PC6 differ from those of the other pins of Port C.
If the RSTDISBL Fuse is unprogrammed, PC6 is used as a Reset input. A low level on this pin
for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a Reset, even if the clock is not running.
The minimum pulse length is given in Table 28-12 on page 323. Shorter pulses are not
guaranteed
to generate a Reset.
The various special features of Port C are elaborated in ”Alternate Functions of Port C”

Port D (PD7:0)
Port D is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit).
The
Port D output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source
capability. As inputs, Port D pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up
resistors are activated. The Port D pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active,
even if the clock is not running.
4
8271BS–AVR–04/10
ATmega48A/48PA/88A/88PA/168A/168PA/328/328P
The various special features of Port D are elaborated in ”Alternate Functions of Port D”

AVCC
AVCC is the supply voltage pin for the A/D Converter, PC3:0, and ADC7:6. It should be externally
connected to VCC, even if the ADC is not used. If the ADC is used, it should be connected to VCC
through a low-pass filter. Note that PC6...4 use digital supply voltage, VCC.
AREF
AREF is the analog reference pin for the A/D Converter.
ADC7:6 (TQFP and QFN/MLF Package Only)
In the TQFP and QFN/MLF package, ADC7:6 serve as analog inputs to the A/D converter.
These pins are powered from the analog supply and serve as 10-bit ADC channels.
5
8271BS–AVR–04/10

ATmega48A/48PA/88A/88PA/168A/168PA/328/328P
registers to be accessed in one single instruction executed in one clock cycle. The resulting
architecture is more code efficient while achieving throughputs up to ten times faster than
conventional
CISC microcontrollers.
The ATmega48A/48PA/88A/88PA/168A/168PA/328/328P provides the following features:
4K/8K bytes of In-System Programmable Flash with Read-While-Write capabilities,
256/512/512/1K bytes EEPROM, 512/1K/1K/2K bytes SRAM, 23 general purpose I/O lines, 32
general purpose working registers, three flexible Timer/Counters with compare modes, internal
and external interrupts, a serial programmable USART, a byte-oriented 2-wire Serial Interface,
an SPI serial port, a 6-channel 10-bit ADC (8 channels in TQFP and QFN/MLF packages), a
programmable
Watchdog Timer with internal Oscillator, and five software selectable power saving
modes. The Idle mode stops the CPU while allowing the SRAM, Timer/Counters, USART, 2-wire
Serial Interface, SPI port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode
saves the register contents but freezes the Oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the
next interrupt or hardware reset. In Power-save mode, the asynchronous timer continues to
run,
allowing the user to maintain a timer base while the rest of the device is sleeping. The ADC
Noise Reduction mode stops the CPU and all I/O modules except asynchronous timer and ADC,
to minimize switching noise during ADC conversions. In Standby mode, the crystal/resonator
Oscillator is running while the rest of the device is sleeping. This allows very fast start-up
combined
with low power consumption.
The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high density non-volatile memory technology. The
On-chip ISP Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed In-System through an SPI
serial interface, by a conventional non-volatile memory programmer, or by an On-chip Boot
program
running on the AVR core. The Boot program can use any interface to download the
application program in the Application Flash memory. Software in the Boot Flash section will
continue to run while the Application Flash section is updated, providing true Read-While-Write
operation. By combining an 8-bit RISC CPU with In-System Self-Programmable Flash on a
monolithic chip, the Atmel ATmega48A/48PA/88A/88PA/168A/168PA/328/328P is a powerful
microcontroller that provides a highly flexible and cost effective solution to many embedded
control
applications.
The ATmega48A/48PA/88A/88PA/168A/168PA/328/328P AVR is supported with a full suite of
program and system development tools including: C Compilers, Macro Assemblers, Program
Debugger/Simulators, In-Circuit Emulators, and Evaluation kits.

CAPACITORS

A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electronic component that stores electrical energy in an


electric field. The effect of a capacitor is known as capacitance. While some capacitance exists
between any two electrical conductors in proximity in a circuit, a capacitor is a component
designed to add capacitance to a circuit. The capacitor was originally known as a condenser or
condensator.[1] The original name is still widely used in many languages, but not commonly in
English.

The physical form and construction of practical capacitors vary widely and many types of
capacitor are in common use. Most capacitors contain at least two electrical conductors often
in the form of metallic plates or surfaces separated by a dielectric medium. A conductor may be
a foil, thin film, sintered bead of metal, or an electrolyte. The nonconducting dielectric acts to
increase the capacitor's charge capacity. Materials commonly used as dielectrics include glass,
ceramic, plastic film, paper, mica, air, and oxide layers. Capacitors are widely used as parts of
electrical circuits in many common electrical devices. Unlike a resistor, an ideal capacitor does
not dissipate energy.

When two conductors experience a potential difference, for example, when a capacitor is
attached across a battery, an electric field develops across the dielectric, causing a net positive
charge to collect on one plate and net negative charge to collect on the other plate. No current
actually flows through the dielectric. However, there is a flow of charge through the source
circuit. If the condition is maintained sufficiently long, the current through the source circuit
ceases. If a time-varying voltage is applied across the leads of the capacitor, the source
experiences an ongoing current due to the charging and discharging cycles of the capacitor.

Capacitance is defined as the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential
difference between them. The unit of capacitance in the International System of Units (SI) is the
farad (F), defined as one coulomb per volt (1 C/V). Capacitance values of typical capacitors for
use in general electronics range from about 1 picofarad (pF) (10−12 F) to about 1 millifarad (mF)
(10−3 F).
The capacitance of a capacitor is proportional to the surface area of the plates (conductors) and
inversely related to the gap between them. In practice, the dielectric between the plates passes
a small amount of leakage current. It has an electric field strength limit, known as the
breakdown voltage. The conductors and leads introduce an undesired inductance and
resistance.

Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while allowing
alternating current to pass. In analog filter networks, they smooth the output of power
supplies. In resonant circuits they tune radios to particular frequencies. In electric power
transmission systems, they stabilize voltage and power flow.[2] The property of energy storage
in capacitors was exploited as dynamic memory in early digital computers.

The project will be sub-divided into three parts.

1. The power supply stage

2. The control stage

3. Display stage

3.3 Power Supply Stage

The microcontroller (ATMEG328P) to be used on the circuit board requires a steady 5-volt

supply. For this particular design, the power is to be sourced from a 220V/240V AC mains

operating at a frequency of 50Hz. This voltage is to be stepped down using a 12V/1A

transformer, the output of which is connected to the circuit.The controller needs a maximum of

5V DC input, so, the 12V AC has to be converted to a DC Voltage. To achieve this, a bridge diode

rectification stage will be used to convert the alternating current signal into a direct current

signal, giving a 12V DC output. The 12V DC will then be connected to the input of a 5V fixed

voltage regulator (LM7805 circuitry).


The entire power supply stage is shown in Figure 3.1. Component U1 is a fixed 5V output

regulator known as LM7805. It does the power conversion and works with two polarized

capacitors connected to its input and output ends. A 0.33uF Capacitor C1is connected at the

input, which takes in the 12V supply and the 0.1Uf Capacitor C2 is connected at the output end

to be fed into the microcontroller. The capacitance values of the two capacitors are the

manufacturer’s specifications obtained in its data sheet to be used for obtaining a fixed 5V DC

supply. The power supply unit outputs a current of 5mA to 1A, which is enough to drive the

microcontroller. An LM317 ic will be used to get a fixed 3.9V for the GSM module due to the

fact that it has a minimum powering voltage of 3.7V and maximum powering voltage of 4.2V,

the calculation is also shown below.

`Figure 3.1 circuit diagram for power supply


Figure 3.2. Circuit for gsm module voltage regulation

Calculation for LM317 voltage regulator:

𝑅2
𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 1.25(1 + ).
𝑅1

𝑀𝑎𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑅2 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑗𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑢𝑙𝑎 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑓𝑖𝑥𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑅1 𝑎𝑡 220𝑜ℎ𝑚𝑠

𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡
𝑅2 = ( − 1) × 𝑅1
1.25

3.9
𝑅2 = ( – 1) × 220𝑜ℎ𝑚𝑠 = 466.6 = 𝐴𝑝𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑥. 470𝑜ℎ𝑚𝑠
1.25

𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑒 𝑅2 = 470𝑜ℎ𝑚𝑠
3.4 Control stage

The control stage involves the microcontroller (atmega328p) and the GSM module, the

GSM module receives the text and passes it on to the microcontroller for processing after which

the message is then sent to the display.

Figure 3.3 block diagram for the control stage


3.4 Display stage

The display stage handles the presentation of the received text from the microcontroller

via the GSM module in a big format that can be seen from a far distance.

Figure 3.4 Block diagram of the design.

Figure 3. 5 Circuit diagram of the gsm based notice board.