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 Modern Methods of Construction (MMC)

The concrete industry embraces innovation and modern methods


of construction (MMC) by offering concrete solutions which can be
used to reduce construction time and promote sustainable
development, as well as offering cost savings.

 Precast Flat Parret System

Floor and wall units are produced off-site in a factory and erected
on-site to form robust structures, ideal for all repetitive cellular
projects. Panels can include services, window doors and finishes.
Building envelope panels with factory fitted insulation and
decorative cladding can also be used as load-bearing elements.
This offers factory quality and accuracy, together with speed of
erection on-site.

 3D Volumetric Construction

3D volumetric construction (also known as modular construction)


involves the production of three-dimensional units in controlled
factory conditions prior to transportation to site.

Modules can be brought to site in a variety of forms, ranging from


a basic structure to one with all internal and external finishes and
services installed, all ready for assembly. The costing of modules
uses the benefits of factory conditions to create service-intensive
units where a high degree of repetition and a need for a rapid
assembly on-site make its use highly desirable.

This modern method of construction offers the inherent benefits of


concrete such as thermal mass, sound and fire resistance, as well
as offering factory quality and accuracy, together with speed of
erection on-site.
 Tunnel Form

Tunnel form is a formwork system that allows the contractor to build


monolithic walls and slabs in one operation on a daily cycle. It
combines the speed quality and accuracy of factory/offsite
produced ready-mix concrete and formwork with the flexibility and
economy of cast in-situ in construction.

This fast-track method of construction is suitable for repetitive


cellular projects such as hotels, apartment blocks and student
accommodation. It offers economy, speed, quality and accuracy,
as well as utilizing the inherent benefits of concrete, such as fire
and sound resistance.

Further information can be found in the publication “High


performance Buildings using Tunnel Form Concrete Construction”
published by the Concrete Centre.

 Flat Slabs

Flat slabs are built quickly due to modern formwork being simplified
and minimized. Rapid turnaround is achieved using a combination
of early striking and flying formwork systems. Use of prefabricated
services can be maximized because of the uninterrupted service
zones beneath the floor slab; so flat slab construction offers rapid
overall construction as it simplifies the installation of services.

In addition to saving on construction time, flat slab construction also


places no restrictions on the positioning of horizontal services and
partitions. This offers considerable flexibility to the occupier who
can easily alter internal layouts to accommodate changes in the
use of the structure. Post tensioning of flat slabs enables longer
and thinner slabs, with less reinforcement, and hence offers
significant program and labour advantages.
 Hybrid Concrete Construction

Hybrid Concrete Construction (HCC) combines all the benefits of


precasting with the advantages of cast in-situ construction.
Combining the two, as a hybrid frame, results in even greater
construction speed quality and overall economy. HCC can answer
client demands for lower costs and higher quality by providing
simple, buildable and competitive structures that offer consistent
performance and quality.

 Thin Joist Masonry

Thin Joist Masonry allows the depth of the mortar to be reduced


from 10mm to just 3mm or less, resulting in faster laying and
improved productivity, particularly on long runs of walling.
Construction speed can be further increased by some 13.5 percent
using large format concrete blocks which have a face size
equivalent to two traditional concrete blocks. The mortar cures
rapidly, achieving full bond strength within one to two hours,
eliminating the problem of floating, therefore enabling more
courses to be laid per day.

 Insulating Concrete Formwork

Insulating Concrete Formwork (ICF) systems consist of thin-walled,


expanded polystyrene panels or blocks that are quickly built up to
create formwork for the walls of a building. This formwork is then
filled with factory produced, quality assured and ready-mixed
concrete to create a robust structure. The expanded polystyrene
block remain to provide high levels of thermal insulation and the
concrete core provides robustness and good levels of sound
insulation.
 Precast Foundations

Precast concrete systems can be used to rapidly construct


foundations. The elements are usually to a bespoke design and
cast in factory environment, giving assured quality for the finished
product. The foundations are often supported by concrete piles and
connected together.

These systems improve productivity, especially in adverse weather


conditions, and reduces the amount of excavation required –
particularly advantageous when dealing with contaminated around.

 Sewer Design Standard and Guidelines

The basic Sewer Design Standard and Guidelines are designed for
two different types of sewers, sanitary and storm.

Sanitary Drainage Design Criteria:

 Size: Sanitary sewer mains shall be of adequate size to


convey population generated flows plus a general allowance
for inflow and infiltration, plus an allowance for inflow
allowance for manholes in sag locations. The inside
diameter of sanitary sewer pipes must measure at least 200
mm.
 Population Generated Flows: Residential population
generated flows are determined by the following formula:

Qpdw = G x P x PF/86,400
where:
Qpdw – peak dry weather flow rate (liters/second)
G – per capita daily sewage flow generation
(300 liters/day/person
P – design contributing population
PF – residential peaking factor (2.6/P0.1), where P is the
Population in 1000s and has a minimum value of 1.5
 General Inflow/Infiltration Allowance: A general allowance of
9.28 liters/second/hectare shall be used to allow for wet weather
inflow to manholes not located in sag locations.
 Inflow Allowance for Manholes in Sag Locations: For manholes
located in sag locations where ponding will occur or low areas
subject to inundation, an inflow allowance if 0.4 liters/second
shall be made for each manhole.
 Minimum Slopes: All sanitary sewers should be designed with a
minimum slope of 0.4% or greater. Where it is not practical to do
so, the following minimum slopes will be permitted for various
sewer sizes:

Sewer Size (mm) Minimum Slope (%)


200 0.40
250 0.28
300 0.22
375 0.15
450 0.12
≥525 0.10

 Velocity: The velocity of flow in sanitary sewers shall be


kept between 0.6 meters/second to 3.0 meters/second.
 Depth: Sanitary mains shall have depth adequate to
permit sewer services to be constructed a minimum of
2.74 m deep from the ground surface to the invert of the
pipe at the property line separating private and city land.
 Manhole: Manholes must be installed at the end of each
sewer, at all changes in sewer size, grade, or alignment
and at all junctions. The maximum permitted manhole
spacing for all sewers less than 1300 mm in diameter is
150 meters.
 Pipe Materials: Approved materials for pipe construction
of a sanitary sewer mains are non-reinforced concrete
pipe, reinforced concrete pipe and PVC (polyvinyl
chloride) pipe.
Storm Drainage Design Criteria

 Major/Minor System Concept: An urban area will have


two separate storm drainage systems, the minor system
and the major system. The minor system consists of the
pipe network, plus gutters and inlets which provide a
convenience system to rapidly carry away storm runoff
from road surfaces for minor rainfall events. The major
system conveys runoff rates and volumes for a 1 in 100,
rainfall event which exceed the capacity of the minor
system. The major drainage system consists mainly of
overland drainage conveyance elements.
 Minor System Level of Service: Strom mains which
service areas of 30 hectares are to be designed to
convey 1.25 times the rate of runoff which would occur
in a 1 in 5 year rainfall event.
 Ponding Depths: The minor system should be designed
such that the depth of the ponding in the street does not
exceed 0.15 meters in a 1 in 5 year rainfall event. The
major system should be designed to limit the depth of
ponding in the street to 0.35 meters in a 1 in 100 year
rainfall event.
 Rational Method: Design flows for storm systems may be
determined by the Rational Formula for areas not
exceeding 65 hectares. The Rational Formula is as
follows:

Q = CIA/360
where:
Q – Flow in cubic meters per second (design flow rate)
C – Dimensionless runoff coefficient
I – the average intensity of rainfall in mm per hour
A – average area in hectares
 For a typical residential subdivision: C=0.5 and I=76.7
mm/hr (based on a time of concentration = 8 minutes)
 Minimum Size: No storm sewer shall be less than 300
mm in diameter with the exception that catch basin leads
may be a minimum of 250 mm in diameter.
 Velocity: All storm sewers shall be designed and
constructed to give mean velocities when flowing full of
greater than 0.6 m/sec based Manning’s Formula. Flow
velocities of 0.9 to 1.0 m/sec are recommended and
designs based on the lower velocities are to be justified
on the basis of feasibility or unwarranted cost impacts.
Where design velocities exceed 3.0 m/sec, special
provisions shall be made to protect against displacement
of sewers by erosions or shock. However, the designer
shall ensure that supercritical flow does not occur where
steep grades are utilized.
 Minimum Slopes: All storm sewers should be designed
with a minimum slope of 0.4% or greater. Where it is not
practical to do so the following minimum slopes will be
permitted for various sewer sizes:

Sewer Size (mm) Minimum Slope (%)


200 0.40 (foundation drain)
250 0.28 (foundation drain)
300 0.22
375 0.15
450 0.12
≥525 0.10

 Catch Basin Leads: Must be installed at a minimum


grade of 1.0%.
Depth: A minimum of 2.2 m of cover, measured to the
invert, is to be provided for all storm sewer main lines
smaller than 610 mm in diameter. A minimum of cover to
crown is required for storm lines equal to or larger than 610
mm in diameter. Where storm sewer services are to be
provided to properties, the storm mains must be installed at
adequate depth to permit the:

 Storm sewer services to be 2.71 m deep (to invert) at the


property line separating private and city land.
 Manhole: Manholes must be installed at the end of each
sewer, at all changes in sewer size, grade or alignment
and at all junctions. The maximum permitted manhole
spacing for all sewers less than 1200 mm in diameter is
150 meters.
 Maximum Spacing of Inlets: Runoff shall not be required
to flow a distance greater than 120 meters along
roadway gutter without reaching a catch basin. In lanes
and walkways, runoff shall not be required to flow on a
surface a distance greater than 100 meters to a point of
interception.

Pipe Materials: Approved materials for pipe construction of storm


sewer mains are non-reinforced concrete pipe and reinforced
concrete pipe. Some limited use of PVC (polyvinyl chloride) pipe is
also permitted of a case-by-case basis.
Proposed New Structures and Facilities
 Condominium  Convention center
 Terminals  Cafeteria
 Gas station  Bank
 Parks  Call center
 Medical clinic  Hospital
 Parking lot  Fire station
 Church  Police station
 University church  Open field
 Barangay hall  Restaurant
 Wet and dry market  Museum
 Shop  Factory
 Resort  Gym
 Sports complex  Hotel
 City hall  Fast foods
 Supermarket
Terms of services provided by the city buses

Each bus shall have a maximum time of five


minutes waiting for passenger seat each bus
stop.
Each bus stop must have its own bay.
Each bus stop bay should have a sign board to
bus routes and bus time of arrival.
Bus stop should have aesthetics benches for
the passengers.
Bus stop should have proper lighting during the
night hours.
Bus stop should have public telephone beside
it.
Bus stop should have sheds both for the sun
and rain.
Bus stop should have surveillance cameras
(CCTV)
Emergency line should be posted on the sign
boards clearly and broadly.
Portable toilets for men and women should be
available.
Highway Specifications

o For arterial roads and bypasses, three lanes


shall be provided in each side.
o An emergency lane and a motorist lane
shall also be provided for the main highway
and arterial roads.
o Stop lights shall be provided at each
intersection.
o Road signs shall be provided at the side of
the road.
o Road signs shall be provided such that it is
visible for a driver to see it.
o Road signs shall be painted with noon paint.
o Automated speed meters shall be installed
at the main highway.
o CCTV cameras should be provided on the
main highway and intersections.
o Rumble strips should be provided 30 meters
before a school’s entrance gates.