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QUARTER 1

Produce Vegetable Crops

MODULE 2: Prepare Land for Planting Vegetable Crops

1. Selecting the site for planting vegetable crops


2. Preparing the land for planting

Courtesy of the Bukig National Agricultural and Technical School (BNATS), the third year
preparing a wide range of land for their vegetable production

Content Standard Performance Standard

The learner demonstrates The learner independently prepares the


understanding of proper land land for planting vegetable crops based
preparation on Department of Agriculture standard
and procedures.

Lesson
Selecting the Site for
1
Planting Vegetable
Crops
Introduction

This module deals with the selection of site for planting vegetable
crops. It includes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes in selecting a site for
planting vegetable crops, the types of soil, soil sampling, and soil analysis.
Learning Competencies/Objectives

1. Determine the factors in selecting the site for planting vegetable crops.
2. Identify the types of soil.
3. Perform soil sampling and soil analysis.

Diagnostic/Pre-assessment

Direction: Read and understand the questions carefully. Write the letter of the
correct answer in your quiz notebook.

1. Which of the following factors in selecting the site is considered as the


life – blood of vegetable production?
a. Topography c. Sunlight
b. Water d. Soil
2. Access to sunlight plays a significant role in producing vegetable
crops. How long the crops should be exposed to direct sunlight every
day?
a. 3 – 5 hours c. 4 – 6 hours
b. 2 – 4 hours d. 6 – 7 hours
3. Which of the following is not a consideration when taking soil samples
for soil analysis?
a. Slope of the area
b. Cropping history
c. Past lime and fertilizer application
d. Frequency of irrigation
4. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of good soil?
a. Has good aeration
b. Has plenty of minerals
c. Has high water holding capacity
d. Contains large amount of clay making the soil compact
5. What is the best topography suited for vegetable production?
a. Hilly
b. Level
c. Sloping
d. Slightly Sloping
6. Which of the following refers to the proportion of sand, silt, and clay
particles that comprise a particular soil sample?
a. Soil
b. Soil profile
c. Soil texture
d. Soil structure
7. The type of soil directly affects the growth and development of
vegetable crops. What types of soil are best for growing vegetables?
a. Clay – loam
b. Sandy – loam
c. Silty – clay
d. Sandy – clay
8. Which of the following is not a reason why we consider accessibility to
road and transportation as one of the important factors in selecting the
site?
a. Vegetables are harvested anytime
b. Vegetables are highly perishable
c. Vegetables are best liked when they are fresh
d. Products are transported without much damage
9. Why is soil analysis important?
a. To describe the type of soil
b. To know how to apply fertilizers
c. To identify the crops to be planted
d. To determine the rate and kind of fertilizers to be applied
10. The following statements tell how to collect composite soil samples
from each sampling area. Choose from the choices the correct
procedure in taking soil samples.
1. Place the bar of soil (representing a one spot soil sample) in a
pail or any suitable clean container.
2. Using a spade or shovel, dig a pit to a depth of 20 – 30
centimeters.
3. From one vertical side of the pit, take a slice of soil 2 – 3 cm
thick with a single downward thrust of the spade. Using a knife
or a trowel, trim the slice of soil on both sides to a bar 3 – 4 cm
width.
4. Clear the soil surface of litter and vegetation before digging a
pit.

a. 4,3,1,2 b. 1,3,2,4 c. 4,2,3,1 d.


2,4,3,1

KNOW

Activity 1
Do you have any idea of an ideal site for vegetable production? Have
you ever seen an area planted with various vegetable crops? An ideal site for
vegetable growing is dependent on the vegetable’s needs. Now visit your
school vegetable garden or site. Observe carefully important factors present
in the area that the plants need as they grow and develop like the physical
features of the land, the types of soil, the sources of water, the prevailing
climate, accessibility, and the socio-economic condition in the community.
Discuss the results of your findings in your class.
Reading Resources and Instructional Activities

Factors to consider in selecting the site for planting vegetable crops


Minimizing potential production problems is essential to all farming
operations. This is especially true for vegetable producers. One of the most
effective means of reducing potential problems is through proper site
selection.
1. Sunlight
The more sunlight the site receives the better for a vegetable
garden because sunlight is the most important factor for growing
healthy vegetables. Most vegetables need full sun (at least six hours of
direct sunlight per day) to grow to their maximum potential, so avoid
spots that are shaded by trees or buildings during the heat of the day.
Use the traditional planting arrangement of rows running north to south
to provide a maximum and even quantity of sunlight throughout the
day.
To determine if your site has the right light conditions, stand
facing the south with your left hand pointing east (in the direction the
sun rises) and your right hand pointing west (in the direction the sun
sets). Now take your east-facing finger and follow it to the southern sky
and then down behind the western horizon. This is the course the sun
will take throughout the day. If there are no major obstructions then
you have a sunny spot.
2. Water and drainage
Water is the life-blood of vegetable production. Vegetable crops
generally require more total water and more frequent irrigation than
most other horticultural crops. The water source should have the
capability to provide the volume required for the maximum needs of the
highest water-using crop to be planted. (https://aggie-
horticulture.tamu.edu/vegetable/guidesorganic-vegetable-production-guide/key-factors-in-

vegetable-production.
Vegetable crops develop water requirements which are specific
to their variety, maturity, and the surrounding atmospheric and soil
characteristics. With respect to drainage, it is the physical topography
of a particular site which assumes the most significant role. The
immediate elevation, slope, and soil structure need to be carefully
assessed before establishing the vegetable garden. The most suitable
types of location have gentle surface slopes and contain deep and well
drained soils. Many vegetable growers prefer a moderately heavy loam
with at least several feet of topsoil. (www.organicguide.com.)

3. Topography of the land

Topography refers to the physical characteristics of the overall


field site and includes conditions such as the contour, soil depth, water,
air drainage, and the presence of rock. These characteristics can have
a significant influence on crop production and management. Poorly
drained fields or those with low areas can become water logged during
periods of excessive rain. Such conditions can enhance the incidence
of diseases, reduce plant vigor and yield, and, under excessive
conditions, cause plant death.

An ideal topography for vegetable production is one that is


nearly flat to slightly sloping, well drained, and free of trees, rocks, and
low areas. Efficiency of crop maintenance, irrigation, and harvest
operations are greatly enhanced in fields with this type of topography.
(https://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/vegetable/guidesorganic-vegetable-production-guide/key-
factors-in-vegetable-production.)

4. Types of soil
Soil type refers to the physical composition or properties of the
soil. Soil basically consists of decomposed mineral matter (sand, silt,
and clay) and decomposed organic matter. Optimum vegetable
production is achieved on well-drained sandy loam soils. Although
vegetables can be grown on a wide range of soil types, most
vegetables are not well adapted to heavy clay soil types. Soils of this
type tend to have poor aeration and drainage and can restrict root
growth. Consequently, these soils should be avoided. Soil is the
fundamental resource base for all agricultural production systems.
(https://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/vegetable/guidesorganic-vegetable-production-guide/key-
factors-in-vegetable-production)

Most vegetables require a mildly acidic or neutral soil with a pH


reading between six and seven. (www.organicguide.com)
5. Accessibility to road and transportation
Vegetables are highly perishable. They are best liked when they
are fresh and of good quality. If the site is accessible to all forms of
transportation, vegetable products are easily transported without much
damage.
6. Climatic requirements
The climate is mainly governed by (a) temperature, (b) water,
and (c) light.
 Temperature affects some vital processes of the plant like
photosynthesis, respiration, absorption of water and minerals, and
in the germination of seeds.
There are three basic temperatures necessary for the
germination and growth of each plant species. First, the minimum
temperature limits of the growth of plants. If the temperature goes
below the minimum temperature, the plant will not grow or will be
stunted. Second, the maximum temperature the plants can still
survive. Third, the moderate temperature which is between the
maximum and the minimum temperature will make the plants grow
fast.
Plants which require cool temperature like cabbage, lettuce,
cauliflower, broccoli, carrots, snap beans, peas, and many others,
should be planted during the cool season and in mountainous or
high places like Baguio and Benguet. However, crops like okra,
eggplant, tomato, and pepper require a high temperature.
 Water serves as a solvent. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and
other nutrient elements cannot be absorbed by the plant unless
there is water in the soil. It serves as a solvent for the plant nutrient
which is in the form of a solution absorbed by the roots.
 Light affects the growth of crop plants mainly through affecting (1)
their structural development, (2) their food production, and (3) the
time required of certain species of varieties to produce seeds. Light
is necessary for photosynthesis and is therefore required by green
plants for the manufacturing of food. Many plants are influenced by
the length of day especially with regards to flowering, fruiting, and
production of seeds. This effect of light is known as
photoperiodism. Some plants are known as long day plants and
others as short day plants. The long day plants need a
comparatively long day for flowering and their vegetative growth
increases when the days are short.
7. Socio-economic condition. Socio-economic factors such as the
peace and order condition in the area and cost of labor should be
considered because this will determine the profitability of the project

SOIL
According to World Education (INGO) Philippines Inc. (2005),
soil is defined as the loose and friable material of the earth’s surface
for plants to grow. In certain places and under certain conditions, soil
consists of two principal layers: a more productive top or surface layer
known as surface soil or top soil and a less productive under layer
known as the sub-soil. The soil is composed of mineral matter of
different sizes of particles known as soil texture with a small proportion
of microorganisms and mixed with decayed animal and crop residues.
The soil particles are arranged from the surface soil to the parent rock.
Such arrangement is called soil profile.
Soil texture, as defined by soil scientists, refers to the proportion of
sand, silt and clay particles that comprise a particular soil sample as
described in Table 1.

Table 1.Types of soil and its characteristics


Sand Silt Clay
Soil particles Soil particles particles having
having having diameters that
diameters diameters are less than
ranging from ranging from 0.002
0.05 to 2.0 0.002 to 0.05 millimeters
millimeters millimeters
Gritty in Soapy slick Sticky when
texture when wet, smooth
moistened when dry
Low in Poorly aerated Poorly drains
nutrients
Prone to Prone to water Compacts
erosion logging easily
Poor root Fairly fertile Presence of
anchorage organic matter
Good Cold soil
drainage
Better
aeration
Soil structure refers to the physical arrangement of the soil particles
in relation to each other. Unlike texture, farmers can modify soil
structure through their activities like tillage and water management.
The action of worms, microbes, and insects also affect soil structure.
Soil Sampling and Soil Analysis
The accuracy of the fertilizer recommendation depends to a large
degree on the correctness of collecting representative soil samples. The
composite sample is sent to the laboratory for analysis. It should be noted
that out of the one kilogram soil sample representing an area of as much as
10 hectares, only a few grams are used in the actual analysis.
Soil analysis can be done using a simple tool or Soil Testing Kit (STK)
for qualitative analysis for soil pH, nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium or
by running a complete chemical analysis in the soil laboratories. Results of
both tests will serve as the basis for the farmers in making fertilizer
recommendation on the amount of fertilizer materials to be applied to satisfy
the nutrient requirement of the crop.
Steps in Soil Sampling
Using the most common farm tools and materials such as shovel or spade,
knife or trowel, small pail and plastic bags, the following are the steps for a
proper soil sampling technique.
1. Make a map of the farm showing sampling areas (SA).
Divide the farm into sampling areas. Each sampling area should
be more or less uniform in cropping history, past lime and
fertilizer treatments, slope, degree of erosion, soil texture, and
color. Each SA should not be more than 5 hectares.
2. Collect composite soil samples from each sampling area.
In each sampling area, dig from 5 to 10 pits and collect a
sample from each pit. The number of spot soil samples depends on the
size of the sample. A spot sample is taken in the following way:
1. Before digging the pit, clear the soil surface of litter and
vegetation.
2. Using spade or shovel, dig a pit to a depth of 20-30
centimeters.
3. From one vertical side of the pit, take a slice of soil 2-3 cm
thick with a single downward thrust of the spade. Using a
knife or a trowel, trim the slice of soil on both sides to a bar
3-4 cm in width.
4. Place the bar of soil (representing a one spot soil sample) in
a pail or any suitable clean container.
5. If subsoil sample is needed, take a bar of soil from the
succeeding 20 to 30 cm soil depth. The subsoil and surface
sample should be placed in separate containers.
6. Cover the pit and move to another spot.
3. Take a composite soil sample.
After collecting all the spot soil samples of a particular sampling
area, pulverizes, mix thoroughly, and remove stones and fresh leaves.
Place the composite soil sample (about ½ kg) in a clean plastic bag.
After that, composite soil sample which represents the soil sampling
area is now ready for chemical analysis using a Soil Testing Kit (STK).
This may also be sent to a soil testing laboratory with pertinent label
and information.

PROCESS

Activity 2

1. Visit a nearby vegetable farm. Inspect the area based on what you
have learned in selecting the site for producing vegetable crops. Put a
check mark on the space provided if the factors to be considered in
site selection are met.

Factors to consider in site Excellent Good Poor


selection

1. Sunlight
2. Water and drainage
3. Type of soil
4. Topography of the land
5. Accessibility to roads and
transportation
6. Climatic requirements
a. Temperature
b. Water
c. Light
7. Socio-economic condition
8. Availability of labor force

REFLECT AND UNDERSTAND

Activity 3

In not more than fifty words, discuss how proper site selection affects
the production of vegetable crops.

TRANSFER

Activity 4

Knowing the ideal site for vegetable growing is not enough. You need
to determine the nutrients present in the soil or field. Does the soil contain
enough plant food nutrients?
You are about to start the first activity in producing vegetable crops.
Your task is to get soil samples in your vegetable area by following the correct
procedure. Bring the samples to a soil laboratory for chemical analysis or use
the Soil Test Kit (STK) if available.
The result of the chemical analysis will be your basis in applying the
right amount of fertilizers to be applied in the field where you are going to
plant your vegetable crop.

Summative assessment/Post test

Direction: Read and understand the questions carefully. Write the letter of the
correct answer in your quiz notebook.

1. Which of the following factors in selecting the site is considered as the


life – blood of vegetable production?
a. Topography c. Sunlight
b. Water d. Soil
2. Access to sunlight plays a significant role in producing vegetable
crops. How long the crops should be exposed to direct sunlight every
day?
a. 3 – 5 hours c. 4 – 6 hours
b. 2 – 4 hours d. 6 – 7 hours
3. Which of the following is not a consideration when taking soil samples
for soil analysis?
a. Slope of the area
b. Cropping history
c. Past lime and fertilizer application
d. Frequency of irrigation
4. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of good soil?
a. Has good aeration
b. Has plenty of minerals
c. Has high water holding capacity
d. Contains large amount of clay making the soil compact
5. What is the best topography suited for vegetable production?
a. Hilly
b. Level
c. Sloping
d. Slightly Sloping
6. Which of the following refers to the proportion of sand, silt, and clay
particles that comprise a particular soil sample?
a. Soil
b. Soil profile
c. Soil texture
d. Soil structure
7. The type of soil directly affects the growth and development of
vegetable crops. What types of soil are best for growing vegetables?
a. Clay – loam
b. Sandy – loam
c. Silty – clay
d. Sandy – clay
8. Which of the following is not a reason why we consider accessibility to
road and transportation as one of the important factors in selecting the
site?
a. Vegetables are harvested anytime
b. Vegetables are highly perishable
c. Vegetables are best liked when they are fresh
d. Products are transported without much damage
9. Why is soil analysis important?
a. To describe the type of soil
b. To know how to apply fertilizers
c. To identify the crops to be planted
d. To determine the rate and kind of fertilizers to be applied
10. The following statements tell how to collect composite soil samples
from each sampling area. Choose from the choices the correct
procedure in taking soil samples.
1. Place the bar of soil (representing a one spot soil sample) in
a pail or any suitable clean container.
2. Using a spade or shovel, dig a pit to a depth of 20 – 30
centimeters.
3. From one vertical side of the pit, take a slice of soil 2 – 3 cm
thick with a single downward thrust of the spade. Using a
knife or a trowel, trim the slice of soil on both sides to a bar 3
– 4 cm width.
4. Clear the soil surface of litter and vegetation before digging a
pit.

a. 4,3,1,2 b. 1,3,2,4 c. 4,2,3,1 d.


2,4,3,1

Summary/Feedback

Proper site selection plays a significant role in vegetable production. One


must take consideration of the factors or requirements of a good site.

Let your soil sample be analyzed using a Soil Testing Kit (STK) or
send the sample to a soil laboratory. Soil analysis helps you in determining
the fertilizers to be applied in your vegetable area.
QUARTER 1
Produce Vegetable Crops

Lesson 2: Preparing the Land for Planting Vegetable Crops

Courtesy of the Bukig National Agricultural and Technical School (BNATS), the third year students
preparing a wide range of land for their vegetable production

Content Standard Performance Standard


The learner demonstrates The learner independently prepares
understanding on the preparation the land for planting vegetable
of land for planting vegetable crops based on the Department of
crops. Agriculture standard and
procedures.

Lesson Preparing the Land for


2 Planting Vegetable Crops

Introduction

The lesson deals with steps in preparing the land for planting
vegetable crops. It also includes the importance of proper land preparation,
tools, implements, and simple equipment to be used in this activity.
Learning Competencies/Objectives

1. Know the importance of land preparation.


2. Identify the tools, implements, and simple equipment.
3. Prepare the land thoroughly.
4. Discuss zero tillage practice.

Diagnostic/Pre-assessment

I. Multiple Choice. Instructions: Read and understand the items being


described below. Choose the letter of the correct answer and write it in your
quiz notebook.

1. What is the type of cultivation in which the planting area is not


loosened except for the place where the seeds are set?
a. Zero tillage
b. Hoe cultivation
c. Cultivation/tillage
d. Interplant cultivation
2. Which set of tools is used in preparing a garden plot?
a. Axe, knife, pick mattock
b. Shovel, pruning shears, scythe
c. Grub hoe, spade, rake, pick mattock, shovel
d. Plow and harrow
3. Which is the primary purpose of plowing?
a. To control weeds
b. To provide soil tilth
c. To provide dust mulch
d. To break compacted soils and pulverize soil clods
4. When is the best time to prepare the land for planting vegetable
crops?
a. When the soil is too dry to avoid pudding
b. When the soil is not too wet and not too dry to facilitate
cultivation
c. When the soil is too wet so that tilling would be easy
d. When there are no obstructions to facilitate land preparation
5. Which is not a factor to consider in proper land preparation?
a. Soil and climatic factors
b. Availability of skilled labor
c. Availability of tools, implements, and equipment
d. Kind and rate of fertilizer to be applied

II. Modified True or False: Write TRUE if the statement is correct, and if it is
FALSE, change the underlined word or group of words to make the sentence
correct.

1. Plowing and harrowing can be done two to three times at 15 day


intervals.
2. The scythe is used for pruning unnecessary branches and cutting
planting materials.
3. The hand cultivator is used for cultivating garden plots by loosening the
soil and removing tall weeds around the plants.
4. Farm implements are accessories either being pulled by animals or
mounted on machinery.
5. A well-prepared land ensures the growth and development of
vegetable crops.
KNOW

Activity 1
After selecting the best site for vegetable production, the next activity is
to prepare the land. After being divided into 3 groups and each group should
select one topic for the group to discuss in 5 minutes.
Topic 1 – When is the land thoroughly prepared?
Topic 2 –What are the methods of land preparation?
Topic 3 – What are the steps in preparing the land?
Each group is given 3 minutes to present the output.
Activity 2
Look at pictures of farm tools and equipment for vegetable growing.
Identify the tools in the pictures and explain how to use the different
farm tools and equipment.

Reading Resources and Instructional Activities


Land preparation is one of the basic, but most important, cultural
practices in lowland and upland vegetable production. Most of our direct-
seeded and transplanted vegetable crops give the best yields when the land
for planting is well prepared.

Tools, Implements, and Simple Equipment


Hand Tools
Hand tools are usually light and are used without the help of animals or
machines. They are used in performing farm activities that involve small areas
like the school garden and home garden.
Table 2. Classification of hand tools and their corresponding functions

Classification Functions Illustration


of Hand
Tools
Cutting Tools
 Bolo  Used for
cutting weeds
and small
branches of
trees, digging
small holes,
and
pulverizing
the soil

 Axe  Used for cutting


bigger posts

 Scythe/  Used for cutting


Sickle weeds
 Also used for
harvesting

 Pruning  Used for pruning


shears unnecessary
branches and
cutting planting
materials
 Knife  Used for cutting
 Scissors planting
 Prunning materials
shears

 Cross-cut  Used for cutting


saw big branches and
trunks of trees

Digging Tools
 Post hole  Used for digging
digger holes

 Pick  Used for digging


mattock canals
 Used for
removing stumps
and stones

 Crowbar  Used for digging


up big stones
and tree stumps
 Spade  Used for digging
canals and
ditches

 Shovel  Used for digging


loose soil,
removing trash,
moving soil from
one place to
another, and for
mixing soil media

Transplanting
Tools
 Hand  Used for balling
trowel seedlings

Cultivating
Tools  Used for
 Hand cultivating soil
trowel around the
plants

 Grub hoe  Used for


breaking hard
topsoil and
pulverizing soil

 Pick  Used for


mattock breaking hard
topsoil and
pulverizing soil

 Hand  Used for


cultivator cultivating
garden plot by
loosening the
soil and
removing young
weeds around
the plants

 Hand fork  Used for inter-


row cultivation

 Spading  Used or
fork loosening the
soil, digging out
root crops, and
turning over the
materials in a
compost heap

 Rake  Used for levelling


the topsoil and
cleaning the
ground

Harvesting
Tools  Used for
 Pruning harvesting
shears vegetable fruits,
 Scissors shoots, and
 Knife flowers
Measuring
Tools
 Meter  Used for
stick measuring the
 Foot rule height of plants
 Steel and land area
tape

 Weighing  Used for


scale weighing
vegetable
produce

Carpentry
Tools  Used for
 Hammer constructing and
 Cross-cut repairing the
saw temporary shed,
 Reap vicinity fence,
saw etc.
 Pliers
 Screw
driver

Plumbing
Tools  Used when
 Hack saw working with
 Basin or water systems
sink
wrench
 Sleeve
puller
 Pipe
wrench
 Pipe
bender
 Pipe
threader

Others

 Wheel  Used for hauling


barrow trash, compost,
and fertilizers

 Sprinkler  Used for


watering
 Knapsack  Used for
sprayer spraying
pesticides and
liquid fertilizers in
wide areas

 Trigger  Used for


sprayer spraying in small
areas

 Water  Used for


hose watering

Pictures of tools - Courtesy: Jones Rural School, Jones, Isabela

Farm Implements

Farm implements are accessories either being pulled by animals or


mounted on machinery. These are made out of different materials. For native
plow and harrow, these are made of wood and some parts are metal. In the
case of disc plow, disc harrow and rotavator, these are made out of metal.
These implements are generally used to till, pulverize, level the soil, and
make furrows.
Table 3. Classification of farm implements and their corresponding functions

Farm Implements Functions Illustration

 Native /disc  Used for tilling the


plow land

 Native/disc  Used for


harrow pulverizing and
levelling the soil

 Rotavator  Used for tilling and


pulverizing the soil

Equipment
Equipment are machineries used in horticultural farm operations.
Table 4. Farm equipment and their uses
Equipment Uses Illustration

 Hand  Used to plow and


tractor harrow in preparing
a large area of land
 Water  Used to draw water
pump from a source

 Portable  Used to cut bigger


chainsaw trees

 Grass  Used to cut/trim


cutter weeds

 Power  Used for spraying


sprayer fruit trees

Importance of Proper Land Preparation


Proper land preparation is a major prerequisite for a good yield. The
benefits derived from well prepared soil are as follows:

1. Helps control weeds through uprooting or burying.


2. Softens the surface soil and prepare a good seedbed to allow easier
seeding of crops.

3. Exposes soil organic matter to oxygen and help release soil


nutrients for crop growth.

4. Reduces compaction of the soil’s bulk density to allow for rooting


and improves soil structure.

5. Helps improve the infiltration of water.

6. Incorporates any soil amendments including organic materials, lime,


or basal fertilizers.

7. Helps control various pests and diseases associated with soils.

8. Assists operations that are needed to shape or level the land in


order to allow more uniform water application.

When to plow the field?

In tropical and sub-temperate areas, the field may be plowed and then
allowed to be idle for about two weeks. The purpose is to allow weeds and
plant debris to decay and to allow weed seeds to germinate. Plowing should
be done when the soil is not too dry nor too wet in order to preserve the soil
structure.

How to determine when the soil is in a workable condition?

Get a handful of soil and press it to form a ball of soil. When the fingers
are relaxed and the mass is formed into a compressed mud ball, the soil is
too wet and sticky to work on. Working or plowing the soil in this condition
makes it cloddy and hard to work on.
On the other hand, if the soil crumbles easily in your hand, the soil is
said to be friable or very dry. This kind of soil is also not ideal to work on.

Therefore, the soil is in a workable condition when there are no


droplets of water and does not crumble as you take it in one hand and press it
into a ball.

How to prepare the land thoroughly?

1. Cleaning/clearing is done to remove litter, rocks, weeds, shrubs,


trees, and other structures from the surface to make the next activities
easier and to prevent damage of tools, implements, and equipment.

2. Plowing or hoeing is the initial breaking of soil surface. Depending


on the degree of hardness and presence of weeds and other plants,
plowing or hoeing could be done two to three times from 7 - 10 days
after the first operation.

3. Harrowing is done to further breakdown the plowed or hoed slice of


soil to smaller sizes and to loosen the soil particles using the spading
fork or harrow as needed. This makes the soil particles smooth and
even in size using the same tools or equipment until such time that
the desired condition has been achieved.

The spading fork can be operated easily just like the hoe. The
harrow must be drawn either by working animals like carabao or
cow or by a tractor.

4. Make furrows or plot following the recommended distance of


planting of crops.
Zero Tillage / No Till

Zero tillage farming is defined as farming where the soil is left relatively
undisturbed from harvest to planting. At planting time, a narrow seedbed is
prepared or holes are drilled where the seeds are placed. No-till is
considered as a management tool under the conservation tillage practices.

Why no-till?
No-till with retained stubble has the potential to improve soil properties
and increase sustainability. It can do this by lifting and modifying soil
biological activity that improves all aspects of soil fertility: physical,
chemical, and biological. These improvements lead to better farm
management as well as improved sustainability.
The benefits of zero tillage include the following:

 Prevents weed seeds buried deep from germinating


 Preserves the physical condition of the soil
 Retains a permanent soil cover through stubble retention and cover
crops
 Maintains higher levels of organic matter and biological activity
 Minimizes labor, fuel, and machinery costs

PROCESS

Activity 2

Interview at least three farmers in your community. Ask them how


they prepare their field for planting vegetable crops. Take note of the
common tools, implements, and equipment they used in preparing the
field for planting. Discuss the results of your findings in your class.
Other suggested activity

Group into 4 and list down the steps of land preparation they have
learned, observed, and experienced.

Let each group present the result of their observation for further
discussion to the whole class.

REFLECT AND UNDERSTAND

Activity 3

In preparation for your next activity, ask your teacher for a borrower’s slip and
write down the tools, implements, and equipment needed in preparing the
field. Then proceed to the tool room and get the items you have listed.

TRANSFER

Activity 4

This time, you are going to conduct a comparative study on zero


tillage and cultivated fields planted with eggplants. Divide the class into
two groups. Each group will prepare a 300 square – meter area.

Group 1 – Zero Tillage

Group 2 – Cultivated
Use appropriate tools, implements, and equipment in preparing
the field. Observe safety precautions by wearing your Personal
Protective Equipment (PPE) to avoid accidents.

Your next lesson will teach you how to grow seedlings.


Propagated seedlings will be planted in your prepared area.

Activity 5

First observe the procedures of land preparation being


demonstrated by the teacher/farmer facilitator before doing the actual
land preparation.

Groups should prepare the land in their assigned area within a


period.

Your performance will be evaluated using the rubric.

Summative assessment/Post test

Directions: Read and understand the items being described below. Choose
the letter of the answer and write it in your quiz notebook.

1. Which is not a factor to consider in proper land preparation?


a. Soil and climatic factors
b. Availability of skilled labor
c. Availability of tools, implements, and equipment
d. Kind and rate of fertilizer
2. Which is the primary purpose of plowing?
a. To control weeds
b. To provide dust mulch
c. To improve soil tilth
d. To break compacted soils and pulverize soil clods
3. What is the type of cultivation in which the planting area is not
loosened except for the place where the seeds are set?
a. Zero tillage
b. Hoe cultivation
c. General tillage
d. Interplant cultivation
4. Which set of tools is used in preparing a garden plot?
a. Axe, knife, pick mattock
b. Shovel, pruning shears, scythe
c. Grub hoe, mattock pick, shovel
d. Plow and harrow
5. When is the best time to prepare the land for planting vegetable
crops?
a. When the soil is too wet so that tilling would be easy
b. When the soil is too dry to avoid puddling
c. When the soil is not too wet and not too dry to facilitate
cultivation
d. When all the farmers are preparing their land

II. True or False: Write TRUE if the statement is correct and FALSE if it is not
correct.

1. Plowing and harrowing can be done two to three times at 15 day


intervals.
2. The scythe is use for pruning unnecessary branches and cutting
planting materials.
3. The hand cultivator is used for cultivating garden plots by loosening the
soil and removing tall weeds around the plants.
4. Farm implements are accessories either being pulled by animals or
mounted on machinery.
5. A well-prepared land ensures the growth and development of
vegetable crops.

Rubric in Rating Land Preparation


Performance Levels
4 3 2 1 W
Criteria WP
Outstanding Very Satisfactory Needs (%)
Satisfactory Improvement
1. Appropriate All the Three or more Two necessary One necessary 40
Use of necessary tools necessary tools or tool or
Tools/ or equipment tools or equipment equipment was
Equipment were used equipment were used used
appropriately were used appropriately appropriately
a. Plow appropriately a. Plow a. Plow
b. Tractor a. Plow b. Tractor b. Tractor
c. Harrow b. Tractor c. Harrow c. Harrow
d. Rake c. Harrow d. Rake d. Rake
e. Shovel/bolo/ d. Rake e. Shovel/bolo/ e. Shovel/bolo/
hoe e. Shovel/ hoe hoe
bolo/hoe
2. Proper Followed all the Missed 1 of the Missed 2 of the Missed 3 or 50
Execution steps properly steps steps more steps
of Steps a. Clearing a. Clearing a. Clearing a. Clearing
st st st st
and b. 1 plowing b. 1 plowing b. 1 plowing b. 1 plowing
st st st st
Procedures c. 1 harrowing c. 1 harrowing c. 1 harrowing c. 1 harrowing
nd nd nd nd
d. 2 plowing d. 2 plowing d. 2 plowing d. 2 plowing
nd nd nd nd
e. 2 harrowing e. 2 e. 2 harrowing e. 2 harrowing
f. Final harrowing f. Final f. Final
harrowing f. Final harrowing harrowing
g. Construction harrowing g. Construction g. Construction
of furrows or g. Constructio of furrows or of furrows or
ridge n of furrows ridge ridge
or ridge
3. Time Work Work Work Work completed 10
Management completed completed just completed 1-30 more than 30
ahead of time on time minutes late minutes after the
time frame
Final Grade 100

Summary/Feedback

Thorough land preparation is a pre requisite in producing vegetable


crops. A well-prepared land ensures the growth and development of crops.

Use appropriate farm tools, implements, and simple equipment in


preparing the land to make the work easier, faster, and better. Likewise,
accidents will be minimized in the work area.

Know when and how to prepare the land for planting vegetable crops.
Plow the field when the soil is not too wet and not too dry so as not to destroy
the soil structure. Follow strictly the steps in thorough land preparation to
attain the ideal texture of the soil.

One of the methods of cultivation used in organic farming is the “zero


tillage or no – till” where the soil is not loosened or cultivated. The benefits
derived from zero tillage includes the preservation of the physical condition of
the soil, minimizes labor, fuel, and machinery costs, has a higher level of
organic matter and biological activity, and prevents weed seeds that are
buried deep from germinating.
GLOSSARY

Clearing of land – is the removal of agricultural wastes and materials from


the land which makes cultural operations easier.

Climate – is the average condition in a given locality in relation to


temperature and moisture.
Equipment - are the machinery used in horticultural farm operations
especially in producing vegetable crops.
Hand tools - are usually light and are used without the help of animals or
machines. They are used in performing farm activities that involve small areas
like school gardens and home gardens.

Harrowing – means to pulverize big clods. This activity is done after plowing.

Implements – are accessories either being pulled by animals or mounted to


machinery.

Plowing/Digging – is intended to break compacted soils, pulverized soil


clods and remove rootstocks, especially in newly opened areas.

Tillage or Cultivation – is a farm activity which involves the loosening of the


soil for the purpose of producing a crop or enhancing the growth of a crop.

Topography – is the physical features of the land surface, whether it is


sloping, flat or level and hilly or mountainous.

Weather – is the condition of the atmosphere with reference to its air


pressure, temperature, relative humidity, the presence of clouds, and the
direction and velocity of the wind at any given moment.

References

Anonymous. Undated. Training Manual in Horticulture NC II. Maddela


Institute of Technology.Maddela., Isabela, Philippines.

Derpsch, R.W. 2005. Situational Analysis of No-Tillage Systems in WA and


Recommendations for the Way Forward. A Report on a Consultancy
to WANTFA, GRDC, and DAFF.

Sá, J.C. M., 2004: AdubaçãoFosfatada no Sistema de PlantioDireto. In:


SympósiosobreFósforonaAgriculturaBrasileira, Anais (ed.) T.
Yamada, Silvia, R. S. Abdalla, p.201-222, Piracicaba, SP,
POTAFÓS, 2004, 726p.

http://www.fao.org/ag/agp/AGPC/doc/tibetmanual/03_landpreparation.htm.
Retrieved March 2, 2014.

https://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/vegetable/guidesorganic-vegetable-
production-guide/key-factors-in-vegetable-production. Retrieved March 2,
2014.
swww.organicguide.com. Retrieved March 2, 2014.