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CRITICAL

READING AS
REASONING
PREPARED BY
MISS MARY KATRINE M. BELINO
You have learned that as a critical
reader, you should be able to use
textual evidence when asked by your
teacher to support analysis of the
implicit and explicit information
presented by a writer in a text.
Given the same text to other
readers, you may encounter questions
that will really require your answer. In
that case you should have the skills of
reasoning out and giving analysis and
evaluative statements.
CRITICAL
READING AS
REASONING
WHAT IS
REASONING?
According to Merriam-Webster
Dictionary, reasoning is an act of
giving statements for justification and
explanation. It is the ability of
someone to defend something by
giving out reasons.
ACTIVITY
TIME!
CONVINCE ME!
The class will be grouped into three
(with more ore less 12 members
each).
We will test your reasoning skill by
convincing the judge through your
own reasons based on the situation
and the topic assigned to you.
CONVINCE ME!
The teacher will provide three sets of
situations wherein all the groups will
take turns to be the judge and to be
the participant.
For example, on the first situation,
group 1 will be the judge and the
remaining two groups will be the one
to give their reasons.
CONVINCE ME!
For every situation, each group will
only be given two minutes to brainstorm.
After brainstorming, one to speakers
will be allowed to convince the judges by
giving their own reasons.
After all the speakers have given
their reasons, the judge will give their
judgment based on the materials and the
reasons presented by each group.
READY?
FIRST SITUATION
Anna wants to have a movie date
with her family, which genre do you
think is better to watch?
GROUP 2 – HORROR MOVIES
GROUP 3 – ROMANTIC MOVIES
GROUP 1 will be the judge.
SECOND SITUATION
Juan is craving for sweets, which
is better for him to eat?
GROUP 1 – FRUITS
GROUP 3 – CHOCOLATES
GROUP 2 will be the judge.
THIRD SITUATION
Pasing wants to go on a vacation,
which tourist destination is better for
her to go to?
GROUP 1 – PALAWAN
GROUP 2 – BORACAY
GROUP 3 will be the judge.
PROCESS QUESTIONS
What did you feel while doing the
activity?
For the participants:
How did you come up with those
kinds of reasons?
For the judges:
How were you able to make sound
judgment?
FORMULATING
EVALUATIVE
STATEMENTS
WHAT IS AN
EVALUATIVE
STATEMENT?
EVALUATIVE STATEMENT
It is a way of giving a better
explanation to show the strength and
the weaknesses of something
through writing.
It presents a value judgment based
on a set of criteria.
EVALUATIVE STATEMENT
It is used in giving a sound
judgement – a judgment that can be
backed up or supported by valid
reasons or proofs.
It is the writer’s way of explaining
why a strength is a strength and a
weakness a weakness based on the
evidences gathered.
HOW TO
FORMULATE AN
EVALUATIVE
STATEMENT?
Evaluative statements about a
text are formulated after having read
the text carefully and critically,
grasping the essence of the text and
checking for possible fallacies in the
argument.
The formulation of the evaluative
statements is done in the same way
you do any other writing except that
the statement is about your
judgement of the text’s content and
property.
You may compose your evaluative
statements in two steps:
1. Formulating Assertions about the
Content and the Properties of a
text Read
2. Formulating a meaningful
counterclaim in response to a
claim made in the text read
FORMULATING ASSERTIONS ABOUT THE CONTENT
AND THE PROPERTIES OF A TEXT READ

In this step, you have to examine


which ideas are facts or opinions, make
inferences or conclusions, and assess
the overall quality of the text. This
assertions usually contain evaluative
languages such as useful, significant,
important, insightful, detailed, up-to-
date, comprehensive, practical, etc.
FORMULATING A MEANINGFUL COUNTERCLAIM
IN RESPONSE TO A CLAIM MADE IN THE
TEXT READ

Counterclaim is the opposition you


make about the claim of a writer.

You must recognize the value of


hedges when you state your
counterclaims.
FORMULATING A MEANINGFUL COUNTERCLAIM
IN RESPONSE TO A CLAIM MADE IN THE
TEXT READ

A hedge is a word or phrase that


minimizes negative impact of a
criticism.
When you are presenting your
counterclaim, you are providing
criticism since you are stating that the
claim is not true. Hedge is used to give
a courteous tome in your writing.
FORMULATING A MEANINGFUL COUNTERCLAIM
IN RESPONSE TO A CLAIM MADE IN THE
TEXT READ

Hedges could come in different


forms such as :
Modals – may, could, would, etc.
Frequency adverbs – usually,
generally, commonly
Probability adverbs – probably,
possibly, presumably
FORMULATING A MEANINGFUL COUNTERCLAIM
IN RESPONSE TO A CLAIM MADE IN THE
TEXT READ

Obesity is caused by the bad food


choices being offered by the food
industry.

Obesity is probably caused by the


bad food choices being offered by the
food industry.