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Ed 200 – Information Technology

What is Information Technology?

 the study or use of systems (especially computers and


telecommunications) for storing, retrieving, and sending information.

 is the application of computers and telecommunications equipment to


store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data, often in the context of a
business or other enterprise.
 The term is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer
networks, but it also encompasses other information distribution
technologies such as television and telephones. Several industries are
associated with information technology, including computer hardware,
software, electronics, semiconductors, internet, telecom equipment, e-
commerce and computer services. (wikipedia.com)
 It is a general term that covers all forms of technology used to create,
store, exchange and use information in various forms.

INTRODUCTION

The first computers were people!

According to John Kopplin (2002), the word "Computer" was used in 1613
and was originally referred to as a job title: it was used to describe those human
beings (predominantly women) whose job was to perform the repetitive
calculations required to compute navigational tables, tide charts, and
planetary positions for astronomical almanacs.

The definition of a computer remained the same until the end of the 19th
century when people began to realize machines never get tired and can
perform calculations much faster and more accurately than any team of
human computers ever could.

The Father of Computing - Charles Babbage


The inventor of WWW - Tim Berners-Lee
(World Wide Web) 1989

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Founders of Facebook (2004) - is a popular free social networking website that


allows registered users to create profiles,
upload photos and video, send messages and
keep in touch with friends, family and
colleagues.
 Mark Zuckerberg, Eduardo Saverin, Andrew
McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes

Twitter - a free social messaging tool that lets people stay connected through
brief text message updates up to 140 characters in length called
tweets.
- Created by Jack Dorsey, Noah Glass, Biz Stone, and Evan Williams in
March 2006

Instagram - is a free online program and social network that enables users to
take, edit and share photos with other users via Instagram's own
platform, email, and social media sites including Twitter, Facebook,
Tumblr, Foursquare and Flickr. It was created by Kevin Systrom and Mike
Krieger, and launched in October 2010.

Skype - Released in 2003. Created by Niklas Zennstrom and Janus Friis with
Ahti Heinla, Priit Kasesalu, Jaan Tallinn

COMPONENTS OF A COMPUTER SYSTEM

Computer System – it is made of interrelated parts, each has its own function
operating towards a common objective that is to produce
information.
Five Basic Functions
OPERATION DESCRIPTION
Input The process of entering data and instructions
into the computer system.
Storage Saving data and instructions so that they are
available for processing and when required
Process Performing arithmetic, logical operations on
data in order to convert them into useful

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information.
Output The process of producing useful information or
results for the user, such as a printed report or
visual display.
Control Directs the manner and sequence in which all of
the above operations are performed.

3 Components of Central Processing Unit (CPU)


 Memory or Storage Unit - this unit stores instruction, data, intermediate
results, and supplies information to other units of
the computer when needed.
 Control Unit - This controls the operations of all parts of computer. It does
not carry out any actual data processing operations.
 ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) - It performs arithmetic operations (+, -, *, /)
and all complex operations as well as logical
operations such as comparing, selecting,
matching and merging of data.
TYPES OF MEMORY
RAM (RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY)
- Constitutes the internal memory of the CPU for storing data, program and
program result. It is read/write memory.
- RAM is volatile; data stored in it is lost when we switched off the computer
or if there is a power of failure. Hence a backup Uninterruptible Power
System (UPS) is often used with computers. RAM is small, both in terms of its
physical size and in the amount of data it can hold.

ROM (READ ONLY MEMORY)

- The memory from which we can only read but cannot write on it. This type
of memory is non-volatile. The information is stored permanently in such
memories during manufacture.

MEMORY UNITS

- It is the amount of data that can be stored in the storage unit.


- The storage capacity is expressed in terms of bytes.

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Main Memory Storage Units

UNIT DESCRIPTION
Bit (Binary Digit) Logical 0 & 1 representing a passive or an active
state of a component in an electric circuit.
Nibble A group of 4 bits.
Byte A group of 8 bits. A byte is the smallest unit which
can represent a data item or a character.

Storage Units

UNIT DESCRIPTION
KiloByte (KB) 1,024 bytes
MegaByte (MB) 1,024 KB = 1,048,576 bytes
GigaByte (GB) 1,024 MB = 1,073,741,824 bytes
TeraByte (TB) 1,024 GB
PetaByte (PB) 1,024 TB

HARDWARE – Refers to the tangible components of a computer.


SOFTWARE - refers to a set of programs or instructions that make the hardware
perform a particular set of tasks in particular order.
- It is a general term used to describe a collection of computer programs,
procedures, and documentation that perform some tasks on a computer
system

CLASSIFICATIONS OF SOFTWARE

 SYSTEM SOFTWARE is a set of programs, responsible for running the computer,


controlling various operations of computer systems and management of
computer resources.

1. Operating System (OS) - a system software that provides an interface for a


user to communicate with the computer, manages hardware devices
(disk drives, keyboard, monitor, etc), manages and maintains disk file
systems and supports application programs.
Ex: LINUX, Windows 2007, Windows, Windows 2010.
2. Utilities – programs that bridge the gap between the functionality of an
OS and the needs of users.
Ex. Zip, Disk Defragmenter, Anti-virus Software, Device Drivers, etc.

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 APPLICATION SOFTWARE is a set of programs, which are written to perform


specific tasks.

Classifications Of Application Software

1. Generalized Packages - It is a group of programs that provide general


purpose tools to solve specific problems.

Examples:

a) Word Processing Software (for preparing documents): Word Perfect, MS-


Word, OpenOffice.org Writer
b) Spreadsheets (Data Analysis): Lotus Smart suites, MSExcel, OpenOffice.org
Calc, Apple Numbers
c) Presentations : Presentation Graphics, MS-PowerPoint, OpenOffice.org
Impress
d) Database Management System: MS-Access, OpenOffice.org Base, MS-
SQL Server, ORACLE
e) Graphics Tools: Paint shop pro, Adobe Photoshop

2. Customized packages - These are the applications that are customized


(or developed) to meet the specific requirements of an
organization/institution.

Examples: Student information details, Payroll packages, inventory control etc.


These packages are developed using high-level computer language.

THE COMPUTER KEYBOARD

Keyboards have been an integral part of computer systems since the


beginning. Though there are many types of input devices, keyboards are
essential to perform most functions of a computer.

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- Began with the invention of the typewriter with QWERTY lay-out by


Christopher Latham Sholes in 1848.
- Other keyboard lay-out include: QWERTZ (widely used in Germany and
Central Europe) and AZERTY (is used in France, Belgium and some
neighboring countries).
- The computer keyboard is composed of:

KEYS DESCRIPTION
Typing Keys Include (A-Z) and digits (0-9)
Numeric Keypad Used to enter numeric data or cursor
movement, generally consists of 17 keys
Function Keys There are 12 function keys F1 – F12 wherein
each function key has a unique meaning and is
used for specific purpose
Control Keys These provides cursor and screen control.
These include 4 directional arrow keys. Control
keys include Home, End, Insert, Delete, Page
Up, Page Down, Control (CTRL), Alternate (ALT)
and Escape (ESC).
Special Purpose Keys Keyboard also contains special purpose keys
such as Enter, Shift, CapsLock, NumLock, Space
Bar, Tab and PrtScn.

Two Types of Typist

 Touch Typist
 Hunt and Peck or Search and Destroy

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FINGER
ASSIGNMENT

Ergonomics of Typing

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KEYBOARD SHORTCUT KEYS

Function Keys
Get Help or visit Microsoft Office Online. F1
Move text or graphics. F2
Repeat the last action. F4
Choose the Go To command (Edit menu). F5
Choose the Spelling command (Tools menu). F7
Extend a selection. F8
Activate the menu bar. F10
Go to the next field. F11
Choose the Save As command (File menu). F12

Alt+Function Key
Go to the next field. ALT+F1
Create an AutoText entry. ALT+F3
Quit Microsoft Word. ALT+F4
Restore the program window size. ALT+F5
Maximize the program window. ALT+F10

COMMON SHORTCUT KEYS

Editing Text

Ctrl+B Bold the selected text bold


Ctrl+I Italicize the selected text italic
Ctrl+U Underline the selected text
Ctrl+Backspace Delete the previous word
Ctrl+Del Delete the next word
Ctrl+F Find some text in the current document
Ctrl+Z Undo your last action

Moving the Cursor and Selecting Text

PageUp Move the cursor up a page


PageDown Move the cursor down a page
Home Move the cursor to the beginning of the line
End Move the cursor to the end of the line

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Ctrl+Home Move the cursor to the beginning of the


document
Ctrl+End Move the cursor to the end of the document
Ctrl+← Move the cursor left one word
Ctrl+→ Move the cursor right one word

Selecting Text

Shift+PageUp Select everything between the cursor and a


page previous
Shift+PageDown Select everything between the cursor and a
page after
Shift+Home Select everything between the cursor and the
beginning of the line
Shift+End Select everything between the cursor and the
end of the line
Shift+Ctrl+Home Select everything betweeen the cursor and the
beginning of the document
Shift+Ctrl+End Select everything between the cursor and the
end of the document
Shift+Ctrl+← Select the word to the left
Shift+Ctrl+→ Select the word to the right

Using the Clipboard

Ctrl+C Copy what's selected


Ctrl+X Cut what's selected
Ctrl+V Paste what you last copied or cut
Ctrl+A Select all

Documents and Files

Ctrl+N Create a new document


Ctrl+O Open an existing document
Ctrl+W Close the current document
Ctrl+S Saves the current document
Ctrl+P Print the current document

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Windows

Alt+F4 Exit the active window


Alt+Tab Switch to the previous active window
Alt+Esc Cycle through all open windows
Win+D Show desktop (hit it again to show windows)

Parts of an E-mail Address

dblou_0107@yahoo.com

Username At symbol Domain

Most Common Domain Names are: (this identifies the type of organization)

* .com which identifies company or commercial sites


* .org for non-profit organization sites
* .edu for educational sites (most commonly four-year universities)
* .gov for government sites
* .net for Internet service providers or other types of networks

Microsoft – Microcomputer Software


WYSIWYG – What You See Is What You Get
GIGO – Garbage In Garbage Out
Internet – Interconnected Network
E-mail – Electronic Mail
URL – Uniform Resource Locator
Webpage is a document on the World Wide Web. Every Web page is identified
by a unique URL(Uniform Resource Locator)

Web browser is a software application used to locate, retrieve and display


content on the World Wide Web, including Web pages, images and
video. Examples: Chrome, Safari, Firefox, Opera, Internet Explorer,
etc.

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Website is a site (location) on the World Wide Web. Each Web site contains a
home page, which is the first document users see when they enter the
site.

Search Engines are programs that search documents for specified keywords
and return a list of matching documents. Google, Bing and Yahoo

TEN COMMANDMENTS OF COMPUTER ETHICS


1) Thou shalt not use a computer to harm other people. This commandment
makes clear that it is unethical to use a computer to harm another user. It
includes harming or corrupting some other user's data or files. The
commandment states that it is wrong to steal someone's personal information
by means of a computer. It is unethical to manipulate or destroy the files of
other people through the use of a computer. It iterates the fact that writing a
programs intended to bring perform ethically wrong actions, is in itself
unethical.
2) Thou shalt not interfere with other people's computer work. Viruses are small
programs built with intent to harm or disrupt the useful computer programs.
Some viruses aim at overloading the computer memory by an excessive use
of computer resources. These viruses tend to fail a computer in executing the
desired tasks. They lead to the dysfunction of a computer. The development
or the spread of such malicious software in unethical.
3) Thou shalt not snoop around in other people's files. We know that it is wrong to
read another person's letters. On similar lines, it is unethical to read another
person's email messages. Obtaining another person's private files is as wrong
as breaking into someone's room. Snooping around in another person's files
or reading someone else's personal messages is the invasion of his/her
privacy. In order to protect the information from being attacked, it is ethical
to apply encryption schemes to it.
4) Thou shalt not use a computer to steal. The stealing of sensitive information
such as the personal information of the employees from an employee
database, or breaking into bank accounts for the retrieval of confidential
information is nothing less than robbery. An illegal electronic transfer of funds
is one type of a fraud.
5) Thou shalt not use a computer to bear false witness. Computers are the
easiest sources of spreading information to the masses by means of Internet.
This also means that false news or rumors can spread speedily and easily
through the Internet. Being involved in the circulation of incorrect information
is unethical. Spreading the wrong information by means of Internet is like
taking an undue advantage of technology.

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6) Thou shalt not use or copy software for which you have not paid. Like any
other artists or literary work, software is also subject to copyrights. Software is
the outcome of a programmer's intellect and it is important to respect talent
and give due regard to his/her rights. Obtaining illegal copies of copyrighted
software is unethical.
7) Thou shalt not use other people's computer resources without authorization.
Multi-user systems are supported by user specific ids and passwords. Breaking
into some other user's password, thus indulging into his private space on the
network is unethical. It is not ethical to hack passwords for gaining an
unauthorized access to a password-protected computer system.
8) Thou shalt not appropriate other people's intellectual output. Programs
developed by a programmer in an organization are his/her property.
Copying them and propagating them in one's own name is unethical. A
creative work, a program or a design that a particular employee comes up
with, is his/her ownership. It is the output of someone's intellect and efforts.
Copying it with selfish intentions is indeed not ethical.
9) Thou shalt think about the social consequences of the program you write.
Looking at the social consequences that a program can have, describes a
broader perspective of looking at technology. A computer program goes a
long way to reach homes of the masses. In case a person is working for
animation films or he/she is designing a video game, it is the programmers
responsibility to pay attention to the effects of his/her creation. In case of
software, it is important for the programmer to realize the prospective use of
the software. Writing a virus, when one knows that it is going to serve as a
malware, is indeed unethical. If a particular content is intended for children
or when children are prone to gain access to the content, it is necessary for
the creator of such content to be careful about the social consequences it is
bound to have.
10) Thou shalt use a computer in ways that show consideration and respect. In
the real world, we face situation wherein we need to be courteous to our
fellow mates. Many times, we need to cooperate with them and give each
of the fellow individuals the consideration due. On similar lines, while
interacting through a computer, a person needs to be nice to the ones
he/she interacts with.

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MICROSOFT WORD

SCREEN ELEMENTS

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COMMON KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS

GENERAL
Open a Document Ctrl + O
Create New Ctrl + N
Save a Document Ctrl + S
Print a Document Ctrl + P
Close a Document Ctrl + W
Help F1

NAVIGATION
Up One Screen Page Up
Down One Screen Page Down
Beginning of Line Home
End of Line End

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Beginning of Document Ctrl + Home


End of Document Ctrl + End
Open the Go To Dialog Box F5

EDITING
Cut Ctrl + X
Copy Ctrl + C
Paste Ctrl + V
Undo Ctrl + Z
Redo or Repeat Ctrl + Y

FORMATTING
Bold Ctrl + B
Italic Ctrl + I
Underline Ctrl + U
Align Left Ctrl + L
Center Ctrl + E
Align Right Ctrl + R
Justify Ctrl + J

TEXT SELECTION
A Word Double-Click the word
A Sentence Press and Hold CTRL and click
anywhere in the sentence
A Line Click in the selection bar next to
the line
A Paragraph Trip-click the paragraph
All/Everything Ctrl + A

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MICROSOFT EXCEL

Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet application developed by Microsoft.


The maximum worksheet size is 1,048,576 rows by 16,384 columns.

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 QUICK ACCESS TOOLBAR: A small toolbar on top of the screen next to the
Excel logo contains shortcuts for some of the most common commands
such as Save, Undo, and Redo buttons.
 RIBBON: A combination of old versions menu bar and toolbar, arranged
into a series of tabs ranging from File through View. Each tab contains
buttons, lists, and commands. A contextual tab is a special tab that offers
extra commands.
 NAME BOX: Displays the address of the current active cell where you work
in the worksheet.
 FORMULA BAR: Displays the address of the active cell on the left edge,
and it also shows you the current cell's contents.
 WORKSHEET: This area contains all the cells of the current worksheet
identified by column headers, using letters along the top, and row
headers, using numbers along the left edge with tabs for selecting new
worksheets.
 SHEET TABS: Excel 2010 contains 3 blank worksheet tabs by default. Click
on the intended tab will go to the particular worksheet.

 STATUS BAR: Reports information about the worksheet and provides


shortcuts for changing the views (Normal, Page Layout and Page Break)
and the zoom (dragging the slider to change).
 GRIDLINES: The vertical and horizontal grids that you see when opening
the Excel worksheet. You can set to turn it off if you want.

COMMON KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS

GENERAL
Open a Workbook Ctrl + O
Create New Ctrl + N
Save Ctrl + S
Preview and Print Ctrl + P
Close a Workbook Ctrl + W
Help F1
Run Spelling Check F7
Calculate Worksheets F9
Create an absolute, F4
normal or mixed reference

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NAVIGATION
Move Between Cells
Right One Cell Tab
Left One Cell Shift +Tab
Down One Cell Enter
Up One Cell Shift + Enter
Down One Screen Page Down
Up One Screen Page Up
To Cell A1 Ctrl + Home
To Last Cell Ctrl + End
Go To Dialog Box F5

EDITING
Cut Ctrl + X
Copy Ctrl + C
Paste Ctrl + V
Undo Ctrl + Z
Redo Ctrl + Y
Find Ctrl + F
Replace Ctrl + H
Select All Ctrl + A
Edit Active Cell F2
Clear Cell Contents Delete

FORMATTING
Bold Ctrl + B
Italic Ctrl + I
Underline Ctrl + U
Open Formal Cells Ctrl + Shift
Dialog Box +F
Select All Ctrl + A
Select Entire Row Shift + Space
Select Entire Column Ctrl + Space
Hide Selected Rows Ctrl + 9
Hide Selection Columns Ctrl + 0

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MICROSOFT POWERPOINT

Microsoft PowerPoint is a slide show presentation program

MICROSOFT POWER POINT 2010

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GENERAL
Open a Presentation Ctrl + O
Create New Ctrl + N
Save a Presentation Ctrl + S
Print a Presentation Ctrl + P
Close a Presentation Ctrl + W
Help F1
Insert a New Slide Ctrl + M

NAVIGATION – Go To:
The Next Slide Spacebar
The Previous Slide Backspace

EDITING
Cut Ctrl + X
Copy Ctrl + C
Paste Ctrl + V
Undo Ctrl + Z

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Redo or Repeat Ctrl + Y


Find Ctrl + F
Replace Ctrl + H
Select All Ctrl + A

SLIDE SHOW DELIVERY


Begin Slide Show F5
Resume Slide Show Shift + F5
End Slide Show Esc
Jump to Slide Slide # + Enter
Toggle Screen Black B
Toggle Screen White W
Pause Show S
Show/Hide Pointer A
Change Arrow to Pen Ctrl + P
Change Pen to Arrow Ctrl + A

FORMATTING
Bold Ctrl + B
Italic Ctrl + I
Alight Left Ctrl + L
Center Ctrl + E
Justify Ctrl + J

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Do's and Don'ts of PowerPoint Presentations

DO'S DONT'S
Text Text
- Keep slides concise - Don't include too many details and
- Font size should range between 18 data (no more than 7 words to a
to 48 (according to importance) line and 7 lines to a slide)
- Use fonts that are easy to read, - Don't crowd the information
such as Arial, Helvetica, Times New - Don't use flashy or curvy fonts
Roman, etc. - Don't use all uppercase letters (they
- Use uppercase letters for the first are difficult to read and will appear
letter to your audience that you are
- Leave space between the lines of yelling)
text - Don't use abbreviations
- Use statements, not sentences - Don't use punctuation marks for
- Use keywords to help the audience bulleted items
focus on your message
Noise Effects Noise Effects
- Use sounds to help convey, - Don't use sounds when they aren't
complement, or enhance the appropriate
message - Sounds can be distracting and can
make your presentation less
effective
Color Color
- Limit the use of color to 2 to 4 - Don't have multiple color schemes
colors/shades - Don't use dark colors on a dark
- Use colors that will stand out and background (red, blue, and black
will be easy on the eyes (dark should not be used together as text
backgrounds and light text is best) and background)
- Remember, the colors projected
from a data projector will look
different than the colors on your
computer screen
Images and Shapes Images and Shapes
- Include images that make the issue - Don't use too many graphics (can
you are presenting more true to life, be distracting)
so your audience will understand - Don't use low-quality images
and identify with it (images should not be pixilated)
- Only include 1 to 2 images per slide (Pixilated images appear
- Use shapes to illustrate complex unprofessional)
topics

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Graphs and Charts Graphs and Charts


- Include graphs and charts that - Avoid meaningless graphs that are
show relationships, comparisons, difficult to read
and change
- Illustrate your point
by verbally
discussing the
graph or chart

Transitions Transitions
- Use transitions to help your - Avoid flashy transitions (too much
presentation make more of an movement will distract your
impact by varying the way one audience)
slide replaces another - Avoid using random slide transitions
- Keep transitions to a minimum
- Use the same transition or a
variation of the transition
Practice Your Presentation Practice Your Presentation
- Use a data projector to view your - Don't read your material directly
presentation: from the screen (use the slides as
- Is it easy to read the text? prompts, outlines, or conversation
- Is the amount of information on points, not cue cards)
each slide kept to a minimum? - Don't leave all the lights on in the
- Are there any distracting elements? room (be sure people can actually
- Ask others for feedback see the screen)

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MICROSOFT PUBLISHER

Microsoft Publisher is a desktop publishing application from Microsoft,


differing from Microsoft Word in that the emphasis is placed on page layout and
design rather than text composition and proofing.

GENERAL
Open a Publication Ctrl + O
Create New Ctrl + N
Save a Publication Ctrl + S
Print a Publication Ctrl + P
Close a Publication Ctrl + W
Help F1
EDITING
Select All Ctrl + A
Cut Ctrl + X
Copy Ctrl + C
Paste Ctrl + V
Undo Ctrl + Z
Redo Ctrl + Y

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Check Spelling F7
FORMATTING
Bold Ctrl + B
Italic Ctrl + I
Underline Ctrl + U
Alight Left Ctrl + L
Center Ctrl + E
Alight Right Ctrl + R
Justify Ctrl + J
Increase Font Size Ctrl + ]
Decrease Font Size Ctrl + [
NAVIGATION and LAY-OUT
Zoom to Full Page Ctrl + Shift + L
Toggle Between Current F9
and Full Page View
Go To Page F5
Next Page Ctrl + Page Down
Previous Page Ctrl + Page Up
Insert New Page Ctrl + Shift + N
Insert Duplicate Page Ctrl + Shift + U
Show/Hide Layout Guides Ctrl + Shift + O
Switch to Master Page Ctrl + M
Beginning of Line Home
End of Line End

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