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School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

Experiment No. 2

BERMAS, Jon Dean C. February 21, 2019
ME139L / B1 March 7, 2019
Group No. 1

Engr. Teodulo A. Valle




A. Objectives 1
B. Theory & Principle 1
C. List of Apparatus 3
D. Procedure 7
E. Set-up of Apparatus 8
F. Final Data Sheet 9
G. Test Data Analysis 10
H. Questions and Answers 12
I. Conclusion 13
J. References 14
K. Preliminary Data Sheet 15

1. To be able to determine the melting point of grease.


Specifications designating the flash and fire points of an oil have been handed
down through the trade from years ago and continue to be entered on many oil
specifications. The flash and fire temperatures were used to check the fire hazard
involved in storage and shipping of oils, and this should be their principal use today.
The flash point of oil when considered in connection with knowledge of the crude
from which it was distilled may serve as an indicator of its volatility. The flash point
indicates the temperature at which an oil fives off vapors in such proportion that with
air they from an inflammable mixture. It should be noted that lubricating oil will not
flash or burn spontaneously until it is heated to a temperature considerably above its
fire point.

The flash point of a flammable liquid is the lowest temperature at which it can
form an ignitable mixture with oxygen. At this temperature the vapor may cease to
burn when the source of ignition is removed. A slightly higher temperature, the fire
point, is defined at which the vapor continues to burn after being ignited. Neither of
these parameters is related to the temperatures of the ignition source or of the burning
liquid, which are much higher. The flash point is also used to describe liquids that are
not used intentionally as fuels.

Since lubricating oil can oxidize, so can the base oil is grease. When the grease
oxidizes, it usually darkens; there is a build-up of acidic oxidation products, just as in
other lubrications. These products can have a destructive effect on the thickener,
causing softening, oil bleeding, and leakage. Because grease does not conduct heat

easily, serious oxidation can begin at a hot point and spread slowly through the grease.
This produces carbonization and progressive hardening or crust formation. All things
considered the effects of oxidation are more harmful in grease than in oil.

The rate of oxidation is mainly dependent on the temperature. Here it is good

to understand that if soap-based grease is heated, its penetration increases only very
slowly until a certain critical temperature is reached. At this point the gel structures
breaks down, and the whole grease becomes liquid. The critical temperature is called
the drop point.

Grease, when heated above its drop point and then allowed to cool it usually
does not fully regain its grease-like consistency, and its performance subsequently
will be unsatisfactory. Therefore, it follows that at no time should the drop point be
exceeded. The problem with multi-purpose greases is that at least one of the agents
will exceed its drop point thus adversely affecting the saponification process. Grease
has a maximum temperature at which it can safely be used. Therefore, it follows that
it must also have a minimum temperature. This minimum temperature is the point
where the grease becomes too hard for the bearing, or other greased component, to
be used. Again, the base oil of the grease determines the minimum temperature.
Obviously, the base oil of the grease for low-temperature service must be made from
oils having a low viscosity at that temperature.

1. Bunsen Burner

2. Thermometer

3. Graduated Cylinder

4. Tripod

5. Test Tube

6. Grease Cup

7. Beaker

8. Test Tube Holder

9. Wire Gauze


11.Stop watch



1. Get a small amount of multi-purpose grease NLGI 3 and place it in a grease

2. Place the grease cup inside the test tube.
3. Insert the thermometer with cork inside the test tube.
4. Placing the tip of the thermometer directly touching the grease.
5. Put the cooking oil in the beaker.
6. Place the beaker on the tripod with wire gauze.
7. Submerge the test tube in the beaker with edible oil.
8. Light up the Bunsen burner and start heating the set-up.
9. Wait until the grease melts and drop.
10.Record the time and temperature.
11.Repeat the above procedure using multi- purpose lithium grease 3.

1. Grease Drop Test

In the grease drop test, a sample was first poured in a test tube and a
thermometer was inserted in the tube. The grease was heated through the use of a
Bunsen burner. When it melted, the temperature was recorded.


Melting Point
SN Type of Grease
Temperature (oC) Time (min)
1-10 Multi-purpose 84 24:38
Lithium Grease 3
11-20 Multi-purpose 184 11:10
Grease NLGI-3


There are many occasions where an oil designed to lubricate a machine

surface will not stay in place long enough to efficiently perform its key
responsibility. For those occasions, manufacturers rely on the use of grease. A grease
is formed by thickening the oil with one of several types of gelling or thickening
agents that make the oil stiff. A grease must do two things effectively to be useful.
First, the grease must stay in place. Secondly, following staying put, the grease must
gradually release the reservoir of oil into the loaded components so that the oil and
additives can do their respective jobs. Thickness, or stiffness, is an important
property of grease. It relates to one of the two main functions of the lubricant: its
ability to remain in a given place.

Grease stiffness is measured in the laboratory by a test such as ASTM D217.

This requires equipment and experience that are not generally at hand in a plant
environment. The same is true for measuring an oil’s consistency or viscosity (see
ASTM D445). Measuring viscosity in a plant is made simple by using a viscosity
gauge (see the EPRI NMAC Lubrication Guide, Rev. 3, page 5-4). Measuring grease
thickness in-plant also uses simple equipment, though a bit more involved than the
viscosity gauge because greases are more complex in nature. This article discusses
how to set up and run these simple grease tests.

Limit torque motor-operated valve actuators are used widely in nuclear power
generation. Certain greases tend to harden in use and, if this proceeds far enough,
can interfere with equipment function. For this reason, maintenance procedures
specify the grease hardness that dictates lubricant change out. This change out is not
time-dependent and should be made only when demonstrated that it is required. It is

necessary to monitor the thickness of greases in service in the main gearbox in order
to determine when the lubricant has to be changed.

The inspection method was developed primarily for that application, and to
provide a simple yet adequately accurate method through which this can be
accomplished onsite. The method can also be useful to perform quality checks on
new greases and those that have been in storage for a prolonged period of time.

The result shows that the Multi-purpose lithium grease 3 needs higher
temperature and longer time in order to melt if compared to the multi-purpose grease
NLGI 3 which melted at a short period of time. The melting point is important
parameter to consider, at a condition when it exceeds, the oil once cooled will not
fully regain its same characteristics and properties as before. Furthermore,
the dropping point of a soap-thickened lubricating grease is the temperature at
which it passes from a semi-solid to a liquid state under specific test conditions. It is
an indication of the type of thickener used, and a measure of the cohesiveness of the
oil and thickener of grease.


1. Distinguish between flash and fire points of a lubricating oil.

Flash point is the lowest temperature of lubricant at which the fluid
gives off sufficient vapor that ignites for a moment, when flame is brought
near it. While on the other hand, fire point is the lowest temperature if
lubricant which the fluid gives off sufficient vapor that burn or ignites
continuously for at least five seconds, when a flame is brought nears it.
2. Why is it necessary to correct for temperature variations in the specific
gravity test?
Specific gravity must always be referenced to a particular temperature
reading because it is temperature dependent. The specific gravity of fluid
increases when its temperature is lowered or decreases when its temperature
3. Define the term pour point.
Pour point is the lowest temperature at which a lubricating oil or fluid
will flow under standardized conditions.
4. Define the term cloud point.
Cloud point is the temperature of a fluid at which soluble substances or
solutes that are dissolved become no longer soluble. They precipitate which
results to a cloudy appearance of the fluid.
5. Based on the PSME code, what type of lubricants when used will have a
flash point which will give an indication of dilution?
When the flash point of a known lubricant is different from the standard
conditions, this indicates that the fluid is diluted.


The group was successful in performing the experiment. We have been able
to do a grease drop test wherein the temperature and time for the sample greases to
melt is recorded. We did test for the National Multi-Purpose Lithium Grease 3 and
the time it took to melt was 24 minutes and 38 seconds. The Sure Multi-Purpose
Grease NLGI-3 took 11 minute and 10 seconds to melt. Bearing that result, The
Multi-Purpose Lithium Grease 3 has better qualities than the Multi-Purpose Grease
NLGI 3. We can conclude that it is better to use Multi-Purpose Lithium Grease 3
because it can withstand higher temperature before failing to do its purpose.