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Introducción: Tórax

Dra. Viridiana Contreras Villarreal


R. De la Cruz
Regiones Externas R. Dorsal
R. Costal
R. Costosubescapular
R. Esternal
R. Axilar

R. Subdorsal
Regiones Internas R. Supraesternal
R. De la Entrada del Torax
R. Diafragmatica
R. Mediastinica
R. Pulmonar
Frontoscutularis m.

Superficial gluteal fascia

Cutaneus colli m.

Omobrachial part of cutaneus trunci m.

Fascia lata

Cutaneus trunci m.
Crural fascia

Antebrachial fascia
HORSE

DOG
HORSE
DOG
HORSE

DOG
HORSE

DOG
7th thoracic vertebra

Dorsal branch
External intercostal
Lateral cutaneous branch

Internal intercostal

Dorsal intercostal artery


Aorta

Lateral cutaneous
branch

Ventral intercostal branches

Perforating branch
Internal intercostal
Internal thoracic artery

Fig. 3-5 Intercostal arteries as seen within rib cage.


rd and fourth
ervertebral fo- Dorsal branch
and the omo-
Spinal branch
identify each
to do so. Lateral cutaneous
branch
s and sterno-
d reflect them Lateral cutaneous
a, larynx, thy- branch Aorta
sheath are ex- Dorsal intercostal artery
our specimen.
sal to the ster-
ide is the va-
dial retropha- External intercostal
) lies opposite muscle
d sheath. Ventral intercostal branch
Internal intercostal
muscle Internal thoracic artery
Transversus thoracis
muscle

Perforating branch
s and vessels, Fig. 3-4 Schematic transection of thoracic wall to show
show the pat- distribution of an intercostal artery.
es. Notice that
Intercostal artery
Dorsal scapular artery
Dorsal branch
Thoracic vertebral artery Spinal branch
Left bronchoesophageal branch
Deep cervical artery

Costocervical trunk

Vertebral artery

Aorta

Left common
carotid artery
Esophagus
Left caudal
thyroid artery Caudal vena cava

First intercostal Phrenic artery


artery

Phrenic nerve

Superficial
cervical artery Diaphragm

Axillary artery

External
thoracic artery

Left subclavian artery

Pericardiacophrenic artery

Brachiocephalic trunk Thymus Heart

Left internal thoracic artery Mediastinal


branch
Pulmonary trunk

Perforating branch

Fig. 3-16 Arteries of thorax, left lateral view.


Right bronchoesophageal branch
Dorsal branch Spinal branch Dorsal scapular artery
Intercostal artery Thoracic vertebral artery

Deep cervical artery


Esophageal
branch Costocervical trunk

Azygos vein
Vertebral artery
Aorta

Right caudal
thyroid artery
Esophagus
Right common
carotid artery
Phrenic nerve

First intercostal artery

Superficial cervical artery

Right subclavian artery

Axillary artery

Musculophrenic External thoracic artery


artery
Pericardiacophrenic artery

Branch to thymus
Cranial Thymus
epigastric artery Heart Brachiocephalic trunk

Internal Perforating branch, intercostal artery


Phrenic artery
thoracic artery
Diaphragm Caudal vena cava

Fig. 3-14 Arteries of thorax, right lateral view.


HORSE

DOG
HORSE DOG
HORSE

HORSE

DOG
Internal carotid a.

1st thoracic vertebra


Sacrum 18th rib
Ureters Right azygous v.
Right kidney

Bulbourethral

4th costal cartilage

Right ventricle

Right lobe Left ventricle


of liver
Quadrate lobe
of liver
Internal carotid a.
Transverse facial cervical a.
Nuchal ligament:
Funicular part
part
Infraorbital a.
Left ovary and uterine tube
Left kidney Left uterine horn
Uterine body
Rectum
Vagina

Common carotid a.
Masseteric branch of
external carotid a. Brachiocephalic trunk
Pelvic symphysis
Subclavian a. and v.
Urinary bladder
Pulmonary trunk
Right auricle
Left auricle
Right ventricle
Left ventricle
Caudal vena cava
Arterias
Caudal auricular

Internal carotid
Transverse facial
Vertebral

Costocervical trunk Ovarian (testicular)


Renal
Cranial mesenteric
Deep circumflex iliac
Internal pudendal

Cranial gluteal

Caudal gluteal

Obturator
External iliac
Superficial cervical
Left subclavian Medial circumflex femoral
Lf------,f---t -- --v--+-- Pudendoepigastric trunk

External thoracic
femoral
Pulmonary trunk

Brachial Intercostals
Cranial epigastric Caudal
Transverse cubital
H .....+---+-Caudal tibial
Common interosseous Lateral circumflex
femoral
* __-\,- Palmar branch
of median a.

1IIJ-- \ - - - \ ' - Medial palmar


_ _-\_-\r-_Medial and lateral Medial and lateral
Medial dorsal metacarpal palmar metacarpal plantar metatarsals
Lateral dorsal
metatarsal Distal perforating branch

Terminal arch
Venas
auricular

Transverse facial

Deep facial
Internal iliac
Buccal

Cranial

External iliac I

Obturator
External jugular
Deep femoral

Pudendoepigastric
External pudendal -+..If------\--'H-\----\,---:..-R

Femoral
Caudal femoral
thoracic
Medial saphenous--+-----+--+1l--1

Lateral saphenous - - + - - -- i'-JrlI

Cranial superficial
Caudal branch
epigastric
medial saphenous
Caudal tibial

Cranial tibial
Superficial thoracic
Dorsal common digital ;-rrM--H,H Cranial branch
medial saphenous Ulnar
Median

1fH---f--Lateral palmar
Plantar common riinit"II--+i
11h--H---Medial palmar
Sistema Linfatico Lateral retropharyngeal Inn

Medial retropharyngeal Inn Parotid Inn

Lumbar trunk Tracheobronchial Inn

Caudal mesenteric Inn

Sacral Inn

Middle deep cervical Inn

Superficial cervical Inn

Right tracheal trunk

Caudal deep cervical Inn

Ventral thoracic Inn

Axillary Inn
Sistema Nervioso Central
Cerebellum

Cervical
Olfactory
Subscapular
Optic

Caudal rectal

Pudendal

Sciatic Infraorbital

Obturator

Tibial ------1f-------\iIr¥--I1

Common peroneal - -+-------'k--'rr\\

Caudal cutaneous - -+- - - -'1--1:--111/ Ulnar


sural
Lateral cutaneous antebrachial

1Hf-+---I'--- Superficial peroneal


Caudal cutaneous
IHI-fH' - - - i - - Deep peroneal antebrachial ",.--Medial cutaneous antebrachial
Ulnar - -+--+JI
Lateral plantar ----1;- --l-H
Dorsal branch --f------lII
Iffr---f--Medial dorsal metatarsal of ulnar

Lateral palmar - +------lL..JI1


-\---t-- Lateral dorsal metatarsal

Medial plantar---llH\ IIU'H -t--Communicating branch


Medial plantar digital

Lateral plantar I\-----\---Medial palmar digital


Dorsal branch of Lateral palmar digital
lateral plantar digital branch of
lateral palmar digital
Sistema Nervioso Autonomo

1r
oculomotor
trigeminal
facial
Parasympathetic cranial outflow glossopharyngeal
Brain accessory
Spinal cord vagus

Cranial cervical ganglion - - f i -=¥-,,,, Sympathetic thoracic outflow


(sympathetic)

Parasympathetic sacral outflow

Parasympathetic
pelvic nerves

Sympathetic trunk

Vertebral n.
(sympathetic)

Large sympathetic ganglia

Sympathetic nerves to thoracic organs

Parasympathetic nerves (vagal) to thoracic organs


R. Lateral cutaneo
Ramas dorsales de nervios torácicos de nervio
iliohipogástrico

R. dorsales de nervios lumbares

R. Lateral de
R.ventrales de nervios nervio ilioinguinal
torácicos
R. laterales de nervios
Nervio torácicos
Supraclavicular

R. ventrales de nervios
intercostales
1- Ligamento supraespinoso 24- V. Acigoz / N.
2-Proceso espino T5 Vago
3-T6 25- Aorta
4- M. Trapecio 26- Esofago / N.
5-M. Romboideo Vago
6-M. Espinal 27- N. Linfaticos
7-L. Interespinoso traqueobronqueales
8-M. Longisimo cervical
9-M. Multifido toracico 28- N. Vago
10- C. Escapula 29- Bifurcación
11-M. Longisimo toracico de la traquea
12-M. Cutaneo 30- A. pulmonar
13-M. Latissimus dorsi derecha
14-M. Serrato dorsal 31- A. Pulmonar
15- M. Iliocostal toracico izq. / V. Pulmonar
16-M. Intercostales externos 32- Auricula izq.
17- V. Toracica externa
18- M. Pectoral ascendente 33 / 35- Ventrículos
/ 5º costilla 34- Septum
19- C. Costal / M. Toracico interventricular
transverso 36-Pericardio
20- C. Costal (6) / M. Recto
37- A. coronarias /
abdominal
N. Frenico
21- Esternón
22- 6º costilla / Tronco 38- M. Intercostal
simpatico interno / A.V.
23- M. Largo del cuello / intercostal
ducto toracico (S. Linfático) 39- V. Cava caudal
urth
l fo- Dorsal branch
omo-
Spinal branch
each
Lateral cutaneous
branch
erno-
hem Lateral cutaneous
thy- branch Aorta
e ex- Dorsal intercostal artery
men.
ster-
e va-
pha- External intercostal
osite muscle
Ventral intercostal branch
Internal intercostal
muscle Internal thoracic artery
Transversus thoracis
muscle

Perforating branch
sels, Fig. 3-4 Schematic transection of thoracic wall to show
pat- distribution of an intercostal artery.
7th thoracic vertebra

Dorsal branch
External intercostal
Lateral cutaneous branch

Internal intercostal

Dorsal intercostal artery


Aorta

Lateral cutaneous
branch

Ventral intercostal branches

Perforating branch
Internal intercostal
Internal thoracic artery

Fig. 3-5 Intercostal arteries as seen within rib cage.


intercostal Internal intercostal racic mammary glands. The dorsal
Medial branch the artery and nerve of and
artery eachveinintercostal space
pass ventrally, whered
Spinal cord vide into dorsal and
Transversus thoracis tomose with branches.
ventral ventral intercostal
The dorsbra
Thoracic nerve
the internal thoracic artery and vein.
branches enter the tral
epaxial muscles.
aspect of The space,
each intercostal vent
Lateral branch Ventral cutaneous branches descend in the intercostal
branches of the internalspaces
thoracic alo
ves
branch
the caudal border ofand supply cutaneous structures and
each rib. The dorsal and ve
Fig. 3-6 Schema of a thoracic spinal nerve. mammary glands. The dorsal and ve
Lateral tral arterial branches are derived
branches are derived from
from the dors
the spinal
cutaneous (Figs. from
intercostal arteries emerges 3-4,the 3-5). The first
intervertebral thr
forame
Dorsal branch Ramus communicans
branch
Ventral branch
to sympathetic trunk dorsal intercostal arteries come from a branch
the costocervical trunk; the remaining nine com
Intercostal nerve
Lateral from the aorta. The dorsal intercostal arter
Thoracic nerve, cutaneous branch
and intercostal artery and vein,
cutaneous andbranches
lateral cutaneous veins have lateral
Cutaneus trunci cutaneous branches th
branch
perforate the intercostal and adjacent muscles
External
supply cutaneous structures, including the th
intercostal Internal intercostal racic mammary glands. The dorsal intercos
artery and vein pass ventrally, where they ana
Subscapular artery and vein,
Transversus thoracis tomose with ventral intercostal cutaneous branches branches fro

the internal thoracic artery and vein. At the ve


tral aspect of each intercostal space, perforati
Ventral cutaneous branches of the internal thoracic vessels emer
branch and supply cutaneous structures and the thora
Fig. 3-6 Schema of a thoracic spinal nerve. mammary glands. The dorsal and ventral ner
branches are derived from the spinal nerve
Intercostobrachial
nerve, 2nd as
intercostal
emerges from the intervertebral foramen
Superficial cranial
(Fig. 3-
nerve, lateral
cutaneous branch
epigastric artery and vein
Intercostal nerve,
lateral cutaneous branch Lateral thoracic artery, vein and nerve

Perforating branches of internal thoracic


Thoracic nerve, cutaneous branch artery, vein and intercostal nerve,
ventral cutaneous branch
and intercostal artery and vein,
lateral cutaneous branches CutaneusFig.
trunci
3-7 Superficial vessels and nerves of thorax, right lateral view.
Brachiocephalicus

Sternocephalicus

Superficial cervical
lymph nodes

Ascending branches

Trapezius Common carotid artery

Prescapular branch Superficial cervical vein

Supraspinatus External jugular vein

Omotransversarius Superficial cervical artery

Acromial branch
Deep pectoral

Suprascapular artery
Deltoideus branch
Deltoideus
Superficial pectoral
Omobrachial vein
Brachiocephalicus
Axillobrachial vein

Cephalic vein

Fig. 3-26 Branches of superficial cervical artery.


2. The lateral thoracic artery (Figs. 3-7, 3-28, The caudal circumflex humeral artery (Fig
3-29) runs caudally across the lateral surface of 3-3, 3-28, 3-29) leaves the subscapular opposit
the axillary lymph node and along the dorsal bor- the thoracodorsal and courses laterally betwee
der of the deep pectoral ventral to the latissimus the head of the humerus and the teres major. Pu

Axillary artery and vein Subscapularis Teres major

Suprascapular artery and vein

External thoracic artery


Thoracodorsal artery and vein
Coracobrachialis

Caudal circumflex humeral artery


Subscapular artery and vein
Lateral thoracic artery and vein
Latissimus dorsi
Cranial circumflex
humeral artery and vein Brachial artery and vein

Deep brachial artery and vein

Biceps

Bicipital artery and vein


Collateral ulnar artery and vein

Fig. 3-28 Vessels of right axillary region, medial view.


To deep pectoral
Subscapularis
C-6
To phrenic nerve C-7 C-8 Axillary nerve
T-1
Subscapular nerve To deep pectoral
Suprascapular nerve To subscapularis and teres major
To brachiocephalicus Radial nerve
To superficial pectoral Teres major
Supraspinatus Thoracodorsal nerve

Musculocutaneous nerve Median and ulnar nerve

To coracobrachialis Lateral thoracic nerve

Axillary artery Latissimus dorsi

Coracobrachialis
To triceps, long head, and
Cranial circumflex humeral artery tensor fasciae antebrachii

Brachial artery Tensor fasciae antebrachii

To biceps brachii Ulnar nerve


Triceps, accessory head Median nerve
Deep brachial artery
Triceps, long head
Biceps brachii
Triceps, medial head

Caudal cutaneous
antebrachial nerve
Collateral ulnar artery

Superficial brachial artery

Superficial radial nerve, medial branch Communicating branch

Extensor carpi radialis Articular branch


Medial cutaneous antebrachial nerve
Flexor carpi ulnaris
Pronator teres

Flexor carpi radialis Superficial digital flexor

Fig. 3-27 Brachial plexus, right thoracic limb, medial aspect.


Parietal pleura
Falciform ligament
Diaphragm

Visceral
pleura

Right lung

Visceral
peritoneum

Parietal peritoneum

Pericardium
Pericardial
pleura
Xiphoid cartilage

Sternal part of diaphragm

Costal cartilages

Central tendon of diaphragm

Caval foramen
Esophageal hiatus
(esophagus and
Costal part of diaphragm vagal trunks)

Aortic hiatus (aorta, azygos


vein, and thoracic duct) 13th rib

Lumbocostal arch
1st lumbar vertebra

Left crus
Right crus

Psoas major
4th lumbar vertebra

Fig. 4-15 Diaphragm, abdominal view.


part
Espacio medio de la caja torácica, entre las dos pleuras, la columna vertebral
y el esternón.

Common carotid a.
ch of
. Brachiocephalic trunk

Subclavian a. and v.
Mediastino craneal o pre-cardial
Pulmonary trunk
Mediastino medial o peri-cardial
Mediastino caudal Right auricle
o post-cardial
Left auricle
Right ventricle
Left ventricle
2nd thoracic vertebra

Longus colli muscle


Esophagus

Trachea
Left subclavian artery
Cranial vena cava
A
Brachiocephalic trunk Right lung, cranial lobe

Pulmonary pleura
Pleural cavity

Parietal costal pleura

Thymus
Parietal mediastinal pleura

3rd sternebra Cranial mediastinum

Fig. 3-8 A, Schematic transverse section of thorax through cranial mediastinum, caudal view.
4. Right cranial lobe 8. Left subclavian artery

Aorta 6th thoracic vertebra

Dorsal mediastinum Azygos vein

Caudal lobe Esophagus

Left pulmonary ligament


Caudal lobe

Middle mediastinum
Accessory lobe

Left lung, caudal


part of cranial lobe Caudal vena cava

A
Pulmonary pleura Plica venae cavae

Parietal serous pericardium Pulmonary pleura

Fibrous pericardium Right lung, middle lobe


Heart

Pericardial Parietal costal pleura


mediastinal pleura
5th rib
Visceral serous pericardium
(epicardium)
Ventral mediastinum
Pericardial cavity
Sternum, 5th segment

Fig. 3-9 A, Schematic transverse section of thorax through heart, caudal view.
(Continued)
Right and left common carotid arteries
Right external jugular vein Costocervical trunk
Superficial cervical artery
Right subclavian artery Axillary artery
Internal thoracic artery
Superfricial cervical vein Vertebral artery
Cephalic vein Left tracheal trk.
Internal jugular vein Subclavian vein
Brachiocephalic trunk Left brachiocephalic vein
Subclavian vein Thoracic duct
Left subclavian artery
Caudal thyroid vein
Left costocervical vein
Right brachiocephalic vein
Aortic arch
Internal thoracic vein
Ligamentum arteriosum
Right costocervical vein
Cranial vena cava Pulmonary trunk
Left coronary artery

Left auricle
Right auricle

Right ventricle
Paraconal
interventricular branch

Right coronary artery

Left ventricle
Hepatic veins

Caudal vena cava

Thoracic aorta

Fig. 3-17 Heart and great vessels, ventral view.


9 10
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
C8
1 11

C7

C5

31
C6 12
30
13
29
14

T1 15

28 16

17

27
LV
RV
26

18
25
24
23
22
21
20 19

Fig. 3-20 Thoracic autonomic nerves, left lateral view, lung removed.
1. Vertebral artery and nerve 16. Accessory lobe of lung (through caudal mediastinum)
2. Communicating rami from cervicothoracic ganglion to 17. Phrenic nerve to diaphragm
ventral branches of cervical and thoracic nerves 18. Paraconal interventricular a., v., and groove
3. Left cervicothoracic ganglion 19. Pulmonary trunk
4. Ansa subclavia 20. Internal thoracic artery and vein
5. Left subclavian artery 21. Brachiocephalic trunk
6. Left vagus nerve 22. Cardiac autonomic nerves
7. Left recurrent laryngeal nerve 23. Thymus
8. Left tracheobronchial lymph node 24. Cranial vena cava
9. Sympathetic trunk ganglion 25. Middle cervical ganglion
10. Sympathetic trunk 26. Left subclavian vein
11. Ramus communicans 27. Costocervical trunk
12. Aorta 28. External jugular vein
13. Dorsal branch of vagus nerve 29. Vagosympathetic trunk
14. Esophagus 30. Common carotid artery
15. Ventral trunk of vagus nerve 31. Longus colli muscle
Right kidney
Localización del corazón:
en la mayoría de las especies se encuentra entre el 2º y 3º EIC, hasta el 5º o 6º EIC.

4th co

Right ve

Right lobe Left ventricle


of liver
94 SECTION 1 The dog and cat

Nasal cavity
VetBooks.ir

Costal arch
Larynx

Nostril
Anatomía Topográfica
Tronco

Trachea

Lung

Median line
of diaphragm

Fig. 8.4 Diagram illustrating the trachea and lung positions.

Term
Trachea Dra. Viridiana Contreras Villarreal
Trachea
Walls of the
thoracic cavity Mediastinum

Pulmonary
pleura –
visceral pleura
Anatomía Topográfica

Bronchioles
Bronchus Alveolar duct

Mediastinal
Tronco

pleura

Costal pleura –
parietal pleura

Pleural cavity
or sac
Thoracic cavity
Lung tissue

(A) Diaphragmatic pleura


(B)

Fig. 8.5 The lungs within the thoracic cavity. (A) The pleural membranes. (B) The
Dra. Viridiana terminal Villarreal
Contreras air passages.
Bovino Equino

Felino Canino Porcino