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EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 13108-20

NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM January 2006

ICS 93.080.20

English Version

Bituminous mixtures - Material specifications - Part 20: Type


Testing

Mélanges bitumineux - Spécifications des matériaux - Asphaltmischgut - Mischgutanforderungen - Teil 20:


Partie 20: Épreuve de formulation Erstprüfung

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 12 October 2005.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European
Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national
standards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation
under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official
versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION


COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2006 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 13108-20:2006: E
worldwide for CEN national Members.
EN 13108-20:2006 (E)

Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................4
Introduction......................................................................................................................................................5
1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................6
2 Normative references .........................................................................................................................6
3 Terms and definitions.........................................................................................................................8
4 Requirements ......................................................................................................................................8
4.1 Type Testing........................................................................................................................................8
4.2 Validity .................................................................................................................................................9
5 Constituent materials .........................................................................................................................9
6 Mixed asphalt ....................................................................................................................................10
6.1 General ..............................................................................................................................................10
6.2 Application ........................................................................................................................................10
6.3 Sampling and testing........................................................................................................................10
6.4 Mixed asphalt composition ..............................................................................................................10
6.5 Mixed asphalt sample preparation...................................................................................................10
7 Type Test report ................................................................................................................................11
7.1 General ..............................................................................................................................................11
7.2 Constituents ......................................................................................................................................11
7.3 Mix formulation .................................................................................................................................12
7.4 Temperatures ....................................................................................................................................12
7.5 Test results........................................................................................................................................12
Annex A (normative) Summary of properties and test methods for constituent materials ....................13
Annex B (normative) Summary of properties and test methods for bituminous mixtures .....................14
B.1 Asphalt Concrete (EN 13108-1) ........................................................................................................14
B.2 Very Thin Asphalt Concrete (EN 13108-2) .......................................................................................15
B.3 Soft Asphalt (EN 13108-3).................................................................................................................16
B.4 Hot Rolled Asphalt (EN 13108-4)......................................................................................................17
B.5 Stone Mastic Asphalt (EN 13108-5)..................................................................................................17
B.6 Mastic asphalt (EN 13108-6) .............................................................................................................18
B.7 Porous Asphalt (EN 13108-7) ...........................................................................................................19
Annex C (normative) Methods of sample preparation ...............................................................................20
C.1 General ..............................................................................................................................................20
C.2 Compaction energy...........................................................................................................................20
C.3 Reference density .............................................................................................................................20
C.4 Compaction degree...........................................................................................................................21
C.5 Void content ......................................................................................................................................21
Annex D (normative) Test procedures and conditions ..............................................................................23
D.1 Test procedures and conditions ......................................................................................................23
D.2 Bulk density, maximum density, void content and voids filled with bitumen ..............................23
D.3 Water sensitivity................................................................................................................................23
D.4 Resistance to abrasion by studded tyres .......................................................................................23
D.5 Bitumen aggregate affinity ...............................................................................................................23
D.6 Resistance to permanent deformation by wheel-tracking test......................................................24
D.7 Resistance to permanent deformation - Deformation strain in triaxial compression..................24
D.8 Stiffness.............................................................................................................................................25
D.9 Fatigue ...............................................................................................................................................25
D.10 Marshall test for application on airfields.........................................................................................25

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EN 13108-20:2006 (E)

D.11 Resistance to fuel for application on airfields ................................................................................26


D.12 Resistance to de-icing fluid for application on airfields ................................................................26
D.13 Binder drainage.................................................................................................................................26
D.14 Indentation and resistance to permanent deformation of mastic asphalt....................................26
D.15 Permeability.......................................................................................................................................26
D.16 Particle loss of porous asphalt ........................................................................................................26
Annex E (informative) Special requirements for airfields..........................................................................27

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EN 13108-20:2006 (E)

Foreword
This European Standard (EN 13108-20:2006) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 227
“Road materials”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical
text or by endorsement, at the latest by July 2006, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the
latest by January 2008.

This European Standard is one of a series of standards as listed below:

EN 13108-1, Bituminous mixtures  Material specifications  Part 1: Asphalt Concrete.

EN 13108-2, Bituminous mixtures  Material specifications  Part 2: Asphalt Concrete for very thin layers.

EN 13108-3, Bituminous mixtures  Material specifications  Part 3: Soft Asphalt.

EN 13108-4, Bituminous mixtures  Material specifications  Part 4: Hot Rolled Asphalt.

EN 13108-5, Bituminous mixtures  Material specifications  Part 5: Stone Mastic Asphalt.

EN 13108-6, Bituminous mixtures  Material specifications  Part 6: Mastic Asphalt.

EN 13108-7, Bituminous mixtures  Material specifications  Part 7: Porous Asphalt.

EN 13108-8, Bituminous mixtures  Material specifications  Part 8: Reclaimed asphalt.

EN 13108-20, Bituminous mixtures  Material specifications  Part 20: Type Testing.

EN 13108-21, Bituminous mixtures  Material specifications  Part 21: Factory Production Control.

No existing European Standard is directly superseded although EN 12697-9 is now redundant.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following
countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland
and United Kingdom.

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EN 13108-20:2006 (E)

Introduction
This European Standard for Type Testing has been written as part of the system for the Evaluation of
Conformity of asphalt mixtures. It is designed to be used in conjunction with the product standards EN 13108-
1 to -7 and is called up by these standards as part of Evaluation of conformity. The Type Testing procedures
have the function of providing assurance that a particular mix formulation complies with each of the specified
requirements in the product standard. The Type Testing procedure is designed to be applied to all harmonised
elements of harmonised European Standards for bituminous mixtures whether or not regulatory marking is to
be applied. The system can also be extended to non-harmonised elements.

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EN 13108-20:2006 (E)

1 Scope
This European Standard specifies Type Testing procedures for use for the validation of bituminous mixtures
for use in roads, airfields and other trafficked areas.

2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this European Standard. For
dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced
document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 933-1, Test for geometrical properties of aggregates — Part 1: Determination of particle size distribution
— Sieving method

EN 933-10, Test for geometrical properties of aggregates — Part 10: Assessment of fines — Grading of fillers
(air jet sieving)

EN 1097-6, Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates — Part 6: Determination of particle
density and water absorption

EN 1097-7, Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates — Part 7: Determination of the
particle density of filler — Pyknometer method

EN 1426, Bitumen and bituminous binders — Determination of needle penetration

EN 1427, Bitumen and bituminous binders — Determination of the softening point — Ring and ball method

EN 12595, Bitumen and bituminous binders — Determination of kinematic viscosity

EN 12596, Bitumen and bituminous binders — Determination of dynamic viscosity by vacuum capillary

EN 12697-1, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 1: Soluble binder content

EN 12697-2, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 2: Determination of particle size
distribution

EN 12697-3, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 3: Bitumen recovery: Rotary
evaporator

EN 12697-4, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 4: Bitumen recovery:
Fractionating column

EN 12697-5, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 5: Determination of the
maximum density

EN 12697-6, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 6: Determination of bulk density
of bituminous specimen

EN 12697-7, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 7: Determination of bulk density
of bituminous specimens by gamma rays

EN 12697-8, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 8: Determination of void
characteristics of bituminous specimens

EN 12697-11, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 11: Determination of the
affinity between aggregate and bitumen

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EN 13108-20:2006 (E)

EN 12697-12, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 12: Determination of the water
sensitivity of bituminous specimens

EN 12697-16, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 16: Abrasion by studded tyres

EN 12697-17, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 17: Particle loss of porous
asphalt specimen

EN 12697-18, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 18: Binder drainage

EN 12697-19, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 19: Permeability of specimen

EN 12697-20, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 20: Indentation using cube or
Marshall specimens

EN 12697-21, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 21: Indentation using plate
specimens

EN 12697-22, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 22: Wheel tracking

EN 12697-24:2004, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 24: Resistance to fatigue

EN 12697-25, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 25: Cyclic compression test

EN 12697-26, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 26: Stiffness

EN 12697-30, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 30: Specimen preparation by
impact compactor

EN 12697-31, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 31: Specimen preparation by
gyrator compactor

EN 12697-32, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 32: Laboratory compaction of
bituminous mixtures by vibratory compactor

EN 12697-34, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 34: Marshall test

EN 12697-35, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 35: Laboratory mixing

EN 12697-39, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 39: Binder content by ignition

EN 12697-41, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 41: Resistance to de-icing
fluids

EN 12697-43, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 43: Resistance to fuel

EN 13043, Aggregates for bituminous mixtures and surface treatments for roads, airfields and other trafficked
areas

EN 13108-21:2005, Bituminous mixtures — Material specifications — Part 21: Factory Production Control

prEN 13924, Bitumen and bituminous binders - Specifications for hard paving grade bitumens

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EN 13108-20:2006 (E)

3 Terms and definitions


For the purposes of this European Standard, the following terms and definitions apply.

3.1
technical specifications
harmonised European Standards and European Technical Approvals for asphalt mixtures

3.2
mix formulation
composition of a single mixture expressed as a target composition

NOTE A target composition can be expressed in two ways, see 3.3 and 3.4.

3.3
input target composition
expression of a mix formulation in terms of the constituent materials, the grading curve and the percentage of
bitumen added to the mixture

NOTE This will usually be the result of a laboratory mix design and validation.

3.4
output target composition
expression of a mix formulation in terms of the constituent materials and the mid point grading and soluble
binder content to be found on analysis

NOTE This will usually be the result of a production validation.

4 Requirements

4.1 Type Testing

For each mix formulation the Type Testing procedure shall be carried out to provide proof that the formulation
meets the relevant requirements in the product standard (see Note 1).

An Initial Type Test is the complete set of tests or other procedures, determining the performance of samples
of bituminous mixtures representative of the product type.

Initial Type Testing shall be performed to show conformity with the product standard on first use for
bituminous mixtures being put onto the market.

Where raw materials are used whose characteristics have already been determined, by the material supplier
on the basis of conformity with other technical specifications, these characteristics need not be reassessed
provided that the raw material’s performance remain the same.

NOTE 1 Products CE marked in accordance with appropriate harmonised European specifications may be presumed
to have the performances stated with the CE marking, although this does not replace the responsibility of the producers to
ensure that the bituminous mixture as a whole has the necessary performance values to meet the declared values.

NOTE 2 The European Standards for bituminous mixtures each contain a number of requirements for physical and
mechanical properties. Some of these are expressed as direct measurements of mechanical properties such as stiffness
or deformation resistance, whilst others are in the form of surrogate properties such as bitumen content or voids content.
The producer, when carrying out this type testing procedure, should provide proof for each relevant requirement in the
particular specification with which he is demonstrating conformity.

The results of the Type Testing shall be presented in a Type Test report containing all of the information
required by this European Standard.

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EN 13108-20:2006 (E)

Where the family approach is adopted, as permitted in the product standards, its use shall be restricted to
correlation between mix formulations with similar volumetrics and identical other than for binder grade. In such
case it may be assumed that harder grades of bitumen will produce deformation resistance and stiffness, at
least as good as those with softer grades (see Note 3). It may also be assumed that a change only in binder
grade will not affect the permeability of Porous Asphalt.

NOTE 3 For example, Asphalt Concrete with a binder 70/100 might fulfil specific requirements for resistance to
deformation. Changing only the binder to a harder grade, such as 40/60, will not adversely affect this property. Additional
testing for that property in that case will not be necessary to claim the same performance category.

The Type Testing procedure is also required to be carried out at a frequency of at least once every five years
as part of the procedure to demonstrate ongoing conformity as part of Factory Production Control as specified
in EN 13108-21, 4.1.

4.2 Validity

4.2.1 Period of validity

A mix Type Testing report is valid for a single mix formulation and remains valid for the purposes of Initial
Type Testing unless there are changes in raw materials as described in 4.2.2 or 4.2.3.

NOTE EN 13108-20, 4.1, requires mix formulations to be revalidated using the Type Testing Procedure at intervals
not greater than five years.

4.2.2 Changes in aggregate

A new Type Test shall be required under the following circumstances:

a) if there is a change in the type of coarse aggregate constituting:

 change in the category of coarse aggregate, as defined in EN 13043, for one of the following
properties: shape, percentage of semi-crushed aggregate, resistance to fragmentation, resistance to
wear, resistance to abrasion by studded tyres (where appropriate);

 change in petrographic type;

 change in particle density (weighted mean) greater than 0,05 Mg/m3;

b) if there is a change in the source, the grading category or, where appropriate, the angularity category of
fine aggregate;

c) if there is a change in the mineralogical type of filler.

4.2.3 Change in bitumen

A change in bitumen grade shall result in a new Type Test.

5 Constituent materials
The Type Testing procedure shall include tests to demonstrate that all constituent materials, including any
reclaimed asphalt addition, conform to the appropriate requirements. The requirements are detailed in
Annex A.

The tests for geometrical properties of the aggregate constituents, penetration/softening point/viscosity of the
binder and grading, binder content and binder properties of reclaimed asphalt shall be carried out on the
constituents actually used in Type Testing.

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EN 13108-20:2006 (E)

For other constituent properties tests carried out as part of the Evaluation of Conformity procedures used to
demonstrate conformity of the aggregates, bitumens etc. with the appropriate European Standard shall be
acceptable.

6 Mixed asphalt

6.1 General

The type testing shall include tests on the mixed asphalt to determine compliance with those requirements,
selected from the appropriate asphalt standard, with which conformity is to be demonstrated. The
requirements are detailed in B.1 to B.7.

NOTE 1 The approach in this Type Testing European Standard is based on the ”menu” principle and allows asphalt
mixes to be validated in a number of different ways. Choices need to be made concerning specimen preparation and test
conditions. The procedures selected will need to be those appropriate to the requirements selected for the anticipated
supply.

NOTE 2 Where the relevant EN 12697 test method requires the testing of multiple test specimens to produce a single
result the Tables in Annex B refer to this whole procedure as a single test.

6.2 Application

The Type Testing validation of asphalt mix properties shall comply with one of the three models a), b) and c)
below:

a) all properties demonstrated by laboratory validation;

b) all properties demonstrated by production validation;

c) some properties demonstrated by laboratory validation, some properties demonstrated by production


validation.

NOTE Tests for the same property made on laboratory prepared and compacted specimens will often give results
which are different from those on plant mixed and site compacted specimens. This should be taken into account in
specifications and care should be taken to compare results with the appropriate limits.

6.3 Sampling and testing

All testing shall be carried out strictly in accordance with the appropriate European test method on samples
taken strictly in accordance with the appropriate EN sampling method to be representative of the normal
constituents and mixed materials.

NOTE Some test methods have limitations on the maximum aggregate size in the material to be tested. This can
affect both testing and specimen preparation. All those concerned with specifying and mix validation should bear these
limitations in mind and select procedures accordingly.

6.4 Mixed asphalt composition

All tests on mixed asphalt shall be conducted on specimens manufactured at the declared mix formulation.

6.5 Mixed asphalt sample preparation

6.5.1 General

Mixed asphalt and test specimens shall be prepared in accordance with the method selected. The Type
Testing shall clearly identify which of the procedures given in 6.5.2 and 6.5.3 has been used in the validation
of the asphalt mix, by reference to the method and compaction degree of Table C.1.1 to C.1.12 which has
been used.

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EN 13108-20:2006 (E)

6.5.2 Laboratory validation

When executing laboratory validation, tests shall be carried out on asphalt mixed in a laboratory from
constituent materials blended to the input target composition in accordance with EN 12697-35. When
specimens are required for physical and mechanical testing these shall be prepared in accordance with one of
the methods and compaction levels specified from Annex C as detailed in the product standard.

6.5.3 Production validation

When executing production validation, the asphalt shall be mixed in a full-scale asphalt production plant under
standard operating conditions set to produce the declared mix formulation. Test specimens of the asphalt shall
be prepared using one of the following procedures:

a) Representative sample of the mixed asphalt shall be taken and test specimens shall be compacted in the
laboratory in accordance with one of the methods and compaction levels specified from Annex C as
detailed in the product standard.

b) Mixed material shall be laid in a full-scale trial pavement using full scale paving equipment and
procedures. Representative test specimens shall then be cut from the pavement by sawing or coring.

When using production validation, the Type Testing procedure shall include tests, on the specimens used in
validation of mix properties to confirm that the bitumen content and grading is within the close tolerance limits
given in EN 13108-21:2005, Annex A, about the output target composition.

7 Type Test report

7.1 General

The Type Test report shall form part of the manufacturer’s declaration of conformity. This shall include the
information listed in required information below and shall be accompanied by all appropriate test certificates.

The following information shall be supplied by the manufacturer:

a) name and address of manufacturer making declaration;

b) date of issue;

c) identification of mixing plant;

d) designation of mix type and categories with which conformity is being declared;

e) statement of methods used in mix validation under 6.5.2 or 6.5.3 with reference to Annex C.

7.2 Constituents

a) Each aggregate size: source and type;

b) binder: type and grade;

c) filler: source and type;

d) additives: source and type;

e) reclaimed asphalt: statement of permissible range of properties and control methods;

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EN 13108-20:2006 (E)

f) all constituents: tests results in accordance with Annex A as appropriate.

7.3 Mix formulation

Mix formulation expressed as:

 input target composition and/or

 output target composition.

Input target composition shall be declared when laboratory validation is being used.

Output target composition shall be declared when production validation is being used.

Output target composition shall be required as the mid point for the assessment of the conformity of analysis
results in Factory Production Control. Any correction between Input and output target compositions shall be
declared.

7.4 Temperatures

Maximum and minimum mix temperatures for mixtures with modified or hard grade binders or additives where
these are different from the default values in the product standards.

7.5 Test results

In accordance with B.1 to B.7 as appropriate to the mix type.

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Annex A
(normative)

Summary of properties and test methods for constituent materials

Test data shall be provided demonstrating conformity of constituent materials with all specified requirements.
In addition, the tests described in Table A.1 shall be carried out on the constituents used in the type testing
evaluation.

Table A.1 — Type and number of tests for constituent materials

Column 1 2 3 4
Number of
Line Constituent Property Test method
results
1 Aggregate Grading EN 933-1 1 by size
2 (EN 13043) Density EN 1097-6 1 by size
Binder, hard paving grade Penetration or softening
3 EN 1426 or 1427 1
bitumen and modified binder point
(EN 12591, prEN 13924 and
4 Viscosity a EN 12595 or 12596 1
EN 14023)
5 Filler Grading EN 933-10 1
6 (EN 13043) Density EN 1097-7 1
7 Additives Type
8 Grading EN 12697-2 1
9 Binder content EN 12697-1 1
EN 12697-3 or
10 b Recovered penetration EN 12697-4; plus 1
Granulated reclaimed asphalt
EN 1426
EN 13108-8)
EN 12697-3 or
or
11 EN 12697-4; plus 1
recovered softening point
EN 1427
12 Density EN 12697-5 1
a For soft asphalt.
b The properties validated shall be appropriate to the percentage addition. At low addition percentages minimal requirements apply.

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EN 13108-20:2006 (E)

Annex B
(normative)

Summary of properties and test methods for bituminous mixtures

B.1 Asphalt Concrete (EN 13108-1)

Table B.1 — Type and number of tests for Asphalt Concrete

Column 1 2 3
Line Property Test method Number of tests
1 Binder content (prescriptive) EN 12697-1 and -39 1 for production validation
0 for laboratory validation
2 Grading (prescriptive) EN 12697-2 1 for production validation
0 for laboratory validation
3 Void content including VFB and VMA for EN 12697-8 1
required void content Vmax ≤ 7 % Using bulk density to EN 12697-6,
(prescriptive) procedure B, in a saturated surface dry
condition.
Using maximum density to EN 12697-5
using procedure A in water.
4 Void content including VFB and VMA for EN 12697-8 1
required void content 7 < Vmax < 10 % Using bulk density to EN 12697-6,
(prescriptive) procedure C, sealed with wax, shall be
used.
Using maximum density to EN 12697-5
using procedure A in water.
5 Void content including VFB and VMA for EN 12697-8 1
required void content Vmax ≥ 10 % Using bulk density to EN 12697-6,
(prescriptive) procedure D, by dimensions.
Using maximum density to EN 12697-5
using procedure A in water.
6 Void content of gyratory compacted EN 12697-31 1
specimens (prescriptive)
7 Water sensitivity (performance related) EN 12697-12 1
8 Resistance to abrasion by studded tyres EN 12697-16, method A 1
(performance related)
9 Resistance to permanent deformation EN 12697-22, small device, method B in 1
(performance related — roads a) air at prescribed temperature.
For Asphalt Concrete designed for
maximum axle loads less than 13 t.
10 Resistance to permanent deformation EN 12697-22, large device, in air at a 1
(performance related — roads a) prescribed temperature.
For asphalt concrete designed for
maximum axle loads of 13 t or more.

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EN 13108-20:2006 (E)

Table B.1 (concluded)

Column 1 2 3
Line Property Test method Number of tests
11 Resistance to permanent deformation EN 12697-34 1
(performance related — airfields b)
12 Resistance to permanent deformation EN 12697-25 — Triaxial cyclic 1
(performance based) compression test
13 Stiffness (performance based) EN 12697-26 1
14 Fatigue (performance based) for EN 12697-24:2004, Annex A 1
pavement design based on two point
fatigue criteria
15 Fatigue (performance based) for EN 12697-24:2004, Annex D 1
pavement design based on four point
fatigue criteria
16 Resistance to fuel b (performance EN 12697-43 1
related- airfields)
17 Resistance to de-icing fluid b EN 12697-41 1
(performance related-airfields)
a The requirements shall be for Asphalt Concrete for use on roads and all other paved areas except for airfields.
b The requirements shall be for Asphalt Concrete for use on airfield pavements only.

B.2 Very Thin Asphalt Concrete (EN 13108-2)

Table B.2 — Type and number of tests for Very Thin Asphalt Concrete

Column 1 2 3
Line Property Test method Number of tests
1 Binder content (prescriptive) EN 12697-1 and -39 1 for production validation
0 for laboratory validation
2 Grading (prescriptive) EN 12697-2 1 for production validation
0 for laboratory validation
3 Void content including VFB and VMA for EN 12697-8 1
required void content Vmax ≤ 7 % Using bulk density to EN 12697-6,
(prescriptive) procedure B, in a saturated surface dry
condition.
Using maximum density to EN 12697-5
using procedure A in water.
4 Void content including VFB and VMA for EN 12697-8 1
required void content 7 < Vmax < 10 % Using bulk density to EN 12697-6,
(prescriptive) procedure C, sealed with wax, shall be
used.
Using maximum density to EN 12697-5
using procedure A in water.

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EN 13108-20:2006 (E)

Table B.2 (concluded)

Column 1 2 3
Line Property Test method Number of tests
5 Void content including VFB and VMA for EN 12697-8 1
required void content Vmax ≥ 10 % Using bulk density to EN 12697-6,
(prescriptive) procedure D, by dimensions.
Using maximum density to EN 12697-5
using procedure A in water.
6 Void content of specified gyratory EN 12697-31 1
compacted specimens (prescriptive)
7 Water sensitivity (performance related) EN 12697-12 1
8 Resistance to abrasion by studded tyres EN 12697-16, method A 1
(performance related)
9 Resistance to fuel for airfield use EN 12697-43 1
(performance related)
10 Resistance to de-icing fluid for airfield EN 12697-41 1
use (performance related)

B.3 Soft Asphalt (EN 13108-3)

Table B.3 — Type and number of tests for Soft Asphalt

Column 1 2 3

Line Property Test method Number of tests


1 Binder content (prescriptive) EN 12697-1 and -39 1 for production validation
0 for laboratory validation
2 Grading (prescriptive) EN 12697-2 1 for production validation
0 for laboratory validation
3 Void content (prescriptive) EN 12697-8 1
Using bulk density to EN 12697-6,
procedure B in a saturated surface dry
condition.
Using maximum density to EN 12697-5
using procedure A in water.

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EN 13108-20:2006 (E)

B.4 Hot Rolled Asphalt (EN 13108-4)

Table B.4 — Type and number of tests for Hot Rolled Asphalt

Column 1 2 3
Line Property Test method Number of Tests
1 Binder content (prescriptive) EN 12697-1 and -39 1 for production validation
0 for laboratory validation
2 Grading (prescriptive) EN 12697-2 1 for production validation
0 for laboratory validation
3 Void content including VFB and VMA EN 12697-8 1
(prescriptive) Using bulk density to EN 12697-6,
procedure A in a dry condition.
Using maximum density to EN 12697-5
using procedure A in water.
4 Water sensitivity (performance related) EN 12697-12 1
5 Resistance to abrasion by studded tyres EN 12697-16 1
(performance related)
6 Resistance to permanent deformation EN 12697-22, small device, method A in 1
(performance related) air and Y cycles.
7 Stiffness (performance related) EN 12697-26 1
8 Resistance to fuel (performance related EN 12697-43 1
— airfields)
9 Resistance to de-icing fluid (performance EN 12697-41 1
related — airfields)

B.5 Stone Mastic Asphalt (EN 13108-5)

Table B.5 — Type and number of tests for Stone Mastic Asphalt

Column 1 2 3
Line Property Test method Number of Tests
1 Binder content (prescriptive) EN 12697-1 and -39 1 for production validation
0 for laboratory validation
2 Grading (Prescriptive) EN 12697-2 1 for production validation
0 for laboratory validation
3 Void content including voids filled with EN 12697-8 1
binder (prescriptive) Using bulk density to EN 12697-6,
procedure B, in a saturated surface dry
condition.
Using maximum density to EN 12697-5
using procedure A in water.
4 Void content of gyratory compacted EN 12697-31 1
specimens (prescriptive)
5 Binder drainage (performance related) EN 12697-18 1

17
EN 13108-20:2006 (E)

Table B.5 (concluded)

Column 1 2 3
Line Property Test method Number of Tests
6 Water sensitivity (performance related) EN 12697-12 1
7 Resistance to abrasion by studded tyres EN 12697-16 1
(performance related)
8 Resistance to permanent deformation EN 12697-22, small device, method B in 1
(performance related) air at prescribed temperature.
For stone mastic asphalt designed for
maximum axle loads less than 13 t
9 Resistance to permanent deformation EN 12697-22, large device, in air at a 1
(performance related) prescribed temperature.
For stone mastic asphalt designed for
maximum axle loads of 13 t or more
10 Resistance to fuel (performance related EN 12697-43 1
— airfields)
11 Resistance to de-icing fluid (performance EN 12697-41 1
related — airfields)

B.6 Mastic asphalt (EN 13108-6)

Table B.6 — Type and number of tests for Mastic Asphalt

Column 1 2 3
Line Property Test method Number of Tests
1 Binder content (prescriptive) EN 12697-1 and -39 1 for production validation
0 for laboratory validation
2 Grading (prescriptive) EN 12697-2 1 for production validation
0 for laboratory validation
3 Permanent deformation (performance EN 12697-20, small aggregate, 1
related) for required maximum D ≤ 11,2 mm
indentation values greater than 2,5 mm EN 12697-21, large aggregate,
D > 11,2 mm
4 Permanent deformation (performance EN 12697-25,- Uniaxial cyclic 1
related) for required maximum compression test
indentation values equal to or less than
2,5 mm if measured by EN 12697-20
5 Resistance to abrasion by studded tyres EN 12697-16 1
(performance related)
6 Resistance to fuel (performance related EN 12697-43 1
— airfields)
7 Resistance to de-icing fluid (performance EN 12697-41 1
related — airfields)

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EN 13108-20:2006 (E)

B.7 Porous Asphalt (EN 13108-7)

Table B.7 — Type and number of tests for Porous Asphalt

Column 1 2 3
Line Property Test method Number of Tests
1 Binder content (prescriptive) EN 12697-1 and -39 1 for production validation
0 for laboratory validation
2 Grading (prescriptive) EN 12697-2 1 for production validation
0 for laboratory validation
3 Void content (prescriptive) EN 12697-8 1
Using bulk density to EN 12697-6,
procedure D, by dimensions.
Using maximum density to EN 12697-5
using procedure A in water.
4 Void content of gyratory compacted EN 12697-31 1
specimens (prescriptive)
5 Permeability (performance related) EN 12697-19 1
6 Water sensitivity (performance related) EN 12697-12 1
7 Bitumen-aggregate affinity (performance EN 12697-11, part C, static method 1
related — airfields)
8 Binder drainage (performance related) EN 12697-18 1
9 Particle loss (performance related) EN 12697-17 1
10 Resistance to fuel (performance related EN 12697-43 1
— airfields)
11 Resistance to de-icing fluid (performance EN 12697-41 1
related — airfields)

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EN 13108-20:2006 (E)

Annex C
(normative)

Methods of sample preparation

C.1 General

Specimens for testing shall be compacted from loose bituminous mixture in accordance with one of the
methods described in Table C.1, methods C.1.1 to C.1.24, unless otherwise specified in the relevant test
method, or obtained by coring or sawing from a trial area or plates in accordance with Table C.1, method
C.1.18, C.1.19, C.1.23 or C.1.24. The method and either the compaction energy, the compaction degree or
the void content, shall be selected as indicated in the product standard. Re-compacted samples may not be
used for testing mechanical properties.

NOTE Mechanical properties are properties as Marshall stability, resistance to deformation, stiffness, fatigue, indirect
tensile strength etc.

C.2 Compaction energy

Table C.1, methods C.1.1 to C.1.14, shall be used where specimens are required to be compacted in a
particular device with a defined energy input (number of blows, number of gyrations, number of wheel passes
etc.). In each case, the specimens shall be compacted in accordance with the appropriate EN test method and
at the specified temperature for the grade of bitumen used. The Type Test report shall include reference to the
test method used, all information required by that test method and, in particular, compaction temperature and
specimen dimensions.

NOTE 1 The producer should ensure that the specifier’s requirements in respect to compaction temperature are clear.

NOTE 2 Table C.1, method C.1.12, can also be used to compact reheated core specimens to obtain a value of bulk
density at ‘refusal’.

C.3 Reference density

The bulk density, determined in accordance with EN 12697-6 and D.1, of specimens compacted or re-
compacted in accordance with a method selected from Table C.1, C.1.1 to C.1.11, shall be used where
reference density is required to specify or determine compaction degree. When reference density is used
there shall always be a full description, as defined in C.1, of the method and conditions to which it is
referenced.

Re-compaction of cores in order to determine the reference density will take place according the following
procedure:

Cores shall be heated in an oven until they have reached the mixing temperature for the specified grade of
bitumen as defined in EN 12697-35. The cores shall then be broken up and re-compacted according the
relevant compaction methods selected from Table C.1.

When using vibratory compaction, the procedure described in EN 12697-32 shall be followed.

20
EN 13108-20:2006 (E)

C.4 Compaction degree


Where specimens are required to be compacted to a predetermined compaction degree, this shall be defined
in terms of ‘Percentage of Reference Density‘ P.

When using 'Percentage of Reference Density' P, the required compaction degree shall be specified in terms
of upper PU and lower PL limits. Specimens shall be tested to check that their bulk density lies between these
upper and lower limits. The 'Percentage of Reference Density' P shall be measured and calculated as follows:

Bspecimen
P= × 100 (C.1)
Breference

where

P is the reference density, in percent (%);

Bspecimen is the bulk density of the test specimen determined in accordance with EN 12697-6 and
Annex B;

Breference is the reference density as defined in C.2.

C.5 Void content


When using void content V, the required voids levels shall be specified in terms of upper VU and lower VL
limits. Specimens shall be tested to check that their void content lies between these upper and lower limits.
The void content of the specimens shall be determined in accordance with EN 12697-8 and D.2 based on bulk
densities determined in accordance with EN 12697-6 and Annex B.

Table C.1 — Compaction of test specimens

Column 1 2 3 4 5 6

Compaction Compaction Void


Line Reference Method Standard
energy degree content
1 C.1.1 2 × 25 blows — —
2 C.1.2 2 × 50 blows — —
Impact compaction EN 12697-30
3 C.1.3 2 × 75 blows — —
4 C.1.3A 2 x 100 blows — —
5 C.1.4 10 gyrations — —
6 C.1.5 25 gyrations — —
7 C.1.6 40 gyrations — —
8 C.1.7 60 gyrations — —
9 C.1.8 80 gyrations — —
Gyratory compactor EN 12697-31
10 C.1.9 100 gyrations — —
11 C.1.10 120 gyrations — —
12 C.1.11 160 gyrations — —
13 C.1.12 200 gyrations — —
14 C.1.13 240 gyrations — —

21
EN 13108-20:2006 (E)

Table C.1 (concluded)

Column 1 2 3 4 5 6

Compaction Compactio Void


Line Reference Method Standard
energy n degree content

15 C.1.14 Vibratory compactor EN 12697-32 refusal — —

16 C.1.15 Roller compaction EN 12697-33 light compaction — —


17 C.1.16 Roller compaction EN 12697-33 heavy compaction — —
18 C.1.17 Impact Compactor EN 12697-30 — PL – PU —

19 C.1.18 Gyratory Compactor EN 12697-31 — PL – PU —

20 C.1.19 Vibratory Compactor EN 12697-32 — PL – PU —

21 C.1.20 Slab Compactor EN 12697-33 — PL – PU —

22 C.1.21 Cores from trial areas — PL – PU —

23 C.1.22 Impact Compactor EN 12697-30 — — VL – VU

24 C.1.23 Gyratory Compactor EN 12697-31 — — VL – VU

25 C.1.24 Vibratory Compactor EN 12697-32 — — VL – VU

26 C.1.25 Slab Compactor EN 12697-33 — — VL – VU

27 C.1.26 Cores from trial areas — — VL – VU

22
EN 13108-20:2006 (E)

Annex D
(normative)

Test procedures and conditions

D.1 Test procedures and conditions

Test methods, test devices, test conditions and test durations used for the determination of properties of
bituminous mixtures shall be in accordance with those described in Annex B.

The type test report and all accompanying test reports shall include descriptions of the detailed procedures
employed, using the notation in the tables from this annex, and the notation from the test method standard so
that the method, device, test conditions and duration can be clearly identified.

NOTE Where there is more than one test device or a choice of conditions (e.g. temperature and loading time) for
some properties, producers should ensure that the specifier has made a clear choice from the options given.

D.2 Bulk density, maximum density, void content and voids filled with bitumen
The bulk density of specimens shall be determined in accordance with EN 12697-6 using the appropriate
procedure given in Annex B.

The maximum density of the bituminous mixture shall be determined in accordance with EN 12697-5,
procedure A, in water.

Void content, voids filled with bitumen and voids in mineral aggregate of specimens shall be determined in
accordance with EN 12697-8, using the bulk density and maximum density values determined in accordance
with the appropriate methods stated in Annex B. When determination of void content at a set number of
gyrations is required this shall be achieved using the method described in EN 12697-31 and not by direct
density measurement of specimens.

D.3 Water sensitivity


This test is appropriate for all bituminous mixtures. The water sensitivity of specimens shall be determined in
accordance with EN 12697-12 at a test temperature of 15 °C.

D.4 Resistance to abrasion by studded tyres


The resistance to abrasion by studded tyres of specimens shall be determined in accordance with
EN 12697-16, procedure A.

D.5 Bitumen aggregate affinity


Bitumen aggregate affinity shall be determined in accordance with EN 12697-11, method C.

NOTE This test is applicable only to porous asphalt mixtures for use on airfields.

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EN 13108-20:2006 (E)

D.6 Resistance to permanent deformation by wheel-tracking test


This test is appropriate for Asphalt Concrete, Hot Rolled Asphalt and Stone Mastic Asphalt mixtures. The
resistance of specimens to permanent deformation by wheel tracking testing shall be determined in
accordance with EN 12697-22. The test device, test conditions and test duration shall be selected from
Table D.1.

Table D.1 — Test conditions for wheel-tracking test

Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Applicable to EN
13108 Parts:
Temperature Test duration
Line Reference Device 1 4 5
°C cycles
Small device,
1 D.1.2 Air 45 1 000 — X —
procedure A
Small device,
2 D.1.3 Air 60 1 000 — X —
procedure A
Small device,
3 D.1.4 Air 45 10 000 X — X
procedure B
Small device,
4 D.1.5 Air 50 10 000 X — X
procedure B
Small device,
5 D.1.6 Air 60 10 000 X — X
procedure B
6 D.1.7 Large device Air 50 30 000 X — X
7 D.1.8 Large device Air 60 3 000 X — —
8 D.1.9 Large device Air 60 10 000 X — X
9 D.1.10 Large device Air 60 30 000 X — X

D.7 Resistance to permanent deformation - Deformation strain in triaxial


compression
This test is appropriate only for Asphalt Concrete mixtures.

The resistance to permanent deformation of specimens, in terms of the maximum deformation strain in triaxial
compression, shall be determined in accordance with EN 12697-25, Test method B.

The test conditions shall be selected from Table D.2.

Table D.2 — Triaxial compression-test conditions

Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Conditioning Test Confining
Line Reference Course Axial Load Frequency Pulse
Temperature Temperature Stress
1 D.2.1 Surface 15 °C 50 °C 150 kPa 300 kPa 3 Hz Haversine
2 D.2.2 Surface 15 °C 50 °C 150 kPa 300 kPa 1s/1s Block
3 D.2.3 Binder & Base 15 °C 40 °C 50 MPa 200 kPa 3 Hz Haversine
4 D.2.4 Binder & Base 15 °C 40 °C 50 MPa 200 kPa 1s/1s Block

24
EN 13108-20:2006 (E)

D.8 Stiffness
This test is appropriate only for Asphalt Concrete and Hot Rolled Asphalt mixtures.

The stiffness of specimens shall be determined in accordance with EN 12697-26.

The method, procedure and test conditions shall be selected from Table D.3.

Table D.3 — Methods, procedures and test conditions for the determination of stiffness

Column 1 2 3 4
Line Reference Type of loading Temperature Frequency or loading time
1 D.3.1 2PB-TR 15 °C 10 Hz
2 D.3.2 2PB-PR 15 °C 10 Hz
3 D.3.3 3PB-PR 15 °C 10 Hz
4 D.3.4 4PB-PR 20 °C 8 Hz
5 D.3.5 DTC-CY 15 °C 10 Hz
6 D.3.6 DT-CY or DT-PR 15 °C 0,02 s
7 D.3.7 IT-CY 20 °C 124 µs

D.9 Fatigue
This test is appropriate only for Asphalt Concrete mixtures.

The resistance of specimens to fatigue shall be determined in accordance with EN 12697-24. The method
shall be selected from Annex B and test conditions from Table D.4.

Table D.4 — Test devices, procedures and conditions for measurement of fatigue

Column 1 2 3 4
Annex/Type
Frequency or
Line Reference of loading — Type of Temperature
loading time
specimen
1 D.4.1 A/2PB-TZ 10 °C 25 Hz
2 D.4.2 A/2PB-TZ 15 °C 30 Hz
3 D.4.3 D/4PB-PR 20 °C 30 Hz

D.10 Marshall test for application on airfields

This test is appropriate only for Asphalt Concrete mixtures.

The Marshall test shall be carried out according to EN 12697-34.

25
EN 13108-20:2006 (E)

D.11 Resistance to fuel for application on airfields


This test is appropriate for all bituminous mixtures.

The resistance to fuel of specimens shall be determined according to EN 12697-43.

D.12 Resistance to de-icing fluid for application on airfields


This test is appropriate for all bituminous mixtures.

The resistance to de-icing fluids of specimen shall be determined according to EN 12697-41.

D.13 Binder drainage


This test is appropriate only for Stone Mastic Asphalt and Porous Asphalt mixtures.

The binder drainage of specimens shall be determined in accordance with EN 12697-18.

D.14 Indentation and resistance to permanent deformation of mastic asphalt


The indentation test is appropriate only for Mastic Asphalt mixtures.

The indentation of specimen shall be determined in accordance with EN 12697-20 or EN 12697-21. The
method used shall be selected from Table D.5.

The uniaxial cyclic compression test is used as described in Table B.6

Table D.5 — Methods for determination of indentation

Column 1 2
Line Reference Method
1 D.5.1 EN 12697-20
EN 12697-21 Test W,
2 D.5.2
test temperature 25 °C
3 D.5.3 EN 12697-21 Test B
EN 12697-25 method A uniaxial cyclic compression Test temperature
4 D.5.4
40 °C, Preload stress 10 kPa, Test stress 100 kPa

D.15 Permeability
This test is appropriate only for Porous Asphalt mixtures.

The permeability of specimen shall be determined in accordance with EN 12697-19.

D.16 Particle loss of porous asphalt


This test is appropriate only for Porous Asphalt mixtures.

The maximum particle loss of Porous Asphalt shall be determined in accordance with EN 12697-17. The test
temperature shall be specified.

26
EN 13108-20:2006 (E)

Annex E
(informative)

Special requirements for airfields

International safety regulations apply to airfield pavement works in order to meet safety requirements for
aircraft operations.

These regulations may require a full Type Testing procedure in accordance with this European Standard to be
carried out at the commencement of an airfield pavement project rather than relying on historical data. They
may also require the mixture to be subject to a site laying trial prior to commencement of the main works.

This is most likely to be required for bituminous mixtures used in surface courses subject to jet aircraft
operations where foreign object damage is a major safety consideration.

27