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Short introduction to

ship dynamics
Kul-24.3200 Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 1


What does ship dynamics mean?
• All the operational conditions of a vessel where inertia
forces of a ship motion play a role.
• That is all situations that differ from the ideal still water
condition with a ship at constant heading and constant
forward speed

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Content of the course
• Resistance
• Propulsion
• Ship dynamics
• Manoeuvring
• Seakeeping (Monday 09 November)

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Seakeeping

Additional reading
• LN3 Ship dynamics FIN, Chapter 2 without 2.8 (Noppa: Additional
reading)
• LN 3 Ship dynamics ENG part 1, Sections 3.6-3.8 (Noppa: Additional
reading)

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics Aalto University 4


Seakeeping
No related exercises

What kind of question you should be able to answer?


• Describe the components of ship motions.
• How to model surface waves?
• How to model the motions of the ship in waves?
• How to model impact type wave loads?
• Added resistance due to waves?

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General
Seakeeping: interaction of ship and surface waves
Effects on the operation of the ship
• Loading on ship structures
• Ship motions
• Working conditions on board, comfort of the passengers
• Safety, e.g. possibility of cargo shifts

• Added resistance in waves

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Outline: Seakeeping
• Waves
• Linear surface wave theory
• Regular waves
• Irregular waves
• Ship motions
• Motion components
• Linear ship motions in waves
• Wave impact loads
• Non-linear strip theory
• Method of forces relative motion
• Added resistance in waves

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Outline: Seakeeping
• Waves
• Linear surface wave theory
• Regular waves
• Irregular waves
• Ship motions
• Motion components
• Linear ship motions in waves
• Wave impact loads
• Non-linear strip theory
• Method of forces relative motion
• Added resistance in waves

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Waves: general
Of interest for the dynamics of ships and off-shore
structures
• Wave length: from few meters up to 1km

The pattern of waves observed from a travelling


ship is very complex.
• Waves generated by the ship
• Large number of waves: different lengths, different heights,
different directions

Observations from air over the ocean,


particularly in the vicinity of the coast
• Prevailing direction of wave progression
• Wave length does not vary so much

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Linear surface wave theory

Assumptions
• 2-dimensional flow
• Deep water
• Small wave amplitude A
• Potential flow: inviscid and irrotational
• Cartesian co-ordinate system: origin at still free surface
→ Flow can be described by the velocity potential φ(X,Z)

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Linear surface wave theory

Evaluation of the velocity potential φ(X,Z)


• Continuity equation which is of the form of Laplace equation
• Boundary conditions

Vertical elevation of the free surface ζ(X)

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Linear surface wave theory
Describing the behaviour of the
free surface
• Two conditions at the unknown
surface SF

1. Kinematic boundary condition


Normal component of water velocity at water surface is the same as the
normal component of the velocity of the surface
• Water particles at the surface stay on the free surface
• The flow has to be tangential at the free surface.
• Linear version of this condition:

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Linear surface wave theory
Describing the behaviour of the
free surface
• Two conditions at the unknown
surface SF

2. Dynamic boundary condition


The pressure on the both sides of the surface is equal.
• At the free surface, the hydrodynamic pressure equals the atmospheric pressure.
• It can be expressed using Bernoulli’s equation

• Linear version

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Linear surface wave theory
Describing the behaviour of the
free surface
• Two conditions at the unknown
surface SF

Expressing both of the two conditions together

Linearization
• Non-linear terms are omitted
• The boundary conditions are applied at Z=0 and not at

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Regular waves
What is the most straightforward solution that fulfils
• Laplace equation and
• Boundary condition?

𝑔𝐴 𝑘𝑍
𝜙= 𝑒 sin 𝑘𝑋 − 𝜔𝑡
𝜔

• Wave amplitude A
• Wave length λ
2𝜋𝑔
• Wave frequency 𝜔 =
𝜆
• Wave celerity or phase velocity Vp
𝜔 𝜔2 2𝜋
• Wave number 𝑘 = = =
𝑉𝑝 𝑔 𝜆

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Regular waves
𝑔𝐴 𝑘𝑍
Wave elevation 𝜙= 𝑒 sin 𝑘𝑋 − 𝜔𝑡
𝜔
• Substitute the velocity potential to the kinematic boundary condition
→ 𝜁 𝑥, 𝑡 = 𝐴 cos 𝑘𝑋 − 𝜔𝑡
Direction of the wave propagation

Flow velocity
𝜕𝜙 𝑔𝐴𝑘 𝑘𝑍
𝑢= = 𝑒 cos 𝑘𝑋 − 𝜔𝑡
𝜕𝑋 𝜔

𝜕𝜙 𝑔𝐴𝑘 𝑘𝑍
𝑤= = 𝑒 sin 𝑘𝑋 − 𝜔𝑡
𝜕𝑍 𝜔

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Regular waves
Steep waves …

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Irregular waves
Superposition
• Irregular waves consist of several frequency components.
• Linearization → The irregular waves can be presented as a sum of
several cosine-form components

sum of the wave components


wave spectrum

Sine components
wave in time domain with random phase
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Irregular waves
Wave power spectrum
• Is a continuous function of angular frequency which tells what is the
contribution of different frequency components in a total wave energy
• S(ω) is a measure of wave
energy at frequency ω
• Corresponding wave
amplitude:

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Irregular waves
Wave power spectrum
• The mean of wave energy per square meter of water surface is

• The variance of irregular


waves:

• nth moment:

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Irregular waves
Wave power spectrum
Significant wave height
• Mean value of highest third
of the wave heights

Modal period
• Period corresponding
to spectrum peak

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Irregular waves

Mean value of wave periods

Mean zero-level crossing period

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Idealised forms of wave spectra
Developed on the basis of the statistical analysis of the waves

ISSC wave spectrum


• ISSC: International Ship and Offshore Structures Congress

• T1: average wave period


• H1/3: significant wave height
• ISSC and ITTC recommend for the modelling of open sea

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Idealised forms of wave spectra
JONSWAP wave spectrum
• Recommend for the modelling of a limited sea area and raising storm.
• Either using the significant wave height H1/3 and average period T1

• Or using wind speed U [m/s] and the fetch X [m]. Then

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Idealised forms of wave spectra
• Limited fetch (Jonswap) means shorter and steeper waves.
• Developed waves (ISSC) include more longer waves.

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Outline: Seakeeping
• Waves
• Linear surface wave theory
• Regular waves
• Irregular waves
• Ship motions
• Motion components
• Linear ship motions in waves
• Wave impact loads
• Non-linear strip theory
• Method of forces relative motion
• Added resistance in waves

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Ship motions
• 6 degrees of freedom
huojunta
• Origin G of the co-ordinate system:
at the centre of gravity when
travelling with constant speed in
still water
kohoilu
• Instantaneous deviations of COG
from G: sway, surge, heave kiihtyily
• Angular motions: yaw, pitch, roll mutkailu

keinunta

jyskintä

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Ship motions

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Linear model of ship motions
Assumption
• Ship motions are small
• Hydrostatic forces and moments are represented by initial stability
approximation
• When defining wave excitation the same linear model is used as when
describing linear wave theory
• Waves are assumed to have a low amplitude and slopes
• Potential flow model is used
• The flow model is inviscid and irrotational
• The quantities used to describe interaction between the hull and water
(added masses and dampings) are independent upon the motions

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Linear model of ship motions
Are you familiar with the single degree of freedom system?
• An introductory example to ship motions: heaving buoy (conical shape)

• Buoy mass m
• Added mass associated
with the harmonic heave
motion azz
• Damping coefficient bzz
• Restoring coefficient k
• Excitation force due to waves Fwave,z

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 30


Linear model of ship motions
Are you familiar with the single degree of freedom system?
• An introductory example to ship motions: heaving buoy (conical shape)

• Buoy mass m
• Added mass associated
with the harmonic heave
motion azz
• Damping coefficient bzz
• Restoring coefficient k
• Excitation force due to waves Fwave,z

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Outline: Seakeeping
• Waves
• Linear surface wave theory
• Regular waves
• Irregular waves
• Ship motions
• Motion components
• Linear ship motions in waves
• Wave impact loads
• Non-linear strip theory
• Method of forces relative motion
• Added resistance in waves

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 38


Wave impact loads
• If ship motions are not small than the wave
loads aren’t related linearly to wave height.
• Impact-type loads are called slamming loads.
• Short duration
• High magnitude
• Hull respond: transient vibration called
whipping.
• Endanger ship’s structural safety and crew’s
comfort
• Impact wave loads can be understood as the
non-linear portion of wave loading

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Non-linear strip theory

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Method of forced relative motion
• Assumption: ship motions do not
depend much upon slamming
loads
• That is heave and pitch depend
linearly on the wave amplitude
• Transfer functions obtained using
linear strip-theory or conducting
model tests are used
• The relative vertical motion is associated with momentum

• Slamming force FS is obtained applying Newton’s law as follows

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Method of forced relative motion

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Method of forced relative motion

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Method of forced relative motion

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Example: regular waves

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Another example

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Outline: Seakeeping
• Waves
• Linear surface wave theory
• Regular waves
• Irregular waves
• Ship motions
• Motion components
• Linear ship motions in waves
• Wave impact loads
• Non-linear strip theory
• Method of forces relative motion
• Added resistance in waves

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Added resistance in waves

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Added resistance in waves

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Added resistance in waves

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Summary
• Describe the components of ship motions.
• How to model surface waves?
• How to model the motions of the ship in waves?
• How to model impact type wave loads?
• Added resistance due to waves?

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References

• LN3 Ship dynamics FIN (Noppa: Additional reading)


• LN 3 Ship dynamics ENG part 1 (Noppa: Additional reading)
• 2013 slides Ship dyn ENG 2-3 (Noppa: Additional reading)

Pictures
• Lloyd (1989) Seakeeping, ship behaiour in rough weather. Ellis Horwood Series in Marine Technology
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MV_Rena
• http://felixstowedocker.blogspot.fi/2013/06/merchant-vessel-mol-comfort-splits-into.html
• Storhaug G (2007) http://www.panoramio.com
• http://science.kennesaw.edu
• http://www.hdwallpapers.org
• …

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