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# Short introduction to

ship dynamics
Kul-24.3200 Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 1

What does ship dynamics mean?
• All the operational conditions of a vessel where inertia
forces of a ship motion play a role.
• That is all situations that differ from the ideal still water
condition with a ship at constant heading and constant
forward speed

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 2

Content of the course
• Resistance
• Propulsion
• Ship dynamics
• Manoeuvring
• Seakeeping (Monday 09 November)

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 3

Seakeeping

• LN3 Ship dynamics FIN, Chapter 2 without 2.8 (Noppa: Additional
• LN 3 Ship dynamics ENG part 1, Sections 3.6-3.8 (Noppa: Additional

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics Aalto University 4

Seakeeping
No related exercises

## What kind of question you should be able to answer?

• Describe the components of ship motions.
• How to model surface waves?
• How to model the motions of the ship in waves?
• How to model impact type wave loads?
• Added resistance due to waves?

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics Aalto University 5

General
Seakeeping: interaction of ship and surface waves
Effects on the operation of the ship
• Ship motions
• Working conditions on board, comfort of the passengers
• Safety, e.g. possibility of cargo shifts

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 6

Outline: Seakeeping
• Waves
• Linear surface wave theory
• Regular waves
• Irregular waves
• Ship motions
• Motion components
• Linear ship motions in waves
• Non-linear strip theory
• Method of forces relative motion

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 7

Outline: Seakeeping
• Waves
• Linear surface wave theory
• Regular waves
• Irregular waves
• Ship motions
• Motion components
• Linear ship motions in waves
• Non-linear strip theory
• Method of forces relative motion

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 8

Waves: general
Of interest for the dynamics of ships and off-shore
structures
• Wave length: from few meters up to 1km

## The pattern of waves observed from a travelling

ship is very complex.
• Waves generated by the ship
• Large number of waves: different lengths, different heights,
different directions

## Observations from air over the ocean,

particularly in the vicinity of the coast
• Prevailing direction of wave progression
• Wave length does not vary so much

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 9

Linear surface wave theory

Assumptions
• 2-dimensional flow
• Deep water
• Small wave amplitude A
• Potential flow: inviscid and irrotational
• Cartesian co-ordinate system: origin at still free surface
→ Flow can be described by the velocity potential φ(X,Z)

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 10

Linear surface wave theory

## Evaluation of the velocity potential φ(X,Z)

• Continuity equation which is of the form of Laplace equation
• Boundary conditions

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 11

Linear surface wave theory
Describing the behaviour of the
free surface
• Two conditions at the unknown
surface SF

## 1. Kinematic boundary condition

Normal component of water velocity at water surface is the same as the
normal component of the velocity of the surface
• Water particles at the surface stay on the free surface
• The flow has to be tangential at the free surface.
• Linear version of this condition:

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 12

Linear surface wave theory
Describing the behaviour of the
free surface
• Two conditions at the unknown
surface SF

## 2. Dynamic boundary condition

The pressure on the both sides of the surface is equal.
• At the free surface, the hydrodynamic pressure equals the atmospheric pressure.
• It can be expressed using Bernoulli’s equation

• Linear version

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 13

Linear surface wave theory
Describing the behaviour of the
free surface
• Two conditions at the unknown
surface SF

## Expressing both of the two conditions together

Linearization
• Non-linear terms are omitted
• The boundary conditions are applied at Z=0 and not at

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 14

Regular waves
What is the most straightforward solution that fulfils
• Laplace equation and
• Boundary condition?

𝑔𝐴 𝑘𝑍
𝜙= 𝑒 sin 𝑘𝑋 − 𝜔𝑡
𝜔

• Wave amplitude A
• Wave length λ
2𝜋𝑔
• Wave frequency 𝜔 =
𝜆
• Wave celerity or phase velocity Vp
𝜔 𝜔2 2𝜋
• Wave number 𝑘 = = =
𝑉𝑝 𝑔 𝜆

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 15

Regular waves
𝑔𝐴 𝑘𝑍
Wave elevation 𝜙= 𝑒 sin 𝑘𝑋 − 𝜔𝑡
𝜔
• Substitute the velocity potential to the kinematic boundary condition
→ 𝜁 𝑥, 𝑡 = 𝐴 cos 𝑘𝑋 − 𝜔𝑡
Direction of the wave propagation

Flow velocity
𝜕𝜙 𝑔𝐴𝑘 𝑘𝑍
𝑢= = 𝑒 cos 𝑘𝑋 − 𝜔𝑡
𝜕𝑋 𝜔

𝜕𝜙 𝑔𝐴𝑘 𝑘𝑍
𝑤= = 𝑒 sin 𝑘𝑋 − 𝜔𝑡
𝜕𝑍 𝜔

Regular waves
Steep waves …

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 17

Irregular waves
Superposition
• Irregular waves consist of several frequency components.
• Linearization → The irregular waves can be presented as a sum of
several cosine-form components

## sum of the wave components

wave spectrum

Sine components
wave in time domain with random phase
Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 18
Irregular waves
Wave power spectrum
• Is a continuous function of angular frequency which tells what is the
contribution of different frequency components in a total wave energy
• S(ω) is a measure of wave
energy at frequency ω
• Corresponding wave
amplitude:

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 19

Irregular waves
Wave power spectrum
• The mean of wave energy per square meter of water surface is

waves:

• nth moment:

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 20

Irregular waves
Wave power spectrum
Significant wave height
• Mean value of highest third
of the wave heights

Modal period
• Period corresponding
to spectrum peak

Irregular waves

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 22

Idealised forms of wave spectra
Developed on the basis of the statistical analysis of the waves

## ISSC wave spectrum

• ISSC: International Ship and Offshore Structures Congress

## • T1: average wave period

• H1/3: significant wave height
• ISSC and ITTC recommend for the modelling of open sea

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 23

Idealised forms of wave spectra
JONSWAP wave spectrum
• Recommend for the modelling of a limited sea area and raising storm.
• Either using the significant wave height H1/3 and average period T1

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 24

Idealised forms of wave spectra
• Limited fetch (Jonswap) means shorter and steeper waves.
• Developed waves (ISSC) include more longer waves.

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 25

Outline: Seakeeping
• Waves
• Linear surface wave theory
• Regular waves
• Irregular waves
• Ship motions
• Motion components
• Linear ship motions in waves
• Non-linear strip theory
• Method of forces relative motion

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 26

Ship motions
• 6 degrees of freedom
huojunta
• Origin G of the co-ordinate system:
at the centre of gravity when
travelling with constant speed in
still water
kohoilu
• Instantaneous deviations of COG
from G: sway, surge, heave kiihtyily
• Angular motions: yaw, pitch, roll mutkailu

keinunta

jyskintä

Ship motions

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 28

Linear model of ship motions
Assumption
• Ship motions are small
• Hydrostatic forces and moments are represented by initial stability
approximation
• When defining wave excitation the same linear model is used as when
describing linear wave theory
• Waves are assumed to have a low amplitude and slopes
• Potential flow model is used
• The flow model is inviscid and irrotational
• The quantities used to describe interaction between the hull and water
(added masses and dampings) are independent upon the motions

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 29

Linear model of ship motions
Are you familiar with the single degree of freedom system?
• An introductory example to ship motions: heaving buoy (conical shape)

• Buoy mass m
with the harmonic heave
motion azz
• Damping coefficient bzz
• Restoring coefficient k
• Excitation force due to waves Fwave,z

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 30

Linear model of ship motions
Are you familiar with the single degree of freedom system?
• An introductory example to ship motions: heaving buoy (conical shape)

• Buoy mass m
with the harmonic heave
motion azz
• Damping coefficient bzz
• Restoring coefficient k
• Excitation force due to waves Fwave,z

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 31

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Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 37
Outline: Seakeeping
• Waves
• Linear surface wave theory
• Regular waves
• Irregular waves
• Ship motions
• Motion components
• Linear ship motions in waves
• Non-linear strip theory
• Method of forces relative motion

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 38

• If ship motions are not small than the wave
loads aren’t related linearly to wave height.
• Short duration
• High magnitude
• Hull respond: transient vibration called
whipping.
• Endanger ship’s structural safety and crew’s
comfort
• Impact wave loads can be understood as the

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 39

Non-linear strip theory

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 40

Method of forced relative motion
• Assumption: ship motions do not
depend much upon slamming
• That is heave and pitch depend
linearly on the wave amplitude
• Transfer functions obtained using
linear strip-theory or conducting
model tests are used
• The relative vertical motion is associated with momentum

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 41

Method of forced relative motion

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 42

Method of forced relative motion

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 43

Method of forced relative motion

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 44

Example: regular waves

Another example

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 46

Outline: Seakeeping
• Waves
• Linear surface wave theory
• Regular waves
• Irregular waves
• Ship motions
• Motion components
• Linear ship motions in waves
• Non-linear strip theory
• Method of forces relative motion

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 50

Summary
• Describe the components of ship motions.
• How to model surface waves?
• How to model the motions of the ship in waves?
• How to model impact type wave loads?
• Added resistance due to waves?

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 51

References

Pictures
• Lloyd (1989) Seakeeping, ship behaiour in rough weather. Ellis Horwood Series in Marine Technology
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MV_Rena
• http://felixstowedocker.blogspot.fi/2013/06/merchant-vessel-mol-comfort-splits-into.html
• Storhaug G (2007) http://www.panoramio.com
• http://science.kennesaw.edu
• http://www.hdwallpapers.org
• …

## Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 52

Introduction of Marine Hydrodynamics 53