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X Y Z School

Subject – Physical Education

Topic – Basketball and Athletics

Submitted To –

Submitted By –
I would like to express my special thanks of
gratitude to my teacher as well as our
principal who gave me the golden
opportunity to do this wonderful project on
the topic, which also helped me in doing a
lot of Research and I came to know about
so many new things I am really thankful to
Secondly, I would also like to thank my
parents and friends who helped me a lot in
finalizing this project within the limited
time frame.

History Of The Basketball

Rules And Regulations

Specification Of The Court

Equipment Required

Important Tournaments

Sports Personalities

Fundamental Skills

Warming Up and Cooling Down

Basketball Terminology

Common Basketball Injuries


History Of Athletics

Track And Field Events

Combined Events

Indian Athletic Awardees

Indian Athletic Records

World Athletic Records

Common Wealth Games 2018

2020 Olympics

History Of The Basketball
In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical
education professor and instructor at the International Young
Men's Christian Association Training School (YMCA) (today,
Springfield College) in Springfield, Massachusetts, was trying to
keep his gym class active on a rainy day. He sought a vigorous
indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of
fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other
ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in
gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket
onto a 10-foot (3.0 m) elevated the track. In contrast with modern
basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, and balls
had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored;
this proved inefficient, however, so the bottom of the basket was
removed, allowing the balls to be poked out with a long dowel
each time.
Old style basketball with laces
Basketball was originally played with a soccer ball. These round
balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a
set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable
bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover
had been flipped outside-in. These laces could cause bounce
passes and dribbling to be unpredictable. Eventually, a lace-free
ball construction method was invented, and this change to the game
was endorsed by Naismith. (Whereas in American football, the
lace construction proved to be advantageous for gripping and
remains to this day.) The first balls made specifically for
basketball were brown, and it was only in the late 1950s that
Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to
players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball that is
now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game
except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was
the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was eventually
introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls.
Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double
dribble by 1898.

The peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were finally
replaced by metal hoops with backboards. A further change was
soon made, so the ball merely passed through. Whenever a person
got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever
team got the most points won the game. The baskets were
originally nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court,
but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began
to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent
this interference; it had the additional effect of allowing rebound
shots. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his
granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about
the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a
children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before

Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original first game,
approached Naismith after the Christmas break, in early 1892,
asking him what he intended to call his new game. Naismith
replied that he hadn't thought of it because he had been focused on
just getting the game started. Mahan suggested that it be called
"Naismith ball", at which he laughed, saying that a name like
that would kill any game. Mahan then said, "Why not call it
basketball?" Naismith replied, "We have a basket and a ball,
and it seems to me that would be a good name for it." The first
official game was played in the YMCA gymnasium in Albany,
New York, on January 20, 1892, with nine players. The game
ended at 1–0; the shot was made from 25 feet (7.6 m), on a court
just half the size of a present-day Streetball or National
Basketball Association (NBA) court.

At the time, football was being played with 10 to a team (which

was increased to 11). When winter weather got too icy to play
football, teams were taken indoors, and it was convenient to have
them split in half and play basketball with five on each side. By
1897–1898 teams of five became standard
Rules and Regulations
 The object of the Game
The object of basketball is to throw the ball (basketball) into a
hoop to score points. The game is played out on a rectangular
court and depending on which section of court you successfully
throw a ball into the basket will depend on how many points are
scored. The ball can be moved around the by dribbling or passing
the ball. At the end of the game, the team with the most points is
declared the winner.

 Scoring
There are three scoring numbers for basketball players. Any
basket scored from outside the three-point arc will result in three
points being scored. Baskets scored within the three-point arc will
result in two points being scored. Successful free throws will
result in 1 point being scored per free throw. The number of free
throws will depend on where the foul was committed.
 Winning the Game
Winning a game of basketball is pretty simple; score more points
than your opponents in the allotted game time. If the scores are
tied at the end then an extra quarter will be played until a winner
is found.

 Rules of Basketball

1. Each team can have a maximum of 5 players on the court at

any one time. Substitutions can be made as many times as
they wish within the game.
2. The ball can only be moved by either dribbling (bouncing the
ball) or passing the ball. Once a player puts two hands on
the ball (not including catching the ball) they cannot then
dribble or move with the ball and the ball must be passed or
3. After the ball goes into a team’s half and they win possession
back the ball must then make it back over the halfway line
within 10 seconds. If the ball fails to do so then a foul will be
called and the ball will be turned over.
4. Each team has 24 seconds to at least shot at the basket. A
shot constitutes either going in the basket or hitting the rim of
the basket. If after the shot is taken and the ball fails to go in
the basket then the shot clock is restarted for another 24
5. The team trying to score a basket is called the offense whilst
the team trying to prevent them from scoring is called the
defense . The defense must do all they can to stop the offense
from scoring by either blocking a shot or preventing a shot
from being fired.
6. After each successful basket, the ball is then turned over to the
7. Fouls committed throughout the game will be accumulated
and then when reached a certain number will be eventually be
awarded as a free throw. A free throw involves one player
from the offensive team (the player fouled) to take a shot
unopposed from the free throw line. Depending on where the
foul was committed will depend on the number free throws a
player gets.
8. Violations in basketball include travelling (taking more than
one step without bouncing the ball), double dribble (picking
the ball up dribbling, stopping then dribbling again with two
hands), goaltending (a defensive player interferes with the
ball traveling downwards towards the basket) and backcourt
violation (once the ball passes the halfway line the offensive
team cannot take the ball back over the halfway line).
There shall be at least 2 separate sound signals, with distinctly
different and very loud sounds:
 One provided for the timer and the scorer which shall sound
automatically to indicate the end of the playing time for a
quarter or overtime. The timer and scorer shall be able to
sound the signal manually when appropriate to attract the
attention of the officials.
 One provided for the shot clock operator which shall sound
automatically to indicate the end of the shot clock period.
Both signals shall be sufficiently powerful to be easily heard
above the most adverse or noisy conditions. The sound volume
shall have the ability to be adapted according to the size of the
sports hall and the noise of the crowd, to a maximum sound
pressure level of120 dBA measured at a distance of 1 m from
the source of the sound. A connection to the public information
system of the sports hall is strongly recommended.

Player foul markers

The 5 player foul markers provided for the scorer shall be:
 Of white colour.
 With numbers a minimum of 200 mm in length and 100
mm in width.
 Numbered from 1 to 5 (1 to 4 in black and the number 5 in
Team foul markers
The 2 team foul markers provided for the scorer shall be:
• Of red colour.
• A minimum of 350 mm in height and of 200 mm in width.
• Clearly visible to everyone involved in the game, including the
spectators, when positioned on either side of the scorer’s table.
• Used to indicate the number of team fouls up to 5 and to show
that a team has reached the team foul situation. 13.2 Electrical
or electronic devices may be used but they shall meet the above
Specification Of The Court

FIBA , the International Basketball Federation, is the world

governing body for basketball. Its acronym is formed from its
French name Fédération Internationale de Basketball that is
founded in 1932. This federation organizes and oversees
international competitions such as the Basketball World Cup, the
Olympic Basketball Tournament and the relatively young 3×3
Basketball. Included in their charter are the establishment of the
official basketball rules, specification of basketball equipment
and facilities required, transfer of athletes across 214 member
countries as well as the regulations that govern the relationships
between the different members of the basketball community. These
214 members are organized into five regional offices namely
Africa, Americas, Asia, Europe, and Oceania.

FIBA Playing Court (with Dimensions)

 The playing court shall have a flat, hard surface free from
obstructions with dimensions of 28 m in length by 15 m in
width measured from the inner edge of the boundary line. All
lines shall be drawn in white color, 5 cm in width, and clearly
visible. Also, team bench areas shall be marked outside the
playing court limited by 2 lines as shown in the image above
 The playing court shall be limited by the boundary line,
consisting of the endlines and the sidelines. These lines are not
part of the playing court.

 Any obstruction including seated team bench personnel shall

be at least 2 m from the playing court. The free-throw line
shall be drawn parallel to each end line. It shall have its
furthest edge 5.80 m from the inner edge of the end line and
shall be 3.60 m long. Its mid-point shall lie on the imaginary
line joining the mid-point of the 2 endlines.

 The restricted areas shall be the rectangular areas marked on

the playing court limited by the end lines, the extended free-
throw lines and the lines which originate at the end lines, their
outer edges being 2.45 m from the mid-point of the endlines
and terminating at the outer edge of the extended free-throw
lines. These lines, excluding the endlines, are part of the
restricted area. The inside of the restricted areas must be
painted in one colour.

 The 3-point field goal area shall be the entire floor area of
the playing court, except for the area near the opponents’
 basket, limited by and including the 2 parallel lines
extending from and perpendicular to the endline, with the
outer edge 0.90 m from the inner edge of the sidelines; and an
arc of radius 6.75 m measured from the point on the floor
beneath the exact centre of the opponents’ basket to the outer
edge of the arc. The distance of the point on the floor from the
inner edge of the mid-point of the endline is 1.575 m. The arc
is joined to the parallel lines. The 3-point line does not belong
to the 3-point area.

 The 2 lines of 0.15 m in length shall be marked outside the

playing court at the sideline opposite the scorer’s table, with
the outer edge of the lines 8.325 m from the inner edge of the
nearest end line. These are the throw-in lines.

Backstop units

It is a fixture consisting of backboards, baskets comprising rings

(with pressure release) and nets, and backboard support
structure including padding. Shown below is the diagram for
backstop unit.
Basket ring shall be made of solid steel and shall have an inside
diameter of a minimum of 450 mm and a maximum of 459 mm.
They shall be painted orange within the Natural Colour System
(NCS) FIBA approved spectrum and have its metal a minimum
of 16 mm and a maximum of 20 mm in diameter.
Backboard shall be made of transparent material, non-reflective
with a flat front surface and shall be have a protective framework
of the backboard support structure around the outer edge. That
backboard should be manufactured, such that, if broken, the pieces
of glass do not split off. Below are the more detailed dimension of
a backboard.
The outer surface of the ball shall be made of leather or
artificial/ composite/synthetic leather.
It should be spherical, with black seams not exceeding 6.35 mm in
width and, either of a single shade of orange or of a FIBA
approved colour combination.
It should be inflated to an air pressure such that, when it is
dropped onto the playing floor from a height of approximately
1,800 mm measured from the bottom of the ball, it will rebound to
a height of between 1,200 mm and 1,400 mm, measured to the top
of the ball, and be marked with its respective size number.
Game clock and Shot Clock

It should be a digital countdown clock with an automatic signal

sounding for the end of the period as soon as the display shows
zero (00:00.0).
It has the ability to indicate time remaining in minutes and
seconds; as well as tenths (1/10) of a second only during the last
minute of the period and be placed so that it is clearly visible to
everyone involved in the game, including the spectators.
The shot clock is a display unit with a digital countdown,
indicating the time in seconds only. It shall have the ability to be
started from twenty-four (24) seconds; started from fourteen
(14) seconds; stopped with the display indicating the seconds
remaining; restarted from the time at which it was stopped;
showing no display, if necessary.
Equipment Required
Basketball Equipment
Basketball can played with very little equipment. That is
why it has become one of the most popular sports to play in
the world. With a growing presence in the United States,
China, Europe, and many other countries, basketball has a
loyal fanbase that is only getting stronger. Basketball can be
played outdoors on asphalt and dirt or indoors on wooden
floors. If you're getting ready to play a pickup game, here's
a list of equipment you'll need to bring. We've included
pictures for each item, so you can make sure you have
everything you need to play.

• basketball court
• the ball
• hoop (i.e. rim, net, backboard)
• uniform
• shorts
• jersey
• shoes
• socks
• arm sleeve
• headband
• wristband
• towel
• whistle
• shot clock
• players

The Basketball Court

Basketball can be played on a court made of a variety of
surfaces and can be played indoors and outdoors. You can
play on concrete, wood, asphalt, and dirt. Any type of court
will work as long as you can bounce the ball repeatedly off
the ground.

The Key
Indoor basketball courts will have a key, also known as the
paint, that is used for shooting free throws and calling paint
violations. If you're playing outdoors at a park, you will
likely have to measure the distance to the free throw line

The Ball
You'll need a ball to play the game. Today, basketballs are
either made with synthetic materials such as rubber,
polyester, and nylon in combination with leather. In the
NBA, the pressure of the ball must be between 7.5 and 8.5
pounds. The size of the ball measures 29.5 inches around in
circumference. There are smaller sizes you can get for kids of
various ages between 12-14, 9-11, and 5-8 years old.
PRO TIP: Did you know that the NBA has up to nine game
balls present at all times for a single game?

The Hoop
There are two types of games you can play. If you're playing
pickup basketball, you can play half court with one hoop instead
of full court with two hoops. Basketball hoops consist of a
backboard, rim, net, and metal post that holds it up in the air.

The Backboard
An official NBA backboard made of transparent glass, but a
wooden or metal backboard will also work. In the NBA, the
backboard measures 6ft wide by 3.5ft tall. If you want to have a
fancy backboard, you can have it light up with red LEDs to match
when the shot clock expires
The Rim And Net
The basket and rim have a pressure release, that allows it to bend
when players dunk and hold onto it. The rim is a metal ring with
an 18in diameter. The ring is attached to the backboard 10ft above
the ground.
The Uniform
If you're going to play in a basketball game, make sure you
and your team has a great uniform. Basketball uniforms
consist of a jersey, shorts, a pair of socks. Optionally, you
can add your own personal touch to your uniform by adding
a headband or arm sleeve.
You should keep in mind that you may be required to have a
different uniform for home games versus away games. In
some leagues like the NCAA, the home team must wear
jerseys with light colors, while the away team must wear
jerseys with dark colors. These color differences prevent
confusion during play.

Basketball Jersey
The jersey is your identity. It includes your name on the back
and numerals on both the front and back that identify who
you are. On the front of a jersey is your team's logo and
branding. Jersey sizing comes in the traditional x-small,
small, medium, large, x-large, xx-large and take into
account your height, chest size, waist, and hips.
Throwback Jerseys
A throwback jersey is one that was worn by a famous player
or team in a previous season. Choosing a throwback jersey
that was worn by your favorite player might give you the
edge you were looking for on the court.
Check out a Michael Jordan throwback jersey or a Lebron
James throwback jersey. Old school jerseys like the original
Phoenix Suns jersey is always a great choice.
Basketball Shorts
Another piece of equipment that is essential to your uniform
are shorts. If you're playing outside in cold weather, you
may want to choose pants. However, if you're playing
indoors you'll want to stick with shorts since you'll start
sweating once you play. If you're playing in a league match,
the colors of your shorts should match your jersey. If you're
playing a pickup game, you can wear any colors you want
as long as the other team knows which side your own.

Basketball Socks
You may not think socks are important, but they prevent
friction between your feet and the shoes. Having a nice pair of
socks will prevent blisters from forming on your heels and
toes. There's also the never-ending debate on long socks
versus short socks. You should decide which one looks the
best for your look.
Basketball Shoes
A good pair of shoes will give you an edge on the court. They
will allow you to move laterally and perform quick cuts to
beat defensive players. Unfortunately, not all shoes are
created equal and you should try them on at the store to make
sure they fit comfortably. Some of the biggest brands are
Nike, Adidas, and Under Armor.

Remember: New basketball shoes may need some time to

break in until they are comfortable.

Basketball Arm Sleeves

Another optional piece of attire is an arm sleeve. Also known
as compression sleeves, this article of clothing not only looks
good, but it aids in muscle recovery on and off the court.

Basketball Headband
If you want to add a unique look to your personal style on
the court, try adding a headband. You can rock a traditional
cotton sweatband or use a branded dry fit bandana.
Whichever style you choose, you're going to look great.
Basketball Wristbands
In the NBA and college basketball, players must wear a
jersey with numerals, pants or shorts as part of their

Basketball Towels
If you sweat a lot, you'll want to bring a towel to the game.
There are many types of towels that range in size, color, and

Referee's Whistle
If you're a coach or referee, you'll want a whistle so you can
stop play. Blowing your whistle signals a dead ball. You
can blow your whistle on fouls, violations, or if a player
steps out of bounds.
The Shot Clock
A shot clock is a device that is used to keep track of the
amount of time the offense has the ball. The shot clock lasts
24 seconds in the NBA, and 30 seconds in college basketball.
It's a shot clock violation if the time runs out. You can
connect a shot clock to the backboard, so it will light up red
when the shot clock expires.

Basketball Players
Lastly, you'll want to make sure you bring other players to
play the game with. Basketball can be played in pickup
games one-on-one, up to five players on each team.
Important Tournaments

 Basketball at the Olympics

 Euro Basket

 FIBA Americas Championship

 FIBA World Championship

 FIBA Oceania Championship

Sports Personalities
Michael Jordan
 Nick Name: Air Jordan, MJ, His Airness, Money, Black
 Birthday: February 17, 1963
 Nationality: American
 Age: 56 Years, 56 Year Old Males
 Sun Sign: Aquarius
 Also Known As: Michael Jeffrey Jordan
 Born In: Brooklyn
 Famous As: Basketball Player
 Height: 6'6" (198 cm), 6'6" Males

Popularly known as "His Airness", or "Air Jordan", Michael

Jordan has won the hearts of millions of fans with his famous
dunk shot. The basketball legend, showed a knack for the game,
from the time he was in school. Having won several awards in
college for his prowess, he decided to compete in the 'NBA
Championships' at the age of twenty-one. Though not chosen on
the best 'NBA' teams, this talented player gave it his all as a
member of the 'Chicago Bulls'. This athlete proved to be a
match-turner, changing the fate of his team with his talent. From
a losing team, 'Chicago Bulls' began winning most of their
matches, and finally emerged victorious for six consecutive
championships. This remarkable player is considered a treat to
watch, and though he retired on two occasions, every time he
returned, it was to mesmerise the spectators.

LeBron James
 Nick Name: King James
 Birthday: December 30, 1984
 Nationality: American
 Age: 34 Years, 34 Year Old Males
 Sun Sign: Capricorn
 Also Known As: LeBron Raymone James
 Born In: Akron, Ohio
 Famous As: NBA Star
 Height: 6'8" (203 cm), 6'8" Males

Lebron James is an American professional basketball player.

He had a difficult childhood but showed tremendous talent
early in his life. As a freshman at St. Vincent-St. Mary’s High
School he was pivotal in leading his team to two consecutive
Division III State championships. He began attracting
national attention for his basketball skills and was equally
good at football in which he garnered All-state honors. He was
taken as the number one overall pick in the NBA draft by the
Cleveland Cavaliers. He became the youngest person in NBA
history to score 40 points in a game and became the youngest
person to win the Rookie of the Year award. He was
universally praised for his versatility, as he was used as a
point guard, shooting guard, and small forward. His highlight-
reel dunks and no-look passes thrilled his fans.
Dwyane Wade
 Birthday: January 17, 1982
 Nationality: American
 Age: 37 Years, 37 Year Old Males
 Sun Sign: Capricorn
 Also Known As: D-Wade, Flash, Dwyane Tyrone Wade,
Dwyane Tyrone Wade Jr.
 Born In: Chicago, Illinois, United States
 Famous As: NBA Basketball Star
 Height: 6'4" (193 cm), 6'4" Males

Dwyane Wade is an American star basketball player who

plays for the Chicago Bulls of NBA (National Basketball
Association). He started his professional career playing for
Miami Heat after getting drafted in 2003, and was named in
the All*Rookie team in the very first season. From being one of
the most well known basketball players in the world, Wade has
been through a tough and long journey. Countless hours he had
spent on the basketball court in college and school got him
honours such as 2006 NBA MVP and NBA scoring title. In
his third season playing for Miami Heat, he brought the
underrated team to a much respectable position and the team got
to their very first championship title since the start of the
franchise. In the 2008 Summer Olympics held in Beijing, Wade
represented his national team and played a major role in
earning his team the gold medal.
Giannis Antetokounmpo
 Nick Name: Greek Freak
 Birthday: December 6, 1994
 Nationality: Greek
 Age: 24 Years, 24 Year Old Males
 Sun Sign: Sagittarius
 Born In: Sepolia, Athens
 Famous As: Basketball Player
 Height: 6'11" (211 cm), 6'11" Males

Giannis Antetokounmpo, nicknamed the ‘Greek Freak’, is a Greek

basketball playe,r who also represents the NBA basketball
team, ‘Milwaukee Bucks’. He started his professional career by
signing up to play for the junior squad of the Filathlitikos B.C.,
a Greek professional basketball club. Soon after, he became a
member of Filathlitikos’s senior squad. Antetokounmpo excelled
in all departments of the sport, including rebounds, assists, and
blocks. His unusual and extraordinary sporting skills attracted
the attention of topnotch clubs in Europe. ‘CAI Zaragoza’, a
Spanish club, contracted him for 4 years at € 4, 00,000 per
year. However, Antetokounmpo did not get the opportunity to
play for Zaragoza as he was picked up by Milwaukee Bucks
as a preliminary draft just when he would have taken the field
for the Spanish squad. Since his contract with Zaragoza
incorporated a default escape condition, he qualified to play for
Milwaukee Bucks.
Stephen Curry
 Birthday: March 14, 1988
 Nationality: American
 Age: 31 Years, 31 Year Old Males
 Sun Sign: Pisces
 Also Known As: Steph Curry, Steph, Wardell Stephen Curry
 Born In: Akron, Ohio, United States
 Famous As: Basketball Player
 Height: 6'3" (190 cm), 6'3" Males

Stephen Curry is an American professional basketball player

who represents the Golden State Warriors in NBA. The first
child of one of the best 3-point shooters in NBA history, Dell
Curry, he has been named the greatest shooter by many players,
as well as analysts. He has won the 'NBA Most Valuable
Player Award' twice in a row, including one unanimous win, a
first in NBA history. He led the Warriors to their first
championship in four decades, and also helped his team break
the record for the most wins in an NBA season. He earned the
Southern Conference 'Player of the Year' title twice by setting
the all-time scoring record for both Davidson and the Southern
Conference. He also set the NCAA record for most three-pointers
made in a season during his second year in college.
Yadwinder Singh
The ONGC forward is one of the few experienced campaigners in
an otherwise young squad. Yadwinder has already played in
three editions of the FIBA Asian Championships (2011, 2013,
and 2015), which is why his vast experience of playing
physically stronger foreign teams will be crucial for the younger
Despite being one of the older players, at 29, Yadwinder is a
powerhouse of energy on the court. His tremendous pace and
stamina could be crucial for India to convert their turnovers into
points against their opponents.
To add to that, Yadwinder is known to be one of the most vocal
players on the pitch, always looking to get on the ball, and create
Prasanna Venkatesh
He might be just 23-years-old, but Prasanna Venkatesh has
already been on the Indian circuit for some time now. The Tamil
Nadu cager was introduced to the sport at a relatively early age,
after he joined a sports hostel in Neyvelli, when he was in the
eighth standard.
He was later picked up by Indian Overseas Bank, when he was
in his teens, as he had started showing his talent.
Being one of the best hustlers in the country, Prasanna is one of
the few players who genuinely enjoy defending. His endless
energy and stamina only help to add to his game. Prasanna’s
contribution as a guard could be important to India against
strong opponents like the Philippines.
Vishesh Bhriguvanshi
The 25-year-old is one of the most influential players in the
Indian team. He has already captained the Indian side in last
year’s FIBA Asia Championship, and could play a crucial role
in inspiring the youngsters in the Indian squad.
Bhriguvanshi, who hails from the holy city of Varanasi, is one of
the most versatile players on the court. Being able to operate as
both, a forward and a guard, the ONGC cager will be a crucial
addition to the Indian team.
The Varanasi-born lad has the uncanny ability to thread good
passes to his teammates, in order to set them up for the baskets. In
fact, he had the second highest assists count (4.8 per game) in
last year’s FIBA Asia Championship.
Amritpal Singh
Standing at seven feet tall, Amritpal Singh is the tallest player in
the Indian side. However, unlike last year, the Japan-based
center has been given a much bigger role in the team. Coach Sat
Prakash Yadav has made the big man his captain this time round.
Amritpal has indeed become one of the best Indian cagers in the
modern era, honing his skills in the professional National
Basketball Development League (NBDL) in Japan.
In fact, Amritpal and Amjyot Singh have gone on to become the
first ever Indians to play basketball professionally in Japan.
The duo, has helped Tokyo Excellence win the NBDL, earlier this
India will depend on the seven-foot cager to get both the offensive
and the defensive rebounds.
Satnam Singh Bhamara
Satnam Singh Bhamara is a well-known Indian basketball
player currently playing for the Dallas Mavericks. He got into
the NBA after being drafted during the 2015 NBA draft,
making him the first Indian player to be drafted into the NBA.
He is known for his unusual height of 7 feet 2 inches. Born in a
village in Punjab, India, Singh was raised in a family of
farmers and millers. By the age of nine, Singh was already
taller than most of the adults in his village. Taking advantage
of this, his father took him to a local basketball court with the
intent of encouraging him to pursue a career in the sport. Over
the next few years, he took part in youth leagues in Punjab,
where he easily dominated his opponents. He continued to
further develop his skills at the Ludhiana Basketball Academy.
After Singh led the Punjab youth team to a national
championship, he was chosen by the Basketball Federation of
India to play at an NBA ‘Basketball without Borders’ Camp.
His skills received massive appreciation and he was soon
selected for a scholarship under the IMGR basketball training
academy, following which he moved to Florida, USA.
Eventually he made his way into the NBA and has also
represented the Indian national Basketball Team on multiple
.Fundamental Skills
1. Dribbling - is important to penetrate to the hoop, move the
ball across the court, get away from the defense, and find a
good passing lane. There are different types of dribbles:

• change-of-pace,
• crossover dribble,
• behind the back,
• pull back dribble,
• low dribble,
• basic dribble,
• between the legs dribble
2. Passing - A good offensive attack requires good passing
from players. This helps find an open man, to find a good
shooter or to get away from a defender. There are several
types of passes you need to learn:

• Overhead Pass
• Chest Pass
• Push Pass
• Baseball Pass
• Off-the-Dribble Pass
• Bounce Pass

3.Shooting - The object of the game is to win by scoring the

most points. Therefore, improving the team's shooting is
important to win a game. There are several ways to score in
the game:

• Jump Shot
• Dunk
• Alley oop
• Free throw
• Layup
• Three-Point Shot
• Hook Shot

4. Rebounding - is essential to gain or regain possession

after the shot. Usually, the team who has the most number of
rebounds after the game has more shot attempts and chances
to score.

5. Offense - is the only chance that the team has a shot at the
basket and scoring. Playing a good offense requires
coordination among players and individual skill to execute
well plays.

6. Defense - To be able to get a chance to score and gain

possession, the team should play good defense and try to
stop their opponent from scoring. As said, "A good defense is
a good offense."

7. Moves - There are different kinds of basketball moves that

are important in executing both a good offense and a good
defense. Moves are helpful in finding an open man, make a
good shot or create an amazing play.
8. Violations - Knowing the kinds of basketball violations
improves your game.

9. Assist - is given to a teammate to help him score easily.

Thus is it important to find an open man on the court

10. Foul - is often an accidental contact made by the defender

to his opponent or an aggressive move by the ball-handler
towards his defender. However, a foul is also used as a
strategy to stop the clock or to keep the shooting player from
scoring easily. Learning how to use your fouls well is
important in the game.
Warming up And Cooling Down
 Warm Up
A good warm-up should increase body temperature and heart
rate. It should also reduce muscle stiffness and prepare athletes
for competition. Warm-ups also help the blood vessels dilate and
thus reduces the resistance to blood flow. It improves efficient
cooling and range of motion. It is essential for mental preparation
for the players. Here are a few exercises that make up a good
warm-up for a basketball player:

Individual Warm Up(10-20 minutes)

Allow players to both physically and mentally prepare
Example: Self-massage, ankle and foot exercises, skipping and

Cardio Warm-up(5-10 minutes)

Raise the heart rate
Include fun and engaging exercises
Dynamic Stretching(5 minutes)

Single leg balancing: You should stand to look

forward with your right arm in front of your torso with
your right leg slightly raised from the ground. Initiate
the exercise by flexing the hip, hinging your torso down
and keeping your legs slightly bent. Extend your free leg
backward for balance while you reach for your left foot
with your right hand. Return to starting position after a
pause and repeat after switching sides.

 Knee hugs: Sit down with your knees bent while hugging
it. Lift your feet off the floor. Continue by opening your
arms and extend your legs to a 45-degree angle and lean
back. Lift your torso, bend your knees and return to
starting position.

 Can openers: First lay on one side of your body and

hold your head up while supporting it with your hand to
maintain balance. Take a deep breath and raise your
heel up while your knee should be positioned at 45-
degree angle to the rest of your body. Then start to move
your hand from one side to another while the rest of your
body should be stiff.
Side Lunges: Start by standing straight with your feet
apart (shoulder width) and step out to the side and
transfer your body weight to that leg. Use your feet to
push you back to the starting position and repeat the

 Sumo Squats: Start by standing straight with your feet

shoulder-width apart. Hold a dumbbell in each of your
hand in front of your hips. Bend down in a squat
position while pushing your hips back and keeping your
knees facing outwards. Simultaneously bring the
dumbbells down to the floor and hold them in between
your legs. Then stand up and repeat the exercise.
Image result for sumo squat

Speed (2-5 minutes)

Move in multiple directions and combinations

After the warm-up, the player can proceed with playing

the game. The cooldown is as essential and important as
the warm-up. The cooldown acts as a reset for the next
practice or game. It also reduces the chances of causing
the player damage. It allows the heart rate to return to
normal and gradually slows breathing. Helps to prevent
muscle soreness and improves relaxation. Most
cooldowns last 3-10 minutes and include shower, gentle
movements, and stretching exercises.
 Cool down
1. Walking

2. Brisk walking

3. Standing stretches

4. Deep breathing or yoga style Shavasana

Ankle rotations: Point your toes towards the ceiling and then
slowly start rotating the foot in a full circle. Do not move the leg,
so that the rotation happens only at the joint of the ankle. Repeat
with your other leg.

Double hip rotation: Lie on your back with your knees bent. Then
proceed to gently lower both knees to one side as far as possible.
Hold the position for 10-30 seconds. Then bring them back to the
centre and repeat.

Static exercises are more appropriate to the cool down as they

help muscles relax, the realignment of the muscle fibres and the
re-establishment of their normal range of movement.
Basketball Terminology
By far the most amusing basketball term to say out loud,
the alley-oop refers to a high pass near the rim of the basket that
another player dunks or tips in. The word ultimately comes from
a french exclamation “allez-hop!”, used to encourage or draw
attention to an athletic feat such as a leap or lift upwards.
Buzzer beater
When a player takes a shot before the end of quarter buzzer but it
goes into the basket after the buzzer has gone off, you would refer
to that shot as a buzzer beater.

Although it is tempting to somehow ascribe this strategy to the
tallest player on the court, cherry-pickingactually describes the
strategy of a player who does little defensively and instead waits
around the opponent’s basket for scoring opportunities. A
controversial tactic, cherry-picking is often a violation in amateur
leagues and results in a penalty.

A double is a statistic that refers to a player accumulating double
digits in any one of 5 categories during a
game: points, assists, steals, blocked shots, and rebounds. When
someone refers to a double-double, this means that they have
doubles in two of the five categories; triple-double means the
player has doubles in three of the five, etc.
Fast break
The fast break is an offensive strategy that involves moving the
ball up the court as quickly as possible, with the goal of getting in
position for scoring opportunities before the defense is allowed to
set up. A fast break sometimes involves cherry-picking.

Field goal
Nope, not football—still basketball. A field goal is the term to
describe both two- and three-point shots, excluding free throws.
The field goal percentage of a player or team looks at the total
number of baskets made to shots taken.

Full-court press
A full-court press is when a team plays defense for the entire
length of the court (rather than just on the half-court). This
defense is sometimes deployed by teams for the entirety of a game,
but is more often seen when a team is trailing late in the game and
trying to force turnovers.

The two rectangle-shaped keys on a basketball court (one directly
in front of and partly beneath each basket) are defined by the end
line, the free-throw line, and the two lines that connect them.
Officially called the free throw lane, the area is also called
the paint.

Pick and roll

The pick and roll is one of the most common offensive plays. The
play typically starts with the member of the offense who is in
possession of the ball being guarded by a member of the defense.
Another member of the offense then comes up behind the defensive
player and sets a screen, or “pick,” behind the player. The ball-
handler then “rolls” around his teammate, leaving the defender to
choose between defending the player who picked him or continuing
to defend the ball-handler.

Posting up
Posting up describes when a player on the offense sets up close to
the basket below the foul line, usually facing away from the
basket with his back is to the defender. This positioning allows him
to use his body to protect the ball, as well as open up different
sorts of scoring opportunities.

run-and-gun refers to a fast-paced offensive style emphasizing
fast breaks and scoring opportunities. Typically, teams playing
with a run and gun offense both score and allow lots of points.
Sixth man
With five players on the court for a team at the same time,
the sixth man refers to the first non-starting player off the bench,
who is considered more valuable than other reserve players.

Triple threat
When a player first receives a ball and has not yet dribbled, she is
considered a triple threat, meaning that she can either pass, shoot,
or dribble (the full range of offensive options).

Turnover describes any of the various ways in which possession of
the ball moves from one team to another.
Common Basketball Injuries
Ankle Sprains

Treatment for an ankle sprain involves rest, ice, compression, and

elevation (RICE). The need for X-rays and evaluation by a
physician is determined on a caseby- case basis and depends on
the severity and location of pain. Pain and swelling over the bone
itself may need further evaluation. An injury to the ankle in a
child who is still growing could represent a simple sprain or could
be the result of an injury to the growth plates located around the
ankle and should be evaluated by a physician.

Jammed Fingers

Jammed fingers occur when the ball contacts the end of the finger
and causes significant swelling of a single joint. Application of
ice and buddy taping the finger to the adjacent finger may provide
some relief and allow the athlete to return to play. If pain and
swelling persist, evaluation by a physician or athletic trainer is
recommended and an x-ray of the finger may be needed.
Knee Injuries

Basketball requires extensive stop and go and cutting maneuvers

which can put the ligaments and menisci of the knee at risk.
Injury to the medial collateral ligament is most common
following a blow to the outside of the knee and can be often be
treated with ice, bracing and a gradual return to activity.

An injury to the anterior cruciate ligament is a more serious injury

and can occur with an abrupt change in direction and landing for
the jump. Although this ligament tear is most commonly a
seasonending injury that requires corrective surgery, current
techniques used to repair the ACL ligament generally allow the
player to return to play the following season.

Deep Thigh Bruising

Treatment includes rest, ice, compression, and elevation.

Commercially available girdles with thigh pads are now available
for protection.
Facial Cuts

Depending on the depth of the injury, the cut may require stitches
or a "butterfly" sterile tape. Ice may provide pain relief and
decrease swelling. Players can return to play after all blood is
removed and the wound is dressed.

Stress Fractures

Stress fractures can occur from a rapid increase in activity level or

training or from overtraining. Stress fractures in basketball most
commonly occur in the foot and lower leg (tibia). Once diagnosed,
a period of immobilization and non-weight bearing is
recommended. Return to play is permitted once the fracture has
completely healed and the athlete is pain free.



History Of Athletics
A copy of the Ancient Greek statue Disco bolus,
portraying a discus thrower
Athletic contests in running, walking, jumping and
throwing are among the oldest of all sports and
their roots are prehistoric. Athletics events were
depicted in the Ancient Egyptian tombs in Saqqara,
with illustrations of running at the Heb Sed
festival and high jumping appearing in tombs from
as early as of 2250 BC. The Tailteann Games were
an ancient Celtic festival in Ireland, founded circa
1800 BC, and the thirty-day meeting included
running and stone-throwing among its sporting
events. The original and only event at the first
Olympics in 776 BC was a stadium-length running
event known as the stadion. This later expanded to
include throwing and jumping events within the
ancient pentathlon. Athletics competitions also
took place at other Panhellenic Games, which were
founded later around 500 BC.
Modern era
The Cotswold Olimpick Games, a sports festival
which emerged in 17th century England, featured
athletics in the form of sledgehammer throwing
contests.Annually, from 1796 to 1798, L'Olympiade
de la République was held in revolutionary France
and is an early forerunner to the modern summer
Olympic Games. The premier event of this
competition was a running event, but various
ancient Greek disciplines were also on display. The
1796 Olympiade marked the introduction of the
metric system into the sport.Athletics competitions
were held about 1812 at the Royal Military College,
Sandhurst, and in 1840 in Shrewsbury, Shropshire
at the Royal Shrewsbury School Hunt. The Royal
Military Academy at Woolwich held an organized
competition in 1849, and a regular series of closed
meetings open only to undergraduates was held by
Exeter College, Oxford from 1850. The annual
Wenlock Olympian Games, first held in 1850 in
Wenlock, England, incorporated athletics events
into its sports programme.
The first modern-style indoor athletics meetings
were recorded shortly after in the 1860s, including
a meet at Ashburnham Hall in London which
featured four running events and a triple jump
The Amateur Athletic Association (AAA) was
established in England in 1880 as the first national
body for the sport of athletics and began holding
its own annual athletics competition – the AAA
Championships. The United States also began
holding an annual national competition – the USA
Outdoor Track and Field Championships – first
held in 1876 by the New York Athletic Club.
Athletics became codified and standardized via the
English AAA and other general sports organizations
in the late 19th century, such as the Amateur
Athletic Union (founded in the US in 1888) and the
Union des sociétés françaises de sports athlétiques
(founded in France in 1889).
An athletics competition was included in the first
modern Olympic Games in 1896 and it has been as
one of the foremost competitions at the
quadrennial multi-sport event ever since.
Originally for men only, the 1928 Olympics saw the
introduction of women's events in the athletics
programme. Athletics is part of the Paralympic
Games since the inaugural Games in 1960.
Athletics has a very high-profile during major
championships, especially the Olympics, but
otherwise is less popular.
An international governing body, the International
Amateur Athletics Federation (IAAF), was founded
in 1912; it adopted its current name, the
International Association of Athletics Federations,
in 2001. The IAAF established separate outdoor
World Championships in 1983. In modern times,
athletes can receive money for racing, putting an
end to the so-called "amateurism" that existed
The Comité International Sports des Sourds had
been formed by 1922, to govern international deaf
sports, including athletics.
The first organized international competitions for
athletes with a physical disability (not deaf) began
in 1952 when the first international Stoke
Mandeville Games were organized for World War
II veterans. This only included athletes in a
wheelchair. This inspired the first Paralympic
Games, held in 1960.
Track And Field Events
Track and field competitions emerged in the late
19th century and were typically contested between
athletes who were representing rival educational
institutions, military organisations and sports
clubs. Participating athletes may compete in one or
more events, according to their specialities. Men
and women compete separately. Track and field
comes in both indoor and outdoor formats, with
most indoor competitions occurring in winter,
while outdoor events are mostly held in summer.
The sport is defined by the venue in which the
competitions are held – the track and field

 sprints (100m, 200m, 400m),

 middle distance (800m, 1500m)

 long distance (3000m Steeplechase, 5000m,


 hurdles (110/100m, 400m)

 relays (4x100m, 4x400m)

 Long Jump

 High Jump

 Triple Jump

 Pole Vault

 Discus

 Shot put

 Javelin

 Hammer Throw

 Walking Events
Race walking is a special long-distance race event
in which the participants must walk as fast as they
can, while they are expected to maintain good
form. The competitors are penalized for bending
the knee as it passes under the body or having no
foot-to-ground contact.
The men compete in both 20km and 50km events,
women only in the 20km event.
 Marathon
The marathon is a long-distance running event,
taking place over a course of 42.195km or (26
miles & 385 yds.) in length.

The marathon was originally conceived as a race

for the 1896 Olympics in Athens, commemorating
the run of the soldier Pheidippides from a
battlefield at the site of the town of Marathon,
Greece, to Athens in 490 B.C. Legend has it that
Pheidippides delivered the momentous message
"Niki!" ("victory"), then collapsed and died.

The unusual distance of the marathon is a result of

the 1908 Olympic Games in London where the race
distance was changed to 26 miles to cover the
ground from Windsor Castle to White City
Stadium, with 385 yards added on so the race
could finish in front of royal family's viewing box.
Combined Events
Decathlon combines four runs, three jumps, and
three throws.

Men's records
Kevin Mayer 9126 pts (2018)
Women's records
Austra Skujytė 8358 pts (2005)

A decathlon is a combined event in athletics

consisting of ten track and field events. Events are
held over two consecutive days and the winners
are determined by the combined performance in
all. Performance is judged on a points system in
each event, not by the position achieved. The
decathlon is contested mainly by male athletes,
while female athletes typically compete in the
Traditionally, the title of "World's Greatest
Athlete" has been given to the person who wins the
decathlon, thus the world's greatest athlete of all
times is the record man of decathlon (Kevin Mayer
as of September 2018). This began when King
Gustav V of Sweden told Jim Thorpe, "You, sir, are
the world's greatest athlete" after Thorpe won the
decathlon at the Stockholm Olympics in 1912. The
official decathlon world record holder is French
Kevin Mayer, who scored 9,126 points at the 2018
The event developed from the ancient pentathlon.
Pentathlon competitions were held at the ancient
Greek Olympics. Pentathlons involved five
disciplines – long jump, discus throw, javelin
throw, sprint and a wrestling match. Introduced in
Olympia during 708 BC, the competition was
extremely popular for many centuries. By the sixth
century BC, pentathlons had become part of
religious games. A ten-event competition known as
the "all-around" or "all-around" championship,
similar to the modern decathlon, was first
contested at the United States amateur
championships in 1884 and reached a consistent
form by 1890.
An all-around was held at the 1904 Summer
Olympics, though whether it was an official
Olympic event has been disputed .The modern
decathlon first appeared on the Olympic athletics
program at the 1912 Games in Stockholm.

Events -
 100 m
 Long jump
 Shot put
 High jump
 Javelin throw
 1500 m

Men's records

BENEDETTI Nicola (ITA) 6000 Pts

Women's records
Lena SCHÖNEBORN (GER) 5600 pts

The foundation of the modern pentathlon is

disputed. On the one hand, Baron Pierre de
Coubertin, the founder of the modern Olympic
Games, claimed authorship.On the other hand,
Viktor Balck, the President of the Organizing
Committee for the 1912 Games, showed that he
made use of the long tradition of Swedish military
multi-sports events, to create a manageable
modern pentathlon.
The name derives from the Greek péntathlon
"contest of five events". The addition of modern to
the name distinguishes it from the original
pentathlon of the ancient Olympic Games, which
consisted of the stadion foot race, wrestling, long
jump, javelin, and discus. As the events of the
ancient pentathlon were modeled after the skills of
the ideal soldier to defend a castle of that time,
Coubertin created the contest to simulate the
experience of a 19th-century cavalry soldier behind
enemy lines: he must ride an unfamiliar horse,
fight enemies with pistol and sword, swim, and
run to return to his own soldiers. In the 1912
Games, with only officers competing, they were,
however, permitted to use their own horses. Up to
the 1952 Olympics the ordinary cavalry soldier was
considered a professional athlete, as he was riding
and training horses for a living, while the officer
was the amateur. As long as there was no official
international federation for Modern Pentathlon an
IOC committee was set up for the sport making use
of the expertise of IOC members.
The event was first held at the 1912 Olympic
Games, and was won by Swedish athlete Gösta
Lilliehöök. The modern pentathlon has been on the
Olympic program continuously since 1912. A team
event was added to the Olympic Games in 1952 and
discontinued in 1992. After much lobby work of the
President of the German Modern Pentathlon
Federation Prof. Wilhelm Henze, women were for
the first time admitted on a trial basis at the World
Championships in San Antonio in 1977, and at the
official world championships in 1981.An event for
women was added in 2000. A World Championship
is held every year.

Events -
 Fencing
 freestyle swimming
 equestrian show jumping
 pistol shooting
 cross country running
A heptathlon is a track and field combined
events contest made up of seven events. A
competitor in a heptathlon is referred to as a

There are two heptathlons – the women's

heptathlon and the men's – composed of
different events. The men's heptathlon is older
and is held indoors, while the women's is held
outdoors and was introduced in the 1980s, first
appearing in the Olympics in 1984.

Women’s Events - Mens’s Events-

 100 Metres Hurdles 60 meters

 High Jump Long Jump
 Shot Put Shot Put
 200 Metres High Jump
 Long Jump Pole Vault
 Javelin Throw 1000 Meters
 800 Metres
Arjuna Awardees-Athletics
S.NO. Name Year of Award

1 Shri.Naaraj Chopra 2018

Shri.Gubedar Jinson 2018

3 Shri.Hima Das 2018

4 Shri Makhan Singh 1964

5 Shri K.L. Pawel 1965

6 Shri Ajmer Singh 1966

7 Shri B.S. Barua 1966

8 Shri Parveen Kumar 1967

9 Shri Bhim Singh 1967

10 Capt. Joginder Singh 1968

11 Km. Manjit Walia 1968

12 Hav. Harnek Singh 1969

13 Shri Mohinder Singh Gill 1970

14 Shri Edward Squeria 1971

15 Shri Vijay Singh Chauhan 1972

16 Hav. Sriram Singh 1973

17 Shri. T.C. Yohanan 1974

18 Shri. S.S. Rajput 1974

19 Inspector H. Chand 1975

20 Km. V.A. Bai 1975

Indian Athletics Record

Record ATHLETE Date Meet Place

10.26 (+1.2 m/s 28 April National New Delhi,
) 2016 Federation India
Anil Kumar 5 July Bangalore,
10.21 X
Prakash 2000 India

20.66 (+1.0 m/s Dharambir 7 June Wuhan,
) Singh 2015 China

200 20.45 (+1.0 m/s Dharambir 11 July 3rd Indian Bangalore,

m )X Singh 2016 Grand Prix India

Jablonec nad
20.63 (+1.5 m/s Muhammed 15 August
Nisou, Czech
) Anas 2018

Muhammed 15 May Indian Grand

45.32 Delhi, India
Anas 2017 Prix

Muhammed 10 April Commonwealt Gold Coast,

400 45.31
Anas 2018 h Games Australia

Cena Noveho Nové Město

Muhammed 21 July
45.24 Mesta nad nad Metují,
Anas 2018
Metuji meet Czech Republic
Sriram 27 July Olympic Montreal,
Singh 1976 Games Canada

m JinsonJohns Inter State
on 27 June Guwahati,
1:45.65 Senior
2018 India

26 World
Joseph Osaka,
49.51 August Championshi
Abraham Japan
2007 ps

Ayyasamy 8 March Patiala,
49.45 Cup Indian
Dharun 2018 India
400 ps
les 27
Ayyasamy Jakarta,
48.96 August Asian Games
Dharun Indonesia

58th National
28 Open
Avinash Bhubaneswa
8:29.80 Septembe Athletics
Sable r, India
r 2018 Championshi


a Molla
100 12
Suresh Commonweal New Delhi,
m 38.89 October
Sathya th Games India
rela 2010
A. Qureshi

10 29:43 30 [21]
Kashinath Hyderabad,
km Novembe
run Aswale r 2008 India

Race Events

Nitendra 19
mar Delhi Half New Delhi,
1:03:53 Singh Novembe
atho Marathon India
Rawat r 2017

Shivnath 28 May Jalandhar,
atho 2:12:00
Singh 1978 India

Field Events

Tejaswin National Coimbatore,
2.26 m Novembe
Shankar Championshi India
r 2016

High Federation
Tejaswin 7 March Patiala,
jump 2.28 m Cup Indian
Shankar 2018 India

Texas Tech
Tejaswin 27 April Lubbock,
2.29 m Corky/Crofoo
Shankar 2018 United States
t Shootout

8.19 26th G.
Ankit 26 June Almaty,
m (+0.1 m/ Kosanov
Sharma 2016 Kazakhstan
s) Memorial
Sreeshanka 58th National Bhubaneswa
8.20 m Septembe Open
r Murali r, India
r 2018 Athletics

Triple Renjith 11 July 3rd Indian Bangalore,
m (+1.8 m/
jump Maheswary 2016 Grand Prix India

Om Prakash 12 May Szombathely

20.69 m SU-DI-KA Cub
Karhana 2012 , Hungary
Tejinder Jakarta,
20.75 m August Asian Games
Toor Indonesia

Old Style
Discus Vikas 12 April Norman,
66.28 m Discus
throw Gowda 2012 United States

56th National
Neeraj 29 June Interstate Hyderabad,
70.73 m
Kumar 2016 Championshi India
Hamme ps
r throw

Kamalpreet 21 May Tucson Elite Tucson,

72.86 m #
Singh 2015 Classic United States

World Junior
Neeraj 23 July Bydgoszcz,
86.48 m Championshi
Chopra 2016 Poland

Javelin Neeraj 4 May Diamond

87.43 m Doha, Qatar
throw Chopra 2018 League

Neeraj Jakarta,
88.06 m August Asian Gamesa
Chopra Indonesia
Combined events

Bharatinder 11–12 June Indian Inter-State Bangalore,

Decat 7658 pts Singh 2011 Championships India

World Records Of Athletics



100m 9.58 Usain BOLT JAM Berlin, GER 16 Aug 09

20 Aug
200m 19.19 Usain BOLT JAM Berlin, GER 09

Rio de
400m 43.03 Wayde van NIEKERK RSA BRA 14 Aug 16

1:40.9 London,
800m 1 David Lekuta RUDISHA KEN GBR 9 Aug 12

1000m 6 Noah NGENY KEN Rieti, ITA 5 Sep 99

1500m 0 Hicham EL GUERROUJ MAR Roma, ITA 14 Jul 98


High Jump 2.45 Javier SOTOMAYOR CUB ESP 27 Jul 93

Pole Vault 6.16i Renaud LAVILLENIE FRA 15 Feb 14


Long Jump 8.95 Mike POWELL USA Tokyo, JPN 30 Aug 91

Triple Jump 18.29 Jonathan EDWARDS GBR SWE 7 Aug 95

Angeles, 20 May
Shot Put 23.12 Randy BARNES USA USA 90

Discus Throw 74.08 Jürgen SCHULT GDR burg, GDR 6 Jun 86

Hammer Stuttgart, 30 Aug

Throw 86.74 Yuriy SEDYKH URS FRG 86

25 May
Javelin Throw 98.48 Jan ŽELEZNÝ CZE Jena, GER 96

Ashton EATON

(10.23 (-0.4), 7.88 (+0.0), 28/29

Decathlon 9045 14.52, 2.01, 45.00WDB, USA Beijing Aug 15

13.69 (-0.2), 43.34, 5.20,

63.63, 4:17.52)


1:17:2 ME 7 May
20,000m 5.6 Bernardo SEGURA X Bergen, NOR 94

2:01:4 3 Oct
30,000m 4.1 Maurizio DAMILANO ITA Cuneo, ITA 92


4 x 100m 36.84 JAM London, GBR

Nesta CARTER; Michael 11 Aug

Usain BOLT

1:18.6 24 May
Nickel ASHMEADE, Warren
4 x 200m 3 WEIR, Jermaine JAM Nassau, BAH 14



5km - - - - -

KE 26 Sep
10km 26:44 Leonard Patrick KOMON N Utrecht, NED 10

21 Mar
Half Marathon 58:23 Zersenay TADESE ERI Lisboa, POR 10

2:02: KE 28 Sep
Marathon 57 Dennis Kipruto KIMETTO N Berlin, GER 14


100m 10.49 Florence GRIFFITH-JOYNER USA USA 16 Jul 88

200m 21.34 Florence GRIFFITH-JOYNER USA Seoul,KOR 29 Sep 88

400m 47.60 Marita KOCH GDR Canberra,AUS 6 Oct 85

800m 1:53.28 Jarmila KRATOCHVILOVA TCH Munchen,FRG 26 Jul 83

1000m 2:28.98 Svetlana MASTERKOVA RUS Bruxelles,BEL 23 Aug 96

1500m 3:50.07 Genzebe DIBABA ETH Monaco,MON 17 Jul 15


High Jump 2.09 Stefka KOSTADINOVA BUL Roma, ITA 30 Aug 87

Pole Vault 5.06 RUS Zurich, SUI 28 Aug 09


Long Jump 7.52 Galina CHISTYAKOVA URS URS 11 Jun 88

Triple Jump 15.50 Inessa KRAVETS UKR Göteborg, SWE 10 Aug 95

Shot Put Natalya Lisovskaya URS Moskva, URS 7 Jun 87

Discus Throw 82.98 Gabriele REINSCH GDR rg, GDR 9 Jul 88

Hammer Throw 72.28 Anita WLODARCZYK POL Stuttgart, FRG 28 Aug 16

Javelin Throw 72.28 Barbora ŠPOTÁKOVÁ CZE Stuttgart, GER 13 Sep 08


14/15 Apr
Austra SKUJYTE 05

Decathlon 8358 (12.49, 46.19, 3.10, 48.78, 57.19, LTU Columbia, USA

14.22, 6.12, 16.42, 1.78, 5:15.86)


10,000m 3 Nadezhda RYASHKINA URS Seattle, USA 24 Jul 90

20,000m .3 Olimpiada IVANOVA RUS Brisbane, AUS 6 Sep 01


Tianna MADISON; Allyson FELIX;

4 x 100m Bianca

40.82 KNIGHT; Carmelita JETER London, GBR 10 Aug 12


LaTasha JENKINS, LaTasha 29 Apr

4 x 200m COLANDER- 00

RICHARDSON, Nanceen PERRY, Philadelphia,

1:27.46 Marion USA USA



5km - - - - -

10km 29:43 Joyciline JEPKOSGEI KEN Prague, CZE 9 Sep 17

Half Marathon 1:04:51 Joyciline JEPKOSGEI KEN Valencia, ESP 22 Oct 17

Marathon 2:15:25 Paula RADCLIFFE GBR London, GBR 13 Apr 03

Paralympic Games
The Paralympic Games is a very major
international multi-sport event involving athletes
with a range of disabilities, including impaired
muscle power (e.g. paraplegia and quadriplegia
muscular dystrophy, post-polio syndrome, spina
bifida), impaired passive range of movement, limb
deficiency (e.g. amputation or dysmelia), leg
length difference, short stature, hypertonia, ataxia,
athetosis, vision impairment and intellectual
impairment. There are Winter and Summer
Paralympic Games, which since the 1988 Summer
Games in Seoul, South Korea, are held almost
immediately following the respective Olympic
Games. All Paralympic Games are governed by the
International Paralympic Committee (IPC).

The Paralympics has grown from a small gathering

of British World War II veterans in 1948 to become
one of the largest international sporting events by
the early 21st century. The Paralympics has grown
from 400 athletes with a disability from 23
countries in 1960 to thousands of competitors from
over 100 countries in the London 2012 Games.
Paralympians strive for equal treatment with non-
disabled Olympic athletes, but there is a large
funding gap between Olympic and Paralympic

The Paralympic Games are organized in parallel

with the Olympic Games, while the IOC-recognized
Special Olympics World Games include athletes
with intellectual disabilities, and the Deaflympics
include deaf athletes.
Given the wide variety of disabilities that
Paralympic athletes have, there are several
categories in which the athletes compete. The
allowable disabilities are broken down into ten
eligible impairment types. The categories are
impaired muscle power, impaired passive range of
movement, limb deficiency, leg length difference,
short stature, hypertonia, ataxia, athetosis, vision
impairment and intellectual impairment. These
categories are further broken down into
classifications, which vary from sport to sport.
Name And Symbols
Although the name was originally coined as a
portmanteau combining "paraplegic" (due to its
origins as games for people with spinal injuries)
and "Olympic," the inclusion of other disability
groups meant that this was no longer considered
very accurate. The present formal explanation for
the name is that it derives from the Greek
preposition παρά, pará ("beside" or "alongside")
and thus refers to a competition held in parallel
with the Olympic Games. The Summer Games of
1988 held in Seoul was the first time the term
"Paralympic" came into official use.
“Spirit in Motion” is the motto for the Paralympic
The symbol for the Paralympics contains three
colours, red, blue, and green, which are the colours
most widely represented in the flags of nations.
The colours are each in the shape of an Agito
(which is Latin for "I move"), which is the name
given to an asymmetrical crescent specially
designed for the Paralympic movement. The three
Agitos circle a central point, which is a symbol for
the athletes congregating from all points of the
globe. The motto and symbol of the IPC were
changed in 2003 to their current versions. The
change was intended to convey the idea that
Paralympians have a spirit of competition and that
the IPC as an organization realizes its potential
and is moving forward to achieve it. The vision of
the IPC is, "To enable Paralympic athletes to
achieve sporting excellence and to inspire and
excite the world.". The Paralympic anthem is
"Hymne de l'Avenir" or "Anthem of the Future". It
was composed by Thierry Darnis and adopted as
the official anthem in March 1996.

As mandated by the Paralympic Charter, various
elements frame the opening ceremony of the
Paralympic Games. Most of these rituals were
established at the 1920 Summer Olympics in
Antwerp. The ceremony typically starts with the
hoisting of the host country's flag and a
performance of its national anthem. Unlike the
Olympic Games, immediately after the national
anthem the athletes parade into the stadium
grouped by nation. Since the 1988 Summer
Paralympics, the nations enter the stadium
alphabetically according to the host country's
chosen language, though with the host country's
athletes being the last to enter. Since the 1988
Summer Paralympics, the host nation presents
artistic displays of music, singing, dance, and
theatre representative of its culture.

Speeches are given, formally opening the games.

Finally, the Paralympic torch is brought into the
stadium and passed on until it reaches the final
torch carrier—often a Paralympic athlete from the
host nation—who lights the Paralympic flame in
the stadium's cauldron.
The closing ceremony of the Paralympic Games
takes place after all sporting events have
concluded. Flag-bearers from each participating
country enter, followed by the athletes who enter
together, without any national distinction. The
Paralympic flag is taken down. Since the 1988
Winter Paralympics, with some exceptions, the
national flag of the country hosting the next
Summer or Winter Paralympic Games is hoisted
while the corresponding national anthem is played.
The games are officially closed, and the Paralympic
flame is extinguished. After these compulsory
elements, the next host nation briefly introduces
itself with artistic displays of dance and theatre
representative of its culture.
Medal Representation
A medal ceremony is held after each Paralympic
event is concluded. The winner, second and third-
place competitors or teams stand on top of a three-
tiered rostrum to be awarded their respective
medals. After the medals are given out by an IPC
member, the national flags of the three medallists
are raised while the national anthem of the gold
medallists country plays. Volunteering citizens of
the host country also act as hosts during the medal
ceremonies, as they aid the officials who present
the medals and act as flag-bearers. For every
Paralympic event, the respective medal ceremony
is held, at most, one day after the event's final.
Common Wealth Games 2020

The 2018 Commonwealth Games, officially known

as the XXI Commonwealth Games and commonly
known as Gold Coast 2018, were an international
multi-sport event for members of the
Commonwealth that were held on the Gold Coast,
Queensland, Australia, between 4 and 15 April
2018. It was the fifth time Australia had hosted the
Commonwealth Games and the first time a major
multi-sport event achieved gender equality by
having an equal number of events for males and
female athletes.

More than 4,400 athletes including 300 para-

athletes from 71 Commonwealth Games
Associations took part in the event. The Gambia
which withdrew its membership from the
Commonwealth of Nations and Commonwealth
Games Federation in 2013, was readmitted on 31
March 2018 and participated in the event . With
275 sets of medals, the games featured 19
Commonwealth sports, including beach volleyball,
para triathlon and women's rugby sevens. These
sporting events took place at 14 venues in the host
city, two venues in Brisbane and one venue each in
Cairns and Townsville.

These were the first Commonwealth Games to take

place under the Commonwealth Games Federation
(CGF) presidency of Louise Martin, CBE. The host
city Gold Coast was announced at the CGF General
Assembly in Basseterre, Saint Kitts, on 11
November 2011. Gold Coast became the seventh
Oceanian city and the first regional city to host the
Commonwealth Games. These were the eighth
games to be held in Oceania and the Southern

The host nation Australia topped the medal table

for the fourth time in the past five Commonwealth
Games, winning the most golds (80) and most
medals overall (198). England and India finished
second and third respectively. Vanuatu, Cook
Islands, Solomon Islands, British Virgin Islands
and Dominica each won their first Commonwealth
Games medals.
Opening ceremony
The opening ceremony was held at Carrara
Stadium in the Gold Coast, Australia, between
20:00 and 22:40 AEST, on 4 April 2018. Tickets for
the ceremony started at 100 Australian dollars
with half price tickets available for children. The
Head of the Commonwealth, Queen Elizabeth II,
was represented by her son, Charles, Prince of

Following tradition, the host of the previous

games, Scotland entered first, followed by the rest
of the European countries competing. Following
this, all countries paraded in alphabetical order
from their respective regions. After the European
countries entered, countries from Africa, the
Americas, Asia, the Caribbean, and lastly Oceania
marched in. The host nation of Australia entered
last. Each nation was preceded by a placard bearer
carrying a sign with the country's name.
Closing ceremony
The closing ceremony was held at Carrara Stadium
on Sunday 15 April and was produced by Jack
Morton Worldwide at a cost of AU$30 million.
Australian pop stars Guy Sebastian, Samantha
Jade, Dami Im, Ricki Lee and The Veronicas were
among the performers along with children's
entertainers, The Wiggles.

Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, declared the

Games closed and passed the Commonwealth
Games flag to Birmingham, England which will
host the 2022 Games.
The ticket requests began on 24 April 2017 and
ended on 22 May 2017The first round of tickets
were allocated on 22 June 2017 via a computer-
generated ballot system. About 70% of the people
who applied for the tickets had received some or
all of the tickets requested in the first phase. In
Australia, ticket prices ranged from A$10 for many
events to A$495 for the most expensive seats at the
opening ceremony.The games expected to have 1.2
million tickets for sale. Around 1.06 million tickets
were sold by 3 April 2018.Ticketek was the
provider of ticketing services for the games.
At a charity gala held on 4 November 2017, the
medals for the games were officially unveiled.
Australian Indigenous artist Delvene Cockatoo-
Collins designed the medals, while they were
produced by the Royal Australian Mint. The design
of the medals was inspired by the coastline of Gold
Coast along with Indigenous culture. Furthermore,
Cockatoo-Collins mentioned, "the medal design
represents soft sand lines which shift with every
tide and wave, also symbolic of athletic
achievement, The continual change of tide
represents the evolution in athletes who are
making their mark, Records are made and special
moments of elation are celebrated". Approximately
1,500 medals were created to be distributed to the
medallists and each measures approximately 63
millimetres in diameter. The medals weigh
between 138 and 163 grams.
2020 Olympics
The 2020 Summer Olympics, officially known as
the Games of the XXXII Olympiad (Japanese: 第三十
二回オリンピック競技大会 Hepburn: Dai Sanjūni-kai
Orinpikku Kyōgi Taikai) and commonly known as
Tokyo 2020, is a forthcoming international multi-
sport event that is scheduled to take place from 24
July to 9 August 2020.

Tokyo was selected as the host city during the

125th IOC Session in Buenos Aires on 7 September
2013. These Games will mark the return of the
Summer Olympics to Tokyo for the first time since
1964, and the fourth Olympics overall to be held in
Japan, following the 1972 Winter Olympics in
Sapporo and the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano.
They will be the second of three consecutive
Olympic Games to be held in East Asia, following
the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang, South
Korea, and preceding the 2022 Winter Olympics in
Beijing, China.
These Games will see the introduction of
additional disciplines within several of the
Summer Olympics sports, including 3x3 basketball,
freestyle BMX and Madison cycling, as well as
further mixed events. Under new IOC policies that
allow sports to be added to the Games' programme
to augment the permanent "core" Olympic events,
these Games will see karate, sport climbing,
surfing and skateboarding make their Olympic
debuts, and the return of baseball and softball
(which were removed from the summer
programme after 2008).

The medals for the 2020 Summer Olympics and
Paralympics will be constructed using recycled
metals; the organizing committee began an
electronics recycling program to obtain the

The opening ceremony tickets will range from
12,000 to 300,000 yen, with a maximum price of
130,000 yen for the finals of athletics. The average
price of all the Olympic tickets is 7,700 yen. 50%
of the tickets will be sold for 8,000 yen or less. A
symbolic ticket price of 2,020 yen will be for
families, groups resident in Japan and in
conjunction with a school programme. Tickets will
be sold through 40,000 shops in Japan and by mail
order to Japanese addresses through the Internet.
International guests will need to visit Japan during
the sales period or arrange for tickets through a
third party, such as a travel agent.

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