Sie sind auf Seite 1von 33

ADA 123 : HISTORY & THEORY OF ARCHITECTURE 1

CHAPTER 2:ANCIENT EGYPT


SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD
School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

© 2010 Cosmopoint

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
CHAPTER 2 : ANCIENT EGYPT

TOPIC OUTLINES

2: ANCIENT EGYPT

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Early Dynastic period and Old Kingdom
2.3 First Pyramids
2.4 Fourth-Dynasty Pyramids at Giza
2.5 Middle Kingdom
2.6 New Kingdom

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

© 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 2 of 33

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
CHAPTER 2 : ANCIENT EGYPT

COURSE LEARNING OUTCOME

At the end of the course, students should be able to:

LO1 Students able to understand the world architecture and able


to identify building typology such as tombs, palaces, and
temples.

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

© 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 3 of 33

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
CHAPTER 2 : ANCIENT EGYPT

2.1 Introduction

INTRODUCTION- Land and People

As long ago as 4000 B.C.E, the Egyptians were a people already highly
civilized, and skilled in the arts of peace and war.

The narrow valley of the Nile, fertilized by the periodic overflow of the
river, was flanked by rocky heights, nearly vertical in many places, which
afforded abundance of excellent building stone.

At the Delta, however, the valley widened out, with the falling away of
these heights, into broad lowlands, from which there was access to the
outer world.

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

© 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 4 of 33

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
CHAPTER 2 : ANCIENT EGYPT

2.2 Early Dynastic Period And Old Kingdom

PRE-DYNASTIC
YEARS AREA
PERIOD=
Nile River, IFDU, MEMPHIS,
Starts: 4000-3000 BCE
Upper+Lower Egypt

ACHIEVEMENTS ARCHITECTURE

1-Develop WRITING= HIEROGLYPHS= Pictorial & Influenced by the RULER POWER:


Phonetic Symbols FUNERARY MONUMENT=PYRAMID,
2-Introduced medium of RECORD= PAPYRUS STATUES,
3-Believed in AFTERWORLD=PYRAMID TEMPLE,
(GHIZEH)=Preserve Mummy
4-Unified states of UPPER+LOWER Egypt by Menes
(The Pharoah King of Upper Egypt)

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

© 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 5 of 33

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
CHAPTER 2 : ANCIENT EGYPT

2.2 Early Dynastic Period And Old Kingdom

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

© 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 6 of 33


Source: www.franklin.ma.us/corey/ss1/classnotes.htm

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
CHAPTER 2 : ANCIENT EGYPT

2.2 Early Dynastic Period And Old Kingdom

324 BCE-330 AD
EGYPTIAN HISTORY
2920-2134 BCE
divided into 30 dynasties
but 5 significant Era
NEW KINGDOM =

& OLD KINGDOM =

1000-324 BCE

3000-2100 BCE

MIDDLE KINGDOM=
1ST PYRAMIDS =

4th DYNASTY PYRAMIDS


AT GIZA=

1700-1000 BCE
SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD
School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

© 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 7 of 33

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
CHAPTER 2 : ANCIENT EGYPT

2.2 Early Dynastic Period And Old Kingdom

THE EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD & OLD KINGDOM


2920-2134 BCE

It comes largely from funerary monuments and inscription, caused


by an Egyptian believed afterlife.

Religion taught earthly existence was followed by an afterlife in


which ka /life-force was reunited with ba /physical manifestation to
become akh /spirit (ka + ba = akh), thus the transformation must be
successful through ritual activity.

The Pharaoh's ka who is not prepared for afterlife should be well


kept / served thus led to the construction of enduring tombs for
royalty and development of mummification.

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

© 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 8 of 33

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
CHAPTER 2 : ANCIENT EGYPT

2.2 Early Dynastic Period And Old Kingdom

Earliest Tomb= Mastabas an eternal houses constructed of


reed, thatch and wood then using brick. Providing room for
EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD
& OLD KINGDOM =
1st – 8th Dynasties

ARCHITECTURE

Greatly influenced by the


FUNERARY AFTERWOLD

YEARS /
AREA
2920-2134 BCE Revision Mastabas=made of brick was a blocklike structure
above ground placing chamber for serdab the deceased statue
& added deep shaft under building to place body at its base.
SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD
School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

© 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 9 of 33

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
CHAPTER 2 : ANCIENT EGYPT

2.3 The First Pyramids

THE 1ST PYRAMIDS


2600 BCE

Priesthood prescribed significant ritual for Pharaoh led to enlargement


of Mastabas to form PYRAMID.

It is important for Pharaoh lifted skyward in his eternal home, thus,
PYRAMID= upward-stepping
- form whose peak caught the first rays of
morning light was the symbol of the Sun God as worshipped at
Heliopolis.

PYRAMID shape is a symbolic reference to the annual rebirth of nature,


for as flood draw away, first sign of plant life appear on the small
hillocks. The shape represented both daily and yearly rebirth
throughout eternity.

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

© 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 10 of 33

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
CHAPTER 2 : ANCIENT EGYPT

2.3 The First Pyramids

THE 1ST PYRAMIDS cont’d


2600 BCE

1st built for Djoser’s Funerary constructed in stone, large rectangle in


plan, cover 35 acre, surroundes by wall 33’ H and 1 mile long.

Only 1 entrance, small door at southeast corner lead to narrow


colonnaded processional hall. End of Corridor one enter to
courtyard dominated by Dyoser’s stepped pyramid.

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

© 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 11 of 33

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
CHAPTER 2 : ANCIENT EGYPT

2.3 The First Pyramids

Djoser’s STEPPED PYRAMID= 197ft above 397 X 358 foot base.


Begun with Mastaba, built up to 6 steps. Outside façade was
1ST PYRAMID limestone and Internal part resemblance of Djoser’s Palace at
Memphis.

ARCHITECTURE
3
Greatly influenced by the
FUNERARY OF PHAROAH 4
2 1
5 6
ARCHITECT 7
8
IMHOTEP-3RD dynasty
9 10
YEARS/ AREA
1. Mastaba 6. Mortuary Temple
2. Southern Tomb 7. Serdab
3. Token Palace 8. Robing Hall
2630-2611 BCE -SAQQARA 4. Throne Dais 9. Palace of the South
5. Boundary Caims 10. Palace of the North
SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD
School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

© 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 12 of 33

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
CHAPTER 2 : ANCIENT EGYPT

2.3 The First Pyramids

Djoser’s STEPPED PYRAMID= 197ft above 397 X 358 foot base.


Begun with Mastaba, built up to 6 steps. Outside façade was
limestone and Internal part resemblance of Djoser’s Palace at
1ST PYRAMID
Memphis.

ARCHITECTURE

Greatly influenced by the


FUNERARY OF PHAROAH

ARCHITECT

IMHOTEP-3RD dynasty

YEARS/ AREA

2630-2611 BCE -SAQQARA

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

© 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 13 of 33

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
CHAPTER 2 : ANCIENT EGYPT

2.3 The First Pyramids

THE 1ST PYRAMIDS cont’d


2600 BCE

The typical material are


immitated in stone: reed-bundle
and papyrus-stalk columns, log
ceilings and stone hinge for an
immobile stone door.

A statue of Djoser looking


outward sit in the serdab with
small aperture cut in the wall
being the only access to the
outside world.

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

© 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 14 of 33

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
CHAPTER 2 : ANCIENT EGYPT

2.3 The First Pyramids

THE 1ST PYRAMIDS cont’d


Sneferu Pyramid at Meidum
2575-2551 BCE

The evolution of pyramid begun for


Sneferu-one of the 1st pharaouh of the
4th dynasty at Meidum.

Had it been completed, it has 7 steps


yet reached 302 ft height with its step
core rising above the rubble thus
namely as ‘ONION PYRAMID’.

Entrance was through a sloping


corridor opening off the North-side,
descending below ground then rising
short distance vertically to burial
chamber at the centre of the pyramid
base.
SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD
School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

© 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 15 of 33

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
CHAPTER 2 : ANCIENT EGYPT

2.3 The First Pyramids

Sneferu PYRAMID developed= added outer layer, began with stepped


core of 7 layers and transformed into true pyramid with 2 overbuildings.
302 ft H and called as ‘ONION PYRAMID’.
1ST PYRAMID

ARCHITECTURE

Greatly influenced by the


FUNERARY OF PHAROAH

YEARS/ AREA

2575-2551 BCE –MEIDUM


6miles of south Saqqara

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

© 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 16 of 33

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
CHAPTER 2 : ANCIENT EGYPT

2.4 Fourth-Dynasty Pyramids at Giza

THE 4th DYNASTY PYRAMID AT GIZA 2550-2460 BCE


KHUFU PYRAMID 2551-2528 BCE

The work of Sneferu’s descendent known as KHUFU, KHAFRE &


MENKAURE (in Greek called Cheop, Chepren & Mycerinus)

The largest pyramid= KHUFU (2551-2528 BCE) has unprecendented


proportion of 755 X 755 ft base covers over 13 acres with 481’ height.

Khufu is not solid hence has 3 burial chambers inside whereby one
placed at excavated out of foundation bedrock and the rest at stone
mountain erected.

The lowest part is an underworld, the middle chamber=Queen Chamber


contained statue as serdab while the Top is King’s Chamber built of red
granite.

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

© 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 17 of 33

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
CHAPTER 2 : ANCIENT EGYPT

2.4 Fourth-Dynasty Pyramids at Giza

THE 4th DYNASTY PYRAMID AT GIZA 2550-2460 BCE


KHUFU PYRAMID 2551-2528 BCE CONT’D

Ceiling built of 11 pairs of granite beams set as gabled braced or saddle roof
extending into the mass pyramid above the chamber.

5 massive sets of horizontal granite slabs from relieving chambers stacked


between the load roof and flat ceiling of the crypt to reduce weight and
pressure above.

The corbelled gallery leading to this chambers constructed of marvel, 26ft


height.

Both King’s and Queen’s chambers have pairs of small shaft directed
upwards through the mass of pyramid as a ventilation.

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

© 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 18 of 33

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
CHAPTER 2 : ANCIENT EGYPT

2.4 Fourth-Dynasty Pyramids at Giza

KHUFU PYRAMID = The lowest part is an underworld, the middle


chamber=Queen Chamber contained statue as serdab while the Top is
4th DYNASTY= King’s Chamber built of red granite.
PYRAMID KHUFU

ARCHITECTURE

Greatly influenced by the


FUNERARY OF PHAROAH

YEARS/ AREA

2550-2460 BCE –GIZA

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

© 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 19 of 33

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
CHAPTER 2 : ANCIENT EGYPT

2.4 Fourth-Dynasty Pyramids at Giza

THE KING CHAMBER

THE QUEEN CHAMBER THE PASSAGEWAY


SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD
School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

© 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 20 of 33

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
CHAPTER 2 : ANCIENT EGYPT

2.4 Fourth-Dynasty Pyramids at Giza

THE 4th DYNASTY PYRAMID AT GIZA 2550-2460 BCE


KHAFRE PYRAMID 2520-2494 BCE

The work of Sneferu’s descendent known as KHUFU, KHAFRE &


MENKAURE (in Greek called Cheop, Chepren & Mycerinus)

Slightly smaller is PYRAMID OF KHAFRE son of Khufu with 705


sqft base and 471 ft height which made of original smooth
limestone.

Khafre only has 1 chamber at the centre pyramid’s base level,


accessed by a passageway.

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

© 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 21 of 33

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
CHAPTER 2 : ANCIENT EGYPT

2.4 Fourth-Dynasty Pyramids at Giza

KHUFU PYRAMID = The lowest part is an underworld, the middle


chamber=Queen Chamber contained statue as serdab while the Top is
4th DYNASTY= King’s Chamber built of red granite.
PYRAMID KHAFRE

ARCHITECTURE

Greatly influenced by the


FUNERARY OF PHAROAH

YEARS/ AREA

2520-2494 BCE –GIZA

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

© 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 22 of 33

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
CHAPTER 2 : ANCIENT EGYPT

2.4 Fourth-Dynasty Pyramids at Giza

KHAFRE PYRAMID = Has 1 chamber at the centre pyramid’s base


level, accessed by a passageway.
4th DYNASTY=
PYRAMID KHAFRE

ARCHITECTURE

Greatly influenced by the


FUNERARY OF PHARAOH

YEARS/ AREA

2520-2494 BCE –GIZA

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

© 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 23 of 33

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
CHAPTER 2 : ANCIENT EGYPT

2.4 Fourth-Dynasty Pyramids at Giza

THE 4th DYNASTY PYRAMID AT GIZA 2550-2460 BCE


MENKAURE PYRAMID 2490-2472 BCE

The work of Sneferu’s descendent known as KHUFU, KHAFRE &


MENKAURE (in Greek called Cheop, Chepren & Mycerinus)

Slightly smaller is PYRAMID OF MENKAURE son of Khafre with 335


X 343 ft base and 213 ft height.

The last Pharaouh Shepseskef chose not to have pyramid burial


while later rulers pyramid built never exceeded Giza trio Pyramid.

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

© 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 24 of 33

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
CHAPTER 2 : ANCIENT EGYPT

2.4 Fourth-Dynasty Pyramids at Giza

MENKAURE PYRAMID = 335 X 343 ft base and 213 ft height.

4th DYNASTY=
PYRAMID KHAFRE

ARCHITECTURE

Greatly influenced by the


FUNERARY OF PHAROAH

YEARS/ AREA

2490-2472 BCE –GIZA

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

© 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 25 of 33

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
CHAPTER 2 : ANCIENT EGYPT

2.5 Middle Kingdom

THE MIDDLE KINGDOM (11th -13th DYNASTIES)


2040-1640 BCE

The era of inter-regional conflict is designated the 1st intermediate


period then 2nd phase called the Middle Kingdom.

The royal capital was relocated from Memphis to Thebes, and the
Pharaoh had significant role as feudal lord over local vessels and
divine ruler.

The tomb still major architecture proven by the construction of


Mentuhotep II at Deir-el-Bahari 2061-2010 BCE.

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

© 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 26 of 33

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
CHAPTER 2 : ANCIENT EGYPT

2.5 Middle Kingdom

THE MIDDLE KINGDOM (11th -13th DYNASTIES) cont’d


2040-1640 BCE

More temple built during this era at Beni-Hasan, which are cut into
rock cliffs and provided with sheltering porticoes.

This tomb reflect political importance by building minor nobles and


court officials.

Most of the architectural character was created by excavation and


replicated spaces with ordinary dwellings, that is, wooden and
plastered reed structures with slightly arched roof of mats lain on
the frame.

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

© 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 27 of 33

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
CHAPTER 2 : ANCIENT EGYPT

2.5 Middle Kingdom

THE MIDDLE KINGDOM (11th -13th DYNASTIES) 2040-1640 BCE


MENTUHOTEP II TOMB 2061-2010 BCE

The tomb still major architecture proven by the construction of


Mentuhotep II at Deir-el-Bahari 2061-2010 BCE.

It combined temple and tomb chamber in single composition, the


complex approached by axial route from Nile which had 2
colonnaded terraces surrounding a masonry mass.

The central axis lead to reception temple via courtyard and


hypostyle hall to Mentuhotep’s actual burial vault carved in the
rock-cliff.

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

© 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 28 of 33

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
CHAPTER 2 : ANCIENT EGYPT

2.5 Middle Kingdom

MENTUHOTEP II TOMB = Temple and tomb chamber in single


composition, the complex approached by axial route from Nile which
had 2 colonnaded terraces surrounding a masonry mass.
MIDDLE KINGDOM=
TOMB MENTUHOTEP II

ARCHITECTURE

Greatly influenced by the


RULER MORTUARY

YEARS/ AREA

2490-2472 BCE –GIZA

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

© 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 29 of 33

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
CHAPTER 2 : ANCIENT EGYPT

2.6 The New Kingdom

THE NEW KINGDOM (18th -20th Dynasties)


1550-1070 BCE

The tomb still major architecture proven by the construction of


Mentuhotep II at Deir-el-Bahari 2061-2010 BCE.

It combined temple and tomb chamber in single composition, the


complex approached by axial route from Nile which had 2
colonnaded terraces surrounding a masonry mass.

The central axis lead to reception temple via courtyard and


hypostyle hall to Mentuhotep’s actual burial vault carved in the
rock-cliff.

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

© 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 30 of 33

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
CHAPTER 2 : ANCIENT EGYPT

2.6 The New Kingdom

THE MENTUHOTEP II ANUBIS CHAPEL

PUNT COLONNADE
SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD
School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

© 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 31 of 33

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
CHAPTER 2 : ANCIENT EGYPT

2.6 The New Kingdom


THE MENTUHOTEP II
THE MENTUHOTEP II TEMPLE

THE MENTUHOTEP II & WIVES

THE MENTUHOTEP II DAUGHTER-


PRINCESS AUSHEAD
SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD
School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

© 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 32 of 33

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
CHAPTER 2 : ANCIENT EGYPT

THANK YOU
YOUR NEXT SESSION WILL BE:

PLEASE READ:
Chapter 4 A World History of Architecture:
THE GREEK WORLD

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

© 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 33 of 33

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)